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Sample records for sodium butyrate nab

  1. Determination of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of human colon tumor cells in vitro after chronic exposure to the differentiation-inducing agents n-methylformamide (NMF) and sodium butyrate (NAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallows, K.; Bliven, S.; Leith, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously showed that both rodent and human tumor cells in either exponentially growing or plateau phase cultures can be sensitized to X-irradiation by chronic exposure to NMF or NAB. This effect is particularly evident in the low dose region of the survival curve as noted by a significant increase in the term of the linear-quadratic equation or by a significant decrease in the D/sub q/ value using single-hit, multitarget nomenclature. However, these agents are operationally distinct, as these changes are accompanied by inhibition of sublethal damage recovery (SLDR) after NAB treatment, while no effect on SLDR is seen with NMF treatment. As they think that the use of differentiation-inducing agent such as NMF or NAB may be useful in combining modality therapy of solid tumors, the authors extended their previous studies to note if any change in the OER accompanying this observed radiosensitization of oxic cells could be found. Tumor cells were grown in either 170mM NMF or 2 mM NAB and were irradiated with 250 kVp x-rays. Data is presented

  2. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...... up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole......, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development...

  3. Food Additive Sodium Benzoate (NaB Activates NFκB and Induces Apoptosis in HCT116 Cells

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    Betul Yilmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available NaB, the metabolite of cinnamon and sodium salt of benzoic acid is a commonly used food and beverage preservative. Various studies have investigated NaB for its effects on different cellular models. However, the effects of NaB on cancer cell viability signaling is substantially unknown. In this study, the effects of NaB on viability parameters and NFκB, one of the most important regulators in apoptosis, were examined in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell culture, light microscopy, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and western blot were used as methods to determine cell viability, caspase-3 activity, NFκB, Bcl-xl, Bim, and PARP proteins, respectively. NaB (6.25 mM–50 mM treatment inhibited cell viability by inducing apoptosis, which was evident with increased Annexin V-PE staining and caspase-3 activity. NFκB activation accompanied the induction of apoptosis in NaB treated cells. Inhibition of NFκB with BAY 11-7082 did not show a pronounced effect on cell viability but induced a more apoptotic profile, which was confirmed by increased PARP fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. This effect was mostly evident at 50 mM concentration of NaB. Bcl-xl levels were not affected by NaB or BAY 11-7082/NaB treatment; whereas, total Bim increased with NaB treatment. Inhibition of NFκB activity further increased Bim levels. Overall, these results suggest that NaB induces apoptosis and activates NFκB in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Activation of NFκB emerges as target in an attempt to protect cells against apoptosis.

  4. Effects of the differentiating agents sodium butyrate and N-methylformamide on the oxygen enhancement ratio of human colon tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallows, K.R.; Bliven, S.F.; Leith, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown that chronic adaptation of human tumor cells to the differentiation-inducing agents N-methylformamide (NMF) and sodium butyrate (NAB) increases the sensitivity of oxic cells to graded single doses of X rays. These studies were carried out to define the sensitivity of hypoxic cells after adaptation. Clone A colon tumor cells were grown for three passages in medium containing 170 mM NMF or 2 mM NAB and irradiated in suspension culture, after gassing with either oxygen (60 min) or ultrapure nitrogen (90 min), and complete survival curves were generated. Using the linear-quadratic equation to describe the data, it was found that NMF and NAB produced increased X-ray killing of hypoxic cells. At the 10% level of survival, the dose-modifying factors were about 1.20 and 1.25 for NMF- and NAB-adapted hypoxic cells, respectively, as compared to hypoxic control cells. However, since both oxic and hypoxic cells exhibited increased sensitivity after NMF and NAB adaptation, there was no major change in the oxygen enhancement ratio

  5. Comparison of three experimental protocols in pre clinical studies for thyroid cancer treatment using sodium butyrate in combination with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Majdalani E; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Pisarev, M; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). However new strategies are being assayed in order to optimize its application. Histone de acetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) like sodium butyrate (NaB), are emerging as a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which target the epigenome. Since histone hyper acetylation mediates changes in chromatin conformation, HDAC-I are involved in different epigenetically controlled activities like apoptosis, proliferation, cell differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and motility. The purpose of the present studies was to analyze different treatment regimens of combination of NaB and boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in animals bearing transplants of a human thyroid carcinoma Methods: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) with 10 6 of human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO). Three regimens were evaluated in 48 animals after 15 days when tumors had a size between 50 and 100 mm 3 . Group 1 (n=10): BPA and NaB (50 mM) via i.p. at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.w. 24 h before boron compound administration; group 2 (n=10): BPA and NaB 3.4% in the water ad libitum during a month after 15 days post-implantation; group 3 (n=10): BPA alone. In all the groups BPA was injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (i.p.) and the animals were sacrificed at 2 h post-administration. Boron measurements in tissues and blood were performed by ICP-OES. A control group without NaB (n=6) for each regimen was included. The tumor growth and the body weight were determined twice a week during a month. Results: The administration of NaB 3.4% during a month previous to BNCT did not modify the body weight of the mice and decreased the tumor growth compared to its control group (p<0.01). The biodistribution studies showed a tumor boron concentration of 32.6 ± 1.4 ppm for group 1 (NaB 50 mM plus BPA), of 16.9 ± 3.7 ppm

  6. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

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    Jintao Zhang

    Full Text Available Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells.Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29 were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot.Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II, beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin and genetic

  7. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

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    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  8. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Sabita N., E-mail: sabivan@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States); Kala, Rishabh [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Tollefsbol, Trygve O., E-mail: trygve@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Center for Healthy Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Diabetes Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  9. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  10. Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

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    Fialova, Barbora; Luzna, Petra; Gursky, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Kolar, Zdenek; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.

  11. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  12. Sodium butyrate stimulates cellular recovery from UV damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, Chikako; Takebe, Hiraku

    1987-01-01

    Possible stimulation of the DNA repair capacity by sodium butyrate in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells was investigated. XP cells belonging to the complementation group F showed considerable stimulation of DNA repair by sodium butyrate in terms of both the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the colony-forming ability after UV irradiation. UDS in XP cells belonging to the complementation group A was not enhanced, while normal cells showed slight enhancement, but less than that of XP F cells. In XP A, XP C, and normal cells, sodium butyrate treatment enhanced the killing effect of UV irradiation. The residual repair capacity in XP F cells appeared to be stimulated by sodium butyrate. (author)

  13. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

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    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  14. Effect of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract on bone characteristics in growing pigs

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    Puzio Iwona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract (0.2% and 0.3% on femur quality of growing pigs (n = 45. Material and Methods: At the age of 28, 35 and 56 d, five piglets from each group fed a different diet were euthanised and the femora were collected for further analyses. The bone characteristics were assessed based on weight, length, densitometric analysis of BMC and BMD, pQCT analysis (area, mineral content, volumetric density of trabecular and cortical part of metaphysis and diaphysis, respectively, ultimate strength, and geometrical parameters (cross-sectional area and second moment of inertia. Results: There were no significant differences in femur bone parameters among experimental groups on the 28th d of life. On the 35th d of life, piglets with 0.2% supplementation of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract had significantly lower values of weight and second moment of inertia, and significantly higher trabecular BMD and BMC compared to other experimental groups. In 56-day-old pigs, the higher values were observed in both experimental groups regarding BMC, ultimate strength, geometrical parameters, cortical BMC, diaphyseal total area, and endosteal circumference (P < 0.05. Significant differences between experimental groups were observed only in bone weight and cortical thickness. Conclusion: This study proved that simultaneous supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract positively influences bone quality in pigs in the post-weaning period. However, there were no differences in bone characteristics between the addition of 0.2% and 0.3% preparations.

  15. Response of HT115, a highly invasive human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, to sodium butyrate treatment and glucose deprivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Sovová, Vlasta; Šloncová, Eva; Kučerová, Dana; Tuháčková, Zdena; Korb, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2005), s. 793-799 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : HT115 cells * sodium butyrate * glucose deprivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2005

  16. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

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    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  17. Regulation of osteogenesis of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells by sodium butyrate.

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    Fan, Xiaoting; Li, Lei; Ye, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Wen-Song

    2018-04-01

    Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) draw great interests for regenerative medicine due to convenient availability and low immunogenicity. However, suboptimal culture conditions limit their application. In recent years, small molecules have proven powerful in regulating stem cell fates and can be applied to stimulate their function. In the present study, the impacts of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), on hAMSCs were investigated. It was shown that NaBu at a low concentration inhibited cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 rather than inducing apoptosis. When NaBu was supplemented at a concentration of generated and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (ALP, Runx2, Opn, and Ocn) and proteins (Col1a1, OPN, OCN, Runx2, and TAZ) were both significantly enhanced. However, a higher concentration (1.0 mM) and longer exposure time (14 days) of NaBu showed no such effects, which may be partially attributed to both the increased expression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) and reduced level of H3K9-Ace, thus leading to the transcriptional inhibition during osteogenesis. Further, it was indicated that ERK might be involved in the stimulatory effects of NaBu. These findings may be helpful to develop an efficient culture process for hAMSCs towards bone regeneration. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Enhancement of Human Prolactin Synthesis by Sodium Butyrate Addition to Serum-Free CHO Cell Culture

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    Herbert Rodrigues Goulart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium butyrate (NaBu has been used as a productivity enhancer for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. Thus, the influence of NaBu on the production of recombinant human prolactin (hPRL from CHO cells was investigated for the first time. CHO cell cultures were submitted to a treatment with different concentrations of NaBu (0.25 to 4 mM. Quantitative and qualitative analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and Western blot or SDS-PAGE, carried out directly on CHO-conditioned medium, showed that the highest hPRL expression was obtained with 1 mM NaBu. In vitro biological assays based on noble rat lymphoma (Nb2 and mouse pro-B lymphoma (Ba/F3-LLP cells were carried out on purified hPRL. Its bioactivity in the presence of NaBu was not apparently different from that of the First International Reference Reagent of recombinant hPRL (WHO 97/714. Our results show that NaBu increased the synthesis of recombinant hPRL in CHO cells, apparently without compromising either its structure or function.

  19. Expression of beta-catenin is regulated by PI-3 kinase and sodium butyrate in colorectal cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turečková, Jolana; Kučerová, Dana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Šloncová, Eva; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-75 ISSN 1107-3756 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5052302; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0550; GA ČR(CZ) GP301/02/D159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : PI-3 kinase * sodium butyrate * ribosomal protein S6 Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2006

  20. TXNIP mediates the differential responses of A549 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment.

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    Jin, Xuefang; Wu, Nana; Dai, Juji; Li, Qiuxia; Xiao, XiaoQiang

    2017-02-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu) and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) have promising futures in cancer treatment; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we show A549 cell death induced by NaBu and 4PBA are not the same. NaBu treatment induces a significantly higher level of A549 cell death than 4PBA. A gene expression microarray identified more than 5000 transcripts that were altered (>1.5-fold) in NaBu-treated A549 cells, but fewer than 2000 transcripts that were altered in 4PBA. Moreover, more than 100 cell cycle-associated genes were greatly repressed by NaBu, but slightly repressed by 4PBA; few genes were significantly upregulated only in 4PBA-treated cells. Gene expression was further validated by other experiments. Additionally, A549 cells that were treated with these showed changes in glucose consumption, caspase 3/7 activation and histone modifications, as well as enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. TXNIP was strongly induced by NaBu (30- to 40-fold mRNA) but was only slightly induced by 4PBA (two to fivefold) in A549 cells. TXNIP knockdown by shRNA in A549 cells significantly attenuated caspase 3/7 activation and restored cell viability, while TXNIP overexpression significantly increased caspase 3/7 activation and cell death only in NaBu-treated cells. Moreover, TXNIP also regulated NaBu- but not 4PBA-induced H4K5 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, possibly by increasing WDR5 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that 4PBA induced a mitochondrial superoxide-associated cell death, while NaBu did so mainly through a TXNIP-mediated pathway. The above data might benefit the future clinic application. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High doses of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate trigger a stress-like response.

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    Gagliano, Humberto; Delgado-Morales, Raul; Sanz-Garcia, Ancor; Armario, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by a wide range of stimuli, including drugs. Here we report that in male rats, a dose of sodium butyrate (NaBu) that is typically used to inhibit histone deacetylation (1200 mg/kg) increased the peripheral levels of HPA hormones and glucose. In a further experiment, we compared the effects of two different doses of NaBu (200 and 1200 mg/kg) and equimolar saline solutions on peripheral neuroendocrine markers and brain c-Fos expression to demonstrate a specific stress-like effect of NaBu that is not related to hypertonicity and to localise putatively involved brain areas. Only the high dose of NaBu increased the plasma levels of stress markers. The equimolar (hypertonic) saline solution also activated the HPA axis and the c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a key area for the control of the HPA axis, but the effects were of a lower magnitude than those of NaBu. Regarding other brain areas, group differences in c-Fos expression were not observed in the medial prefrontal cortex or the medial amygdala, but they were observed in the central amygdala and the lateral ventral septum. However, only the latter area of the NaBu group showed enhanced c-Fos expression that was significantly higher than that after hypertonic saline. The present data indicate that high doses of NaBu appear to act as a pharmacological stressor, and this fact should be taken into account when using this drug to study the role of epigenetic processes in learning and emotional behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  3. Nutrient balance of layers fed diets with different calcium levels and the inclusion of phytase and/or sodium butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hisex Brown layers in lay were evaluated between 40 and 44 weeks of age to evaluate the inclusion of bacterial phytase (Ph and sodium butyrate (SB to diets containing different calcium levels (CaL. Performance, average egg weight and eggshell percentage, in addition to nutrient metabolizability and Ca and P balance were evaluated for 28 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with three calcium levels (2.8, 3.3, 3.8%; the addition or not of phytase (500PhU/kg and the addition or not of sodium butyrate (20mEq/kg, composing 12 treatments with eight replicates of one bird each. There was no additive effect of phytase or SB on the evaluated responses. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by CaL, with the best performance obtained with 3.3% dietary Ca. Ca balance was positively affected by dietary Ca, and P balance by the addition of phytase. Ca dietary concentration, estimated to obtain Ca body balance, was 3.41%, corresponding to an apparent retention of 59.9% of Ca intake.

  4. Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzynski, K. [Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Dalen, H. [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs.

  5. Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Casper, D P; Moreland, S C; van Eys, J E

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in preruminants. These encouraging findings led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the effects of elevated butyrate concentrations on rumen metabolism have not been investigated, and consequently the maximum tolerable dosage rate of butyrate has not been established. Therefore, the first objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a short-term increase in rumen butyrate concentration on key metabolic indicators. The second objective was to evaluate the source of butyrate, either directly dosed in the rumen or indirectly supplied via lactose fermentation in the rumen. Jugular catheters were inserted into 4 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows in a 4×4 Latin square with 3-d periods. On d 1 of each period, 1h after feeding, cows were ruminally dosed with 1 of 4 treatments: (1) 2L of water (CON), (2) 3.5g/kg of body weight (BW) of lactose (LAC), (3) 1g/kg of BW of butyrate (1GB), or (4) 2g/kg of BW of butyrate (2GB). Sodium butyrate was the source of butyrate, and NaCl was added to CON (1.34g/kg of BW), LAC (1.34g/kg of BW), and 1GB (0.67g/kg of BW) to provide equal amounts of sodium as the 2GB treatment. Serial plasma and rumen fluid samples were collected during d 1 of each period. Rumen fluid pH was greater in cows given the 1GB and 2GB treatments compared with the cows given the LAC treatment. Cows administered the 1GB and 2GB treatments had greater rumen butyrate concentrations compared with LAC. Those cows also had greater plasma butyrate concentrations compared with cows given the LAC treatment. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was greater and insulin tended to be greater for butyrate treatments compared with LAC. No difference in insulin was found between the 1GB and 2GB treatments. Based on plasma and rumen metabolites, singly infusing 3.5g/kg of BW of lactose into the rumen is not as effective

  6. Sodium butyrate into the insular cortex during conditioned taste-aversion acquisition delays aversive taste memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Reyes-López, Julian; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-04-16

    Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning of various tasks. Specifically, novel taste consumption produces an increased acetylation of histone lysine residues in the insular cortex (IC), where protein synthesis is crucial during memory consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the role of this elevated histone acetylation during CTA learning has not been examined directly. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, injected into the IC during CTA acquisition. Male Wistar rats, IC bilaterally implanted, were injected 60 min before saccharine presentation, with a total volume of 0.5 µl of NaBu solution (100, 500, and 10 µg/0.5 µl) or saline; 30 min later animals were injected intraperitoneally with lithium chloride, a malaise-inducing drug. The next day, CTA retrieval was tested. No effects of NaBu were observed during acquisition or retrieval, but during extinction trials, a significant delay in aversive memory extinction was observed in the group injected with the lowest NaBu dose. This result indicates that NaBu in the IC strengthens CTA and delays aversive memory extinction, and suggests that histone acetylation could increase long-term taste-aversive memory strength.

  7. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning...... efficient to stimulate body growth and feed intake after weaning, by reducing gastric emptying and intestinal mucosa weight and by increasing feed digestibility....

  8. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  9. Efficient derivation of functional hepatocytes from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells by a combination of cytokines and sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; YANG Yang; ZHANG Jian; WANG Guo-ying; LIU Wei; QIU Dong-bo; HEI Zi-qing; YING Qi-long; CHEN Gui-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to whole-organ transplantation to support many forms of hepatic insufficiency.Unfortunately,the lack of donor livers makes it difficult to obtain enough viable human hepatocytes for hepatocyte-based therapies.Therefore,it is urgent to find new ways to provide ample hepatocytes.Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells,a breakthrough in stem cell research,may terminate these hinders for cell transplantation.For the promise of iPS cells to be realized in liver diseases,it is necessary to determine if and how efficient they can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes.Methods In this study,we directly compared the hepatic-differentiation capacity of mouse iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells with three different induction approaches:conditions via embryonic body (EB) formation plus cytokines,conditions by combination of dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium butyrate and chemically defined,serum free monolayer conditions.Among these three induction conditions,more homogenous populations can be promoted under chemically defined,serum free conditions.The cells generated under these conditions exhibited hepatic functions in vitro,including glycogen storage,indocynine green (ICG) uptake and release as well as urea secretion.Although efficient hepatocytes differentiation from mouse iPS cells were observed,mouse iPS cells showed relatively lower hepatic induction efficiency compared with mouse ES cells.Results Mouse iPS cells would be efficiently differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro,which may be helpful in facilitating the development of hepatocytes for transplantation and for research on drug discovery.Conclusion We demonstrate that mouse iPS cells retain full potential for fetal liver development and describe procedures that facilitates the efficient generation of highly differentiated human hepatocyte-like cells from iPS cells in vitro.

  10. Sodium butyrate affects the cytotoxic and mutagenic response of V79 Chinese hamster cells to the genotoxic agents, daunorubicin and U.V. radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, B.; Babudri, N.; Giancotti, V.; Russo, E.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that conditions which lead to modifications in the chromatin structure could be responsible for an increased accessibility of DNA to genotoxic agents in eukaryotic cells. With this in mind, the cytotoxic and mutagenic activity of the anthracycline antibiotic, daunorubicin, and of UV radiation was assayed on V79 Chinese hamster cells pretreated or not with 5 mM sodium butyrate, an agent known to induce modifications in the chromatin structure: this treatment in fact proved to induce the hyperacetylation of the core histones, and moreover to enhance the cytotoxic response of the cells to both daunorubicin and UV radiation and the mutagenic response to daunorubicin. (orig.)

  11. Interaction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sodium butyrate during apoptosis in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Lojek, Antonín; Kozubík, Alois

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2005), s. 40-51 ISSN 1436-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/01/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : colon cancer * diet * butyrate Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.257, year: 2005

  12. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  13. Maternal sodium butyrate supplement elevates the lipolysis in adipose tissue and leads to lipid accumulation in offspring liver of weaning-age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-07-22

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is reported to regulate lipid metabolism in mammals, and the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring growth has drawn much attention in the last several years. To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary SB supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in weaning rats, we fed 16 primiparous purebred female SD rats either a chow-diet or a 1 % sodium butyrate diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning age, samples of the maternal subcutaneous adipose tissue and offspring liver were taken. The serum indexes and expressions of proteins related to lipid metabolism were detected in the mother and offspring, respectively. The results showed that the maternal SB supplement increased the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the maternal and offspring serum (P pregnancy and lactation increased the hepatic total cholesterol (Tch) content (P pregnancy and the lactation period promotes maternal fat mobilization, which may result in fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation in the liver of the offspring.

  14. Effect of sodium caproate on the volumetric and viscometric properties of glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianji; Yan Zhenning; Lu Jinsuo

    2004-01-01

    The apparent molar volumes (V m,2 ) and relative viscosities (η r ) at T=(298.15 and 308.15) K have been obtained for glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-amino-butyric acid in aqueous sodium caproate solutions from measurements of density and the flow time. The standard partial molar volumes (V 0 m,2 ), standard volumes of transfer (Δ t V 0 ), the viscosity B-coefficients, and the activation thermodynamic quantities (Δμ 2 0≠ and ΔS 2 0≠ ) of viscous flow have been calculated for the amino acids. It is shown that the standard partial molar volumes, viscosity B-coefficients, and activation free energies for viscous flow increase with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids. An increase in V 0 m,2 and Δ t V 0 with increasing electrolyte concentrations have been explained due to the interactions of sodium caproate with the charged center of zwitterions for the amino acids. A comparison of the V 0 m,2 values for glycine, DL-α-alanine, and DL-α-aminon-n-butyric acid in different aqueous salts solutions showed that carboxylate ions have stronger interactions with amino acid than chloride, thiocyanate, and nitrate ions. Results of viscosity are discussed in terms of changes in solvent structure

  15. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1 control diet (C group, (2 high fat + high fiber diet (HF group, (3 high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group, and (4 HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  17. Sodium butyrate suppresses angiotensin II-induced hypertension by inhibition of renal (pro)renin receptor and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Qing; Lu, Aihua; Liu, Xiaofen; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Chuanming; Liu, Xiyang; Li, Haobo; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-09-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the end product of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBu) has been found to play a protective role in a number of chronic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether NaBu has a therapeutic potential in hypertension. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NaBu in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and to further explore the underlying mechanism. Ang II was infused into uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without intramedullary infusion of NaBu for 14 days. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded by the telemetry system. Renal tissues, serum samples, and 24-h urine samples were collected to examine renal injury and the regulation of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and renin. Intramedullary infusion of NaBu in Sprague-Dawley rats lowered the Ang II-induced mean arterial pressure from 129 ± 6 mmHg to 108 ± 4 mmHg (P renal injury, including urinary albumin, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6. The renal expression of PRR, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I-converting enzyme and the urinary excretion of soluble PRR, renin, and angiotensinogen were all increased by Ang II infusion but decreased by NaBu treatment. In cultured innermedullary collecting duct cells, NaBu treatment attenuated Ang II-induced expression of PRR and renin. These results demonstrate that NaBu exerts an antihypertensive action, likely by suppressing the PRR-mediated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

  18. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: ► In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. ► The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). ► Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. ► Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  19. The combination effect of sodium butyrate and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on radiosensitivity in RKO colorectal cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall level of chromatin compaction is an important mechanism of radiosensitivity, and modification of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation may increase radiosensitivity by altering chromatin compaction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a demethylating agent, a histone deacetylase(HDAC inhibitor, and the two agents combined on radiosensitivity in human colon and breast cancer cell lines. Methods In this study, we used RKO colorectal cancer cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and normal colon cell lines. On each of the cell lines, we used three different agents: the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate(SB, the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine(5-aza-DC, and radiation. We then estimated the percentage of the cell survival using the XTT method and experimented to determine if there was an augmentation in the therapeutic effect by using different combinations of the two or three of the treatment methods. Results After treatment of each cell lines with 5-aza-DC, SB and 6 grays of radiation, we observed that the survival fraction was lower after the treatment with 5-aza-DC or SB than with radiation alone in RKO and MCF-7 cell lines(p Conclusion In conclusion, 5-aza-DC and SB can enhance radiosensitivity in both MCF-7 and RKO cell lines. The combination effect of a demethylating agent and an HDAC inhibitor is more effective than that of single agent treatment in both breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  20. HDAC inhibitors TSA and sodium butyrate enhanced the human IL-5 expression by altering histone acetylation status at its promoter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songyan; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Cao; Li, Lin; Han, Liping; Huang, Baiqu

    2007-02-15

    The expression of IL-5 correlated tightly with the maturation and differentiation of eosinophils, and is considered as a cytokine responsible for allergic inflammation. We report here that inhibition of HDAC activity by Trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBu), the two specific HDAC inhibitors, resulted in the elevation of both endogenous and exogenous activity of IL-5 promoter. We demonstrated that both the mRNA expression and protein production of IL-5 were stimulated by TSA and NaBu treatments. ChIP assays showed that treatments of TSA and NaBu caused hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 on IL-5 promoter in Jurkat cells, which consequently promoted the exogenous luciferase activity driven by this promoter. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the binding sites for transcription factors NFAT, GATA3 and YY1 on IL-5 promoter were critical for the effects of TSA and NaBu, suggesting that the transcriptional activation of IL-5 gene by these inhibitors was achieved by affecting HDAC function on IL-5 promoter via transcription factors. These data will contribute to elucidating the unique mechanism of IL-5 transcriptional control and to the therapy of allergic disorders related to IL-5.

  1. Sodium butyrate has an antimanic effect and protects the brain against oxidative stress in an animal model of mania induced by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Steckert, Amanda V; Varela, Roger B; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Mariot, Edemilson; Resende, Wilson R; Arent, Camila O; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2016-01-30

    Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Considering these evidences, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitor, on manic-like behavior and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS and protein carbonyl content and SOD and CAT activities) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to the animal model of mania induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) ouabain administration.The results showed that SB reversed ouabain-induced hyperactivity, which represents a manic-like behavior in rats. In addition, the ouabain ICV administration induced oxidative damage to lipid and protein and alters antioxidant enzymes activity in all brain structures analyzed. The treatment with SB was able to reversesboth behavioral and oxidative stress parameters alteration induced by ouabain.In conclusion, we suggest that SB can be considered a potential new mood stabilizer by acts on manic-like behavior and regulatesthe antioxidant enzyme activities, protecting the brain against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several previous studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in pre-ruminants. These encouraging findings have led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the maximum tolerable dosage rate of...

  3. Sodium butyrate attenuates soybean oil-based lipid emulsion-induced increase in intestinal permeability of lipopolysaccharide by modulation of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun-Kai; Gong, Zi-Zhen; Zhang, Tian; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Down-regulation of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SOLE) may cause elevated intestinal permeability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in patients with total parenteral nutrition, but the appropriate preventative treatment is currently limited. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBut) has been demonstrated to regulate the expression of P-gp. Therefore, this study aimed to address whether treatment with NaBut could attenuate SOLE-induced increase in intestinal permeability of LPS by modulation of P-gp in vitro. Caco-2 cells were exposed to SOLE with or without NaBut. SOLE-induced down-regulation of P-gp was significantly attenuated by co-incubation with NaBut. Nuclear recruitment of FOXO 3a in response to NaBut was involved in P-gp regulation. Transport studies revealed that SOLE-induced increase in permeability of LPS was significantly attenuated by co-incubation with NaBut. Collectively, our results suggested that NaBut may be a potentially useful medication to prevent SOLE-induced increase in intestinal permeability of LPS. - Highlights: • Caco-2 cells were used as models for studying parenteral nutrition in vitro. • NaBut restored SOLE-induced down-regulation of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. • Regulation of P-gp by NaBut was mediated via nuclear recruitment of FOXO 3a. • NaBut modulated the permeability of LPS by P-gp function, not barrier function.

  4. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B 1 subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B 1 to B 2 and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist [ 125 I]-cyanopindolol and the B 2 selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using 32 P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells

  5. Sodium butyrate improved performance while modulating the cecal microbiota and regulating the expression of intestinal immune-related genes of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, C; Pedroso, A A; Mallo, J J; Puyalto, M; Kim, W K; Applegate, T J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0.1% of SB. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BW gain), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded until 28 d of age. From 14 to 28 d, there was an interaction of nutrient density by SB (P = 0.003) wherein BW gain of birds fed SB was impaired less by the energy/amino acids reduction than unsupplemented birds. A similar result was obtained from 1 to 28 d (P = 0.004). No interaction (P density by SB was observed for FCR. Nutritional density of the diets and SB modified the structure, composition, and predicted function of the cecal microbiota. The nutritionally reduced diet altered the imputed function performed by the microbiota and the SB supplementation reduced these variations, keeping the microbial function similar to that observed in chickens fed a control diet. The frequency of bacterial species presenting the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene increased in the microbiota of chickens fed a nutritionally reduced diet without SB supplementation, and was not changed by nutrient density of the diet when supplemented with SB (interaction; P = 0.01). SB modulated the expression of immune related genes in the cecal tonsils; wherein SB upregulated the expression of A20 in broilers fed control diets (P broilers fed nutritionally reduced diets, partially by modulating the cecal microbiota and exerting immune-modulatory effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Angelo, E-mail: maggio.angelo@gmail.com [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Magli, Alessandro [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Valvo, Francesca [Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [University of Turin, Department of Oncology, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiotherapy Unit, AO Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  7. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ 2 statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of

  8. Epidermal cell-shape regulation and subpopulation kinetics during butyrate-induced terminal maturation of normal and SV40-transformed human keratinocytes: epithelial models of differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano-Coico, L; Steinberg, M; Higgins, P J

    1990-10-15

    Recent data indicate that malignant human epidermal cells may be appropriate targets for sodium butyrate (NaB)-mediated differentiation therapy. The response of pre- and post-crisis populations of SV40-transformed human keratinocytes (SVKs) to this differentiation-inducing agent was assessed, therefore, within the framework of NaB-directed normal human keratinocyte (NHK) maturation. NaB augmented cornified envelope (CE) production in NHK and pre-crisis SVK cultures; the time-course and efficiency of induced maturation were similar in the 2 cell systems. In NHKs, the percentage of amplifying ("B" substate) cells decreased with time in NaB correlating with increases in both "C" stage keratinocytes and CEs. The latter formed over one or 2 layers of nucleated basal-like cells. Inductions were accompanied by immediate cell cycle blocks (in both the G1 and G2/M phases), reorganization within the actin cytoskeleton, and transient early increases in cellular actin content. Increased NHK and pre-crisis SVK cytoskeletal-associated actin reached a maximum approximately 48 hr after NaB addition and preceded development of CEs. The CE precursors, thus, probably reside in the "B" substate. Post-crisis SVKs, in contrast, were refractive to NaB-induced terminal maturation or cell-cycle perturbation, failed to initiate actin filament rearrangements, and retained a basal cell-like phenotype. Stable transformation of human SVKs in post-crisis phase, therefore, appears to be associated with loss of maturation "competence" within the "B" keratinocyte subpopulation.

  9. The Volumetric Properties of Some α-Amino Acids in Aqueous Sodium Butyrate Solutions at 308.15 K%α-氨基酸在丁酸钠水溶液中的体积性质(308.15K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜振宁; 成庆堂; 王键吉; 刘大壮

    1999-01-01

    Density data have been reported for glycine,DL-α-alanine,DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid,DL-valine and DL-leucine in aqueous solutions of 0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0 mol.kg-1 sodium butyrate at 308.15 K.The apparent molar volumes V2,φand standard partial molar volumes for the amino acids in aqueous sodium butyrate solutions have been calculated.The linear correlation between and the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids has been observed and utilized to estimate the contributions of the charged end groups ,CH2 group and other alkyl chains of the amino acids to .The results show that values for increase,while those for CH2 decrease,with sodium butyrate concentration.The hydration number of the amino acids decreases with increasing electrolyte concentrations.These phenomena are discussed by means of the dehydration effect of electrolyte on the amino acids.

  10. Modeling the Nab Experiment Electronics in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Alexander; Crawford, Christopher; Sprow, Aaron; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the Nab experiment is to measure the neutron decay coefficients a, the electron-neutrino correlation, as well as b, the Fierz interference term to precisely test the Standard Model, as well as probe for Beyond the Standard Model physics. In this experiment, protons from the beta decay of the neutron are guided through a magnetic field into a Silicon detector. Event reconstruction will be achieved via time-of-flight measurement for the proton and direct measurement of the coincident electron energy in highly segmented silicon detectors, so the amplification circuitry needs to preserve fast timing, provide good amplitude resolution, and be packaged in a high-density format. We have designed a SPICE simulation to model the full electronics chain for the Nab experiment in order to understand the contributions of each stage and optimize them for performance. Additionally, analytic solutions to each of the components have been determined where available. We will present a comparison of the output from the SPICE model, analytic solution, and empirically determined data.

  11. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  12. The Nab Spectrometer, Precision Field Mapping, and Associated Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jason; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Nab experiment will make precision measurements of a, the e- ν correlation parameter, and b, the Fierz interference term, in neutron beta decay, aiming to deliver an independent determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV to sensitively test CKM unitarity. Nab utilizes a novel, long asymmetric spectrometer to measure the proton TOF and electron energy. We extract a from the slope of the measured TOF distribution for different electron energies. A reliable relation of the measured proton TOF to a requires detailed knowledge of the effective proton pathlength, which in turn imposes further requirements on the precision of the magnetic fields in the Nab spectrometer. The Nab spectrometer, magnetometry, and associated systematics will be discussed.

  13. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol disrupts sodium butyrate-induced p21WAF1/CIP1 expression and maturation while reciprocally potentiating apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Roberto R; Almenara, Jorge A; Cartee, Leanne; Betts, Vicki; Chellappan, Srikumar P; Grant, Steven

    2002-02-01

    Interactions between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) have been examined in human leukemia cells (U937) in relation to differentiation and apoptosis. Whereas 1 mM of SB or 100 nM of FP minimally induced apoptosis (4% and 10%, respectively) at 24 h, simultaneous exposure of U937 cells to these agents dramatically increased cell death (e.g., approximately 60%), reflected by both morphological and Annexin/propidium iodide-staining features, procaspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Similar interactions were observed in human promyelocytic (HL-60), B-lymphoblastic (Raji), and T-lymphoblastic (Jurkat) leukemia cells. Coadministration of FP opposed SB-mediated accumulation of cells in G0G1 and differentiation, reflected by reduced CD11b expression, but instead dramatically increased procaspase-3, procaspase-8, Bid, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, as well as mitochondrial damage (e.g., loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release). FP also blocked SB-related p21WAF1-CIP1 induction through a caspase-independent mechanism and triggered the caspase-mediated cleavage of p27KIP1 and retinoblastoma protein. The latter event was accompanied by a marked reduction in retinoblastoma protein/E2F1 complex formation. However, FP did not modify the extent of SB-associated acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Treatment of cells with FP/SB also resulted in the caspase-mediated cleavage of Bcl-2 and caspase-independent down-regulation of Mcl-1. Levels of cyclins A, D1, and E, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis also declined in SB/FP-treated cells. Finally, FP/SB coexposure potently induced apoptosis in two primary acute myelogenous leukemia samples. Together, these findings demonstrate that FP, when combined with SB, induces multiple perturbations in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, which oppose leukemic cell differentiation but instead

  14. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  15. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  16. Butyrate absorption and lactate secretion in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H; Holtug, K; Jeppesen, P B

    1995-01-01

    .12. Despite normal butyrate absorption, sodium absorption was compromised in active ulcerative colitis (11.5 +/- 1.4 mumol/cm2/h) compared with quiescent (15.4 +/- 1.0 mumol/cm2/h) and controls (18.7 +/- 0.8 mumol/cm2/h) (P = 0.0006). Mucosal secretion of L-lactate was minimal in both healthy controls...

  17. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha 2 -adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of 3 H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when 3 H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha 2 -adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Zabielski, R; Guilloteau, P

    2018-03-07

    Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e.g., before or after weaning) of butyrate administration can be used. The aim of this paper was to summarize the knowledge in the field of butyrate supplementation in feeds for newborn calves in practical situations, and to suggest directions of future studies. It has been repeatedly shown that supplementation of unprotected salts of butyrate (primarily sodium salt) in milk replacer (MR) stimulates the rumen, small intestine, and pancreas development in calves, with a supplementation level equating to 0.3% of dry matter being sufficient to exert the desired effect on both GIT development and growth performance. On the other hand, the effect of unprotected butyrins and protected forms of butyrate supplementation in MR has not been extensively investigated, and few studies have documented the effect of butyrate addition into whole milk (WM), with those available focusing mainly on the growth performance of animals. Protected butyrate supplementation at a low level (0.3% of protected product in DM) in solid feed was shown to have a potential to enhance GIT development and performance of calves fed MR during the preweaning period. Justification of this form of butyrate supplementation in solid feed when calves are fed WM or after weaning needs to be documented. After weaning, inclusion of unprotected butyrate salts in solid feed was shown to increase solid feed intake, but the effect on GIT development and function has not been determined in detail

  19. National association of broadcasters engineering handbook NAB engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Graham A; Osenkowsky, Thomas G; Williams, Edmund A

    2013-01-01

    The NAB Engineering Handbook provides detailed information on virtually every aspect of the broadcast chain, from news gathering, program production and postproduction through master control and distribution links to transmission, antennas, RF propagation, cable and satellite. Hot topics covered include HD Radio, HDTV, 2 GHz broadcast auxiliary services, EAS, workflow, metadata, digital asset management, advanced video and audio compression, audio and video over IP, and Internet broadcasting. A wide range of related topics that engineers and managers need to understand are also covered, includ

  20. Kinetics of Butyrate, Acetate, and Hydrogen Metabolism in a Thermophilic, Anaerobic, Butyrate-Degrading Triculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, Km, for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hyd...

  1. Comparison of the effect of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    番茄花园

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Graded levels of mixed VFA sodium salt (the molar proportion of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was 65:25:10), i.e. 0, 5, ... be more associated with the VFA energy level (Ma and. Zhao, 2010) and mediated by IGF-I, insulin ..... Influence of nutrition and bovine growth hormone (GH) on hepatic GH binding, ...

  2. Stimulation of butyrate absorption in the human rectum in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, K; Hove, H; Mortensen, P B

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Models of short-chain fatty acid absorption have focused on the stimulation of sodium absorption, an effect mainly located in the proximal colon of man. With the present efforts to utilize butyrate enemas as a treatment of ulcerative colitis, it seemed important to assess the transport...... in the rectum. METHODS: Non-equilibrium dialysis of the rectum was applied by placing dialysis bags containing various electrolyte solutions in the rectum of volunteers for 30 min. In this period changes in ion concentrations were linear with time. Net absorption and secretion rates were calculated from...

  3. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Robert W; Li, CongJun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Dis...

  4. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on rumen papillae protein turnover in growing lambs. Under the feeding conditions used and the rate of continuous butyrate infusion into the rumen in the present studies, butyrate does not affect overall N retention in growing sheep. However, butyrate may play a role in the redistribution of urea N fluxes in the overall scheme of N metabolism.

  5. Nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of breast cancer: efficacy, safety, and approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwase H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Yamamoto1, Ichiro Kawano2, Hirotaka Iwase11Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Asahino General Hospital, Kumamoto, JapanAbstract: Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel is a novel formulation of paclitaxel that does not require solvents such as polyoxyethylated castor oil and ethanol. Use of these solvents has been associated with toxic response, including hypersensitivity reactions and prolonged sensory neuropathy, as well as a negative impact in relation to the therapeutic index of paclitaxel. nab-paclitaxel displays greater antitumor activity and less toxicity than solvent-base paclitaxel. In a phase I trial of single nab-paclitaxel, the maximum tolerated dose was 300 mg/m2 with the dose limiting toxicities being sensory neuropathy, stomatitis, and superficial keratopathy. In the metastatic setting, a pivotal comparative randomized phase III study demonstrated that nab-paclitaxel (at 260 mg/m2 over 30 minutes infusion without premedication every 3 weeks mediated a superior objective response rate and prolonged time to progression compared with solvent-based paclitaxel (at 175 mg/m2 over a 3-hour injection with standard premedication. The nab-paclitaxel-treated group showed a higher incidence of sensory neuropathy than the solvent-based paclitaxel group. However, these adverse side effects rapidly resolved after interruption of treatment and dose reduction. Weekly administration of nab-paclitaxel was also more active and displayed less toxicity compared with 100 mg/m2 docetaxel given triweekly. Nab-paclitaxel has already been approved in 42 countries for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline, based on confirmation of the efficacy and manageable toxicity in the metastatic setting. This review summarizes the most relevant knowledge on nab-paclitaxel for treating breast cancer

  6. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  7. Role of Nab2 in RNA metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    RNP assembly generates errors, which are tracked down by nuclear surveillance mechanisms. Thus, not surprisingly, protein components of mRNPs have multiple functions in the biogenesis of the particle but also interact with the surveillance machinery. An example of such a multifunctional factor is the S......RNP components showed changes in the Nab2 interactome in the absence of Rrp6, and also suggested that Nab2 binds to multiple sites on the mRNA. Wide-range proteomic analysis of Nab2 immunoprecipitates revealed association with C/D box snoRNP components. These novel interactions were supported by the presence...

  8. Mikroprocesorem řízená nabíječka baterií

    OpenAIRE

    Džama, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem mikroprocesorem řízené nabíječky baterií. Práce obsahuje obvodové schéma zapojení výsledné nabíječky. V této práci je vytvořen funkční software pro řízení této nabíječky. Nabíječka je pak vyrobena. This diploma thesis deals with design of microprocessor controlled battery charger. Thesis contains circuit diagram of final charger. In this thesist there is created functioning software for control of this battery charger. Charger is than manufactured. ...

  9. Calibration and Characterization of the UNCB and Nab Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeck, Bryan; UCNB Collaboration; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The UCNB and Nab experiments are designed to produce precision measurements of the free neutron decay angular correlations B, a, and b. Measurements of B and a require a coincident detection of the proton and electron produced in neutron decay, while for b, which manifests as a subtle shift in the electron energy spectrum, energy resolution better than 3 keV is desired and excellent fidelity for energy reconstruction is required, including characterization of non-linearity to the 10-4 level. To this end, a thick segmented silicon detector with a 100 nm dead layer and a 100 cm active area has been extensively characterized at LANL. The thin dead layer allows protons accelerated to 30 keV to deposit energy above threshold in the active volume of the detector, and the paired amplifer chain, developed at LANL, has a risetime of approximately 40 ns. Comparison of simulation to experiment reveals a detector resolution better than σ = 2.5 keV. A complete characterization of the detector will be presented. This work has been supported by Grants from the US National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

  10. Fat coating of Ca butyrate results in extended butyrate release in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Buyse, J.; Niewold, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on its described beneficial effects on small and large intestinal epithelium, butyrate can be a very good alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. Effective dietary application requires coating because the majority of uncoated butyrate is purportedly absorbed before reaching the proximal

  11. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  12. Nab-Paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: experience of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferris Villanueva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results obtained with the combined use of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: Retrospective observational study. Patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine between January of 2013 and January of 2014 were selected. Demographical and clinical data were gathered. Results: 15 patients (mean age 59,4 ± 10,3 years were included. All patients received the combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in first-line metastatic disease. Nine received adjuvant treatment before the disease was metastatic. The median progression-free survival rate with combined nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine was 5,6 months (95% CI: 4,44 - 8,03. In two patients the treatment was stopped due to toxicity. Conclusions: The treatment with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in our patients resulted in progression-free survival rates similar to those published in clinical trials with good treatment tolerability

  13. Interleukin-15 promotes intestinal dysbiosis with butyrate deficiency associated with increased susceptibility to colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Marlies; Mayassi, Toufic; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Koval, Jason C.; O' Brien, Sarah L.; Hinterleitner, Reinhard; Lesko, Kathryn; Kim, Sangman; Bouziat, Romain; Chen, Li; Weber, Christopher R.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.

    2016-09-20

    Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and play a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored. Analysis of 16S rRNA-based inventories of bacterial communities in mice overexpressing IL-15 in the intestinal epithelium (v-IL-15tg mice) shows distinct changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria. While some alterations are specific to individual intestinal compartments, others are found across the ileum, cecum, and feces. In particular, IL-15 overexpression restructures the composition of the microbiota with a decrease in butyrate producing bacteria that is associated with a reduction in luminal butyrate levels across all intestinal compartments. Fecal microbiota transplant experiments of wild-type and v-IL-15tg microbiota into germ-free mice further indicate that diminishing butyrate concentration observed in the intestinal lumen of v-IL-15tg mice is the result of intrinsic alterations in the microbiota induced by IL-15. This reconfiguration of the microbiota is associated with increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Altogether, this study reveals that IL-15 impacts butyrate-producing bacteria and lowers butyrate levels in the absence of overt pathology, which represent events that precede and promote intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  14. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with butyrate and probiotic on the survival of Pacific white shrimp after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norha Constanza Bolívar Ramírez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the performance, immunology, and survival of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to experimental challenge to Vibrio alginolyticus based on the use of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and the combined use of probiotic and butyrate. Four different diets resulted from the addition of additives: butyrate, probiotic, butyrate + probiotic, and control (no additives. The attractiveness of the diets was assessed by the percentage of positive choices and rejections, using a dual-choice Y-maze format aquarium. The shrimps were fed during four weeks and performance parameters, intestinal microbiota, and immunological parameters were all evaluated. Subsequently, the shrimps were challenged with V. alginolyticus and after 48 h, survival and immunological parameters were evaluated. The results showed increased attractiveness and intake, but only with diets supplemented with sodium butyrate. However, other diets were not rejected. No difference in performance or immunological parameters was observed among the different diets. Also, among the treatments, no difference in Vibrio spp., or total heterotrophic bacteria counts, was found in the intestinal tract. However, the lactic acid bacteria count was higher in the intestinal tract of shrimps fed diets supplemented with probiotic. After bacterial challenge, shrimp fed all diets had a greater survival when compared with the control group. Lactobacillus plantarum and sodium butyrate increase the resistance of shrimp to infection with V. alginolyticus, but do so without affecting performance, immunological parameters, or Vibrio spp., and total heterotrophic bacteria counts in the intestinal tract.

  16. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Thermophilic Anaerobic Degradation of Butyrate by a Butyrate-Utilizing Bacterium in Coculture and Triculture with Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was β-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in th...

  18. Modulation of butyrate anticancer activity by solid lipid nanoparticle delivery: an in vitro investigation on human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglietta, Federica; Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Vivenza, Nicoletta; Riccio, Giovanna; Imbalzano, Erica; Gasco, Paolo; Zara, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Histone modification has emerged as a promising approach to cancer therapy. The short-chain fatty acid, butyric acid, a histone deacetylase (HD) inhibitor, has shown anticancer activity. Butyrate transcriptional activation is indeed able to withdraw cancer cells from the cell cycle, leading to programmed cell death. Since butyrate's clinical use is hampered by unfavorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, delivery systems, such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), have been developed to overcome these constraints. In order to outline the influence of butyrate delivery on its anticancer activity, the effects of butyrate as a free (sodium butyrate, NB) or nanoparticle (cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles, CBSLN) formulation on the growth of different human cancer cell lines, such as the promyelocytic leukemia, HL-60, and the breast cancer, MCF-7 was investigated. A detailed investigation into the mechanism of the induced cytotoxicity was also carried out, with a special focus on the modulation of HD and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) mRNA gene expression by real time PCR analysis. In HL-60 cells, CBSLN induced a higher and prolonged expression level of the butyrate target genes at lower concentrations than NB. This led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, along with considerable apoptosis, cell cycle block in the G0/G1 phase, significant inhibition of total HD activity and overexpression of the p21 protein. Conversely, in MCF-7 cells, CBSLN did not enhance the level of expression of the butyrate target genes, leading to the same anticancer activity as that of NB. Solid lipid nanoparticles were able to improve butyrate anticancer activity in HL-60, but not in MCF-7 cells. This is consistent with difference in properties of the cells under study, such as expression of the TP53 tumor suppressor, or the transporter for short-chain fatty acids, SLC5A8.

  19. Komisjon möönab haigla viga abordi nurjumises / Annika Alasoo, Jüri Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alasoo, Annika, 1965-

    2000-01-01

    21-aastane meditsiinikooli õpilane lamab neljandat kuud pärast ebaõnnestunud aborti Tallinna Keskhaiglas koomas, sotsiaalministeeriumi arstiabi kvaliteedi komisjon pole oma otsust veel langetanud, kuid komisjoni esimees möönab haiglas tõenäoliselt tehtud vigu

  20. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Sakhawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg. CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD formulations.

  1. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen.

  3. Nano-particle nab-paclitaxel in treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilla, R.; Dolinsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, are together with anthracyclines the cornerstone of treatment of both early and advanced breast cancer. They are established as the standard of care either as monotherapy or in combination with other cytostatic agents and targeted therapies. However, despite their significant clinical activity in many cancer types, the use of taxanes is often limited by significant toxicities, including hypersensitivity reactions, which complicate treatment and diminish quality of life. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is a 130 nm particle cremophor free formulation. Due to its special properties it allows to reach higher intratumoral concentrations of paclitaxel. In randomized phase II and phase III trials has been shown a superior efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel over paclitaxel or docetaxel. This new therapeutic formulation of paclitaxel may be therefore an adequate alternative to classic formulation of taxanes in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (author)

  4. Incidence and risk of peripheral neuropathy with nab-paclitaxel in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L; Bu, Z; Ye, X; Zhou, Y; Zhao, Q

    2017-09-01

    Nab-paclitaxel, a Cremophor EL-free formulation of paclitaxel, is used to treat various malignancies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of its major toxicities, although the overall incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and to compare the relative risk (RR) with conventional taxanes. The electronic databases were searched for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using fixed-effects or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nineteen trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 2878 cancer patients. The overall incidences of peripheral neuropathy (all-grade) was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.1-57.6%), and that of high-grade peripheral neuropathy was 12.4% (9.8-15.7%). The RRs of peripheral neuropathy of nab-paclitaxel compared to taxanes were not increased for all-grade and high-grade peripheral neuropathy. Nab-paclitaxel is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy. Future clinical studies are still needed to investigate the risk reduction and possible use of nab-paclitaxel. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. nab-Paclitaxel in Combination with Carboplatin for a Previously Treated Thymic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Makimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old man with previously treated thymic carcinoma, complaining of gradually worsening back pain. Computed tomography scans of the chest showed multiple pleural disseminated nodules with a pleural effusion in the right thorax. The patient was treated with carboplatin on day 1 plus nab-paclitaxel on day 1 and 8 in cycles repeated every 4 weeks. Objective tumor shrinkage was observed after 4 cycles of this regimen. In addition, the elevated serum cytokeratin 19 fragment level decreased, and the patient's back pain was relieved without any analgesics. Although he experienced grade 4 neutropenia and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF injection, the severity of thrombocytopenia and nonhematological toxicities such as reversible neuropathy did not exceed grade 1 during the treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the efficacy of combination chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel against thymic carcinoma. This case report suggests that nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin can be a favorable chemotherapy regimen for advanced thymic carcinoma.

  6. Colonic epithelial cell activation and the paradoxical effects of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Rosella, O; Wilson, A J; Mariadason, J M; Rickard, K; Byron, K; Barkla, D H

    1999-04-01

    Butyrate may have paradoxical effects on epithelial cells of similar origin. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that one mechanism that dictates a cell's response to butyrate is its state of activation. First, the responses to 24 h exposure to butyrate (1-2 mM) of normal and neoplastic human colonic epithelial cells activated by their isolation and primary culture, and of colon cancer cell lines, LIM1215 and Caco-2, were examined. In primary cultures of normal and cancer cells, butyrate had no effect on alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly suppressed urokinase receptor expression by a mean +/- SEM of 30 +/- 12% and 36 +/- 9%, respectively. Interleukin-8 secretion was suppressed by 44 +/- 7% in normal cells (P 50%, urokinase receptor expression >2-fold and interleukin-8 secretion >3-fold in response to butyrate. Secondly, the effect of butyrate on Caco-2 cells was examined with or without prior exposure to a specific activating stimulus [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)]. Interleukin-8 secretion increased by 145 +/- 23% and 132 +/- 17% on 24 h exposure to 2 mM butyrate or 0.1 microM TNF alpha alone, respectively. However, in cells pre-treated with TNF alpha, butyrate significantly inhibited secretion by 34 +/- 7% below unstimulated levels. The response to butyrate of urokinase receptor, whose expression was not stimulated by TNF alpha, was unchanged. These effects were mimicked by trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suggesting that butyrate's paradoxical effects may have been operating by the same mechanism. In conclusion, some of the paradoxical effects of butyrate do not appear to represent inherent differences between normal and transformed cells. Rather, the response may be determined by the state of activation of the cells.

  7. Clinicopathological differences between variants of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges and extra-central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Satoko; Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    Investigations on the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have increased since its discovery in 2013. Although several SFTs reported without NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis, we reviewed 546 SFTs/HPCs with NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis in this study and investigated differences between the gene variants. In total, 452 cases tested positive for the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, with more than 40 variants being detected. The most frequent of these were NAB2 exon 6-STAT6 exon 16/17/18 and NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 2/3, with the former occurring most frequently in SFTs in meninges, soft tissues, and head and neck; the latter predominated in SFTs in the pleura and lung. There was no difference between the histology of SFTs and fusion gene variants. A follow-up analysis of SFTs showed that 51 of 202 cases had a recurrence, with 18 of 53 meningeal SFTs having a local recurrence and/or metastasis within 0-19 years. In meninges and soft tissue, SFTs with the NAB2 exon 6-STAT6 exon 16/17/18 tended to recur more frequently than SFTs with the NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 2/3. Clinicopathological data, including yearly follow-ups, are required for meningeal SFTs/HPCs to define the correlation of variants of NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene.

  8. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan V

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vignesh Narayanan,1 Colin D Weekes1,2 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Developmental Therapeutics Program, University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and surgical resection offers the only chance of cure. Since the majority of patients have unresectable disease at presentation, the emphasis has been on identifying effective chemotherapy regimens to prolong survival and control tumor burden. Gemcitabine has been the cornerstone of treatment ever since it was discovered to be an active agent in advanced pancreatic cancer nearly two decades ago, but the overall prognosis in patients with metastatic disease remains dismal. A dense fibrotic stroma around the tumor devoid of vasculature and the resultant hypoxic tumor microenvironment are implicated in the chemotherapy-resistant nature of this malignancy. In recent years, a growing body of literature has further elucidated several aspects of pancreatic tumor biology, such as its ability to utilize albumin from the peritumoral tissues to support its metabolic needs. High-pressure homogenization of paclitaxel with nanoparticle albumin results in the formation of soluble 130 nm complexes with albumin acting as the carrier for the otherwise hydrophobic paclitaxel. Once these complexes reach the tumor milieu, they act by depleting the tumor stroma. In addition, paclitaxel is also transported into the tumor cell along with albumin, where it then exerts its antineoplastic activity. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab-paclitaxel also increases gemcitabine levels inside the tumor cells by inhibiting cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that degrades gemcitabine. This review focuses on proposed mechanisms of efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in pancreatic cancer and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies of relevance. Keywords: pancreatic

  9. Cisplatin improves antitumor activity of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Si Sun,1 Lichen Tang,2 Jian Zhang,1 Fangfang Lv,1 Zhonghua Wang,1 Leiping Wang,1 Qunling Zhang,1 Chunlei Zheng,1 Lixin Qiu,1 Zhen Jia,1 Yunhua Lu,1 Guangyu Liu,2 Zhimin Shao,2 Biyun Wang,1 Xichun Hu1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel is approved to be given every 3 weeks, weekly use of this drug is becoming a new standard of care in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC. This prospective Phase II study was conducted to improve the efficacy of weekly nab-paclitaxel with cisplatin in MBC patients. Seventy-three women with recurrent or MBC were eligible for participation. Nab-paclitaxel was administered weekly at a dose of 125 mg/m2 on day 1, day 8, and day 15, followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1, repeated every 28 days with a maximum of 6 cycles. The primary objective was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR. A high ORR of 67.1% was obtained, with rates of 80.6% for the first-line patients and 80% for patients not pretreated with taxanes. Among those who had objective responses, a large percentage of patients (83.7% showed quickly remarkable tumor shrinkage during the first two cycles. The median progression-free and overall survival times were 9.8 and 26.9 months, respectively. For the patients receiving first-, second-, and third-line therapy or beyond, median progression-free survival was 11.7, 7.7, and 7.6 months, respectively (P=0.005. Molecular subtype was not significantly associated with ORR or disease progression. Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 46 patients (63.0%, with febrile neutropenia found in 9 patients (12.3%. Grade 3

  10. Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer: utility and experience from the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundranda MN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Madappa N Kundranda, Tomislav Dragovich Division of Hematology and Oncology, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the deadliest epithelial cancers, primarily due to late diagnosis, early metastasis and the lack of effective treatments. With recent advances in systemic therapies, the median survival for metastatic disease has essentially doubled to approximately 1 year, and a significant number of patients are receiving multiple lines of therapy. One such first-line therapy is the combination of gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013. This standard option is now serving as a backbone to other novel combinations. In this review, we focus on the development of this combination, its clinical utility, and real-life experiences of managing patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma receiving gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. Keywords: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, nab-paclitaxel, MPACT trial, PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 trial

  11. Effects of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and butyric acid glycerides on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primalac), prebiotic (Fermacto) and butyric acid glycerides (Baby C4) on broiler performance and serum composition. Seven hundred and four day-old broilers were randomly distributed in a 222 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic ...

  12. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate...

  13. Nuclear relocation of STAT6 reliably predicts NAB2-STAT6 fusion for the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsche, Christian; Schweizer, Leonille; Renner, Marcus; Warth, Arne; Jones, David T W; Sahm, Felix; Reuss, David E; Capper, David; Knösel, Thomas; Schulz, Birte; Petersen, Iver; Ulrich, Alexis; Renker, Eva Kristin; Lehner, Burkhard; Pfister, Stefan M; Schirmacher, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear relocation of STAT6 has been shown in tumours with NAB2-STAT6 fusion, and has been proposed as an ancillary marker for the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs). The aim of this study was to verify the utility of STAT6 immunohistology in diagnosing SFT. A total of 689 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours comprising 35 pleural SFTs and 654 other mesenchymal tumours were investigated for STAT6 expression using immunohistochemistry. Nine dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLSs) and five SFTs were also examined for the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion at the protein level using the proximity ligation assay (PLA), and for copy number variants (CNVs) with the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 array. Thirty-four of 35 SFTs showed strong nuclear STAT6 expression. Furthermore, five of 68 DDLSs, two of 130 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas and one of 63 cases of nodular fasciitis showed moderate to strong nuclear STAT6 expression. The PLA indicated the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein in SFTs, but signal was also detected in some DDLSs. Copy number analysis showed an overall low frequency of chromosomal imbalances in SFTs, but complex karyotypes in DDLSs, including amplification of STAT6 and MDM2 loci. The detection of nuclear relocation of STAT6 with immunohistochemistry is a characteristic of SFTs, and may serve as a diagnostic marker that indicates NAB2-STAT6 fusion and helps to discriminate SFTs from histological mimics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Detection system for neutron β decay correlations in the UCNB and Nab experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussard, L.J., E-mail: broussardlj@ornl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zeck, B.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Adamek, E.R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Baeßler, S. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Birge, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Blatnik, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Bowman, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Brandt, A.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Brown, M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Burkhart, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Callahan, N.B. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Clayton, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Crawford, C. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Cude-Woods, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Currie, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dees, E.B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ding, X. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fomin, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Frlez, E.; Fry, J. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2017-03-21

    We describe a detection system designed for precise measurements of angular correlations in neutron β decay. The system is based on thick, large area, highly segmented silicon detectors developed in collaboration with Micron Semiconductor, Ltd. The prototype system meets specifications for β electron detection with energy thresholds below 10 keV, energy resolution of ∼3 keV FWHM, and rise time of ∼50 ns with 19 of the 127 detector pixels instrumented. Using ultracold neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have demonstrated the coincident detection of β particles and recoil protons from neutron β decay. The fully instrumented detection system will be implemented in the UCNB and Nab experiments to determine the neutron β decay parameters B, a, and b.

  15. The conserved, disease-associated RNA binding protein dNab2 interacts with the Fragile-X protein ortholog in Drosophila neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Rick S.; Banerjee, Ayan; Rounds, J. Christopher; Rha, Jennifer; Omotade, Omotola F.; Gross, Christina; Morris, Kevin J.; Leung, Sara W.; Pak, ChangHui; Jones, Stephanie K.; Santoro, Michael R.; Warren, Stephen T.; Zheng, James Q.; Bassell, Gary J.; Corbett, Anita H.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The Drosophila dNab2 protein is an ortholog of human ZC3H14, a poly(A) RNA-binding protein required for intellectual function. dNab2 supports memory and axon projection, but its molecular role in neurons is undefined. Here we present a network of interactions that links dNab2 to cytoplasmic control of neuronal mRNAs in conjunction with and the Fragile-X protein ortholog dFMRP. dNab2 and dfmr1 interact genetically in control of neurodevelopment and olfactory memory and their encoded proteins co-localize in puncta within neuronal processes. dNab2 regulates CaMKII but not futsch mRNA, implying a selective role in control of dFMRP-bound transcripts. Reciprocally, dFMRP and vertebrate FMRP restrict mRNA poly(A)-tail length similar to dNab2/ZC3H14. Parallel studies of murine hippocampal neurons indicate that ZC3H14 is also a cytoplasmic regulator of neuronal mRNAs. In sum these findings suggest that dNab2 represses expression of a subset of dFMRP-target mRNAs, which could underlie brain-specific defects in patients lacking ZC3H14. PMID:28793261

  16. The Conserved, Disease-Associated RNA Binding Protein dNab2 Interacts with the Fragile X Protein Ortholog in Drosophila Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick S. Bienkowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila dNab2 protein is an ortholog of human ZC3H14, a poly(A RNA binding protein required for intellectual function. dNab2 supports memory and axon projection, but its molecular role in neurons is undefined. Here, we present a network of interactions that links dNab2 to cytoplasmic control of neuronal mRNAs in conjunction with the fragile X protein ortholog dFMRP. dNab2 and dfmr1 interact genetically in control of neurodevelopment and olfactory memory, and their encoded proteins co-localize in puncta within neuronal processes. dNab2 regulates CaMKII, but not futsch, implying a selective role in control of dFMRP-bound transcripts. Reciprocally, dFMRP and vertebrate FMRP restrict mRNA poly(A tail length, similar to dNab2/ZC3H14. Parallel studies of murine hippocampal neurons indicate that ZC3H14 is also a cytoplasmic regulator of neuronal mRNAs. Altogether, these findings suggest that dNab2 represses expression of a subset of dFMRP-target mRNAs, which could underlie brain-specific defects in patients lacking ZC3H14.

  17. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells

  18. LabKey Server NAb: A tool for analyzing, visualizing and sharing results from neutralizing antibody assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hongmei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple types of assays allow sensitive detection of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. For example, the extent of antibody neutralization of HIV-1, SIV and SHIV can be measured in the TZM-bl cell line through the degree of luciferase reporter gene expression after infection. In the past, neutralization curves and titers for this standard assay have been calculated using an Excel macro. Updating all instances of such a macro with new techniques can be unwieldy and introduce non-uniformity across multi-lab teams. Using Excel also poses challenges in centrally storing, sharing and associating raw data files and results. Results We present LabKey Server's NAb tool for organizing, analyzing and securely sharing data, files and results for neutralizing antibody (NAb assays, including the luciferase-based TZM-bl NAb assay. The customizable tool supports high-throughput experiments and includes a graphical plate template designer, allowing researchers to quickly adapt calculations to new plate layouts. The tool calculates the percent neutralization for each serum dilution based on luminescence measurements, fits a range of neutralization curves to titration results and uses these curves to estimate the neutralizing antibody titers for benchmark dilutions. Results, curve visualizations and raw data files are stored in a database and shared through a secure, web-based interface. NAb results can be integrated with other data sources based on sample identifiers. It is simple to make results public after publication by updating folder security settings. Conclusions Standardized tools for analyzing, archiving and sharing assay results can improve the reproducibility, comparability and reliability of results obtained across many labs. LabKey Server and its NAb tool are freely available as open source software at http://www.labkey.com under the Apache 2.0 license. Many members of the HIV research community can also access the Lab

  19. Role of formate and hydrogen in the syntrophic degradation of propionate and butyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiuzhu Dong,

    1994-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, complex organic matter is mineralized by fermentative, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. Propionate and butyrate are two important intermediates; they account for 35% and 8% of the total methane formation, respectively. Propionate and butyrate are

  20. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudcovic, T.; Kolinska, J.; Klepetar, J.; Stepankova, R.; Rezanka, T.; Srutkova, D.; Schwarzer, M.; Erban, V.; Du, Z.; Wells, J.; Hrncir, T.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.; Kozakova, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced

  1. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumors carry the NAB2-STAT6 fusion and can be diagnosed by nuclear expression of STAT6 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Leonille; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Piro, Rosario M; Capper, David; Reuss, David E; Pusch, Stefan; Habel, Antje; Meyer, Jochen; Göck, Tanja; Jones, David T W; Mawrin, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Becker, Albert; Heim, Stephanie; Simon, Matthias; Herold-Mende, Christel; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Paulus, Werner; König, Rainer; Wiestler, Otmar D; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Non-central nervous system hemangiopericytoma (HPC) and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) are considered by pathologists as two variants of a single tumor entity now subsumed under the entity SFT. Recent detection of frequent NAB2-STAT6 fusions in both, HPC and SFT, provided additional support for this view. On the other hand, current neuropathological practice still distinguishes between HPC and SFT. The present study set out to identify genes involved in the formation of meningeal HPC. We performed exome sequencing and detected the NAB2-STAT6 fusion in DNA of 8/10 meningeal HPC thereby providing evidence of close relationship of these tumors with peripheral SFT. Due to the considerable effort required for exome sequencing, we sought to explore surrogate markers for the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein. We adopted the Duolink proximity ligation assay and demonstrated the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein in 17/17 HPC and the absence in 15/15 meningiomas. More practical, presence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein resulted in a strong nuclear signal in STAT6 immunohistochemistry. The nuclear reallocation of STAT6 was detected in 35/37 meningeal HPC and 25/25 meningeal SFT but not in 87 meningiomas representing the most important differential diagnosis. Tissues not harboring the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein presented with nuclear expression of NAB2 and cytoplasmic expression of STAT6 proteins. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence for meningeal HPC and SFT to constitute variants of a single entity which is defined by NAB2-STAT6 fusion. In addition, we demonstrate that this fusion can be rapidly detected by STAT6 immunohistochemistry which shows a consistent nuclear reallocation. This immunohistochemical assay may prove valuable for the differentiation of HPC and SFT from other mesenchymal neoplasms.

  2. An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Ultrasoft Narrow-Line Quasar NAB 0205+024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2004-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray continuum of NAB 0205424 is well constrained due to the excellent photon statistics obtained (about 97,700 counts), and its impressive soft X-ray excess is clearly apparent. The hard X-ray power law has become notably steeper than when NAB 0205424 was observed with ASCA, attesting to the presence of significant X-ray spectral variability. A strong and broad emission feature is detected from about 5 to 6.4 keV, and we have modeled this as a relativistic line emitted close to the black hole from a narrow annulus of the accretion disk. Furthermore, a strong X-ray flare is detected with a hard X-ray spectrum; this flare may be responsible for illuminating the inner line-emitting part of the accretion disk. The combined observational results can be broadly interpreted in terms of the "thundercloud model proposed by Merloni & Fabian (2001).

  3. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  4. Suppression of NGB and NAB/ERabp1 in tomato modifies root responses to potato cyst nematode infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Czarny, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Anita; Fudali, Sylwia; Baranowski, Łukasz; Sobczak, Mirosław; Święcicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Dobosz, Renata; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Filipecki, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to major crops throughout the world. The small number of genes conferring natural plant resistance and the limitations of chemical control require the development of new protective strategies. RNA interference or the inducible over-expression of nematicidal genes provides an environment-friendly approach to this problem. Candidate genes include NGB, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein, and NAB/ERabp1, which encodes an auxin-binding protein, which were identified as being up-regulated in tomato roots in a transcriptome screen of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) feeding sites. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization confirmed the localized up-regulation of these genes in syncytia and surrounding cells following nematode infection. Gene-silencing constructs were introduced into tomato, resulting in a 20%-98% decrease in transcription levels. Nematode infection tests conducted on transgenic plants showed 57%-82% reduction in the number of G. rostochiensis females in vitro and 30%-46% reduction in pot trials. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a deterioration of cytoplasm, and degraded mitochondria and plastids, in syncytia induced in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. Cytoplasm in syncytia induced in plants with low NGB expression was strongly electron translucent and contained very few ribosomes; however, mitochondria and plastids remained intact. Functional impairments in syncytial cytoplasm of silenced plants may result from NGB's role in ribosome biogenesis; this was confirmed by localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-labelled NGB protein in nucleoli and co-repression of NGB in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. These results demonstrate that NGB and NAB/ERabp1 play important roles in the development of nematode-induced syncytia. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented

  6. Diet-dependent shifts in ruminal butyrate producing bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Tepšič, K.; Avguštin, G.; Kopečný, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 294-298 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : butyrate-producing bacteria Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  7. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  8. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  9. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 and lipoxin A4 up-regulate transcriptional corepressor NAB1 in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F H; Devchand, P R; Wada, K; Serhan, C N

    2001-12-01

    Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATL) is an endogenous lipid mediator that mimics the actions of native lipoxin A4, a putative "stop signal" involved in regulating resolution of inflammation. A metabolically more stable analog of ATL, 15-epi-16-(para-fluoro)-phenoxy-lipoxin A4 analog (ATLa), inhibits neutrophil recruitment in vitro and in vivo and displays potent anti-inflammatory actions. ATLa binds with high affinity to the lipoxin A4 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor on the surface of leukocytes. In this study, we used freshly isolated human neutrophils to examine ATLa's potential for initiating rapid nuclear responses. Using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we identified a subset of genes that was selectively up-regulated upon short exposure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to ATLa but not to the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 or vehicle alone. We further investigated ATLa regulation of one of the genes, NAB1, a transcriptional corepressor identified previously as a glucocorticoid-responsive gene in hamster smooth muscle cells. Treatment of human neutrophils with pertussis toxin blocked ATLa up-regulation of NAB1. In addition, ATLa stimulated NAB1 gene expression in murine lung vascular smooth muscle in vivo. These findings provide evidence for rapid transcriptional induction of a cassette of genes via an ATLa-stimulated G protein-coupled receptor pathway that is potentially protective and overlaps with the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid regulatory circuit.

  10. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  11. Comparison of treatment patterns and economic outcomes among metastatic pancreatic cancer patients initiated on nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus FOLFIRINOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ali; Bonafede, Machaon; Cai, Qian; Princic, Nicole; Tran, Oth; Pelletier, Corey; Parisi, Monika; Patel, Manish

    2017-10-01

    The economic burden of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) is substantial while treatment options are limited. Little is known about the treatment patterns and healthcare costs among mPC patients who initiated first-line gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P + G) and FOLFIRINOX. The MarketScan® claims databases were used to identify adults with ≥2 claims for pancreatic cancer, 1 claim for a secondary malignancy, completed ≥1 cycle of nab-P + G or FOLFIRINOX during 4/1/2013 and 3/31/2015, and had continuous plan enrollment for ≥6 months pre- and 3 months after the first-line treatment. Duration of therapy, per patient per month (PPPM) costs of total healthcare, mPC-related treatment, and supportive care were measured during first-line therapy. 550 mPC patients met selection criteria (nab-P + G, n = 294; FOLFIRINOX, n = 256). There was no difference in duration of therapy (p = 0.60) between nab-P + G and FOLFIRINOX. Compared with FOLFIRINOX, patients with nab-P + G had higher chemotherapy drug costs but lower treatment administration costs and supportive care costs (all p < 0.01). Patients treated with nab-P + G (vs FOLFIRINOX) had similar treatment duration but lower costs of outpatient prescriptions, treatment administration and supportive care. Lower supportive care costs in the nab-P + G cohort were mainly driven by lower utilization of pegfilgrastim and anti-emetics.

  12. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  13. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...

  14. Cholesterylbutyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Butyric Acid Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mauro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterylbutyrate (Chol-but was chosen as a prodrug of butyric acid.Butyrate is not often used in vivo because its half-life is very short and therefore too largeamounts of the drug would be necessary for its efficacy. In the last few years butyric acid'santi-inflammatory properties and its inhibitory activity towards histone deacetylases havebeen widely studied, mainly in vitro. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs, whose lipid matrixis Chol-but, were prepared to evaluate the delivery system of Chol-but as a prodrug and totest its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Chol-but SLNs were prepared using the microemulsionmethod; their average diameter is on the order of 100-150 nm and their shape is spherical.The antineoplastic effects of Chol-but SLNs were assessed in vitro on different cancer celllines and in vivo on a rat intracerebral glioma model. The anti-inflammatory activity wasevaluated on adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to vascular endothelial cells. In thereview we will present data on Chol-but SLNs in vitro and in vivo experiments, discussingthe possible utilisation of nanoparticles for the delivery of prodrugs for neoplastic andchronic inflammatory diseases.

  15. An Italian cost-effectiveness analysis of paclitaxel albumin (nab-paclitaxel) versus conventional paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer patients: the COSTANza study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Carlo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Cognetti, Francesco; Fabi, Alessandra; De Placido, Sabino; Arpino, Grazia; Marchetti, Paolo; Botticelli, Andrea; Pronzato, Paolo; Martelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Paclitaxel albumin (nab-paclitaxel) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel formulation aimed at increasing therapeutic index in metastatic breast cancer. When compared to conventional paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel has a reported longer time to progression, higher response, lower incidence of neutropenia, no need for premedication, shorter time of administration, and in pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients, extended overall survival. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of nab-paclitaxel versus conventional paclitaxel for pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients in Italy. Materials and methods A Markov model with progression-free, progressed, and dead states was developed to estimate costs, outcomes, and quality adjusted life years over 5 years from the Italian National Health Service viewpoint. Patients were assumed to receive nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m2 three times weekly or conventional paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 three times weekly. Data on health care resource consumption was collected from a convenience sample of five Italian centers. Resources were valued at Euro (€) 2011. Published utility weights were applied to health states to estimate the impact of response, disease progression, and adverse events on quality adjusted life years. Three sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of the base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results and conclusion Compared to conventional paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel gains an extra 0.165 quality adjusted life years (0.265 life years saved) and incurs additional costs of €2506 per patient treated. This translates to an ICER of €15,189 (95% confidence interval: €11,891–€28,415). One-way sensitivity analysis underscores that ICER for nab-paclitaxel remains stable despite varying taxanes cost. Threshold analysis shows that ICER for nab-paclitaxel exceeds €40,000 only if cost per mg of conventional paclitaxel is set to zero. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlights that nab

  16. Modeling of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for Butyric Acid Selectivity in Continuous Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jianjun; McGraw, Amy; Hestekin, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe batch and continuous fermentation of glucose to organic acids with Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A modified Monod equation was used to describe cell growth, and a Luedeking-Piret equation was used to describe the production of butyric and acetic acids. Using the batch fermentation equations, models predicting butyric acid selectivity for continuous fermentation were also developed. The model showed that butyric acid production was a strong function ...

  17. Modeling of Clostridium t yrobutyricum for Butyric Acid Selectivity in Continuous Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Du; Amy McGraw; Jamie A. Hestekin

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe batch and continuous fermentation of glucose to organic acids with Clostridium tyrobutyricum . A modified Monod equation was used to describe cell growth, and a Luedeking-Piret equation was used to describe the production of butyric and acetic acids. Using the batch fermentation equations, models predicting butyric acid selectivity for continuous fermentation were also developed. The model showed that butyric acid production was a strong function...

  18. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. ► Tcf3 modulates butyrate’s effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. ► Tcf3 modulation of butyrate’s effects differ by cell context. ► Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. ► Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G 1 to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  19. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K; Meijer, Onno C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Wang, Yanan

    2017-11-03

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included. Mechanistic involvement of the gut-brain neural circuit was investigated in vagotomised mice. Acute oral, but not intravenous, butyrate administration decreased food intake, suppressed the activity of orexigenic neurons that express neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus, and decreased neuronal activity within the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Chronic butyrate supplementation prevented diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis, largely attributed to a reduction in food intake. Butyrate also modestly promoted fat oxidation and activated brown adipose tissue (BAT), evident from increased utilisation of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. This effect was not due to the reduced food intake, but explained by an increased sympathetic outflow to BAT. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the effects of butyrate on food intake as well as the stimulation of metabolic activity in BAT. Butyrate acts on the gut-brain neural circuit to improve energy metabolism via reducing energy intake and enhancing fat oxidation by activating BAT. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of early-line nab-paclitaxel vs. paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a US community-based real-world analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtani RL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reshma L Mahtani,1 Monika Parisi,2 Stefan Glück,3 Quanhong Ni,2 Siyeon Park,4 Corey Pelletier,2 Claudio Faria,2 Fadi Braiteh5,6 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, 3Global Medical Affairs, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, 4School of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 5Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, 6Department of Hematology/Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA Background: Real-world analyses of treatments for patients with metastatic breast cancer are limited. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of nab-paclitaxel vs. paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer using data from an electronic medical record database from community practices across the USA.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using fully de-identified data from an independent US electronic medical record platform of patients with metastatic breast cancer initiating single-agent nab-paclitaxel or paclitaxel as a first- or second-line treatment from December 1, 2010 to October 6, 2014. The clinical efficacy objectives were time to treatment discontinuation (TTD and time to next treatment (TTNT. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with 2 types of metastatic breast cancer as follows: 1 hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, and 2 triple-negative disease. Results: This analysis included 925 patients. Patients receiving nab-paclitaxel vs. paclitaxel had significantly longer TTD (median 4.2 vs. 2.8 months, P<0.0001 and TTNT (median 6.0 vs. 4.2 months, P<0.0001; similar outcomes were observed for patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative disease. Compared with paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel was associated with significantly longer TTD in patients with triple

  1. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  2. Effect of Post Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed NiAl Bronze (NAB Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Lv

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NiAl bronze (NAB alloy is prepared by using friction stir processing (FSP technique at a tool rotation rate of 1200 rpm and a traverse speed of 150 mm/min. A post heat treatment is performed at the temperature of 675 °C. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microhardness is studied. The results show that the microstructure of the FSP NAB alloy consists of high density dislocations, retained β phase (β′ phase and recrystallized grains. When annealed at 675 °C, discontinuous static recrystallization (DSRX takes place. The content of β′ phase gradually decreases and fine κ phase is precipitated. After annealing for 2 h, both the microhardness of the FSP sample in the stir zone (SZ and the difference in hardness between the SZ and base metal decrease due to the reduction of the dislocation density and β′ phase, accompanying recrystallized grain coarsening. With further increasing of the annealing time to 4 h, the aforementioned difference in hardness nearly disappears.

  3. 'Papillary' solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma with nuclear STAT6 expression and NAB2-STAT6 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Tomonari; Homma, Taku; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    This report describes clinicopathological findings, including genetic data of STAT6, in a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma (HPC) of the central nervous system in an 83-year-old woman with a bulge in the left forehead. She noticed it about 5 months before, and it had grown rapidly for the past 1 month. Neuroradiological studies disclosed a well-demarcated tumor that accompanied the destruction of the skull. The excised tumor showed a prominent papillary structure, where atypical cells were compactly arranged along the fibrovascular core ('pseudopapillary'). There was rich vasculature, some of which resembled 'staghorn' vessels. Mitotic figures were occasionally found. Whorls, psammoma bodies, or intra-nuclear pseudoinclusions were not identified. By immunohistochemistry, CD34 was strongly positive in the tumor cells, and STAT6 was localized in their nuclei. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), an NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, NAB2 exon6-STAT6 exon17, was detected, establishing a definite diagnosis of SFT/HPC. 'Papillary' SFT/HPC needs to be recognized as a possible morphological variant of SFT/HPC, and should be borne in mind in its diagnostic practice.

  4. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature...... of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity...

  5. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, K.G.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1985-01-01

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic [ 35 S]sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with [ 3 H] glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-[ 3 H]glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell

  6. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2011-01-01

    .3% as fed) and SM(-); or (4) MR(+) and SM(+). The MR was offered in an amount equal to 10% of the initial body weight (BW) of each calf. The SM was blended with whole corn grain (50/50; wt/wt) and offered ad libitum as a starter diet (0.3% encapsulated-within-triglyceride matrix SB when SM(+) was fed) from...

  7. The proteomic study of sodium butyrate antiproliferative/cytodifferentiation effects on K562 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grebeňová, D.; Kuželová, K.; Pluskalová, M.; Pešlová, G.; Halada, Petr; Hrkal, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2006), s. 210-217 ISSN 1079-9796 R&D Projects: GA MZd NL7681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : k562 * cell cycle * hemoglobin synthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.678, year: 2006

  8. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    2014) at 3.50 and 3.95 $ per kg product (for S1 and S2 respectively) and a plant capacity of 10,000 tonnes indicated an internal rate of return of 14.92% and 12.42% and payback time of 4.28 and 4.70 years for S1 and S2 respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that under the assumptions of the present......The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification...

  9. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  10. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  11. Acetate and butyrate as substrates for hydrogen production through photo-fermentation: Process optimization and combined performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Prathima Devi, M.; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, AP 500 007 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Organic acids viz., acetate and butyrate were evaluated as primary substrates for the production of biohydrogen (H{sub 2}) through photo-fermentation process using mixed culture at mesophilic temperature (34 C). Experiments were performed by varying parameters like operating pH, presence/absence of initiator substrate (glucose) and vitamin solution, type of nitrogen source (mono sodium salt of glutamic acid and amino glutamic acid) and gas (nitrogen/argon) used to create anaerobic microenvironment. Experimental data showed the feasibility of H{sub 2} production along with substrate degradation utilizing organic acids as metabolic substrate but was found to be dependent on the process parameters evaluated. Maximum specific H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation were observed with acetic acid [3.51 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.22 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (92.96%)] compared to butyric acid [3.33 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.19 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (88%)]. Higher H{sub 2} yield was observed under acidophilic microenvironment in the presence of glucose (co-substrate), mono sodium salt of glutamic acid (nitrogen source) and vitamins. Argon induced microenvironment was observed to be effective compared to nitrogen induced microenvironment. Combined process efficiency viz., H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation was evaluated employing data enveloping analysis (DEA) methodology based on the relative efficiency. Integration of dark fermentation with photo-fermentation appears to be an economically viable route for sustainable biohydrogen production if wastewater is used as substrate. (author)

  12. Modeling of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for Butyric Acid Selectivity in Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to describe batch and continuous fermentation of glucose to organic acids with Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A modified Monod equation was used to describe cell growth, and a Luedeking-Piret equation was used to describe the production of butyric and acetic acids. Using the batch fermentation equations, models predicting butyric acid selectivity for continuous fermentation were also developed. The model showed that butyric acid production was a strong function of cell mass, while acetic acid production was a function of cell growth rate. Further, it was found that at high acetic acid concentrations, acetic acid was metabolized to butyric acid and that this conversion could be modeled. In batch fermentation, high butyric acid selectivity occurred at high initial cell or glucose concentrations. In continuous fermentation, decreased dilution rate improved selectivity; at a dilution rate of 0.028 h−1, the selectivity reached 95.8%. The model and experimental data showed that at total cell recycle, the butyric acid selectivity could reach 97.3%. This model could be used to optimize butyric acid production using C. tyrobutyricum in a continuous fermentation scheme. This is the first study that mathematically describes batch, steady state, and dynamic behavior of C. tyrobutyricum for butyric acid production.

  13. Butyrate decreases its own oxidation in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; Ahmed, Bettaieb; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2018-06-05

    Colorectal cancer is characterized by an increase in the utilization of glucose and a diminishment in the oxidation of butyrate, which is a short chain fatty acid. In colorectal cancer cells, butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases to increase the expression of genes that slow the cell cycle and induce apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the metabolic shift away from butyrate oxidation in cancer cells is important in in understanding the beneficial effects of the molecule toward colorectal cancer. Here, we demonstrate that butyrate decreased its own oxidation in cancerous colonocytes. Butyrate lowered the expression of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates the oxidation of short-chain fatty acids. Butyrate does not alter short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase levels in non-cancerous colonocytes. Trichostatin A, a structurally unrelated inhibitor of histone deacetylases, and propionate also decreased the level of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which alluded to inhibition of histone deacetylases as a part of the mechanism. Knockdown of histone deacetylase isoform 1, but not isoform 2 or 3, inhibited the ability of butyrate to decrease short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase expression. This work identifies a mechanism by which butyrate selective targets colorectal cancer cells to reduce its own metabolism.

  14. Transcriptomic impacts of rumen epithelium induced by butyrate infusion in dairy cattle in dry period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomics and bioinformatics are utilized to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is an HDAC inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methyl...

  15. Butyric acid production from red algae by a newly isolated Clostridium sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-09-01

    To produce butyric acid from red algae such as Gelidium amansii in which galactose is a main carbohydrate, microorganisms utilizing galactose and tolerating inhibitors in hydrolysis including levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are required. A newly isolated bacterium, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid not only from galactose as the sole carbon source but also from a mixture of galactose and glucose through simultaneous utilization. Notably, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid and a small amount of acetic acid with the butyrate:acetate ratio of 45.4:1 and it even converted acetate to butyric acid. Clostridium sp. S1 tolerated 0.5-2 g levulinic acid/l and recovered from HMF inhibition at 0.6-2.5 g/l, resulting in 85-92% butyric acid concentration of the control culture. When acid-pretreated G. amansii hydrolysate was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 4.83 g butyric acid/l from 10 g galactose/l and 1 g glucose/l. Clostridium sp. S1 produces butyric acid from red algae due to its characteristics in sugar utilization and tolerance to inhibitors, demonstrating its advantage as a red algae-utilizing microorganism.

  16. Differential Cellular and Molecular Effects of Butyrate and Trichostatin A on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Ranganna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA, are epigenetic histone modifiers and proliferation inhibitors by downregulating cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and upregulating p21Cip1 and INK family of proteins, negative cell cycle regulators. Our recent study indicated cyclin D1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC that are proliferation-arrested by butyrate. Here we investigate whether cyclin D1 upregulation is a unique response of VSMC to butyrate or a general response to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi by evaluating the effects of butyrate and TSA on VSMC. While butyrate and TSA inhibit VSMC proliferation via cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, respectively, they downregulate cdk4, cdk6, and cdk2, and upregulate cyclin D3, p21Cip1 and p15INK4B, and cause similar effects on key histone H3 posttranslational modifications. Conversely, cyclin D1 is upregulated by butyrate and inhibited by TSA. Assessment of glycogen synthase 3-dependent phosphorylation, subcellular localization and transcription of cyclin D1 indicates that differential effects of butyrate and TSA on cyclin D1 levels are linked to disparity in cyclin D1 gene expression. Disparity in butyrate- and TSA-induced cyclin D1 may influence transcriptional regulation of genes that are associated with changes in cellular morphology/cellular effects that these HDACi confer on VSMC, as a transcriptional modulator.

  17. Nab-paclitaxel, docetaxel, or solvent-based paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer: a cost-utility analysis from a Chinese health care perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Bo Yu,2 Jennifer King,3 Satyin Kaura,3 Adams Zhang3 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA Background: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are commonly used for metastatic breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China. To improve the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel, an albumin-bound formulation (nab is now available in the People's Republic of China (Abraxane®. To provide health economic data for the key stakeholders, a cost-utility analysis comparing nab-paclitaxel to docetaxel, both as alternatives to paclitaxel, was conducted. Methods: A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes Phase III trials comparing nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m2 every [q] 3 weeks or branded docetaxel (100 mg/m2 q 3 weeks, to solvent-based branded paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 q 3 weeks was undertaken to provide safety and clinical data. Resource use data for the delivery of anticancer therapy and for the treatment of grade 3/4 toxicity was collected from a time and motion study conducted in three Chinese cancer centers and from a survey of clinicians. Using the Time Trade-Off technique, health utility estimates were derived from interviewing 28 breast cancer patients from one cancer center in the People's Republic of China. All costs were reported in 2014 US dollars. Results: Nab-paclitaxel had the most favorable safety profile, characterized with the lowest incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, anemia, and stomatitis. When the median number of cycles delivered from the clinical trials was applied, nab-paclitaxel had a cost per course of $19,752 compared with $8,940 and $13,741 for paclitaxel and docetaxel, respectively. As an alternative to paclitaxel, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained with nab-paclitaxel suggested better value than with docetaxel ($57,900 vs $130,600. Conclusion: Nab

  18. nab-Paclitaxel/carboplatin in elderly patients with advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective analysis of a Phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridelli C

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cesare Gridelli,1 Tianlei Chen,2 Amy Ko,2 Mary E O’Brien,3 Teng Jin Ong,4 Mark A Socinski,5 Pieter E Postmus6 1Division of Medical Oncology, S. G. Moscati Hospital, Avellino, Italy; 2Biostatistics, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA; 3Medical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK; 4Medical Affairs, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA; 5Lung Cancer & Esophageal Cancer, Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, Orlando, FL, USA; 6Pulmonary Diseases, Clatterbridge Cancer Center, Liverpool, UK Background: Limited data on elderly patients with squamous advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC preclude optimal treatment. Here, we report the outcomes of a retrospective analysis of a subset of patients ≥70 years with squamous histology from the Phase III trial that evaluated nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin vs paclitaxel/carboplatin. Patients and methods: Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received (1:1 nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 or paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 on day 1, both with carboplatin area under the curve 6 mg×min/mL on day 1 every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was independently assessed overall response rate as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.0. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Results: Sixty-five patients ≥70 years with squamous histology were included (nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin, n=35; paclitaxel/carboplatin, n=30. nab-Paclitaxel/carboplatin vs paclitaxel/carboplatin, respectively, resulted in an overall response rate of 46% vs 20% (response rate ratio, 2.29, P=0.029 and a median overall survival of 16.9 vs 8.6 months (hazard ratio, 0.50, P=0.018. No difference was observed in median progression-free survival (5.7 months for both. Incidences of grade 3/4 neutropenia (50% vs 63%, leukopenia (29% vs 37%, fatigue (3% vs 13%, and peripheral neuropathy (3% vs 13% were lower, but those of thrombocytopenia (21% vs 10% and anemia (21% vs 7% were higher with

  19. Combined effects of starvation and butyrate on autophagy-dependent gingival epithelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M; Murofushi, T; Tsuda, H; Mikami, Y; Zhao, N; Ochiai, K; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuka, K; Suzuki, N

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms. The Ca9-22 cell line was used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Cell death was measured as the amount of total DNA in the dead cells using SYTOX Green dye, which penetrates through membranes of dead cells and emits fluorescence when it intercalates into double-stranded DNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, the amount of autophagy, and acetylation of histone H3 were determined using western blot. Gene expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b (lc3b) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Butyrate-induced cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner whether cells were starved or fed. However, the induction of cell death was two to four times higher when cells were placed under starvation conditions compared to when they were fed. Moreover, both starvation and butyrate exposure induced AMPK activity and autophagy. While AMPK inactivation resulted in decreased autophagy and butyrate-induced cell death under conditions of starvation, AMPK activation resulted in butyrate-induced cell death when cells were fed. Combined with the results of our previous report, which demonstrated butyrate-induced autophagy-dependent cell death, the results of this study suggest that the combination of starvation and butyrate exposure activates AMPK inducing autophagy and subsequent cell death. Notably, this combination markedly

  20. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  2. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  3. In vitro intestinal bioaccessibility of alkylglycerols versus triacylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Diana; Morán-Valero, María I; Señoráns, Francisco J; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2011-03-01

    Butyric acid has been the subject of much attention last years due to its bioactivity. However, the potential advantages of butyrate are limited by the problem to reach enough plasma concentrations; therefore, pro-drugs have been proposed as an alternative to natural butyrate. A comparative study on in vitro intestinal digestion of 2,3-dibutyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (D-SCAKG) and tributyrin (TB), as potential pro-drugs of butyric acid, was performed. Aliquots were taken at different times of digestion for studying the extent and rate of hydrolysis of both substrates. The micellar phase (MP) and oily phase (OP) formed in the digestion media were separated and their composition in lipid products was analyzed. Initially, it was confirmed that the in vitro model reproduced physiological results by testing against olive oil as a standard lipid. The progress of in vitro intestinal digestion of D-SCAKG was slower than that of TB. TB hydrolyzed completely to butyric acid, whereas D-SCAKG mainly yielded 2-butyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (M-SCAKG), followed by butyric acid and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol (AKG). The MP from both substrates mainly consisted of butyric acid. Minor levels of M-SCAKG and AKG were also found in the MP after hydrolysis of D-SCAKG, the M-SCAKG being mainly distributed in the OP. Therefore, D-SCAKG produced a stable form of esterified butyric acid as M-SCAKG after in vitro intestinal digestion, unlike TB. Additionally, such a product would integrate both bioactive compounds, butyric acid and alkylglycerol, within the same molecule. Free butyric acid and AKG would be also released, which are lipid products of interest as well.

  4. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Destructive effects of butyrate on the cell envelope of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity.

  6. Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Nakwon; Eom, Taekil; Gupta, Sachin K; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J; Unno, Tatsuya

    2017-11-28

    Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides . The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus . The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter . Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction.

  7. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  8. Butyrate transcriptionally enhances peptide transporter PepT1 expression and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dalmasso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PepT1, an intestinal epithelial apical di/tripeptide transporter, is normally expressed in the small intestine and induced in colon during chronic inflammation. This study aimed at investigating PepT1 regulation by butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by commensal bacteria and accumulated inside inflamed colonocyte. RESULTS: We found that butyrate treatment of human intestinal epithelial Caco2-BBE cells increased human PepT1 (hPepT1 promoter activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with maximal activity observed in cells treated with 5 mM butyrate for 24 h. Under this condition, hPepT1 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression levels were increased as assessed by luciferase assay, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. hPepT1 transport activity was accordingly increased by approximately 2.5-fold. Butyrate did not alter hPepT1 mRNA half-life indicating that butyrate acts at the transcriptional level. Molecular analyses revealed that Cdx2 is the most important transcription factor for butyrate-induced increase of hPepT1 expression and activity in Caco2-BBE cells. Butyrate-activated Cdx2 binding to hPepT1 promoter was confirmed by gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Moreover, Caco2-BBE cells overexpressing Cdx2 exhibited greater hPepT1 expression level than wild-type cells. Finally, treatment of mice with 5 mM butyrate added to drinking water for 24 h increased colonic PepT1 mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as enhanced PepT1 transport activity in colonic apical membranes vesicles. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that butyrate increases PepT1 expression and activity in colonic epithelial cells, which provides a new understanding of PepT1 regulation during chronic inflammation.

  9. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid on high glucose-induced alterations in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dilip; Singh, Jitendra Narain; Sharma, Shyam S

    2016-12-02

    Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding. 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) is a potent and selective chemical chaperone; which may inhibit ER stress. It may be hypothesized that 4-PBA could attenuate via channels in DRG in diabetic neuropathy. Effects of 4-PBA were determined by applying different parameters of oxidative stress, cell viability, apoptosis assays and channel expression in cultured DRG neurons. Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in the DRG neuron was inhibited by 4-PBA. Cell viability of DRG neurons was not altered by 4-PBA. Oxidative stress was significantly blocked by the 4-PBA. Sodium channel expression was not altered by the 4-PBA. Our data provide evidence that the hyperglycemia-induced alteration may be reduced by the 4-PBA without altering the sodium channel expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase I/II dose-finding study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab®-Paclitaxel) plus Cisplatin as Treatment for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhao, Hongyun; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-13

    This phase I/II study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab (®)-paclitaxel) plus cisplatin as treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts, each with 21-day treatment cycles: 1) intravenous (IV) nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) on day 1; 2) IV nab-paclitaxel 140 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8; 3) IV nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15. All patients received IV cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1. Treatment continued for 4-6 cycles, or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. If more than one-third of the patients in a cohort experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), the dose used in the previous cohort would be designated the MTD. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 64 and 67 were eligible for efficacy and safety analysis, respectively. Two DLTs occurred in cohort 1 (grade 4 febrile neutropenia, grade 3 myalgia), none occurred in cohort 2, and 2 occurred in cohort 3 (both grade 3 fatigue). The MTD was not reached. Partial responses were achieved by 42 patients, 15 had stable disease, and 7 had progressive disease, giving an overall response rate of 66 %. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (95 % CI, 6-12 months). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were mainly hematologic. There was no significant difference between the 3 cohorts with respect to efficacy or safety. Biomarker analyses indicated that stromal, rather than tumoral, SPARC may predict the response to nab-paclitaxel in NPC. Our findings suggest that nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin is a highly active regimen with moderate toxicity for the treatment of metastatic NPC, which warrants further investigation in a phase III study. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01735409 . The trial was registered on November 20th, 2012.

  12. Phase I/II dose-finding study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab®-Paclitaxel) plus Cisplatin as Treatment for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yan; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhao, Hongyun; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    This phase I/II study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab ® -paclitaxel) plus cisplatin as treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts, each with 21-day treatment cycles: 1) intravenous (IV) nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m 2 on day 1; 2) IV nab-paclitaxel 140 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8; 3) IV nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15. All patients received IV cisplatin 75 mg/m 2 on day 1. Treatment continued for 4–6 cycles, or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. If more than one-third of the patients in a cohort experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), the dose used in the previous cohort would be designated the MTD. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 64 and 67 were eligible for efficacy and safety analysis, respectively. Two DLTs occurred in cohort 1 (grade 4 febrile neutropenia, grade 3 myalgia), none occurred in cohort 2, and 2 occurred in cohort 3 (both grade 3 fatigue). The MTD was not reached. Partial responses were achieved by 42 patients, 15 had stable disease, and 7 had progressive disease, giving an overall response rate of 66 %. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (95 % CI, 6–12 months). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were mainly hematologic. There was no significant difference between the 3 cohorts with respect to efficacy or safety. Biomarker analyses indicated that stromal, rather than tumoral, SPARC may predict the response to nab-paclitaxel in NPC. Our findings suggest that nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin is a highly active regimen with moderate toxicity for the treatment of metastatic NPC, which warrants further investigation in a phase III study. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01735409. The trial was registered on November 20th, 2012. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885

  13. nab-Paclitaxel plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a subgroup analysis of the Western European cohort of the MPACT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabernero J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Tabernero,1 Volker Kunzmann,2 Werner Scheithauer,3 Michele Reni,4 Jack Shiansong Li,5 Stefano Ferrara,6 Kamel Djazouli7 1Medical Oncology Department, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; 3Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria; 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; 5Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA; 6Celgene Corporation, Boudry, Switzerland; 7Celgene Corporation, Paris, France Purpose: The global Phase III MPACT trial demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine over gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Region was a randomization stratification factor in the MPACT trial. This subgroup analysis of MPACT examined efficacy and safety of patients treated in Western Europe.Patients and methods: Patients received nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer as previously described. A total of 76 patients were included in this analysis (n=38 for each arm.Results: Differences between the overall Western European cohort and the intention-to-treat population included lower percentages of male patients (46% and 58%, respectively and patients with biliary stents (8% and 17%, and higher percentages of patients with Karnofsky performance status of 90–100 (78% and 60% and primary tumors in the body of the pancreas (48% and 31%. The median overall survival was 10.7 months with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs 6.9 months with gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.48–1.40]; P=0.471. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 vs 3.7 months, respectively (HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.37–1.33]; P=0.277. The independently assessed overall response rate was 18% vs 5% (response rate ratio, 3.50 [95% CI: 0.78–15.78]; P=0.076. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events with nab

  14. Protective Effects of Butyrate-based Compounds on a Mouse Model for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchbach, Matthew E. R.; Lumpkin, Casey J.; Harris, Ashlee W.; Saieva, Luciano; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Workman, Eileen; Simard, Louise R.; Pellizzoni, Livio; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a childhood-onset degenerative disease resulting from the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. SMA is caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1) but retention of SMN2. The number of copies of SMN2 modifies disease severity in SMA patients as well as in mouse models, making SMN2 a target for therapeutics development. Sodium butyrate (BA) and its analogue (4PBA) have been shown to increase SMN2 expression in SMA cultured cells. In this study, we examined the effects of BA, 4PBA as well as two BA prodrugs—glyceryl tributyrate (BA3G) and VX563—on the phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Treatment with 4PBA, BA3G and VX563 but not BA beginning at PND04 significantly improved the lifespan and delayed disease end stage, with administration of VX563 also improving the growth rate of these mice. 4PBA and VX563 improved the motor phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice and prevented spinal motor neuron loss. Interestingly, neither 4PBA nor VX563 had an effect on SMN expression in the spinal cords of treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice; however, they inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and restored the normal phosphorylation states of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, both of which are altered by SMN deficiency in vivo. These observations show that BA-based compounds with favourable pharmacokinetics ameliorate SMA pathology possibly by modulating HDAC and Akt signaling. PMID:26892876

  15. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Joseph F.; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (~11 A/m2) and Coulombic efficiency (~70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ~80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed micro bial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. PMID:25048958

  16. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  17. The effect of fiber diet on colonic cancer formation: the role of butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F. Syam

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of colon cancers occur sporadically. They are thougth to be caused by non-inherited factors such as a combination of diet and environmental factors, which result in somatic mutations of specific genes. Among dietary factors butyrate which is derived from fermentable fibers may have important role as chemoprotector against colorectal cancer. The source of butyrate in daily diet mostly come from wheat products especially wheat bran. At molecular level, butyrate causes hystone acetylation, favours differentiation, induces apoptosis and regulates the expressions of various oncogens. These effects suggest that butyrate may be protective against colorectal cancers. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 127-31Keywords: colon cancer, dietary fiber, apoptosis

  18. Physico-chemical study of erbium, thulium ytterbium and lutetium butyrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginova, V.E.; Dvornikova, L.M.; Khazov, L.A.; Rubinshtejn, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    Er-Lu butyrates have been obtained. The crystals of the obtained salts had an identical shape of combinations of hexagonal prisms and pyramids. The values of the refraction index, measured by the method of circular screening and use of immersion liquids, were found to be close to each other in all the salts considered. The densities of the crystallohydrates of rare earth element butyrates, measured by the pycnometric method in isooctane, increases in the order of Er, Tm, Lu: 1.73; 1.74; 1.79 g/cm 3 , respectively. Infrared spectra of rare earth element butyrates were studied, and the main ware frequencies of maximum absorption were determined with a view of finding the character of the bond between the metal and the anion. A thermo-differential and a thermo-gravimetric investigation of rare earth element butyrates was carried out

  19. Chitin butyrate coated electrospun nylon-6 fibers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Han Joo; Bhatt, Lok Ranjan; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Kim, Eun Kyo; Kim, Jeong In; Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Hui, K. S.; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and characterizations of chitin butyrate (CB) coated nylon-6 nanofibers using single-spinneret electrospinning of blends solution. The physicochemical properties of nylon-6 composite fibers with different proportions of CB to nylon-6 were determined using FE-SEM, TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed that the nylon-6 and CB were immiscible in the as-spun nanofibers, and phase separated nanofiber morphology becomes more pronounced with increasing amounts of CB. The bone formation ability of composite fibers was evaluated by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid. In order to assay the cytocompatibility and cell behavior on the composite scaffolds, osteoblast cells were seeded on the matrix. Results suggest that the deposition of CB layer on the surface of nylon-6 could increase its cell compatibility and bone formation ability. Therefore, as-synthesized nanocomposite fibrous mat has great potentiality in hard tissue engineering.

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Age-related commonalities and differences in the relationship between executive functions and intelligence: Analysis of the NAB executive functions module and WAIS-IV scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Data from five subtests of the Executive Functions Module of the German Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) and all ten core subtests of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were used to examine the relationship between executive functions and intelligence in a comparison of two age groups: individuals aged 18-59 years and individuals aged 60-88 years. The NAB subtests Categories and Word Generation demonstrated a consistent correlation pattern for both age groups. However, the NAB Judgment subtest correlated more strongly with three WAIS-IV indices, the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and the General Ability Index (GAI) in the older adult group than in the younger group. Additionally, in the 60-88 age group, the Executive Functions Index (EFI) was more strongly correlated with the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) than with the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Both age groups demonstrated a strong association of the EFI with the FSIQ and the Working Memory Index (WMI). The results imply the potential diagnostic utility of the Judgment subtest and a significant relationship between executive functioning and crystallized intelligence at older ages. Furthermore, it may be concluded that there is a considerable age-independent overlap between the EFI and general intelligence, as well as between the EFI and working memory.

  2. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of dairy cows. The rumen microbiota harbored 54.5±6.1 genera (mean ± SD and 127.3±4.4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, respectively. However, the core microbiome comprised of 26 genera and 82 OTUs. Butyrate infusion altered molar percentages of 3 major VFAs. Butyrate perturbation had a profound impact on the rumen microbial composition. A 72 h-infusion led to a significant change in the numbers of sequence reads derived from 4 phyla, including 2 most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. As many as 19 genera and 43 OTUs were significantly impacted by butyrate infusion. Elevated butyrate levels in the rumen seemingly had a stimulating effect on butyrate-producing bacteria populations. The resilience of the rumen microbial ecosystem was evident as the abundance of the microorganisms returned to their pre-disturbed status after infusion withdrawal. Our findings provide insight into perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbial ecosystem and should guide efforts in formulating optimal uses of probiotic bacteria treating human diseases.

  3. Kinetic and thermodynamic control of butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junicke, H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kleerebezem, R

    2016-01-01

    Many anaerobic conversions proceed close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the microbial groups involved need to share their low energy budget to survive at the thermodynamic boundary of life. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic control mechanisms of the electron transfer during syntrophic butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities. Despite the rather low energy content of butyrate, results demonstrate unequal energy sharing between the butyrate-utilizing species (17 %), the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (9-10 %), and the acetoclastic methanogens (73-74 %). As a key finding, the energy disproportion resulted in different growth strategies of the syntrophic partners. Compared to the butyrate-utilizing partner, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens compensated their lower biomass yield per mole of electrons transferred with a 2-fold higher biomass-specific electron transfer rate. Apart from these thermodynamic control mechanisms, experiments revealed a ten times lower hydrogen inhibition constant on butyrate conversion than proposed by the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, suggesting a much stronger inhibitory effect of hydrogen on anaerobic butyrate conversion. At hydrogen partial pressures exceeding 40 Pa and at bicarbonate limited conditions, a shift from methanogenesis to reduced product formation was observed which indicates an important role of the hydrogen partial pressure in redirecting electron fluxes towards reduced products such as butanol. The findings of this study demonstrate that a careful consideration of thermodynamics and kinetics is required to advance our current understanding of flux regulation in energy-limited syntrophic ecosystems.

  4. Quantitative and temporal proteome analysis of butyrate-treated colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwee Tong; Tan, Sandra; Lin, Qingsong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hew, Choy Leong; Chung, Maxey C M

    2008-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in developed countries, and its incidence is negatively associated with high dietary fiber intake. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid fermentation by-product of fiber induces cell maturation with the promotion of growth arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis of cancer cells. The stimulation of cell maturation by butyrate in colonic cancer cells follows a temporal progression from the early phase of growth arrest to the activation of apoptotic cascades. Previously we performed two-dimensional DIGE to identify differentially expressed proteins induced by 24-h butyrate treatment of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. Herein we used quantitative proteomics approaches using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation), a stable isotope labeling methodology that enables multiplexing of four samples, for a temporal study of HCT-116 cells treated with butyrate. In addition, cleavable ICAT, which selectively tags cysteine-containing proteins, was also used, and the results complemented those obtained from the iTRAQ strategy. Selected protein targets were validated by real time PCR and Western blotting. A model is proposed to illustrate our findings from this temporal analysis of the butyrate-responsive proteome that uncovered several integrated cellular processes and pathways involved in growth arrest, apoptosis, and metastasis. These signature clusters of butyrate-regulated pathways are potential targets for novel chemopreventive and therapeutic drugs for treatment of colorectal cancer.

  5. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate inhibits melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Akiko; Iwashita, Jun; Murata, Jun; Abe, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have anticancer effects. Their effects on expression of cell adhesion molecules might be related to their effects on tumor cell invasion. Murine B16-BL6 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors, butyrate or trichostatin A. Melanoma cell invasion of the artificial basement membrane, Matrigel, was examined by Transwell chamber assay. Butyrate as well as trichostatin A inhibited the cell growth mainly by arresting the cell cycle. The cell invasion of Matrigel was inhibited by butyrate and trichostatin A. The butyrate treatment increased the cell-cell aggregation, although neither E-cadherin nor N-cadherin mRNA were up-regulated. Both mRNA expression and protein levels of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, Mel-CAM and L1-CAM, were increased in the butyrate-treated cells. The HDAC inhibitor butyrate blocked the B16-BL6 melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel, although it increased the expression of Mel-CAM and L1-CAM which are important to the metastatic potential.

  6. Activation of PPARγ is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J.

    2005-01-01

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPARγ in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPARγ in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPARγ ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPARγ mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPARγ is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation

  7. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  8. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  9. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  11. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drago

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  12. Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of HCO₃⁻ in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved. The effects of basolateral variation in HCO₃⁻ concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14)C-labelled substrates. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side. Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO₃⁻-independent and -dependent parts. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO₃⁻ concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO₃⁻, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO₃⁻ to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate. Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO₃⁻ exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Butyrate down regulates BCL-XL and sensitizes human fibroblasts to radiation and chemotherapy induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Diana H.; Ljungman, Mats; Zhang Fenfen; Chen Feng; McLaughlin, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid that has been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if butyrate treatment sensitizes cells to radiation or chemotherapy induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Normal neonatal human diploid fibroblasts were used throughout this study. Apoptosis was scored and quantified using three different methods. First, cell morphology using propidium iodide and fluorescence microscopy was used to qualitatively determine apoptosis and to quantify the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Second, apoptosis induced DNA degradation was scored by quantifying the amount of cells appearing in a sub-G1 peak using fixed and PI-stained cells and flow cytometry. Third, apoptosis-induced DNA degradation was examined by using an assay involving direct lysis of cells in the wells of agarose gels followed by conventional gel electrophoresis. Western blotting was used to quantify the cellular levels of the apoptosis regulators, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax. Results: Human diploid fibroblasts, which were resistant to radiation induced apoptosis, were found to undergo massive apoptosis when radiation was combined with butyrate treatment. Sensitization was obtained when butyrate was added before or after radiation although the combination of both pre and post-treatment was the most effective. Butyrate was also found to enhance UV light and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These findings correlated with a reduction of the apoptosis antagonist Bcl-XL. Bcl-XL levels significantly dropped in a time and dose dependent manner. In addition, butyrate effectively blocked UV-induced accumulation of p53. Conclusion: Our results suggest that butyrate may be an attractive agent to use in combination with radiation or chemotherapy to lower the apoptotic threshold of tumor cells, regardless of the p53 status of the tumor cells

  14. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  15. Butyrate-Loaded Chitosan/Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Suitable Tool for Sustained Inhibition of ROS Release by Activated Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacco, Pasquale; Decleva, Eva; Tentor, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    that butyrate inhibits neutrophil ROS release in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Given the short half-life of butyrate, chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles are next designed and developed as controlled release carriers able to provide cells with a long-lasting supply of this SCFA. Notably, while the inhibition...... of neutrophil ROS production by free butyrate declines over time, that of butyrate-loaded chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles (B-NPs) is sustained. Additional valuable features of these nanoparticles are inherent ROS scavenger activity, resistance to cell internalization, and mucoadhesiveness. B-NPs appear...

  16. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  17. Eligibility of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients for First-Line Palliative Intent nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine Versus FOLFIRINOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Renata D; Ho, Maria; Renouf, Daniel J; Lim, Howard J; Gill, Sharlene; Ruan, Jenny Y; Cheung, Winson Y

    2017-10-01

    The PRODIGE and MPACT trials showed superiority of FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (NG) over gemcitabine alone, respectively. However, both had strict inclusion criteria. We sought to determine the characteristics of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) which inform the appropriateness of first-line chemotherapy FOLFIRINOX and NG in routine practice. Patients with MPC who initiated palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine from 2000 to 2011 at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were identified. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups. Eligibility criteria for each regimen were in accordance with the respective pivotal phase III trials. A total of 473 patients were included: 25% of the patients were eligible for FOLFIRINOX versus 45% for NG. Main reasons for FOLFIRINOX ineligibility were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS)≥2 (56.5%), age older than 75 years (19.0%), and bilirubin>1.5× upper limit of normal (18.6%), whereas those for NG ineligibility were bilirubin > upper limit of normal (24.5%), ECOG PS≥3 (14.6%), and cardiac dysfunction (13.8%). Univariate analyses revealed that FOLFIRINOX and NG-eligible patients had longer median overall survival than their respective ineligible group (8.6 vs. 4.7 mo, Paccounting for ECOG PS in the multivariate model, however, eligibility for either FOLFIRINOX or NG no longer predicted for better overall survival. The majority of patients with MPC are not candidates to either NG or FOLFIRINOX due to restrictive eligibility requirements. Specific trials addressing the unmet needs of protocol ineligible patients are warranted.

  18. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  19. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  20. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  1. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  2. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    Only little research on butyric acid fermentation has been carried out in relationship to bio-refinery perspectives involving strain selection, development of adapted strains, physiological analyses for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. However, a major step towards the development...... strain could grow in up to 80% pre-treated wheat straw and can ferment both glucose and xylose. The yield of butyric acid without optimization was 0,37±0,051 g butyric acid/g sugar monomers and the acetate yield was 0,06±0,021 g acetic acid/g sugar monomers. Moreover, the strain could grow without...... addition of yeast extract. Further optimization of yield and productivity is under investigation....

  3. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  4. Membrane complexes of Syntrophomonas wolfei involved in syntrophic butyrate degradation and hydrogen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Regis Crable

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syntrophic butyrate metabolism involves the thermodynamically unfavorable production of hydrogen and/or formate from the high potential electron donor, butyryl-CoA. Such redox reactions can occur only with energy input by a process called reverse electron transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen production from butyrate requires the presence of a proton gradient, but the biochemical machinery involved has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, the gene and enzyme systems involved in reverse electron transfer by Syntrophomonas wolfei were investigated using proteomic and gene expression approaches. S. wolfei was grown in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei or Dehalococcoides mccartyi under conditions requiring reverse electron transfer and compared to both axenic S. wolfei cultures and cocultures grown in conditions that do not require reverse electron transfer. Blue native gel analysis of membranes solubilized from syntrophically grown cells revealed the presence of a membrane-bound hydrogenase, Hyd2, which exhibited hydrogenase activity during in gel assays. Bands containing a putative iron-sulfur (FeS oxidoreductase were detected in membranes of crotonate-grown and butyrate grown S. wolfei cells. The genes for the corresponding hydrogenase subunits, hyd2ABC, were differentially expressed at higher levels during syntrophic butyrate growth when compared to growth on crotonate. The expression of the FeS oxidoreductase gene increased when S. wolfei was grown with M. hungatei. Additional membrane-associated proteins detected included FoF1 ATP synthase subunits and several membrane transporters that may aid syntrophic growth. Furthermore, syntrophic butyrate metabolism can proceed exclusively by interspecies hydrogen transfer, as demonstrated by growth with D. mccartyi, which is unable to use formate. These results argue for the importance of Hyd2 and FeS oxidoreductase in reverse electron transfer during syntrophic

  5. A phase 1/1B trial of ADI-PEG 20 plus nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Maeve A; Yu, Kenneth H; Kelsen, David Paul; Harding, James J; Bomalaski, John S; Glassman, Danielle C; Covington, Christina M; Brenner, Robin; Hollywood, Ellen; Barba, Adalberto; Johnston, Amanda; Liu, Kay Chia-Wei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Capanu, Marinela; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2017-12-01

    ADI-PEG 20 is a pegylated form of the arginine-depleting enzyme arginine deiminase. Normal cells synthesize arginine with the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1); ADI-PEG 20 selectively targets malignant cells, which lack ASS1. A single-arm, nonrandomized, open-label, phase 1/1B, standard 3 + 3 dose escalation with an expansion cohort of 9 patients at the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was conducted. Patients who had metastatic pancreatic cancer, up to 1 line of prior treatment (the dose-escalation cohort) or no prior treatment (the expansion cohort), and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1 were included. Patients received both gemcitabine (1000 mg/m 2 ) and nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m 2 ) for 3 of 4 weeks and intramuscular ADI-PEG 20 at 18 mg/m 2 weekly (cohort 1) or at 36 mg/m 2 weekly (cohort 2 and the expansion cohort).The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and RP2D of ADI-PEG 20 in combination with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Eighteen patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in cohort 1; cohort 2 was expanded to 6 patients because of 1 DLT occurrence (a grade 3 elevation in bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) of any grade were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, and fatigue; all 18 patients experienced grade 3/4 AEs. The most frequent grade 3/4 toxicities, regardless of the relation with any drugs, included neutropenia (12 patients or 67%), leukopenia (10 patients or 56%), anemia (8 patients or 44%), and lymphopenia (6 patients or 33%). The RP2D for ADI-PEG 20 was 36 mg/m 2 weekly in combination with standard-dose gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. The overall response rate among patients treated at the RP2D in the first-line setting was 45.5% (5 of 11).The median progression-free survival time for these patients treated at the RP2D was 6.1 months (95

  6. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  7. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  8. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    prices as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.

  9. Dietary calcium phosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of butyrate and fermentation products on epithelial integrity in a mucus-secreting human colon cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Jensen, Bent Borg; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2018-01-01

    . This was associated with regulation of different genes involved in epithelial integrity, mucus secretion, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and butyrate transport. In conclusion, butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by dietary intervention in vivo enhanced the epithelial barrier function in vitro. B...

  11. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. McNabney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance.

  12. Comparative effectiveness and safety of nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin vs gemcitabine plus carboplatin in first-line treatment of advanced squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer in a US community oncology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudad R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Raja Mudad,1 Manish B Patel,2 Sandra Margunato-Debay,2 David Garofalo,3 Lincy S Lal4 1University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Hollywood, FL, USA; 2Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA; 3Cardinal Health, Dallas, TX, USA; 4University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA Introduction: Real-world comparative effectiveness, safety, and supportive care use of nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin vs gemcitabine plus platinum were analyzed in patients with advanced or metastatic squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Materials and methods: Patients who received ≥ 1 cycle of first-line nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine plus platinum were identified from the Navigating Cancer database. Clinical effectiveness endpoints included overall survival (OS and time to treatment discontinuation (TTD. Other endpoints included safety and utilization of supportive care. Cox proportional hazards models were used to control for potential confounding effects of baseline characteristics.Results: In total, 193 patients were included (nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin, n = 61; gemcitabine plus platinum, n = 132. Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the cohorts. Patients receiving nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin had a significantly longer OS than those receiving gemcitabine plus carboplatin (median, 12.8 vs 9.0 months; P = 0.03. However, the adjusted difference was not statistically significant (adjusted HR 1.55; 95% CI, 0.99–2.42; P = 0.06. nab-Paclitaxel plus carboplatin-treated patients had significantly longer TTD than gemcitabine plus carboplatin-treated patients (median, 4.3 vs 3.5 months; P = 0.03; adjusted HR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.90; P = 0.04. Grade 3 or 4 anemia and neutropenia were significantly lower in patients treated with nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin vs gemcitabine plus carboplatin. Nausea and neuropathy (grade not specified were significantly higher in the

  13. Syntrophic butyrate and propionate oxidation processes: from genomes to reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, N.; Worm, P.; Schink, B.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In anoxic environments such as swamps, rice fields and sludge digestors, syntrophic microbial communities are important for decomposition of organic matter to CO2 and CH4. The most difficult step is the fermentative degradation of short-chain fatty acids such as propionate and butyrate. Conversion

  14. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  16. Study of physicochemical properties of zinc(II) butyrate complex compounds with some heterocyclic ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szakácsová, M.; Györová, K.; Szunyogová, E.; Kovářová, Jana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 96, - (2002), s. 383 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting of Chemical Societies /54./. 30.06.2002-04.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA MŠk VEGA 1/9247/02; GA MŠk VEGA 047/074 Keywords : butyrate complex compounds * heterocyclic ligands Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  18. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  19. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis.

  20. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  1. Characterization of four clones derived from human adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, and analysis of their response to sodium butyrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Šloncová, Eva; Sovová, Vlasta; Kučerová, Dana; Žíla, Vojtěch; Turečková, Jolana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Korb, Jan; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2006), s. 559-565 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5052302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : adenocarcinoma * HT29 cell line * ultrastructure analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  2. Impact of sodium butyrate and mild hypothermia on metabolic and physiological behaviour of CHO TF 70R cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Avello

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The combination of NaBu addition and mild hypothermic condition causes an impact on physiological and metabolic state of CHO TF 70R cells, decreasing cell growth rate and improving glucose consumption efficiency. These results therefore provide a promising strategy to increase specific productivity of rh-tPA.

  3. Sodium butyrate-mediated differentiation of colorectal cancer cells: regulation of PKC-betaII by PI3-kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turečková, Jolana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Kučerová, Dana; Velek, Jiří; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 329-335 ISSN 1107-3756 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP301/02/D159; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase * PKCbetaII * adenocarcinoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.090, year: 2005

  4. Phase II study of nab-paclitaxel in refractory small bowel adenocarcinoma and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, M J; Adam, L; Raghav, K; Wang, J; Kee, B; Fogelman, D; Eng, C; Vilar, E; Shroff, R; Dasari, A; Wolff, R; Morris, J; Karunasena, E; Pisanic, R; Azad, N; Kopetz, S

    2018-01-01

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)] represents a unique pathway for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by lack of chromosomal instability and a low rate of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which have both been correlated with taxane resistance. Similarly, small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare tumor, also has a low rate of APC mutations. This phase II study evaluated taxane sensitivity in SBA and CIMP-high CRC. The primary objective was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 response rate. Eligibility included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1, refractory disease, and SBA or CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel was initially administered at a dose of 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks but was reduced to 220 mg/m2 owing to toxicity. A total of 21 patients with CIMP-high CRC and 13 with SBA were enrolled from November 2012 to October 2014. The efficacy-assessable population (patients who received at least three doses of the treatment) comprised 15 CIMP-high CRC patients and 10 SBA patients. Common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were fatigue (12%), neutropenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (9%), dehydration (6%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). No responses were seen in the CIMP-high CRC cohort and two partial responses were seen in the SBA cohort. Median progression-free survival was significantly greater in the SBA cohort than in the CIMP-high CRC cohort (3.2 months compared with 2.1 months, P = 0.03). Neither APC mutation status nor CHFR methylation status correlated with efficacy in the CIMP-high CRC cohort. In vivo testing of paclitaxel in an SBA patient-derived xenograft validated the activity of taxanes in this disease type. Although preclinical studies suggested taxane sensitivity was associated with chromosomal stability and wild-type APC, we found that nab-paclitaxel was inactive in CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel may represent a novel

  5. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  6. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  7. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  9. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  10. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  12. A NOTCH-sensitive uPAR-regulated oncolytic adenovirus effectively suppresses pancreatic tumor growth and triggers synergistic anticancer effects with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mato-Berciano, Ana; Raimondi, Giulia; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Alemany, Ramon; Montoliu, Lluis; Fillat, Cristina

    2017-04-04

    Notch signaling pathway is an embryonic program that becomes reactivated in pancreatic cancer and contributes to cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. We explored the concept of oncolytic adenoviral activity in response to Notch activation signaling, in the context of a chimeric promoter with uPAR regulatory sequences, as a strategy to drive its activity in neoplastic and CSC. We explored the advantages of a chemo-virotherapy approach based on synergistic combinations. Regulatory sequences recognized by the transcriptional factor CSL upstream a minimal uPAR promoter were engineered in adenoviral vectors and in the oncolytic adenovirus AdNuPARmE1A. Viral response to Notch signaling, and viral potency in cell lines and pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSC) was tested. Preclinical toxicity and antitumor efficacy in xenografts and Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) mouse models was evaluated, as unimodal or in combination with gemcitabine+nab-paclitaxel. Mechanistic studies were conducted to explore the synergism of combined therapies.We demonstrate that CSL-binding site optimized-engineered sequences respond to Notch activation in AdNuPARmLuc and AdNuPARmE1A. AdNuPARmE1A showed strong lytic effects in pancreatic cancer cell lines and PCSC. AdNuPARmE1A displayed attenuated activity in normal tissues, but robust antitumor effects in xenograft and PDX models, leading to a reduced capacity of treated tumors to form tumorspheres. Chemo-virotherapy treatment enlarged therapeutic response in both tumor models. Synergistic effects of the combination resulted from viral sensitization of apoptotic cell death triggered by chemotherapy.In summary we present a novel effective oncolytic adenovirus, AdNuPARmE1A that reduces PCSC and presents synergistic effects with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel, supporting further clinical development.

  13. Long-Term Complete Remission with nab-Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Gemcitabine Combination Therapy in a Patient with Triple-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Montero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of a 52-year-old female patient diagnosed in June 2007 with primary metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast and synchronous metastases in the bone, lymph nodes, and lung. Biopsy results of the tumor tissue were negative for the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. In November 2007, she participated in a phase II study of metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer. Treatment consisted of systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m2, nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m2, and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg once every other week. The patient experienced pain relief in her sternum after 5 weeks of chemotherapy, and her analgesic therapy was discontinued. After 7 months, the patient achieved a complete radiographic response, which was maintained for nearly 2 additional years. She continued receiving treatment throughout this period, requiring 1 dose reduction due to fatigue. The patient experienced no other adverse events, including neuropathy, and continued working uninterrupted throughout her treatment. The patient was discontinued from the study in May 2010 after disease progression, almost a full 3 years after diagnosis. The patient showed minimal response to subsequent therapies but had disease stabilization and died from her disease in April 2012. Median overall survival for patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer is between 12 and 13.3 months. This patient survived nearly 5 years following diagnosis. This case exemplifies how therapy with nab-paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and gemcitabine may prolong survival, with minimal toxicity, in select patients with triple-negative metastatic breast cancer.

  14. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolyzed wheat straw by C.tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Westermann, Peter; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    and xylose at a concentration of 71,6±0,2 g/l and 55,4±0,2 g/l respectively, with TS content 20,87% (g/g). From an economical point of view, the conversion of both sugars is very important. In fact C.tyrobutyricum has the capability to convert both hexose and pentose sugars. Results from batch experiments......Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Among other microbial strains, C.tyrobutyricum was found interesting due to its higher yield (more than 93% of the theoretical yield...

  15. Population dynamics of biofilm development during start-up of a butyrate-degrading fluidized-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, G.; Geveke, M.; Diekmann, H. (Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie); Conway de Macario, E. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research)

    1991-12-01

    Population dynamics during start-up of a fluidized-bed reactor with butyrate or butyrate plus acetate as sole substrates as well as biofilm development on the sand substratum were studied microbiologically, immunologically and by scanning electron microscopy. An adapted syntrophic consortium consisting of Syntrophospora sp., Methanothrix soehngenii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus or Methanogenium sp. achieved high-rate butyrate degradation to methane and carbon dioxide. Desulfovibrio sp., Methanocorpusculum sp., and Methanobacterium sp. were also present in lower numbers. Immunological analysis demonstrated methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, Methanosarcina mazei S6, M. thermophila TM1, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in the biofilm. Immunological analysis also showed that the organisms isolated from the butyrate-degrading culture used as a source of inoculum were related to M. soehngenii Opfikon, Methanobacterium formicium MF and Methanospirillum hungatei JF1. (orig.).

  16. Biopolymer blends based on polylactic acid and polyhydroxy butyrate-co-valerate: effect of clay on mechanical and thermal properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymer blends consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) have been prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder and followed by injection molding technique. Cereplast PLA containing starch...

  17. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  18. Interspecies Electron Transfer during Propionate and Butyrate Degradation in Mesophilic, Granular Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J. E.; Ahring, B. K.

    1995-01-01

    Granules from a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor were disintegrated, and bacteria utilizing only hydrogen or formate or both hydrogen and formate were added to investigate the role of interspecies electron transfer during degradation of propionate and butyrate. The data indicate that the major electron transfer occurred via interspecies hydrogen transfer, while interspecies formate transfer may not be essential for interspecies electron transfer in this system during degrada...

  19. Human fetal colon cells and colon cancer cells respond differently to butyrate and PUFAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Koubková, Zuzana; Hýžďalová, Martina; Kozubík, Alois

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), S102-S113 ISSN 1613-4125 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : apoptosis * butyrate * cell differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.356, year: 2009

  20. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Hoa Mai; Solomon, H.M.; Taguchi, M.; Kojima, T.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection

  1. Radiation-chemical formation of acids in polyvinyl butyral films with chlorinated additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriminiskaya, Z.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radiochromic indicators are commonly produced by reacting an indicator dye with an acid formed inside a polymer by irradiation. Halogenated and unhalogenated polymers were used, the latter containing halogenated organics. It was therefore of interest to study the formation of acid in polyvinyl butyral (PVD) with addition of a halogenated compound. Yields were measured of radiation-chemical acid formation in PVB films containing chloral hydrate and hexachloroethane. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on in vitro root induction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root induction pre-developed in vitro plantlets of orchid was carried out using indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 mM) on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Among the concentrations of IBA, the number of roots per plantlet with 1 mM IBA was found to be the highest (2.25 roots per plantlet) ...

  3. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  4. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Rumberger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-α mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-α– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC.

  5. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  6. Parameters for Novel Production of Fruity Floral Fragrance Ester (Geranyl Butyrate) by Locally Isolated Lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Raikhan, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    Geranyl butyrate has been synthesized successfully using our locally isolated lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT) as the fragrance ester with aim to be used in a nanotechnology fragrance application. We have used and modified few parameters from the previous research and then, continued with optimization of the synthesis by looking into degree of esterification and water content in the system. Butyric acid (C4), stearic acid (C18: 0), caprylic acid (C8), linolenic acid (C18: 3), myristic acid (C14), linoleic acid (C18: 2) and oleic acid (C18: 1) were used in the substrate selection. The yield of geranyl butyrate before the optimization was 31.68±0.01%. The optimum parameters for the synthesis of geranyl butyrate were recorded as temperature of 65°C, shaking rate at 200 rpm, 5.0 ml of geraniol and 0.40 ml of butyric acid and 4.0 ml of n-butanol and 0.40 ml of oleic acid. After the optimization, geranyl butyrate synthesis was increased by 297% as to compare with the value before the parameters were optimized. We also have significantly reduced water content as a byproduct of the esterification and managed to run the system a success. The ability thermotolerant lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (LGT) in this synthesis is novel to Malaysian fragrance industry.

  7. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  8. A proteomic view at the biochemistry of syntrophic butyrate oxidation in Syntrophomonas wolfei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schmidt

    Full Text Available In syntrophic conversion of butyrate to methane and CO2, butyrate is oxidized to acetate by secondary fermenting bacteria such as Syntrophomonas wolfei in close cooperation with methanogenic partner organisms, e.g., Methanospirillum hungatei. This process involves an energetically unfavourable shift of electrons from the level of butyryl-CoA oxidation to the substantially lower redox potential of proton and/or CO2 reduction, in order to transfer these electrons to the methanogenic partner via hydrogen and/or formate. In the present study, all prominent membrane-bound and soluble proteins expressed in S. wolfei specifically during syntrophic growth with butyrate, in comparison to pure-culture growth with crotonate, were examined by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and identified by peptide fingerprinting-mass spectrometry. A membrane-bound, externally oriented, quinone-linked formate dehydrogenase complex was expressed at high level specifically during syntrophic butyrate oxidation, comprising a selenocystein-linked catalytic subunit with a membrane-translocation pathway signal (TAT, a membrane-bound iron-sulfur subunit, and a membrane-bound cytochrome. Soluble hydrogenases were expressed at high levels specifically during growth with crotonate. The results were confirmed by native protein gel electrophoresis, by formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase-activity staining, and by analysis of formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities in intact cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, constitutive expression of a membrane-bound, internally oriented iron-sulfur oxidoreductase (DUF224 was confirmed, together with expression of soluble electron-transfer flavoproteins (EtfAB and two previously identified butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases. Our findings allow to depict an electron flow scheme for syntrophic butyrate oxidation in S. wolfei. Electrons derived from butyryl-CoA are transferred through a membrane-bound EtfAB:quinone oxidoreductase (DUF

  9. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  10. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  11. A randomized phase II study of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or simplified LV5FU2 as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: the AFUGEM GERCOR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Chibaudel, Benoist; Bonnetain, Franck; Validire, Pierre; Hammel, Pascal; André, Thierry; Louvet, Christophe

    2015-10-06

    Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) prognosis remains dismal and gemcitabine monotherapy has been the standard treatment over the last decade. Currently, two first-line regimens are used in this setting: FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. Increasing translational data on the predictive value of hENT1 for determining gemcitabine efficacy suggest that a non-gemcitabine-based regimen is favored in about 60 % of patients with PAC due to high resistance of PAC to this cytotoxic drug. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of weekly nab-paclitaxel combined with gemcitabine or a simplified (s) LV5FU2 regimen in patients with previously untreated metastatic PAC. AFUGEM is a two-stage, open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial. Patients with PAC who meet the inclusion criteria and provide written informed consent will be randomized in a 1:2 ratio to either nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m(2)) plus gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2)) given on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days or nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m(2)) plus sLV5FU2 (leucovorin 400 mg/m(2) followed by bolus 400 mg/m(2) 5-fluorouracil and by 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m(2) as an 46-h intravenous infusion) given on days 1 and 15 every 28 days. A total of 114 patients will be randomized to one of the treatment arms. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival at 4 months. Secondary outcomes are rate and duration of response, disease control, overall survival, safety, and quality of life. Potential biomarkers of gemcitabine (hENT1, dCK) and 5-fluorouracil (TS) efficacy will be assessed. The AFUGEM trial is designed to provide valuable information regarding efficacy and tolerability of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel plus sLV5FU2 regimens. Identification of potential predictive biomarkers of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil is likely to drive therapeutic decisions in patients with metastatic PAC. AFUGEM is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01964534 , October 15, 2013.

  12. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  13. Steering endogenous butyrate production in the intestinal tract of broilers as a tool to improve gut health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke eOnrust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that is sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies.

  14. Effects of hydrogen and formate on the degradation of propionate and butyrate in thermophilic granules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J E; Ahring, B K

    1993-01-01

    Degradation of propionate and butyrate in whole and disintegrated granules from a thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with acetate, propionate, and butyrate as substrates was examined. The propionate and butyrate degradation rates in whole granules were 1.16 and 4.0 mumol/min/g of volatile solids, respectively, and the rates decreased 35 and 25%, respectively, after disintegration of the granules. The effect of adding different hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (...

  15. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  16. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  17. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  18. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  19. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  20. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  1. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  2. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  3. Kinetics of thermophilic, anaerobic oxidation of straight and branched chain butyrate and valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of normal and branched chain butyrate and valerate are important in protein-fed anaerobic systems, as a number of amino acids degrade to these organic acids. Including activated and primary wastewater sludge digesters, the majority of full-scale systems digest feeds...... is also addressed, extending previous pure-culture and batch studies. A previously published mathematical model was modified to allow competitive uptake of i-valerate, and used to model a thermophilic manure digester operated over 180 days. The digester was periodically pulsed with straight and branched...

  4. Preparation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate blends using gel formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.L.; Rodrigues, G.V.; Goncalves, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) gel formation with a binary combination of solvents and its use on the preparation of PHB and carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) blends. The gel preparation method was compared to a precipitation method followed by hot pressing. The results from DSC and X-ray diffractions showed that both methodologies produced blends with very similar thermal properties and crystallization behavior. Scanning electron microscopy indicated better homogeneity in gel formation blends. Apart from this, the gel formation methodology provided new ways to prepare immiscible blends with the advantage of using friendlier solvents. (author)

  5. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  6. Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, Maria José; Hambleton, Alicia; Talens, Pau; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Chiralt, Amparo; Voilley, Andrée

    2008-05-01

    The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer.

  7. Amino acid analysis and cell cycle dependent phosphorylation of an H1-like, butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP; H10; IP25) from Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Becker, R.R.; Barham, S.S.; Tobey, R.A.; Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fraction enriched in the butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP) has been isolated from Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells by perchloric acid extraction and Bio-Rex 70 chromatography. Amino acid analyses indicate that the composition of BEP resembles that of CHO H1; however, BEP contains 11% less alanine than H1, and, in contrast to H1, BEP contains methionine. Treatment of BEP with cyanogen bromide results in the cleavage of a small fragment of approx. 20 amino acids so that the large fragment seen in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels has a molecular weight of approx. 20,000. Radiolabeling and electrophoresis indicate that BEP is phosphorylated in a cell cycle dependent fashion. These data suggest that (1) BEP is a specialized histone of the H1 class and (2) BEP is the species equivalent of calf lung histone H1 0 , rat H1 0 , and IP 25 , a protein enhanced in differentiated Friend erythroleukemia cells. The data also indicate that putative HMG1 and HMG2 proteins do not undergo the extensive cell cycle dependent phosphorylations measured for histone H1 and BEP

  8. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  9. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  10. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  11. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Megan W; Alim, Ishraq; Bultman, Scott J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-06-20

    As interest in the gut microbiome has grown in recent years, attention has turned to the impact of our diet on our brain. The benefits of a high fiber diet in the colon have been well documented in epidemiological studies, but its potential impact on the brain has largely been understudied. Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health. Butyrate has been extensively studied as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor but also functions as a ligand for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors and as an energy metabolite. These diverse modes of action make it well suited for solving the wide array of imbalances frequently encountered in neurological disorders. In this review, we will integrate evidence from the disparate fields of gastroenterology and neuroscience to hypothesize that the metabolism of a high fiber diet in the gut can alter gene expression in the brain to prevent neurodegeneration and promote regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  14. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  15. Recycling of waste automotive laminated glass and valorization of polyvinyl butyral through mechanochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Ryang Park, Jae; Yoon Shin, Dong; Park, Kyung-Soo; Hwan Hong, Myung; Gi Lee, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Due to strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resin films are commonly used in the automotive and architectural application as a protective interlayer in the laminated glass. Worldwide million tons of PVB waste generated from end-of-life automotive associated with various environmental issues. Stringent environmental directive, higher land cost eliminates land filling option, needs a study, we have developed a mechanochemical separation process to separate PVB resins from glass and characterized the separated PVB through various techniques, i.e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Commercial nonionic surfactants D201 used for the mechanochemical separation purpose. Through parameter optimization following conditions are considered to be the optimum condition; 30 vol% D201, stirring speed of 400 rpm, 35 °C temperature, operation time 1 h, and dilute D201 volume to waste automotive laminated glass weight ratio of ≈25. The technology developed in our laboratory is sustainable, environmentally friendly, techno-economical feasible process, capable of mass production (recycling). - Highlights: • Waste automotive laminated glass and polyvinyl butyral mechanochemically separated. • An economical total recovery and environment-friendly process has been developed. • It is a global problem rather than regional environmental issue has been addressed. • Without using hazardous chemical wastes are being converted to a wealth.

  16. Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from swine intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Julian; Humphrey, Samuel; Allen, Heather K

    2018-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, butyrate-producing coccus was cultured from the distal ileum of swine. This organism was isolated on rumen-fluid medium, consumes acetate, and produces butyrate as its major end product when grown on mono- and di-saccharides. A phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as whole-genome phylogenies suggests that this isolate is most closely related to species in the genus Butyricicoccus, with Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum being the closest named relative (93.5 % 16S similarity). The G+C content of this isolate is 54 mol%, and the major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 0 DMA, C14 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. These data indicate that this isolate represents a novel species within the genus Butyricicoccus, for which the name Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Butyricicoccus porcorum is BB10 T (ATCC TSD-102 T , DSM 104997 T ).

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD.

  18. [The effect of Redix Scutellariae on butyrate of Porphyromonas endodontalis in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-yao; Tang, Ya-ling; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Xue-dong; Zhang, Ping

    2004-02-01

    To study the effect of Radix Scutellariae on the growth, metabolism of Porphyromonas endodontalis (P.e), as a preparation for studying the mechanism of Radix Scutellariae in treating pulp and periapical diseases. P.e was chosen as the experimental bacteria. Radix Scutellariae was extracted by means of reflux with 80% ethanol. The value of MIC of Radix Scutellariae was measured by minute amount serial dilusion test, and the production of butyrate was measured by high liquid chromatograph(HPLC). Radix Scutellariae could inhibit the growth of P.e, of which the MIC was 100 mg/L. Following the increase in concentration of Radix Scutellariae, the amount of butyrate decreased to (3.527 +/- 0.009) mg/L, (3.048 +/- 0.005) mg/L, (2.490 +/- 0.011) mg/L, (2.209 +/- 0.016) mg/L, respectively (P < 0.05). Radix Scutellariae could inhibit the growth and metabolism of P.e and might be an effective agent in treating pulp and periapical diseases.

  19. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Russo

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including Crohn's disease (CrD. High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB, which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui-hui; Gu, Yuan; Liu, Yan-ping; Wei, Guang-li; Chen, Yong; Liu, Chang-xiao; Si, Duan-yun

    2015-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its primary metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood. After one-step protein precipitation with methanol, the chromatographic separation was carried out on an Ecosil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 5 mmol · L(-1) ammonium formate. A chromatographic total run time of 13.0 min was achieved. The quantitation analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at the specific ion transitions of m/z 454.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 234.1 for clevidipine butyrate, m/z 354.0 [M-H]- --> m/z 208.0 for clevidipine acid and m/z 256.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 227.1 for elofesalamide (internal standard, IS) in the negative ion mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The linear calibration curves for clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were obtained in the concentration ranges of 0.5-100 ng · mL and 1-200 ng · mL(-1), separately. The lower limit of quantification of clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were 0.5 ng · mL(-1) and 1 ng · mL(-1). The intra and inter-assay precisions were all below 12.9%, the accuracies were all in standard ranges. Stability testing indicated that clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid in dog blood with the addition of denaturant methanol was stable under various processing and/or handling conditions. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of clevidipine butyrate injection to 8 healthy Beagle dogs following intravenous infusion at a flow rate of 5 mg · h(-1) for 0.5 h.

  2. [Isolation and identification of a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium and its primary metabolic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wei-yun; Yao, Wen; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2007-06-01

    The distal mammalian gut harbors prodigiously abundant microbes, which provide unique metabolic traits to host. A lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain LB01, was isolated from adult swine feces by utilizing modified Hungate technique with rumen liquid-independent YCFA medium supplemented with lactate as the single carbon source. It was an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium, and could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose and lactate with a large amount of gas products. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it had the high similarity with members of the genus Megasphaera. The metabolic characteristics of strain LB01 was investigated by using in vitro fermentation system. Lactate at the concentration of 65 mmol/L in YCFA medium was rapidly consumed within 9 hours and was mainly converted to propionate and butyrate after 24h. As the level of acetate declined, the concentration of butyrate rose only in the presence of glucose, suggesting that butyrate could possibly be synthesized by the acetyl CoA: butyryl CoA transferase. When co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria strain K9, strain LB01 evidently reduced the concentration of lactate produced by strain K9 and decelerated the rapid pH drop, finally producing 12.11 mmol/L butyrate and 4.06 mmol/L propionate. The metabolic characteristics that strain LB01 efficiently converts toxic lactate and excessive acetate to butyrate can prevent lactate and acetate accumulation in the large intestine and maintain the slightly acidic environment of the large intestine, consequently revealing that stain LB01 could act as a potential probiotics.

  3. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  4. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  5. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, Behnam; Parvizi, Reza; Davoodi, Ali; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  6. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  7. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  8. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  9. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG. We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.

  11. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  12. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  13. First Insights into the Genome Sequence of Clostridium thermopalmarium DSM 5974, a Butyrate-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Palm Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Anja; Hettwer, Eva; Mohnike, Lennart; Daniel, Rolf

    2018-04-26

    Clostridium thermopalmarium is a moderate thermophilic, rod-shaped, and endospore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from palm wine in Senegal. Butyrate is produced from a broad variety of sugar substrates. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of C. thermopalmarium DSM 5974 (2.822 Mb) containing 2,665 predicted protein-encoding genes. Copyright © 2018 Poehlein et al.

  14. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation and indole butyric acid on rooting of olive cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of indole butyric acid (IBA) (2000 and 4000 ppm), low doses of gamma irradiation (2,4, and 6 Gy), combined treatment of IBA followed by irradiation, and irradiation followed by IBA on olive cuttings (Variety Khodairi). Rooting percentage, callus formation, vegetative growth root number, and the length of the roots were measured after 100 days of planting. The results indicated that IBA treatments in both concentrations increased the callus formation, rooting, vegetative growth, and the number and length of the roots. Low doses of gamma irradiation had no effects on rooting percentage in comparison with the hormonal treatments. Callus formation, rooting, vegetative growth, and length of the root of cuttings produced in 1990 were better than those produced in 1991, and cuttings produced in January were better than those produced in March and October. (author). 16 refs., 15 tabs

  17. Synthesis of γ-amino[4-11C]butyric acid (GABA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, G.; Laangstroem, B.

    1989-01-01

    A one-pot synthesis of no-carrier added γ-amino[4- 11 C]butyric acid (GABA) starting with hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, is presented. Hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide was trapped in tetrahydrofuran/potassium hydroxide in the presence of the amino polyether Krytofix 2.2.2. A Michael addition with ethyl acrylate followed by a selective reduction and hydrolysis of the resulting amino ester gave [4- 11 C]GABA. The radiochemical purity of GABA was higher than 99% and the decay corrected radiochemical yield was 60-65% based on the amount of H[ 11 C]CN used. The total synthesis time including purification was around 40 min, counted from the start of the Michael addition reaction. (Author)

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation and endole butyric acid on Olive cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 - 4 - 6 Gy doses of gamma radiation, 2000 - 4000 ppm concentrations of indole butyric acid (IBA), and combined treatment of IBA, and combined treatment of IBA followed by irradiation,followed by IBA on root formation of olive cuttings (var. Khodairi). The results indicated that two Gy gamma radiation increased rooting percentage, and root length at the cuttings collected in january. Both concentrations of IBA increased rooting percentage, callus formation, number and length of the roots at all collection times. The best IBA concentration for rooting was 2000 ppm in october and march, and 4000 in january. However, the stimulatory effects of 2 Gy gamma radiation did not reach that obtained by either concentration of IBA used. 2 tabs.

  19. Cellulose acetate butyrate membrane containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle: Preparation, characterization and permeation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgarkhani, Mohammad Ali Haj; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Saljoughi, Ehsan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Cellulose acetate butyrate/TiO{sub 2} hybrid membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in casting solutions. The influence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the morphology and performance of membranes was investigated. The scanning electron microscope images and experiments of membrane performance showed that the membrane thickness and pure water flux were first increased by adding the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to the casting solution up to 4 wt% and then decreased with the addition of further nanoparticles to it. The obtained results indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} in the casting solution enhanced the rejection and permeate flux in filtration of bovine serum albumin solution. Furthermore, increasing the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution increased the flux recovery and consequently decreased the fouling of membrane.

  20. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  1. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C 42 aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB 3 H 4 yielded 3 H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4 0 CC, 22 0 C, and 37 0 C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles 3 H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4 0 C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace 3 H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that 3 H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed

  2. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  3. Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, A; Lehmann, U; Jacobasch, G; Blaut, M

    2002-01-01

    The genus Eubacterium, which is the second most common genus in the human intestine, includes several known butyrate producers. We hypothesized that Eubacterium species play a role in the intestinal butyrate production and are inducible by resistant starch. In a human pilot study species-specific and group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labelled oligonucleotide probes were used to quantify butyrogenic species of the genera Eubacterium, Clostridium and Ruminococcus. Following the intake of RS type III a significant increase in faecal butyrate but not in total SCFA was observed. However, increase in butyrate was not accompanied by a proliferation in the targeted bacteria. The tested Eubacterium species have the capacity to produce butyrate but do not appear to play a major role for butyric acid production in the human intestine. In view of the fact that the bacteria responsible for butyrate production are largely unknown, it is still difficult to devise a dietary intervention to stimulate butyrogenic bacteria in a targeted way.

  4. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  5. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  6. Phase I results of a phase I/II study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in paediatric patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumours: A collaboration with innovative therapies for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Casanova, Michela; Chisholm, Julia C; Berlanga, Pablo; Chastagner, Pascal B; Baruchel, Sylvain; Amoroso, Loredana; Melcón, Soledad Gallego; Gerber, Nicolas U; Bisogno, Gianni; Fagioli, Franca; Geoerger, Birgit; Glade Bender, Julia L; Aerts, Isabelle; Bergeron, Christophe; Hingorani, Pooja; Elias, Ileana; Simcock, Mathew; Ferrara, Stefano; Le Bruchec, Yvan; Slepetis, Ruta; Chen, Nianhang; Vassal, Gilles

    2018-06-21

    nab-Paclitaxel has demonstrated efficacy in adults with solid tumours and preclinical activity in paediatric solid tumour models. Results from phase I of a phase I/II study in paediatric patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumours treated with nab-paclitaxel are reported. Patients with recurrent/refractory extracranial solid tumours received nab-paclitaxel on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks at 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, or 270 mg/m 2 (rolling-6 dose-escalation) to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Sixty-four patients were treated. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 dizziness at 120 mg/m 2 and grade 4 neutropenia >7 days at 270 mg/m 2 . The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse events were haematologic, including neutropenia (36%), leukopenia (36%) and lymphopenia (25%). Although the MTD was not reached, 270 mg/m 2 was declared non-tolerable due to grade 3/4 toxicities during cycles 1-2 (neutropenia, n = 5/7; skin toxicity, n = 2/7; peripheral neuropathy, n = 1/7). Of 58 efficacy-evaluable patients, complete response occurred in one patient (2%; Ewing sarcoma) and partial responses in four patients (7%; rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, renal tumour with pulmonary metastases [high-grade, malignant] and sarcoma not otherwise specified); all responses occurred at ≥210 mg/m 2 . Thirteen patients (22%) had stable disease (5 lasting ≥16 weeks) per RECIST. nab-Paclitaxel 240 mg/m 2 qw3/4 (nearly double the adult recommended monotherapy dose for this schedule in metastatic breast cancer) was selected as the RP2D based on the tolerability profile, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity. Phase II is currently enrolling patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01962103. 2013-000144-26. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The gas-liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids. Determination as n-butyrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, P A; Kellie, A E

    1967-06-01

    1. The gas-liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina.

  8. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  9. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  10. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  11. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Regulation of Gene Expression for Lipid Catabolism in Young Broilers by Butyrate Glycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fugui; Yu, Hai; Lepp, Dion; Shi, Xuejiang; Yang, Xiaojian; Hu, Jielun; Leeson, Steve; Yang, Chengbo; Nie, Shaoping; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Butyrate has been shown to potently regulate energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in animals, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate (in the form of butyrate glycerides, BG)-induced lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression in the jejunum and liver of broilers. Methodology/Principal Findings Two animal experiments were included in this study. In Experiment 1, two hundred and forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups: 1) basal diet (BD), 2) BG diets (BD + BG). Growth performance was compared between treatments for the 41-day trial. In Experiment 2, forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups. The general experimental design, group and management were the same as described in Experiment 1 except for reduced bird numbers and 21-day duration of the trial. Growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipid profiles as well as serum and tissue concentrations of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were compared between treatments. RNA-seq was employed to identify both differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and treatment specifically expressed genes (TSEGs). Functional clustering of DEGs and TSEGs and signaling pathways associated with lipid metabolism were identified using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 (DAVID-BR). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were subsequently conducted to further examine the expression of genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway identified by DAVID-BR. Dietary BG intervention significantly reduced abdominal fat ratio (abdominal fat weight/final body weight) in broilers. The decreased fat deposition in BG-fed chickens was in accordance with serum lipid profiles as well as the level of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the serum, abdominal adipose, jejunum and liver. RNA-seq analysis

  13. The exosome component Rrp6 is required for RNA polymerase II termination at specific targets of the Nrd1-Nab3 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Fox

    Full Text Available The exosome and its nuclear specific subunit Rrp6 form a 3'-5' exonuclease complex that regulates diverse aspects of RNA biology including 3' end processing and degradation of a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs and unstable transcripts. Known targets of the nuclear exosome include short (<1000 bp RNAPII transcripts such as small noncoding RNAs (snRNAs, cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs, and some stable unannotated transcripts (SUTs that are terminated by an Nrd1, Nab3, and Sen1 (NNS dependent mechanism. NNS-dependent termination is coupled to RNA 3' end processing and/or degradation by the Rrp6/exosome in yeast. Recent work suggests Nrd1 is necessary for transcriptome surveillance, regulating promoter directionality and suppressing antisense transcription independently of, or prior to, Rrp6 activity. It remains unclear whether Rrp6 is directly involved in termination; however, Rrp6 has been implicated in the 3' end processing and degradation of ncRNA transcripts including CUTs. To determine the role of Rrp6 in NNS termination globally, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq on total RNA and perform ChIP-exo analysis of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII localization. Deletion of RRP6 promotes hyper-elongation of multiple NNS-dependent transcripts resulting from both improperly processed 3' RNA ends and faulty transcript termination at specific target genes. The defects in RNAPII termination cause transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA expression through transcription interference and/or antisense repression, similar to previously reported effects of depleting Nrd1 from the nucleus. Elongated transcripts were identified within all classes of known NNS targets with the largest changes in transcription termination occurring at CUTs. Interestingly, the extended transcripts that we have detected in our studies show remarkable similarity to Nrd1-unterminated transcripts at many locations, suggesting that Rrp6 acts with the NNS complex globally to promote

  14. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  15. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  16. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  17. TrkB blockade in the hippocampus after training or retrieval impairs memory: protection from consolidation impairment by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martina; Petry, Fernanda S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Relatively little is known about the requirement of signaling initiated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), in the early phases of memory consolidation, as well as about its possible functional interactions with epigenetic mechanisms. Here we show that blocking TrkB in the dorsal hippocampus after learning or retrieval impairs retention of memory for inhibitory avoidance (IA). More importantly, the impairing effect of TrkB antagonism on consolidation was completely prevented by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB). Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or NaB before training, followed by an infusion of either vehicle (VEH) or the selective TrkB antagonist ANA-12 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after retrieval. ANA-12 after either training or retrieval produced a significant impairment in a subsequent memory retention test. Pretraining administration of NaB prevented the effect of ANA-12, although NaB given before retrieval did not alter the impairment resulting from TrkB blockade. The results indicate that inhibition of BDNF/TrkB in the hippocampus can hinder consolidation and reconsolidation of IA memory. However, TrkB activity is not required for consolidation in the presence of NaB, suggesting that a dysfunction in BDNF/TrkB signaling can be fully compensated by HDAC inhibition to allow hippocampal memory formation.

  18. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  19. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  20. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  1. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  2. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  3. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  4. [6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl-3H]neonicotinoids as high-affinity radioligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: preparation using NaB3H4 and LiB3H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latli, Bachir; Casida, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    NaB 3 H 4 and LiB 3 H 4 at 78% and 97% isotopic enrichments, respectively, were used in the synthesis of 3 H-labeled 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-methyl-2-nitromethyleneimidazolidine (CH-IMI) and N'-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-n''-cyano-n'-methylacetamidine (acetamiprid) (two very potent insecticides) and of 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl-2-iminoimidazolidine (desnitro-IMI) (a metabolite of the commercial insecticides imidacloprid). 6-Chloronicotinoyl chloride was treated with either NaB 3 H 4 in methanol or LiB 3 H 4 in tetrahydrofuran and the resulting alcohol transformed to 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine, which was then coupled to N-cyano-N'-methylacetamidine to give [ 3 H] acetamiprid (45 Ci/mmol). 2-Chloro-5-chloro[ 3 H]methylpyridine was also reacted with ethylenediamine and the product was either refluxed in absolute ethanol with 1,1-bis(methylthio)-2-nitro-ethylene to provide [ 3 H]CH-IMI or reacted in toluene with a solution of cyanogen bromide to produce [ 3 H] desnitro-IMI (each 55 Ci/mmol. (author)

  5. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  6. The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, S; Moslemi, H R; Dehghan, M M; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon.

  7. Immobilization of Lipase using Alginate Hydrogel Beads and Enzymatic Evaluation in Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenol Butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shang, Wenting; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jiawei [Renmin Univ. of China, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    The immobilization of enzyme is one of the key issues both in the field of enzymatic research and industrialization. In this work, we reported a facile method to immobilize Candida Antarctica lipase B (CALB) in alginate carrier. In the presence of calcium cation, the enzyme-alginate suspension could be cross-linked to form beads with porous structure at room temperature, and the enzyme CALB was dispersed in the beads. Activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenol butyrate in aqueous phase. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, pH, embedding and lyophilized time on the reactive behavior were discussed. Reuse cycle experiments for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenol butyrate demonstrated that activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was maintained without marked deactivation up to 6 repeated cycles.

  8. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  9. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-).

  10. Lipid alterations in human colon epithelial cells induced to differentiation and/or apoptosis by butyrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Ciganek, M.; Slavík, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Stixová, Lenka; Vaculová, Alena; Dušek, L.; Machala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2012), s. 539-548 ISSN 0955-2863 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Colon cancer * Polyunsaturated fatty acids * Butyrate Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.552, year: 2012

  11. Differential effects of short chain fatty acids on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and neointima formation: Antioxidant action of butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxu Yuan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3 inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD, we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc+/+, which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc-/-. Nevertheless, both acetate and propionate markedly enhanced the formation and activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome as well as carotid neointima formation in the carotid arteries with PLCA in Asc+/+, but not Asc-/- mice. In cultured ECs (EOMA cells, butyrate was found to significantly decrease the formation and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasomes induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket or cholesterol crystals (CHC, while acetate did not inhibit Nlrp3 inflammasome activation induced by either 7-Ket or CHC, but itself even activated Nlrp3 inflammsomes. Mechanistically, the inhibitory action of butyrate on the Nlrp3 inflammasome was attributed to a blockade of lipid raft redox signaling platforms to produce O2•- upon 7-Ket or CHC stimulations. These results indicate that SCFAs have differential effects on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated carotid neointima formation. Keywords: Arterial endothelium, Short chain fatty acids, Inflammation, Neointima, Atherosclerosis

  12. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral composite as a stable binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Herbeck-Engel, P.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral (PVP/PVB) are attractive binders for the preparation of carbon electrodes for aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The use of PVP/PVB offers several key advantages: They are soluble in ethanol and can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector. Infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements show that the PVP-to-PVB ratio determines the degree of binder hydrophilicity. Within our study, the most favorable performance was obtained for AC electrodes with a composition of AC + 1.5 mass% PVP + 6.0 mass% PVB; such electrodes were mechanically stabile and water resistant with a PVP release of less than 5% of total PVP while PVB itself is water insoluble. Compared to when using PVDF, the specific surface area (SSA) of the assembled electrodes was 10% higher, indicating a reduced pore blocking tendency. A good electrochemical performance was observed in different aqueous electrolytes for composite electrodes with the optimized binder composition: 160 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 for 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH and 120 F g-1 for 1 M NaCl. The capacitance was slightly reduced by 2.5% after cycling to 1.2 V with 1.28 A g-1 in 1 M NaCl for 10,000 times.

  13. Negative polarity of phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Katz, Howard E.; Wu, Meng-Yin; Johns, Gary L.; Markovic, Nina; Arnold, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V oc ) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V oc , which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V oc , but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions

  14. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  15. Indole butyric acid and substrates influence on multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrar Hussain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry is a shrubby plant specie which has a high economic importance among agriculture crops. Brazil is the major country of Latin America with the highest future scope for blackberries. For availability of good quality and maximum quantity of seedlings, the present study was carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina,PR from January to March in 2013. The aim of the study was to evaluate the multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante' cuttings under different type of substrates treated with different levels of indole butyric acid (IBA. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 2 factors, i.e., substrate (rice husk, vermiculite and coconut fiber and IBA (0; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000mg L-1, with 5 replications. Each replicate consisted of 10 cuttings. The variables studied were: cutting rooting, cutting survival, leaf retention, cuttings with new leaves, number of major roots, length of major roots and roots dry weight. Most of the variables were significantly affected by both substrate and IBA. Rice husk and vermiculite performed better than coconut fiber and provided the same results for most of the variables, while coconut fiber showed lower performance for all of the variables studied. IBA significantly affected the rooting and the number of major roots. It is concluded that for multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante', both rice husk and vermiculite can be used along 2,000mg L-1 of IBA

  16. Augmentation of tendon healing with butyric acid-impregnated sutures: biomechanical evaluation in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Bryan T; Tasto, James P; Tibor, Lisa M; Healey, Robert M; Freemont, Anthony; Linn, Michael S; Chase, Derek E; Amiel, David

    2012-08-01

    Butyric acid (BA) has been shown to be angiogenic and to enhance transcriptional activity in tissue. These properties of BA have the potential to augment biological healing of a repaired tendon. To evaluate this possibility both biomechanically and histologically in an animal tendon repair model. Controlled laboratory study. A rabbit Achilles tendon healing model was used to evaluate the biomechanical strength and histological properties at 6 and 12 weeks after repair. Unilateral tendon defects were created in the middle bundle of the Achilles tendon of each rabbit, which were repaired equivalently with either Ultrabraid BA-impregnated sutures or control Ultrabraid sutures. After 6 weeks, BA-impregnated suture repairs had a significantly increased (P Tendons repaired with BA-impregnated sutures demonstrated improved biomechanical properties at 6 weeks relative to control sutures, suggesting a neoangiogenic mechanism of enhanced healing through an increased myofibroblast presence. These findings demonstrate that a relatively simple alteration of suture material may augment early tendon healing to create a stronger repair construct during this time.

  17. Transparent Blend of Poly(Methylmethacrylate/Cellulose Acetate Butyrate for the Protection from Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mahmood Raouf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of transparent polymers as an alternative to glass has become widespread. However, the direct exposure of these materials to climatic conditions of sunlight and heat decrease the lifetime cost of these products. The aim of this study was to minimize the harm caused by ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure to transparent poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA, which usually leads to changes in the physical and chemical properties of these materials and reduced performance. This was achieved using environmentally friendly cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB. The optical, morphological, and thermal properties of CAB blended with transparent PMMA was studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results show that CAB was able to reduce the effects of UV radiation by making PMMA more transparent to UV light, thereby preventing the negative effects of trapped radiation within the compositional structure, while maintaining the amorphous structure of the blend. The results also show that CAB blended with PMMA led to some properties commensurate with the requirements of research in terms of a slight increase in the value of the modulus and the glass transition temperature for the PMMA/CAB blend.

  18. pH sensitivity of emeraldine salt polyaniline and poly(vinyl butyral) blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hoa Duyen; Hoang, Ngoc Vu; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Nhien; Doan, Duc Chanh Tin; Dang, Mau Chien; Nguyen, Thi Ha

    2014-01-01

    pH sensitivity of emeraldine salt polyaniline (ES-PANI) and poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) blend film was investigated. This blend film can be used as a pH sensing element in new-type pH sensors to replace traditional instruments based on fragile glass electrodes for pH measurement of water in aquaculture farming. Structural and optical characteristic of PANI were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV–vis). Electrical characterization of ES-PANI:PVB blend films versus pH was performed with chemiresistors fabricated by micro-lithography. A ES-PANI:PVB layer was drop-coated on comb-shaped platinum electrodes patterned on SiO 2 /Si substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope were used to investigate morphology of the fabricated platinum electrodes and the coated polymer blend films. I–V measurements of the polymer-coated chemiresistors were performed at very low relative humidity after the polymer films were exposed to pH 1–8. The results showed that logarithm of electrical resistance of the ES-PANI:PVB films increased almost linearly as pH increased from 1 to 8. The initial results showed that the PANI blend-coated chemiresistors can be used as pH sensors for water quality monitoring. (paper)

  19. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Blachechen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  20. Constitutive Investigation on Viscoelasticity of PolyVinyl Butyral: Experiments Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PolyVinyl Butyral (PVB film is now widely used in automotive industry and architectures serving as the protective interlayer. The dynamic modulus of PVB is measured through systematic experiments based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA method at various temperatures, heating rates, and vibration frequencies. Further, viscoelasticity of PVB influenced by time and temperature is systematically studied. Fitted empirical formulas describing the relationship between glass transition temperature and frequency, as well as the heating rate of PVB, are established. The master curve of PVB at 293 K is suggested based on the experiment data as to express the dynamic modulus variation at various frequencies in a wider range. Constitutive behavior of PVB is then analyzed based on Generalized Maxwell (GM model and Fractional Derivative (FD model, respectively. It is shown that PVB has higher efficiency of energy dissipation in its high energy absorption state, while both fifth-order GM model and FD model can characterize the viscoelasticity of PVB at glassy transition area. Results may offer useful fundamental experimental data and important constitutive characteristics of PVB and shed lights on further studies on viscoelasticity behavior of PVB and energy mitigation ability of laminated glass.

  1. Flexible thermoplastic composite of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB and waste of rigid Polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sônego

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the preparation and characterization of composites with recycled poly(vinyl butyral (PVB and residue of rigid polyurethane foam (PUr, with PUr contents of 20, 35 and 50 wt %, using an extruder equipped with a Maillefer single screw and injection molding. The components of the composites were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry. The composites were evaluated by melt flow index (MFI, tensile and hardness mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Tg determined by DSC of PVB sample (53 °C indicated the presence of plasticizer (Tg of pure PVB is 70 °C. MFI of the composites indicated a viscosity increase with the PUr content and, as the shear rate was held constant during injection molding, higher viscosities promoted higher shear stresses in the composites, thereby causing breaking or tearing of the PUr particles. The SEM micrographs showed low adhesion between PVB and PUr and the presence of voids, both inherent in the rigid foam and in the interphase PVB-PUr. The SEM micrographs also showed that PVB/PUr (50/50 composite exhibited the smallest particle size and a more homogeneous and compact structure with fewer voids in the interface. The stiffness of the composites increases with addition of the PUr particles, as evidenced in the mechanical tests.

  2. Improvement of CO2/N2 separation performance by polymer matrix cellulose acetate butyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. J.; Jawad, Z. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Ngo, J. Q.; Chua, H. B.

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid development of modern civilization, carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities and mainly generated from industrial sectors. The gas emission is the major contributor to global warming. To address this issue, the membrane technology is implemented for the CO2 removal, due to the energy efficiency and economic advantages presented. Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) is selected as the polymeric material, due to the excellent film-forming properties and capable of developing a defect-free layer of neat membrane. This study described the fabrication development of CAB using a wet phase inversion method with different casting conditions. Where the composition of the casting solutions (3-5 wt %) and solvent evaporation time (4-6 min) were determined. The outcomes of these dominant parameters were then used to determine the best CAB membrane for CO2/Nitrogen (N2) separation and supported by the characterization i.e. scanning electron micrograph. Gas permeation measurements showed satisfactory performance for CAB membrane fabricated with 5 min evaporation time and 4 wt% polymer composition (M2). Where, its permeance and selectivity are 120.19 GPU and 3.17, respectively. In summary, this study showed a brief outlined of the future direction and perspective of CAB membrane for CO2/N2 separation.

  3. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05. As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake.

  5. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  6. Structure and properties of oil palm-based nanocellulose reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for efficient synthesis of butyl butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nursyafiqah; Chandren, Sheela; Attan, Nursyafreena; Mahat, Naji Arafat; Razak, Fazira Ilyana Abdul; Jamalis, Joazaizulfazli; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2017-11-15

    In this study, nanocellulose (NC) was successfully extracted from oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) using a combination of bleaching, alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis. X-ray diffractogram revealed the extracted NC was crystalline with a crystallinity index of 70.2%. This indicates its suitability as nano-fillers for preparing the chitosan/nanocellulose (CS-NC) supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) to produce the CRL/CS-NC biocatalysts. FTIR, FESEM and TGA characterizations of the CRL/CS-NC confirm the CRLs were successfully conjugated to the CS-NC supports. The air-dried CS-NC supports gave satisfactory immobilization of the CRLs (5.2mg/g) with the resultant CRL/CS-NCs catalysed conversions of ≥80% of butyl butyrate within 6h. Time course reaction profile revealed that 76.3% butyl butyrate conversion was achieved at 4h immobilization time using 3mg/mL of CRL/CS-NCs. NMR analyses on the purified butyl butyrate confirmed that the ester was successfully synthesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diel Periodicity of 3-Methyl-2-Butenyl Butyrate Emissions by Bronze Bug Males Is Suppressed in the Presence of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groba, H F; Martínez, G; Rossini, C; González, A

    2018-02-07

    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa, and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. To learn more about the biological function of this putative male-produced pheromone, we quantified this compound in volatile emissions collected from males, females, and couples, in three 4-h collecting periods during the morning, afternoon, and night of a single 24-h cycle. Our results showed that virgin males emit 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate in a diel time pattern, with an almost sevenfold difference between the afternoon emission peak compared to morning or night hours. In addition, we show that in the presence of females, males emit the compound in the same amounts throughout the photocycle. While a definite function cannot yet be attributed to the emission of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate by T. peregrinus males, our findings point to an intraspecific function, possibly one related to male-male competition.

  8. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  9. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  10. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, F.O.; Nagamine, M.K.; De Conti, A.; Chaible, L.M.; Fontelles, C.C.; Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H.; Dagli, M.L.Z.; Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10 4 cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21 WAF1 by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered

  12. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.O. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nagamine, M.K. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Conti, A. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaible, L.M. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fontelles, C.C. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. [Divisão de Nutrição, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10{sup 4} cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21{sup WAF1} by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  14. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  15. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  16. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  17. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinovart, Tomàs [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Crespo, Gastón A. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rius, F. Xavier [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Andrade, Francisco J., E-mail: franciscojavier.andrade@urv.cat [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A disposable solid-contact reference electrode for potentiometry is presented. • The device shows unsensitivity to most ions, redox potential and light. • Low-cost and good stability, ideal to build disposable potentiometric sensors. • Nanopores formed in the membrane control the flux of ions with the solution. Abstract: A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec⁻¹ over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90 ± 33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided.

  18. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin), high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin), or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and community richness (Chao1) index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  19. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ. Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin, high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin, or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs and community richness (Chao1 index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  20. STUDI BIODEGRADASI POLI HIDROKSI BUTIRAT DALAM MEDIA CAIR (Biodegradation of Poly Hydroxy Butyrate in Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Sari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Poli hidroksi butirat (PHS termasuk dalam golongan bioplastik. Plastik jenis ini diharapkan dapat menjadi plastik altematif yang ramah lingkungan sebagai pengganti plastik sintetis yang bersifat sangat suI it terdegradasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji potensi biodegradabilitas PHS komersial dalam media cair dengan menggunakan lumpur aktif dan unit pengolahan limbah pabrik plastik sintetik. Identifikasi proses degradasi dilakukan dengan cara mengamati perubahan karakteristik PHS yang meliputi perubahan visual, perubahan morfologi permukaan, penurunan berat, perubahan kristalinitas, dan perubahan berat molekul selama 15 pekan inkubasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kerusakan PHS se1ama proses degradasi dapat dilihat secara visual. Disamping itu, morfologi permukaan mengalami perubahan signifikan. Adapun penurunan berat, kristalinitas, dan berat molekul berturut-turut mencapai 22,91 %,57.44 %, dan 29,52 %.   ABSTRACT  Poly hidroxy butyrate (PHB is a member of bioplastic group. This type of plastic is expected to be alternative plastic which is environmently friendly to replace synthetic plastic that is known to be very difficult to degrade. This research aims to test the biodegradability of commercial PHB in liquid mediums used activated sludge from waste water treatment plant in plastic synthetic factory. Identification of biodegradation process  was done by monitoring the changes of PHB characteristics including visual change, surface morphology change, reduction of weight, reduction of crystallinity, and reduction of molecular weight during 15 weeks incubation. The result shows that  the damage of PHB sample during biodegradation could be seen visually and liquid medium show the existence of change which can be seen visually and the surface morphology of PHB changed significantly. Weight reduction, crystallinity  reduction, and molecular  weight reduction  revealed of 22.91%, 57.44%, and 29.52% respectively.

  1. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) level as an overall survival risk factor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Burdan, Franciszek; Duma, Dariusz; Solski, Janusz; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2017-09-21

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important role in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of GABA in breast cancer, in relation to clinical and epidemiological data. The study was conducted on 89 patients with breast cancer in stage I-II. GABA level was assessed using spectrofluorometric method in tumour homogenates. Immunoexpression of E-cadherin was evaluated histologically on paraffin fixed specimens. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed for a 15-year interval period. Median overall survival was significantly longer (127.2 months) in patients with a high level of GABA (>89.3 μg/1), compared with a group with a low level of the amino acid (106.4 months). Disease-free survival was insignificantly different - 99 and 109 months, respectively. A significantly longer overall survival (131.2 months) was seen among patients with a high level of GABA and positive E-cadherin immunoexpression, compared with a group characterized by a low level of GABA and lack of E-cadherin immunorectivity (98.1 months). The co-existence of negative immunoexpression of E-cadherin and low GABA concentration resulted in a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR=6.03). GABA has a significant prognostic value in breast cancer. Co-existence of a low level of GABA and loss of E-cadherin immune-expression seems to be a new, independent, and negative prognostic marker of the neoplasm.

  2. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Crespo, Gastón A.; Rius, F. Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A disposable solid-contact reference electrode for potentiometry is presented. • The device shows unsensitivity to most ions, redox potential and light. • Low-cost and good stability, ideal to build disposable potentiometric sensors. • Nanopores formed in the membrane control the flux of ions with the solution. - Abstract: A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec −1 ) over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90 ± 33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided

  3. Al18F-NODA-butyric acid: Biological evaluation of a new PET renal radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Shetty, Dinesh; Nye, Jonathon A.; Shim, Hyunsuk; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Renal scintigraphy is an important imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of a variety of renal diseases including obstruction and renovascular hypertension as well as the evaluation of absolute and relative kidney function. The goal of this work was to evaluate Al 18 F-NODA-butyric acid (Al 18 F-1) as a potential PET tracer to image the kidneys and monitor renal function by comparing its pharmacokinetic properties with those of 131 I-o-iodohippurate ( 131 I-OIH), the radioactive standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. Methods: Al 18 F-1 was prepared in aqueous conditions using a one-pot Al 18 F-radiofluorination method and its radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. Biodistribution studies, using 131 I-OIH as an internal control, were performed in normal rats and in rats with renal pedicle ligation. In vitro stability and metabolism of Al 18 F-1 were analyzed by HPLC. Dynamic microPET/CT studies were conducted in normal rats. Results: Al 18 F-1 showed excellent stability in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in normal rats and in rats with simulated renal failure confirmed that Al 18 F-1 was exclusively cleared through the renal–urinary pathway and that the hepatic/gastrointestinal activity was less for Al 18 F-1 than for 131 I-OIH both at 10 and 60 min. Dynamic PET showed a rapid transit of Al 18 F-1 through the kidneys into the bladder. Conclusion: These results suggest that the easily labeled Al 18 F-based compounds provide a highly promising approach for the development of a PET renal radiotracer that combines superior imaging qualities with a reliable measure of effective renal plasma flow

  4. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients: prospective evaluation of activity, safety, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Raffaella; Sottotetti, Federico; Trifirò, Giuseppe; Piazza, Elena; Ferzi, Antonella; Gambaro, Anna; Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Pozzi, Emma; Tagliaferri, Barbara; Teragni, Cristina; Bernardo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter trial was undertaken to assess the activity, safety, and quality of life of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Fifty-two women with HER2-negative MBC who were candidates for second-line chemotherapy for the metastatic disease were enrolled and treated at three centers in Northern Italy. All patients had previously received taxane-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant or first-line metastatic setting. Single-agent nab-paclitaxel was given at the dose of 260 mg/m(2) as a 30-minute intravenous infusion on day 1 each treatment cycle, which lasted 3 weeks, in the outpatient setting. No steroid or antihistamine premedication was provided. Treatment was stopped for documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient refusal. All of the enrolled patients were evaluable for the study endpoints. The objective response rate was 48% (95% CI, 31.5%-61.3%) and included complete responses from 13.5%. Disease stabilization was obtained in 19 patients and lasted >6 months in 15 of them; the overall clinical benefit rate was 77%. The median time to response was 70 days (range 52-86 days). The median progression-free survival time was 8.9 months (95% CI, 8.0-11.6 months, range 5-21+ months). The median overall survival point has not yet been reached. Toxicities were expected and manageable with good patient compliance and preserved quality of life in patients given long-term treatment. Our results showed that single-agent nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks is an effective and well tolerated regimen as second-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative, taxane-pretreated MBC patients, and that it produced interesting values of objective response rate and progression-free survival without the concern of significant toxicity. Specifically, the present study shows that such a regimen is a valid therapeutic option for that 'difficult to

  5. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  6. Increased butyrate priming in the gut stalls microbiome associated-gastrointestinal inflammation and hepatic metabolic reprogramming in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Kimono, Diana; Alhasson, Firas; Sarkar, Sutapa; Albadrani, Muayad; Lasley, Stephen K; Horner, Ronnie; Janulewicz, Patricia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Sullivan, Kimberly; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2018-07-01

    Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI). Claudin-2, a protein shown to be upregulated in conditions of leaky gut was significantly decreased following butyrate administration. Butyrate decreased TLR4 and TLR5 expressions in the liver concomitant to a decrease in TLR4 activation. GW-chemical exposure showed no clinical signs of liver disease but a significant alteration of metabolic markers such as SREBP1c, PPAR-α, and PFK was evident. Liver markers for lipogenesis and carbohydrate metabolism that were significantly upregulated following GW chemical exposure were attenuated by butyrate priming in vivo and in human primary hepatocytes. Further, Glucose transporter Glut-4 that was shown to be elevated following liver complications were significantly decreased in these mice after butyrate administration. Finally, use of TLR4 KO mice completely attenuated the liver metabolic changes suggesting the central role of these receptors in the GWI pathology. In conclusion, we report a butyrate specific mechanistic approach to identify and treat increased metabolic abnormalities in GWI veterans with systemic inflammation, chronic fatigue, GI disturbances, metabolic complications and weight gain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  8. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  9. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  10. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  11. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  12. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  13. Effects of adding butyric acid to PN on gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunoglobulin A levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Satoshi; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Omata, Jiro; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Noguchi, Midori; Saitoh, Daizoh; Koyama, Isamu

    2011-07-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) causes intestinal mucosal atrophy, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) atrophy and dysfunction, leading to impaired mucosal immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious complications. Therefore, new PN formulations are needed to maintain mucosal immunity. Short-chain fatty acids have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa. We examined the effects of adding butyric acid to PN on GALT lymphocyte numbers, phenotypes, mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, and intestinal morphology in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 103) were randomized to receive either standard PN (S-PN), butyric acid-supplemented PN (Bu-PN), or ad libitum chow (control) groups. The mice were fed these respective diets for 5 days. In experiment 1, cells were isolated from Peyer's patches (PPs) to determine lymphocyte numbers and phenotypes (αβTCR(+), γδTCR(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), B220(+) cells). IgA levels in small intestinal washings were also measured. In experiment 2, IgA levels in respiratory tract (bronchoalveolar and nasal) washings were measured. In experiment 3, small intestinal morphology was evaluated. Lymphocyte yields from PPs and small intestinal, bronchoalveolar, and nasal washing IgA levels were all significantly lower in the S-PN group than in the control group. Bu-PN moderately, but significantly, restored PP lymphocyte numbers, as well as intestinal and bronchoalveolar IgA levels, as compared with S-PN. Villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine were significantly decreased in the S-PN group vs the control group, however Bu-PN restored intestinal morphology. A new PN formula containing butyric acid is feasible and would ameliorate PN-induced impairment of mucosal immunity.

  14. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of the experiment was to study hepatic metabolism during infusion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) differing in amounts and composition or infusion of HMB. Three fasted (20 h) pigs (mean BW ± SE; 58 kg ± 1) were fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...

  15. Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine Induces CCL20 Secretion by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in the Presence of the Short-Chain Fatty Acid, Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ri Sim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, modulate immune responses in the gut. However, the effect of SCFAs on mucosal vaccine-induced immune cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether SCFAs modulate chemokine expression induced by the killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, in human intestinal epithelial cells. Shanchol™ induced expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, and CXCL10 at the mRNA level, but not at the protein level. Interestingly, CCL20 secretion was substantially increased by co-stimulation with Shanchol™ and butyrate, while neither acetate nor propionate showed such effect. Enhanced CCL20 secretion was associated with GPR109A activation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition. In addition, co-treatment with Shanchol™ and butyrate synergistically increased the secretion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Moreover, CCL20 secretion was decreased by inhibiting the extracellular ATP receptor P2X7. However, neither inflammasomes nor caspases were involved in CCL20 production. The culture supernatant of cells treated with Shanchol™ and butyrate augmented human immature dendritic cell migration. Collectively, these results suggest that butyrate enhances Shanchol™-induced CCL20 production in human intestinal epithelial cells via HDAC inhibition and ATP-P2X7 signaling by activating GPR109A. These effects potentially enhance the mucosal immune responses in the gut induced by this oral cholera vaccine.

  16. Electron transport phosphorylation in rumen butyrivibrios: unprecedented ATP yield for glucose fermentation to butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eHackmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From a genomic analysis of rumen butyrivibrios (Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., we have re-evaluated the contribution of electron transport phosphorylation to ATP formation in this group. This group is unique in that most (76% genomes were predicted to possess genes for both Ech and Rnf transmembrane ion pumps. These pumps act in concert with the NifJ and Bcd-Etf to form a electrochemical potential (ΔμH+ and ΔμNa+, which drives ATP synthesis by electron transport phosphorylation. Of the 62 total butyrivibrio genomes currently available from the Hungate 1000 project, all 62 were predicted to possess NifJ, which reduces oxidized ferredoxin (Fdox during pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA. All 62 possessed all subunits of Bcd-Etf, which reduces Fdox and oxidizes reduced NAD (NADred during crotonyl-CoA reduction. Additionally, 61 genomes possessed all subunits of the Rnf, which generates ΔμH+ or ΔμNa+ from oxidation of reduced Fd and reduction of oxidized NAD (NADox. Further, 47 genomes possessed all 6 subunits of the Ech, which generates ΔμH+ from oxidation of reduced Fd (Fdred. For glucose fermentation to butyrate and H2, the electrochemical potential established should drive synthesis of ~1.5 ATP by the F0F1-ATP synthase (possessed by all 62 genomes. The total yield is ~4.5 ATP/glucose after accounting for 3 ATP formed by classic substrate-level phosphorylation, and it is one the highest yields for any glucose fermentation. The yield was the same when unsaturated fatty acid bonds, not H+, served as the electron acceptor (as during biohydrogenation. Possession of both Ech and Rnf had been previously documented in only a few sulfate-reducers, was rare in other rumen prokaryotic genomes in our analysis, and may confer an energetic advantage to rumen butyrivibrios. This unique energy conservation system might enhance the butyrivibrios’ ability to overcome growth inhibition by unsaturated fatty acids, as postulated herein.

  17. Engineering poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) based vascular scaffolds to mimic native artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Vijayan, Ponni; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-01

    Electrospun tri-layered fibrous scaffold incorporating VEGF and Platelet Factor Concentrate (PFC) in multiple layers having different layer architectures was designed to mimic native artery. The scaffold consisted of longitudinally aligned poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) (PHBV) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers (inner layer), radially aligned PHBV-elastin nanofibers (middle layer) to provide the bi-directional alignment and combination of longitudinally aligned PHBV-elastin and random PHBV/PVA multiscale fibers (peripheral layer). Tubular constructs of diameter <6 mm were developed. The developed electrospun fibers were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Tensile tests. Further the burst strength, compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered tubular scaffold was evaluated. SEM images of fibrous layers showed the typical longitudinal and radial alignment of fibers in the tubular construct. SEM images showed that the prepared PHBV nanofibers were in the range of 500-800 nm and PHBV microfibers were of 1-2 μm in diameter in the tri-layered electrospun membrane. PVA nanofibers were of size 200-250 nm. The tensile strength, percentage compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered membrane was in accordance with that of native small blood vessels. The developed tri-layered membrane was blood compatible, with hemolysis degree 0.85 ± 0.21% and did not activate platelets. Controlled release of VEGF and PFC was observed from the scaffold. The biocompatibility of the tri-layered scaffold was evaluated using HUVECs, SMCs and MSCs and SMCs infiltration from the outer layer was also evaluated. Specific protein expression for the HUVECs and SMCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. HUVECs and SMCs exhibited good elongation and alignment along the direction of fibers and was found to maintain its CD31, VE-Cadherin and αSMA expression respectively. The results

  18. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  19. The feasibility of using a baculovirus vector to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter gene as a reporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiang; Li Biao; Wang Jun; Yin Hongyan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang Yifan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)], E-mail: zhangyifan1992@yahoo.com.cn

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of baculovirus vectors in transducing FTC-133 cells and to examine the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors for the delivery of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter through co-transduction to monitor the expression of the target gene. Method: Two recombinant baculoviruses were constructed to express NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) respectively. FTC-133, 8050C, SW1116, A549 cells, were infected with Bac-GFP. The infection efficiency of Bac-GFP and the intensity of fluorescence, in either the presence or absence of sodium butyrate, were monitored by flow cytometry. The iodine uptake by FTC-133 cells infected with Bac-NIS was measured using a {gamma} counter. FTC-133 cells were infected with a mixture of equal amounts of Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different setting of multiplicity of infection (MOI). The changes of GFP fluorescence intensity and iodine uptake were monitored 24 h after infection in the coinfected cells. Results: We have successfully constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and GFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus IE-1 promoter. We found that transduced efficiency of baculovirus in 8505C, SW1116, A549 cells are low in absence of sodium butyrate. Yet Bac-GFP infects FTC-133 cells at a high efficiency, 77.67%, 85.57% and 93.23% with MOI of 100, 200 and 400, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of the Bac-GFP infected tumor cells correlated positively with the MOI of the virus. Sodium butyrate induction increased both the infection efficiency and the fluorescence intensity, but increase of infection efficiency was insignificant in FTC-133 cells. Reporter gene (GFP) expression in FTC-133 is stable within 7 days after infection. The radioactivity incorporated by the tumor cells infected with Bac-NIS correlated positively with the MOI of Bac-NIS as well. In tumor cells co-infected with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP, the amount of radioactivity incorporated significantly correlated with

  20. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  1. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  2. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  3. Tie line data for the (water + butyric acid + n-butyl alcohol or amyl alcohol) at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and (water + butyric acid + isoamyl alcohol) at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Amouzadeh, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid equilibrium data of (water + BA + alcohols) systems were measured. • Experimental LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. • Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. -- Abstract: In this study, solubility and tie-line data of the (water + butyric acid + n-butyl alcohol or amyl alcohol) ternary systems were determined at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and p = 101.3 kPa for the first time. Due to the structural similarity, the tie-line data for (water + butyric acid + isoamyl alcohol) system were also measured and correlated at T = 298.2 K. The ternary systems investigated display type-1 behaviour of LLE. The cloud point method was used to measure the solubility data and the Karl-Fischer, acidimetric titration, and refractive index methods were used to determine the tie-line data. For each system, the experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The Othmer–Tobias and Hand correlations equations were used to establish the quality of the LLE data. Experimental distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions

  4. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  5. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of aqueous solutions of butyric acid with n-heptane and toluene at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Janbaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid equilibrium data of (water + butyric acid + n-heptane) were obtained. ► LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. ► Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. - Abstract: Solubility and tie line data for the (water + butyric acid + n-heptane) and (water + butyric acid + toluene) ternary systems were determined at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and atmospheric pressure. Solubility data were obtained by the cloud-point titration method. The concentration of each phase was determined by acidimetric titration, the Karl-Fischer technique, and refractive index measurements. The experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL thermodynamic models. The reliability of the experimental data was determined through the Othmer–Tobias and Hand plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for each system over the immiscibility regions.

  6. Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fibre (Plantago ovata seeds)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Hove, H; Clausen, M R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butyrate has antineoplastic properties against colorectal cancer cells and is the preferred oxidative substrate for colonocytes. Like acetate and propionate (short-chain fatty acids; SCFAs), butyrate is produced by colonic fermentation of dietary fibre. METHODS: Twenty patients resected...... for colorectal cancer were treated with 20 g/day of the fibre Plantago ovata seeds for 3 months, which increased the intake of fibre by 17.9 +/- 0.8 g/day, from basal levels of 19.2 +/- 1.7 g/day; 17 patients completed the study. Faecal samples were obtained on eight occasions, twice before treatment......, and monthly three times during and three time after treatment. RESULTS: One month of fibre therapy increased faecal concentrations of butyrate by 42 +/- 12% (from 13.2 +/- 1.2 to 19.3 +/- 3.0 mmol/l; P

  7. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  9. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  10. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  11. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  12. Highly sensitive and ultrafast response surface acoustic wave humidity sensor based on electrospun polyaniline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qianqian; Li Yang; Yang Mujie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polyanline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers are prepared by electrospinning. ► Nanofiber-based SAW humidity sensor show high sensitivity and ultrafast response. ► The SAW sensor can detect very low humidity. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANi) composite nanofibers were deposited on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with a central frequency of 433 MHz to construct humidity sensors. Electrospun nanofibers of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and humidity response of corresponding SAW humidity sensors were investigated. The results indicated that PVB was suitable as a matrix to form nanofibers with PANi by electrospinning (ES). Electrospun PANi/PVB nanofibers exhibited a core–sheath structure as revealed by transmittance electron microscopy. Effects of ES collection time on humidity response of SAW sensor based on PANi/PVB nanofibers were examined at room temperature. The composite nanofiber sensor exhibited very high sensitivity of ∼75 kHz/%RH from 20 to 90%RH, ultrafast response (1 s and 2 s for humidification and desiccation, respectively) and good sensing linearity. Furthermore, the sensor could detect humidity as low as 0.5%RH, suggesting its potentials for low humidity detection. Attempts were done to explain the attractive humidity sensing performance of the sensor by considering conductivity, hydrophilicity, viscoelasticity and morphology of the polymer composite nanofibers.

  13. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belakavadi, Madesh; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells

  14. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  15. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  16. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  17. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  19. Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, F; De Vuyst, L

    2017-05-30

    Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953 T ) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production. Cultivation of these strains was performed in bottles and fermentors containing a modified medium for colon bacteria, including acetate, supplemented with either fructose, oligofructose, or inulin as the sole energy source. Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 could only ferment fructose and did not degrade oligofructose or inulin. E. rectale CIP 105953 T and F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T fermented fructose and could degrade both oligofructose and inulin. All chain length fractions of oligofructose were degraded simultaneously (both strains) and both long and short chain length fractions of inulin were degraded either simultaneously (E. rectale CIP 105953 T ) or consecutively (F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ), indicating an extracellular polymer degradation mechanism. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 produced high concentrations of butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 from fructose. E. rectale CIP 105953 T produced lactate, butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 , from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin, whereas F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T produced butyrate, formate, CO 2 , and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin. Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO 2 , and H 2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.

  20. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  1. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  2. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  3. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  4. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  5. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  6. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  7. Recruitment of HDAC4 by transcription factor YY1 represses HOXB13 to affect cell growth in AR-negative prostate cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guoling; Zhang, Guocui; Dong, Zhixiong

    2008-01-01

    HOXB13 is a homeodomain protein implicated to play a role in growth arrest in AR (androgen receptor)-negative prostate cancer cells. Expression of HOXB13 is restricted to the AR-expressing prostate cells. In this report, we demonstrate that the HDAC inhibitor NaB (sodium butyrate) was able...... to induce cell growth arrest and to increase HOXB13 expression in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. We also show that both HDAC4 and YY1 participated in the repression of HOXB13 expression through an epigenetic mechanism involving histone acetylation modification. Specifically, co...

  8. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  9. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  10. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopic evidence for iron(III) complexation and reduction in acidic aqueous solutions of indole-3-butyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Vertes, A.; Kamnev, A.A.; Shchelochkov, A.G.; Medzihradszky-Schweiger, H.; Mink, J.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2004-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopic studies were carried out in acidic (pH 2.3) 57 Fe III nitrate containing aqueous solutions of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen at various periods of time after mixing the reagents. The data obtained show that in solution in the presence of IBA, iron(III) forms a complex with a dimeric structure characterised by a quadrupole doublet, whereas without IBA under similar conditions iron(III) exhibits a broad spectral feature due to a slow paramagnetic spin relaxation which, at liquid nitrogen temperature, results in a large anomalous line broadening (or, at T = 4.2 K, in a hyperfine magnetic splitting). The spectra of 57 Fe III +IBA solutions, kept at ambient temperature under aerobic conditions for increasing periods of time before freezing, contained a gradually increasing contribution of a component with a higher quadrupole splitting. The Moessbauer parameters for that component are typical for iron(II) aquo complexes, thus showing that under these conditions gradual reduction of iron(III) occurs, so that the majority (85%) of dissolved iron(III) is reduced within 2 days. The Moessbauer parameters for the iron(III)-IBA complex in aqueous solution and in the solid state (separated from the solution by filtration) were found to be similar, which may indicate that the dissolved and solid complexes have the same composition and/or iron(III) coordination environment. For the solid complex, the data of elemental analysis suggest the following composition of the dimer: [L 2 Fe-(OH) 2 -FeL 2 ] (where L is indole-3-butyrate). This structure is also in agreement with the data of infrared spectroscopic study of the complex reported earlier, with the side-chain carboxylic group in indole-3-butyrate as a bidentate ligand. The Moessbauer parameters for the solid 57 Fe III -IBA complex at T = 80 K and its acetone solution rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen were virtually identical, which indicates that the complex retains its

  12. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  13. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  14. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  15. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  16. Origin of the enhanced performance in poly(3-hexylthiophene) : [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells upon slow drying of the active layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Xie, Hangxing; Boer, Bert de; Popescu, Lacramioara M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on slowly dried films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester is investigated, combining charge transport measurements with numerical device simulations. Slow drying leads to a

  17. Dipole-Dipole Electron Excitation Energy Transfer in the System CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot - Eosin in Butyral Resin Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslitskaya, N. A.; Samusev, I. G.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The electron excitation energy transfer from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to eosin molecules in the polymer matrix of butyral resin is investigated. The main characteristics of energy transfer are determined. By means of luminescence microscopy and correlation spectroscopy methods we found that quantum dots in the polymer are in an aggregate state.

  18. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Hanigan, M.D.; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers...

  19. Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  20. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  1. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  2. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric Acid coupled addition on the in vitro rumen fermentation with special regard to methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdl-Rahman, M A; Sawiress, F A R; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (Y(ATP)). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH(3)-N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency.

  3. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  4. Bioprotective carnitinoids: lipoic acid, butyrate, and mitochondria-targeting to treat radiation injury: mitochondrial drugs come of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliou, Kosta; Faller, Douglas V; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Moos, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research Given nuclear-power-plant incidents such as the 2011 Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi disaster, an urgent need for effective medicines to protect against and treat the harmful biological effects of radiation is evident. To address such a challenge, we describe potential strategies herein including mitochondrial and epigenetic-driven methods using lipoic and butyric acid ester conjugates of carnitine. The antioxidant and other therapeutically beneficial properties of this class of agents may protect against ionizing radiation and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies of the compounds described herein reveal the potential-although further research and development is required to prove the effectiveness of this approach-to provide field-ready radiation-protective drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simultaneous Intercalation of 1-Naphthylacetic Acid and Indole-3-butyric Acid into Layered Double Hydroxides and Controlled Release Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release formulations have been shown to have potential in overcoming the drawbacks of conventional plant growth regulators formulations. A controlled-release formulation of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA simultaneous intercalated MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs was prepared. The synthetic nanohybrid material was characterized by various techniques, and release kinetics was studied. NAA and IBA anions located in the gallery of MgAl-LDHs with bilayer arrangement, and the nanohybrids particles were of typical plate-like shape with the lateral size of 50–100 nm. The results revealed that NAA and IBA have been intercalated into the interlayer spaces of MgAl-LDHs. The release of NAA and IBA fits pseudo-second-order model and is dependent on temperature, pH value, and release medium. The nanohybrids of NAA and IBA simultaneously intercalated in LDHs possessed good controlled release properties.

  6. Anaerostipes caccae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new saccharolytic, acetate-utilising, butyrate-producing bacterium from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Hold, Georgina L; Duncan, Sylvia H; Gruhl, Barbel; Collins, Matthew D; Lawson, Paul A; Flint, Harry J; Blaut, Michael

    2002-04-01

    Two strains of a previously undescribed Eubacterium-like bacterium were isolated from human faeces. The strains are Gram-variable, obligately anaerobic, catalase negative, asporogenous rod-shaped cells which produced acetate, butyrate and lactate as the end products of glucose metabolism. The two isolates displayed 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other and treeing analysis demonstrated the faecal isolates are far removed from Eubacterium sensu stricto and that they represent a new subline within the Clostridium coccoides group of organisms. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic criteria, it is proposed that the two strains from faeces be classified as a new genus and species, Anaerostipes caccae. The type strain of Anaerostipes caccae is NCIMB 13811T (= DSM 14662T).

  7. Effects of orally applied butyrate bolus on histone acetylation and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in the liver of chicken – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mátis Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation in vitro and playing a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. We hypothesized that butyrate, endogenously produced by intestinal microbial fermentation or applied as a nutritional supplement, might cause similar in vivo modifications in the chromatin structure of the hepatocytes, influencing the expression of certain genes and therefore modifying the activity of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. Methods An animal study was carried out in chicken as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate’s epigenetic actions in the liver. Broiler chicks in the early post-hatch period were treated once daily with orally administered bolus of butyrate following overnight starvation with two different doses (0.25 or 1.25 g/kg body weight per day for five days. After slaughtering, cell nucleus and microsomal fractions were separated by differential centrifugation from the livers. Histones were isolated from cell nuclei and acetylation of hepatic core histones was screened by western blotting. The activity of CYP2H and CYP3A37, enzymes involved in biotransformation in chicken, was detected by aminopyrine N-demethylation and aniline-hydroxylation assays from the microsomal suspensions. Results Orally added butyrate, applied in bolus, had a remarkable impact on nucleosome structure of hepatocytes: independently of the dose, butyrate caused hyperacetylation of histone H2A, but no changes were monitored in the acetylation state of H2B. Intensive hyperacetylation of H3 was induced by the higher administered dose, while the lower dose tended to increase acetylation ratio of H4. In spite of the observed modification in histone acetylation, no significant changes were observed in the hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 activity. Conclusion Orally added butyrate in bolus

  8. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  9. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  10. Effect of methyl butyrate aroma on the survival and viability of human breast cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Rumana Ahmad, R.; Srivastava, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aroma can have far reaching effects on mind, body and soul. Pleasant aromas are known to have a soothing effect on the mind and are known to relieve stress and enhance concentration. Recently, it has been demonstrated that aroma may also have some curative effects as well as benefits and can be used both for prophylaxis and therapy of diseases. Our aim was to test our hypothesis whether aroma can cure or prevent cancer. Methyl butyrate (MB) is the methyl ester of butyric acid having a characteristic sweet and fruity odor like that of apples and pineapples. It occurs in many plant products in minute quantities and in pineapple oil. Methods: In the present study, the effect of aroma of MB has been evaluated on human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro . The percentage viability of the cell line was determined by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Results: It was found that MB at a concentration of 0.01 M was effective in causing considerable cytotoxicity (40%) in breast cancer cells (without even coming in contact with cells) while at 0.02 M, % cytotoxicity was found to be 50%. Mechanism of action of MB on cancer cells was investigated by acridine orange–ethidium bromide assay using fluorescence microscopy and DNA fragmentation assay. MB aroma appeared to induce necrosis in cancer cells exposed to it. Conclusion: No study involving the effect of aroma/smell on cancer cells has ever been reported before and warrants further investigation on other cancer and normal cell lines.

  11. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  12. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  13. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  14. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo D Guerron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin.In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy.These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo activity.

  15. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerron, Alfredo D; Rawat, Rashmi; Sali, Arpana; Spurney, Christopher F; Pistilli, Emidio; Cha, Hee-Jae; Pandey, Gouri S; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Francia, Dwight; Farajian, Viken; Escolar, Diana M; Bossi, Laura; Becker, Magali; Zerr, Patricia; de la Porte, Sabine; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Partridge, Terence; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-06-21

    The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated) mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo activity.

  16. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  17. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  18. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  19. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protim Sarker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. AIMS: To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB, a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. METHODS: The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from

  20. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Protim; Ahmed, Sultan; Tiash, Snigdha; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Stromberg, Roger; Andersson, Jan; Bergman, Peter; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-01-01

    Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB) reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB), a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR) and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot). Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from secondary respiratory infections that frequently are the lethal causes in

  1. A new dyed poly (vinyl butyral) film for high-dose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, S.A.; Beshir, W.B.; Ebraheem, S.

    2006-01-01

    The polymer films under investigation are comprising a mixture of 2 dyes, namely, 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol sodium salt (DCP), and bromo cresol green (BCG) indicator in presence of different concentrations of chloral hydrate. The color of this film changes from the blue to purple and finally to yellow, the bleaching reaction for DCP takes place in the beginning, giving the tinge of purple color, followed by the transformation of BCG to its acidic form due to the presence of chloral hydrate. The response of these films is affected by the change in chloral hydrate concentration and also the ratio of the 2 combined dyes. Accordingly, these films could be used as dosimeter in two steps color change indicators, in the dose range from 0.2 to 6 kGy. To examine their suitability for eventual application in different food radiation processing, the dosimetric parameters, e.g. dose response, effect of relative humidity during irradiation on response as well as pre-and post-irradiation stability of these film are investigated. Using the phenomenon of HCl generation from PVC under irradiation, ph-indicating dyes have been added to PVC. A chlorine-containing polymer is not necessary for this reaction to occur. A similar color change can be produced if chloro alkanes are present in the dye-containing matrix (Whittaker, 1990). Ueno (1988) developed a radiation dosimeter from acidity indicators by coating a high molecular weight polymer support (e.g. polyester film) with a composition containing a halogen-containing polymer (e.g. PVC), a pigment which changes color with the change of ph and a basic material (e.g. KOH in EtOH). For routine dose monitoring in radiation processing, the polymeric dyed flexible films are most commonly used as dosimeters and indicators for both electron beams and gamma rays (Ebraheem et al., 1999 and McLaughlin et al

  2. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  3. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  4. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  5. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  6. Chemical processing for production of no-carrier-added selenium-73 from germanium and arsenic targets and synthesis of L-2-amino-4-([73Se]methylseleno) butyric acid (L-[73Se]selenomethionine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenevaux, A.; Guillaume, M.; Brihaye, C.; Lemaire, C.; Cantineau, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Ge( 4 He,xn) and 75 As(p,3n) reactions were compared as the best potential routes for routine production of selenium-73 ( 73 Se) for medical applications. With 26 MeV α particles, available with compact cyclotrons, the first reaction required an enriched 70 Ge target of sodium metagermanate to give a production yield of 1 mCi/μAh (0.037 GBq/μAh) in a 105 mg/cm 2 target. With 55 MeV protons the As(p,3n) reaction on natural arsenic yielded 20 mCi/μAh (0.74 GBq/μAh) in a 685 mg/cm 2 target. A simple method was developed and optimized for both targets in order to isolate and purify the no-carrier-added selenium in the elemental form with a radiochemical yield greater than 75% in less than 90 min. An automated radiochemical processing unit has been designed for the routine production of 100-150 mCi(3.7-5.5 GBq) batches of carrier-free 73 Se ready for radiopharmaceutical labeling. 30 mCi (1.11 GBq) (EOS) of L-2-amino-4-([ 73 Se]methylseleno) butyric acid (L-[ 73 Se]selenomethionine) ready for injection with a specific activity of 5 Ci/mmol (185 GBq/mmol) (EOS) were obtained through a fast chemical synthesis. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for L-[ 73 Se ]selenomethionine have been determined. A value of 0.70 rem/mCi (0.19 mSv/MBq) administered was calculated for the risk from irradiation in man. The first human PET investigation with [ 73 Se]selenomethionine showed a very good delineation between liver and pancreas. (author)

  7. Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šket

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR, hypoxic bedrest (HBR], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2 and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4,000 m simulated altitude, respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal transit spanning Bristol Stool Scale, defecation rates, zonulin, α1-antitrypsin, eosinophil derived neurotoxin, bile acids, reducing sugars, short chain fatty acids, total soluble organic carbon, water content, diet composition, and food intake were measured (167 variables. The abundance, structure, and diversity of butyrate producing microbial community were assessed using the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but and butyrate kinase (buk genes. Inactivity negatively affected fecal consistency and in combination with hypoxia aggravated the state of gut inflammation (p < 0.05. In contrast, gut permeability, various metabolic markers, the structure, diversity, and abundance of butyrate producing microbial community were not significantly affected. Rearrangements in the butyrate producing microbial community structure were explained by experimental setup (13.4%, experimentally structured metabolites (12.8%, and gut metabolite-immunological markers (11.9%, with 61.9% remaining unexplained. Many of the measured parameters were found to be correlated and were hence omitted from further analyses. The observed progressive increase in two immunological intestinal markers suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state toward

  8. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  9. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  10. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  11. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  12. Comparative photocatalytic study of two selected pesticide derivatives, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Muneer, M. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: cht12mm@amu.ac.in

    2005-04-11

    Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of two selected pesticide derivatives such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has been investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing UV spectroscopic analysis technique and depletion in total organic carbon (TOC) content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics was studied under different conditions such as pH, types of TiO{sub 2,} substrate and catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptor such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) besides molecular oxygen. The degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The photocatalyst Degussa P25 showed comparatively highest photocatalytics. The pesticide derivative, indole-3-acetic acid was found to degrade slightly faster than indole-3-butyric acid.

  13. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  14. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  15. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  16. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  18. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  19. Increased Butyrate Production During Long-Term Fermentation of In Vitro-Digested High Amylose Cornstarch Residues with Human Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Jiang, Hongxin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yum, Man-Yu; Campbell, Mark R; Jane, Jay-Lin; White, Pamela J; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    An in vitro semi-continuous long-term (3 wk) anaerobic incubation system simulating lower gut fermentation was used to determine variability in gut microbial metabolism between 4 predigested high amylose-resistant starch residues (SR): SRV, SRVI, SRVII, and SRGEMS in human fecal samples. Subjects participated twice, 5 mo apart: 30 in Phase I (15 lean, 9 overweight and 6 obese), 29 in Phase II (15 lean, 9 overweight, 5 obese); 13 of 15 lean subjects participated in both phases. Of the 4 SRs, SRV displayed the highest gelatinization temperature, peak temperature, enthalpy changes, and the least digestibility compared with the other SRs. In both phases, compared with blank controls, all SRs increased butyrate ∼2-fold which stabilized at week 2 and only SRV caused greater propionate concentration (∼30%) after 3 wk which might have been partly mediated by its lesser digestibility. Fecal samples from lean and overweight/obese subjects incubated with SRs showed similar short-chain fatty acid production across both time points, which suggests that resistant starch may benefit individuals across BMIs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate)/cellulose acetate butyrate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chenyang; Wang, Hengti; Hu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Fenfen; Cao, Xiaojun; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2013-02-15

    The eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)/cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) blends were prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer for the first time. PPC and CAB were partially miscible because of the drastically shifted glass transition temperatures of both PPC and CAB, which originated from the specific interactions between carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. The incorporation of CAB into PPC matrix enhanced not only tensile strength and modulus of PPC dramatically, but also improved heat resistance and thermal stability of PPC significantly. The tensile strength and the modulus of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend are 27.7 MPa and 1.24 GPa, which are 21 times and 28 times higher than those of the unmodified PPC, respectively. Moreover, the elongation at break of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend is as high as 117%. In addition, the obtained blends exhibited good transparency, which is very important for the package materials. The results in this work pave new possibility for the massive application of eco-friendly polymer materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the ciliated protozoon Paramecium occurs by neuronal-like exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoino, P; Milanese, M; Candiani, S; Diaspro, A; Fato, M; Usai, C; Bonanno, G

    2010-04-01

    Paramecium primaurelia expresses a significant amount of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Paramecia possess both glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-like and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT)-like proteins, indicating the ability to synthesize GABA from glutamate and to transport GABA into vesicles. Using antibodies raised against mammalian GAD and vGAT, bands with an apparent molecular weight of about 67 kDa and 57 kDa were detected. The presence of these bands indicated a similarity between the proteins in Paramecium and in mammals. VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP, putative proteins of the release machinery that form the so-called SNARE complex, are present in Paramecium. Most VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP fluorescence is localized in spots that vary in size and density and are primarily distributed near the plasma membrane. Antibodies raised against mammal VAMP-3, sintaxin-1 or SNAP-25 revealed protein immunoblot bands having molecular weights consistent with those observed in mammals. Moreover, P. primaurelia spontaneously releases GABA into the environment, and this neurotransmitter release significantly increases after membrane depolarization. The depolarization-induced GABA release was strongly reduced not only in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) but also by pre-incubation with bafilomycin A1 or with botulinum toxin C1 serotype. It can be concluded that GABA occurs in Paramecium, where it is probably stored in vesicles capable of fusion with the cell membrane; accordingly, GABA can be released from Paramecium by stimulus-induced, neuronal-like exocytotic mechanisms.

  2. Optimization of conditions to achieve high content of gamma amino butyric acid in germinated black rice, and changes in bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR. The temperature (8 and 30 °C, and salt (50-200 mM NaCl content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001 increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80% for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.

  3. Study of the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate, glucose, protein and albumin in Holstein cows with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB, glucose, protein and albumin in serum of healthy Holstein cows and those with subclinical ketosis. In this survey, blood samples were collected at two stages from cows selected at 7 dairy farms in Shahriar province of Tehran. Five to 7 ml of blood were taken from the coccygeal vein of 100 cows during the last week of pregnancy when the animals were dry and once again 2 months after parturition from the same cows, their sera separated and the amounts of BHB, glucose, protein and albumin determined by enzymatic techniques and commercially available kits. With the cut point of BHB at 1.2, 1.4 and 1.7 mmol/lit, the percentage of cows affected with subclinical ketosis were 18, 14 and 4 percent, respectively. Mean levels of BHB in ketotic cows was significantly higher than healthy cows before and after parturition while mean levels of glucose, protein and albumin was significantly lower during the same periods (P

  4. Potential Synergies of β-Hydroxybutyrate and Butyrate on the Modulation of Metabolism, Inflammation, Cognition, and General Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cavaleri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHFD, also known as the ketogenic diet, has cycled in and out of popularity for decades as a therapeutic program to treat metabolic syndrome, weight mismanagement, and drug-resistant disorders as complex as epilepsy, cancer, dementia, and depression. Despite the benefits of this diet, health care professionals still question its safety due to the elevated serum ketones it induces and the limited dietary fiber. To compound the controversy, patient compliance with the program is poor due to the restrictive nature of the diet and symptoms related to energy deficit and gastrointestinal adversity during the introductory and energy substrate transition phase of the diet. The studies presented here demonstrate safety and efficacy of the diet including the scientific support and rationale for the administration of exogenous ketone bodies and ketone sources as a complement to the restrictive dietary protocol or as an alternative to the diet. This review also highlights the synergy provided by exogenous ketone, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, accompanied by the short chain fatty acid, butyrate (BA in the context of cellular and physiological outcomes. More work is needed to unveil the molecular mechanisms by which this program provides health benefits.

  5. Biodegradation improvement of poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate) films by entomopathogenic fungi and UV-assisted surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Felipe; Marconatto, Leticia; Rodrigues, Roberta da Silva Bussamara; Lando, Gabriela Albara; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-05

    Ultraviolet (UV)-assisted surface modification in the presence of oxygen was used as initial step to achieve controlled degradation of poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate), PHB, films by entomopathogenic fungi. Treated surfaces were investigated by surface analysis techniques (water contact angle, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflectance mode, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and weight loss). After the UV-assisted treatments, new carbonyl groups in new chemical environments were detected by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy. The oxidizing atmosphere did not allow the formation of CC bonds, indicating that Norrish Type II mechanism is suppressed during or by the treatments. The higher hydrophilicity and concentration of oxygenated functional groups at the surface of the treated films possibly improved the biodegradation of the films. It was observed a clear increase in the growth of this fungus when oxygenated groups were grafted on the polymers surfaces. This simple methodology can be used to improve and control the degradation rate of PHB films in applications that require a controllable degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth inhibitory effect of 4-phenyl butyric acid on human gastric cancer cells is associated with cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Zhu; Deng, Hong-Xia; Lou, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Xue-Yan; Song, Meng-Wan; Tao, Jing; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-07

    To investigate the growth effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on human gastric carcinoma cells and their mechanisms. Moderately-differentiated human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and lowly-differentiated MGC-803 cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/L PBA for 1-4 d. Cell proliferation was detected using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell cycle distributions were examined using flow cytometry. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells was inhibited by PBA in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Flow cytometry showed that SGC-7901 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₀/G₁ phase, whereas cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₂/M phase. Although MGC-803 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were also arrested at the G₀/ G₁ phase, cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the S phase. The growth inhibitory effect of PBA on gastric cancer cells is associated with alteration of the cell cycle. For moderately-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀ /G₁ and G₂/M phases. For lowly-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀/G₁ and S phases.

  7. The Effects of Orientation on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf-reinforced Poly Vinyl Butyral Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is one of the important plants cultivated for natural fibres globally and is regarded as an industrial crop in Malaysia for various applications. This study was conducted to determine the effects of orientation on the tensile and flexural strengths, Charpy impact test, and morphological properties of kenaf fibre-reinforced poly vinyl butyral (PVB composites. Laminates of 40% fibre weight fraction were manufactured using the hot press manufacturing technique at 0˚/90˚ and 45˚/−45˚ orientations, and eight specimens were prepared for each test. The mechanical properties of the composites were variably affected by the fibre orientation angle. The results showed that the composites at 0o/90o had the highest tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, while the elongation at break was almost the same. Additionally, tests were carried out on the composites to determine their impact energy and impact strength. The results revealed that impact properties were affected in markedly different ways by different orientations. The composite at 45˚/−45˚ offered better impact properties than the composites at 0˚/90˚. In addition, scanning electron microscopy for impact specimens was employed to demonstrate the different failures in the fracture surfaces.

  8. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  10. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  12. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  13. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  15. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  16. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  20. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  3. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  4. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  5. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  6. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  7. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  8. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  9. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  10. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: danielop@imbice.org.ar; Padron, Juan [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ronci, Natalia E. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Vidal Rioja, Lidia A. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2006-08-30

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 {sup o}C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells.

  11. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M.; Padron, Juan; Ronci, Natalia E.; Vidal Rioja, Lidia A.

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 o C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells

  12. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  14. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  16. Implementación de un equipo de laboratorio para la planta piloto de lácteos campus Juan Lunardi, para el análisis de la leche en tres razas de vacas (Holstein, Jersey y Criollas) de la comuna indígena de Shiña-Nabón

    OpenAIRE

    Ascaribay Andrade, Saúl Geovani

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado trata sobre la implementación de un equipo de laboratorio para el análisis comparativo de la leche entre tres razas de vacas, (Holstein, Jersey y Criollas), este análisis se lo realizo en la Asociación de Productores Agropecuarios de la comuna indígena de Shiña perteneciente al cantón Nabón provincia del Azuay, los parámetros a ser analizados están basados dentro de las normas técnicas que dicta el INEN, las normas que fueron analizadas fueron: Leche Cruda Requisi...

  17. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  18. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  19. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  20. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  1. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  2. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  3. Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate on working memory and cognitive flexibility in an animal model of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankosky, Emily R; Sherrill, Luke K; Ruvola, Lauren A; Haake, Rachel M; Kim, Taehyeon; Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Kougias, Daniel G; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2017-09-01

    Normal aging results in cognitive decline and nutritional interventions have been suggested as potential approaches for mitigating these deficits. Here, we used rats to investigate the effects of short- and long-term dietary supplementation with the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on working memory and cognitive flexibility. Beginning ∼12 months of age, male and female Long-Evans rats were given twice daily access to sipper tubes containing calcium HMB (450 mg/kg) or vehicle (285 mg/kg calcium lactate) in a sucrose solution (20% w/v). Supplementation continued for 1 or 7 months (middle- and old-age (OA) groups, respectively) before testing began. Working memory was assessed by requiring rats to respond on a previously sampled lever following various delays. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by training rats to earn food according to a visual strategy and then, once acquired, shifting to an egocentric response strategy. Treatment with HMB improved working memory performance in middle-age (MA) males and OA rats of both sexes. In the cognitive flexibility task, there was a significant age-dependent deficit in acquisition of the visual strategy that was not apparent in OA males treated with HMB. Furthermore, HMB ameliorated an apparent deficit in visual strategy acquisition in MA females. Together, these findings suggest that daily nutritional supplementation with HMB facilitates learning and improves working memory performance. As such, HMB supplementation may mitigate age-related cognitive deficits and may therefore be an effective tool to combat this undesirable feature of the aging process.

  4. Revealing charge carrier dynamics in squaraine:[6, 6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Sharma, Chhavi; Prabhu, Deepak D.; Kumar, Mahesh; Karuvath, Yoosaf; Das, Suresh; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics as well as the generation of polaron pair in squaraine (SQ) and squaraine:[6,6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester (SQ:PCBM71) have been studied using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (UTAS). The current study reveals that the pure SQ exhibits the creation of singlet and triplet states; however, incorporation of PCBM71 in SQ results in the formation of polaron pairs with ˜550ps lifetime, which in turn leads to the creation of free electrons in the device. We show that the considerable increment in monomolecular and bimolecular recombination in SQ:PCBM71 compared to pure SQ which describes the interfacial compatibility of SQ and PCBMC71 molecules. The present work not only provides the information about the carrier generation in SQ and SQ:PCBM71 but also gives the facts relating to the effect of PCBM71 mixing into the SQ which is very significant because the SQ has donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structure and mixing one more acceptor can introduce more complex recombinations in the blend. These findings have been complimented by the charge transport study in the device using impedance spectroscopy. The various important transport parameters are transit time (τt), diffusion constant (Dn), global mobility (μ) and carrier lifetime (τr). The values of these parameters are 26.38 μs, 4.64x10-6 cm2s-1, 6.12x10-6 cm2V-1s-1 and 399 μs, respectively. To the best of our knowledge such study related to SQ is not present in the literature comprehensively.

  5. Negative polarity of phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Katz, Howard E., E-mail: hekatz@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 206 Maryland Hall, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Wu, Meng-Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Johns, Gary L.; Markovic, Nina [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Arnold, Michael S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 248 MS and E Building, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V{sub oc}, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V{sub oc}, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.

  6. Biochemical changes in barberries during adventitious root formation: the role of indole-3-butyric acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tehranifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenolic compounds and total sugars (TS were investigated during root formation in cuttings of Berberis vulgaris var. asperma (BVA and Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (BTA treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and IBA+H2O2. Rooting was observed on BTA cuttings but not on BVA cuttings. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed higher rooting percentages, number of roots, and root length over the control. Those treated with IBA+H2O2 recorded the lowest peroxidase activity after planting. BTA cuttings treated with IBA+H2O2 showed the highest peroxidase activity at 50 d after planting; BVA cuttings under different treatments showed no significant difference for peroxidase activity at planting time or up to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BTA cuttings in the control treatment was lower than for other treatments during root formation. The cuttings in the IBA and IBA+H2O2 treatments showed increased PPO activity from 0 to 50 d after planting and a slight decrease in PPO activity from 60 to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BVA cuttings was significantly lower than for BTA during root formation. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed the highest phenolic compound content during root formation. The BVA cuttings displayed higher TS than BTA during the initial stage of root formation. A comparison of the anatomical structure of easy-to-root and difficult-to-root cuttings indicated that physical inhibitors did not affect the rooting capacity of BVA.

  7. Optimization of Medium Components for Cell Biomass and Polyhydroxy Butyric Acid Production by Azotobacter vinelandii Mutant Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safiyyah Zainuddin; Nur Izzah Mohd Razak; Ying, P.L.W.; Chyan, J.B.; Elly Ellyna Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxy butyric acid (PHB) is a biodegradable and food-safe alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Using RSM approach, the interaction of sucrose, urea and K_2HPO_4 were investigated to determine the optimum medium compositions for cell biomass and PHB production by Azotobacter vinelandii mutant. Fifteen medium types were prepared and each contained different amount of sucrose, urea and K_2HPO_4. Analyses of cell biomass and PHB concentration were performed from day-2 until day-4 (3 days). Based on the biomass analysis, Medium 13 achieved the highest cell dry weight of 15.4 mg/ mL on day-3. Medium 13 contained 0.5 g/ L of urea, 0.1 g/ L of K_2HPO_4 and 10 g/ L of sucrose. For PHB production, Medium 11 achieved the highest PHB production on day-3 (3.7 mg/ mL) and dropped to 1.3 mg/ mL on day-4. Sample 11 contained 0.5 g/ L of urea, 0 g/ L of K_2HPO_4 and 20 g/ L of sucrose. Sample 2 (1.0 g/ L urea, 0.05 g/ L K_2HPO_4 and 15 g/ L sucrose) and 6 (1.0 g/ L urea, 0.05 g/ L K_2HPO_4 and 25 g/ L sucrose) showed PHB production of >2.0 mg/ mL on day-3 and persisted to day-4. Sample 3 (0.25 g/ L urea, 0.2 g/ L K_2HPO_4 and 15 g/L sucrose) achieved PHB production of >2.0 mg/mL only on day-4. All the other medium types showed PHB production of lower than 1.5 mg/ mL throughout the experiment. (author)

  8. Role of indole-3-butyric acid or/and putrescine in improving productivity of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A A; Gharib, F A; Abouziena, H F; Dawood, Mona G

    2013-12-15

    The response of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. cv. Giza 3) to treatment with two plant growth regulators putrescine (Put) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) applied either alone or in combinations was studied. Spraying of Put and IBA either individually or in combination significantly increased the plant height, number and dry weight of branches, leaves and pods/plant and leaf area/plant at the two growth stages. Total photosynthetic pigments in fresh leaves were significantly promoted as a result of application of Put or IBA. Generally, application of Put and/or IBA at 100 mg L(-1) produced the highest numbers of pods which resulted in substantially the highest seed yield. Put and IBA increased the seed yield by 21.3 and 19.2%, respectively, while the combination of Put at 100 mgL(-1) and IBA at 50 mgL(-1) increased it by 27.4%. Greatest increases in straw and biological yield/fed (38.3 and 30.4%, respectively) were noted with the combination treatment of IBA 100 mg L(-1) plus Put at 100 mg L(-1). Put and IBA significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids in chickpea seeds over control, but the effects were less marked than those of their combination. This response was greater following treatment with IBA than with Put. It could be conclude that spraying Put or/and IBA on chickpea plants have promotion effects on the seeds yield criteria which have promising potential as sources of low-cost protein and minerals for possible use as food/feed supplements.

  9. Polysaccharide utilization loci and nutritional specialization in a dominant group of butyrate-producing human colonic Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Paul O; Martin, Jennifer C; Lawley, Trevor D; Browne, Hilary P; Harris, Hugh M B; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Duncan, Sylvia H; O'Toole, Paul W; Scott, Karen P; Flint, Harry J

    2016-02-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the predominant bacterial phyla colonizing the healthy human large intestine. Whilst both ferment dietary fibre, genes responsible for this important activity have been analysed only in the Bacteroidetes , with very little known about the Firmicutes . This work investigates the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in a group of Firmicutes , Roseburia spp. and Eubacterium rectale , which play an important role in producing butyrate from dietary carbohydrates and in health maintenance. Genome sequences of 11 strains representing E. rectale and four Roseburia spp. were analysed for carbohydrate-active genes. Following assembly into a pan-genome, core, variable and unique genes were identified. The 1840 CAZyme genes identified in the pan-genome were assigned to 538 orthologous groups, of which only 26 were present in all strains, indicating considerable inter-strain variability. This analysis was used to categorize the 11 strains into four carbohydrate utilization ecotypes (CUEs), which were shown to correspond to utilization of different carbohydrates for growth. Many glycoside hydrolase genes were found linked to genes encoding oligosaccharide transporters and regulatory elements in the genomes of Roseburia spp. and E. rectale , forming distinct polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Whilst PULs are also a common feature in Bacteroidetes , key differences were noted in these Firmicutes , including the absence of close homologues of Bacteroides polysaccharide utilization genes, hence we refer to Gram-positive PULs (gpPULs). Most CAZyme genes in the Roseburia / E. rectale group are organized into gpPULs. Variation in gpPULs can explain the high degree of nutritional specialization at the species level within this group.

  10. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  11. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  12. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  13. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  14. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  15. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  16. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  17. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  18. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  19. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  20. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.