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Sample records for soda apple fruit

  1. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  2. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  3. Boron in combination with calcium reduces sunburn in apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely [1]. Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions [2]. Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...

  4. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  5. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...

  6. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  7. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... measured in terms of bruise diameter is highly influenced by the drop height. ... other, packaging containers, parts of processing equip- ment and the tree. During ... Where E is the impact energy, m is the mass of the fruit, g is ...

  9. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  10. Ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Valiuškaitė, Alma; Survilienė, Elena; Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskaitė, Loreta

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture and Institute of Botany in 2004–2005. Fungi of twenty species belonging to eight genera were isolated from rotten and healthy apple fruits. Penicillium expansum and Penicillium italicum showed a high frequency of occurrence and were isolated from 50% and 17% healthy apples and from 83% and 67% of rotten fruits respectivel...

  11. [Household purchase of sodas and cookies reduces the effect of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de

    2017-04-03

    This study examines the influence of increasing household availability of sodas and cookies on the effects of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The study analyzed data from 70 families living in low-income communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected in a stratified probabilistic sample, and who completed a 30-day food record before and after the intervention. The intervention contributed to a significant increase in the household availability of fruit and vegetables (+2.7 p.p.; 95%CI: 1.5; 4.0), contrary to the trend towards stagnation of such availability in the general population in Brazil. Meanwhile, the purchase of sodas and cookies, which was not the intervention's target, mirrored the upward trend in the consumption of these products (+5.8 p.p.; 95%CI: 3.3; 8.4). Families that increased their purchase of sodas and cookies showed lower increases, or even decreases, in the purchase of fruits and vegetables (p fruits and vegetables.

  12. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  13. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  14. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  15. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  16. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of humic substances and nitrogen fertilising on the fruit quality and yield of custard apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The custard apple (Annona squamosa L., also known as the sugar apple, is a fruit species native to Brazil that has been poorly studied, especially in relation to the effect of humic substances on its fruit quality and yield. An experiment was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011 to evaluate the fruit quality and yield of the custard apple as a function of nitrogen fertilising and the use of humic substances. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (4 x 2, using four nitrogen doses (0, 100, 175 and 250 g of N plant-1 and two humic substance applications (with and without humic substances, with four replications. The fruit yield and fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, pulp pH and SS/TA ratio, were recorded. The humic substances and the nitrogen levels significantly affected the soluble solids, titratable acidity and SS/TA ratio, while the pH pulp was only influenced by the humic substances. The humic substances promoted a quantitative increase in the fruit yield of 0.63 ton ha-1. The fruit quality and yield of the custard apple depend on the nitrogen fertiliser and the interaction of the humic substances. Nitrogen fertilising of 100 g per plant, associated with humic substances, could be recommended for use in the production of custard apples.

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  19. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple fruit using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  20. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  1. Transcription analysis of apple fruit development using cDNA microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soglio, V.; Costa, F.; Molthoff, J.W.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Schouten, H.J.; Gianfranceschi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit quality traits is fundamental to devise efficient marker-assisted selection strategies and to improve apple breeding. In this study, cDNA microarray technology was used to identify genes whose expression changes during fruit development and

  2. First report of Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot and Elsinoe pyri on apple in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    . The associated pathogen has not previously been identi- fied, but symptoms are identical to those described for el- sinoe leaf and fruit spot (ELFS) caused by the ascomycete, Elsinoe pyri (Scheper et al., 2013). In 2012, DNA from fruit skin of apples was purified from two cultivars, Pigeon fra Juellinge...... (Scheper et al., 2013) were recovered by inoculating Topaz- spot infected fruit skin onto potato dextrose agar. Sequenc- ing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region revealed two identical 628 bp sequences (GenBank KC928079, KC928080) with 99% sequence identity to the previously published sequences of E. pyri. Our......An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre...

  3. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium

  4. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  5. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  6. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic impulse-response of apples as a measure of fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic impulse-response technique is a means to evaluate apple quality. In this work the effect of physiological changes in the fruit on the physical measurements of fruit quality are examined. In the acoustic impulse-response technique the fruit is mechanically excited by an impact force and starts to vibrate at its own natural frequency. The resulting sound waves are then recorded and analysed. It is a fast method and yields a produce-averaged value: the stiffness factor. Experimen...

  8. Characterization of Lignin Precipitated From The Soda Black Liquor of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers by Various Mineral Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch was directly isolated by various mineral acids i.e. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid at three levels of concentration (20% v/v, 60%v/v and concentrated. A comparison study was performed through physicochemical properties and structural features using FT-IR, UV, 13C-NMR and nitrobenzene oxidation. The FT-IR results showed that there is no significant difference between the main structures of the lignin isolated by various acids. However, low concentration of phosphoric acid is preferable because of its highest yield. The S: V: H ratio of 7-15:6-11:1 as evaluated by the nitrobenzene oxidation procedure suggests that soda lignin can be classified as belonging to either the cereal straw on grass type. The UV results indicate that phosphoric acid consistently gave the highest absorbance value among the four acids tested in this study regardless of its concentration level. The C13-FTNMR spectra, suggest that the lignin structure is independent of the type of acid used for precipitation.

  9. Variation of ascorbic acid concentration in fruits of cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Zhen, Qiaoling; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Zhao, Li; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2017-06-15

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in mature fruits of 457 apple accessions were measured, and a great variation in AsA concentration was detected. Wild fruits showed significantly higher level of AsA than cultivated fruits. Fruit AsA content was positively correlated with malic acid content, but negatively correlated with fruit weight and soluble solid content. Thus, the difference in AsA content between the wild and cultivated fruits could be attributed to an indirect consequence of human selection for larger fruit size, less acidity, and increased sweetness during apple domestication. Additionally, AsA concentration was extremely high in fruit at the juvenile stage, but dramatically decreased at the expanding and mature stages. The expression levels of three genes controlling AsA accumulation, MdGGP1, MdDHAR3-3, and MdNAT7-2, were significantly negatively correlated with AsA contents in fruits, suggesting a feedback regulation mechanism in AsA-related gene expression. Our results could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance of fruit variability in the assessment of apple quality by sensory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavay, Cécile; Symoneaux, Ronan; Maître, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cultivars, apples were sorted into homogenous acoustic firmness categories within each cultivar. The discrimination ability of the trained panel was observed not only between cultivars but also within each cultivar for crunchiness, firmness, juiciness and acidity. Following these results, a mixed......The assessment of produce quality is a major aspect of applied postharvest biology. Horticultural researchers working on organoleptic quality of fruit need objective methods for the evaluation of sensory properties. The development of sensory methodologies specifically for apples highlighted...... the problem of handling variation due to fruit variability and assessor differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight of within-batch variability in sensory evaluation of apples and to propose a methodology that accounts for this variability. Prior to sensory analysis, for three apple...

  11. Polygalacturonase gene pgxB in Aspergillus niger is a virulence factor in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Qian; Hu, Kang-Di; Li, Ting-Ting; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Liu, He-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type. Pectin medium induced significant higher expression of all pectinase genes in both wild type and ΔpgxB in comparison to potato dextrose agar medium. However, the ΔpgxB mutant was less virulent on apple fruits as the necrosis diameter caused by ΔpgxB mutant was significantly smaller than that of wild type. Results of quantitive-PCR showed that, in the process of infection in apple fruit, gene expressions of polygalacturonase genes pgaI, pgaII, pgaA, pgaC, pgaD and pgaE were enhanced in ΔpgxB mutant in comparison to wild type. These results prove that, despite the increased gene expression of other polygalacturonase genes in ΔpgxB mutant, the lack of pgxB gene significantly reduced the virulence of A. niger on apple fruit, suggesting that pgxB plays an important role in the infection process on the apple fruit.

  12. Differentiated surface fungal communities at point of harvest on apple fruits from rural and peri-urban orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-01-01

    The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total ...

  13. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  14. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shao, W.; Ziang, R.

    2015-01-01

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  15. EVALUATION OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF APPLE CHIPS AND DRIED FRUITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of thermodynamic perfection of separate technological processes is executed at heat-moisture of handling of fruit and a line of manufacture of fruit apple chips and dried fruits. The technological scheme of a line of processing of fruits and manufactures of fruit chips on the basis of convection and the microwave-dryings suggested resource-saving. The technique is made and results of calculation of thermal expenses for various schemes of manufacture of apple chips are resulted. For the offered scheme material, thermal and power streams on the basis of balance parities of technological processes are certain. The comparative thermal production efficiency of apple chips for a base foreign variant and the offered technological scheme with the closed cycle of use of the heat-carrier and the combined convection-microwave-drying is shown. In this paper we define the thermal and energy flows for the processes of convective drying, pre-microwave drying, hydrothermal treatment and final microwave drying plant material, which are one of the main stages of the production of all kinds of fruit and vegetable concentrates, including fruit apple chips. Resource-saving ways moisture-heat of handling (hydration, blanching, drying, etc. produce raw materials in the production of food concentrates suggested a reduced water flow with a high degree of use of its potential power and microwave sources. To assess the thermal efficiency of the various processes and production schemes used as indicators of thermal efficiency and proposed value of specific heat (kJ / kg given mass productivity per unit of feedstock and translational moisture. The values of the mass fraction of the heat of material flows for the base and the proposed resource-saving production scheme fruit chips, for example, apple, based on a combination of convection-microwave drying each control surface.

  16. Genes Encoding Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter II and their Association with Fruit Acidity in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiquan Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT was previously reported as a candidate for the locus controlling acidity in apple ( × Borkh.. In this study, we found that apple genes can be divided into three families and the gene belongs to the family. Duplication of genes in apple is related to the polyploid origin of the apple genome. Divergence in expression has occurred between the gene and its homologs in the family and only the gene is significantly associated with malic acid content. The locus consists of two alleles, and . resides in the tonoplast and its ectopic expression in yeast was found to increase the influx of malic acid into yeast cells significantly, suggesting it may function as a vacuolar malate channel. In contrast, encodes a truncated protein because of a single nucleotide substitution of G with A in the last exon. As this truncated protein resides within the cell membrane, it is deemed to be nonfunctional as a vacuolar malate channel. The frequency of the genotype is very low in apple cultivars but is high in wild relatives, which suggests that apple domestication may be accompanied by selection for the gene. In addition, variations in the malic acid content of mature fruits were also observed between accessions with the same genotype in the locus. This suggests that the gene is not the only genetic determinant of fruit acidity in apple.

  17. Relationship between fruit traits of custard apple trees (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keny Henrique Mariguele

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate simple and partial coefficients of correlation, as well as to divide their effects into direct and indirect using path analysis for custard apple tree traits. Twenty half-sibling progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replicates, and plots consisting of four plants. Six traits were evaluated in the first cropping season (mean number of seeds per fruit and mean weight of the pericarp, pulp, pedicel, seeds per fruit, and the whole fruit, while five traits were evaluated in the first three cropping seasons (mean fruit length and width, total number of fruits ha-1, mean fruit weight (in both types of analyses, and fruit yield in kg ha-1. The results of this work led to the conclusion that doing selection based on simple correlation estimates may not be convenient, since not always a cause and effect relationship can be verified between two traits. Positive correlations were obtained between number of seeds and seed weight, and between number of fruits and yield. The greatest direct effects were those obtained for pulp weight on fruit weight and for mean number and weight of fruits on fruit yield. The most important indirect effects were obtained for number of seeds and pericarp weight, obtained via pulp weight, on fruit weight, and for fruit length and width, obtained via mean fruit weight, on fruit yield.

  18. Uncovering co-expression gene network modules regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-16

    Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that putatively encodes a vacuolar aluminum-activated malate transporter1 (ALMT1)-like protein is a strong candidate gene. We hypothesize that fruit acidity is governed by a gene network in which Ma1 is key member. The goal of this study is to identify the gene network and the potential mechanisms through which the network operates. Guided by Ma1, we analyzed the transcriptomes of mature fruit of contrasting acidity from six apple accessions of genotype Ma_ (MaMa or Mama) and four of mama using RNA-seq and identified 1301 fruit acidity associated genes, among which 18 were most significant acidity genes (MSAGs). Network inferring using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed five co-expression gene network modules of significant (P acidity. Overall, this study provides important insight into the Ma1-mediated gene network controlling acidity in mature apple fruit of diverse genetic background.

  19. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  20. Modelling fruit-temperature dynamics within apple tree crowns using virtual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudreau, M; Marquier, A; Adam, B; Sinoquet, H

    2011-10-01

    Fruit temperature results from a complex system involving the climate, the tree architecture, the fruit location within the tree crown and the fruit thermal properties. Despite much theoretical and experimental evidence for large differences (up to 10 °C in sunny conditions) between fruit temperature and air temperature, fruit temperature is never used in horticultural studies. A way of modelling fruit-temperature dynamics from climate data is addressed in this work. The model is based upon three-dimensional virtual representation of apple trees and links three-dimensional virtual trees with a physical-based fruit-temperature dynamical model. The overall model was assessed by comparing model outputs to field measures of fruit-temperature dynamics. The model was able to simulate both the temperature dynamics at fruit scale, i.e. fruit-temperature gradients and departure from air temperature, and at the tree scale, i.e. the within-tree-crown variability in fruit temperature (average root mean square error value over fruits was 1·43 °C). This study shows that linking virtual plants with the modelling of the physical plant environment offers a relevant framework to address the modelling of fruit-temperature dynamics within a tree canopy. The proposed model offers opportunities for modelling effects of the within-crown architecture on fruit thermal responses in horticultural studies.

  1. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  2. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  3. Fine-tuning of the flavonoid and monolignol pathways during apple early fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; Moser, Mirko; Brilli, Matteo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pindo, Massimo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine

    2017-05-01

    A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing. We identified and characterized genes induced and repressed during fruit development in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. Our results showed an opposite regulation of genes coding for enzymes belonging to flavonoid and monolignol pathways, with a strong induction of the former and a simultaneous repression of the latter. Two isoforms of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, key enzymes located at the branching point between flavonoid and monolignol pathways, showed opposite expression patterns during the period in analysis, suggesting a possible regulation mechanism. A targeted metabolomic analysis supported the SSH results and revealed an accumulation of the monomers catechin and epicatechin as well as several forms of procyanidin oligomers in apple fruitlets starting early after anthesis, together with a decreased production of other classes of flavonoids such as some flavonols and the dihydrochalcone phlorizin. Moreover, gene expression and metabolites accumulation of 'Golden Delicious' were compared to a wild apple genotype of Manchurian crabapple (Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.). Significant differences in both gene expression and metabolites accumulation were found between the two genotypes.

  4. Penetrative and dislodgeable residue characteristics of 14C-insecticides in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Sanchez, David; Cregg, Bert; Hoffmann, Eric; Flore, James; Wise, John C

    2012-03-28

    Infinite- and finite-dose laboratory experiments were used to study the penetrative and dislodgeable residue characteristics of (14)C-insecticides in apple fruit. The differences in dislodgeable and penetrated residues of three radiolabeled insecticides ((14)C-thiamethoxam, (14)C-thiacloprid, and (14)C-indoxacarb), applied in aqueous solution with commercial formulations, were determined after water and methanol wash extractions. The rate of sorption and extent of penetration into the fruit cuticles and hypanthium of two apple cultivars were measured after 1, 6, and 24 h of treatment exposure, using radioactivity quantification methods. For all three compounds, 97% or more of the treatment solutions were found on the fruit surface as some form of non-sorbed residues. For indoxacarb, sorption into the epicuticle was rapid but desorption into the fruit hypanthium was delayed, indicative of a lipophilic penetration pathway. For the neonicotinoids, initial cuticular penetration was slower but with no such delay in desorption into the hypanthium.

  5. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  6. Phytosterol conjugation in cold-storage apple fruit is linked to oxidative stress and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature stress is implicated in a wide-range of apple fruit postharvest necrotic disorders. Previously, untargeted metabolic profiling identified alterations in multiple metabolic processes that precede superficial scald symptom development. Metabolites with free sterol (FS) –like mass spe...

  7. Phytosterol conjugation in cold-stored apple fruit is linked to oxidative stress and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature stress is implicated in a wide-range of apple fruit postharvest necrotic disorders. Previously, untargeted metabolic profiling identified alterations in multiple metabolic processes that precede superficial scald symptom development. Metabolites with free sterol (FS) –like mass spe...

  8. Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in 'Elstar' apple skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between fruit N, P, K, Mg and Ca concentrations during the season and flavonoid and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of `Elstar¿ apples at maturity have been studied during three seasons in a nutrition experiment (with the mutant `Elshof¿), and in a separate experiment with

  9. Protecting apple trees from rain –better fruit quality and maintenance of yield

    OpenAIRE

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig

    2016-01-01

    Plastic rain shields reduce the leaf and fruit wetness and protect apple trees against major leaf diseases and hail damage. Shielding the trees may reduce incoming radiation, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the light spectrum, and affect the microclimate and photosynthesis.

  10. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...... recommended sample sizes to accurately describe the distribution of various quality variables of apples at the orchard scale....

  11. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alpana; Chouksey, Swati; Deshmukh, Reena; Thakur, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  12. EFFECT OF THIDIAZURON CONCENTRATION AND APPLICATION PERIOD ON ‘ROYAL GALA’ APPLE FRUITING AND PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVERLAN FAGUNDES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Gala’ apple trees have low fruit set in restrictive pollination situations, being an obstacle to the achievement of high production rates in orchards in southern Brazil, which can be minimized by the use of growth regulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thidiazuron concentrations in ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruiting and production, grown in mild winter conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop years in Fraiburgo, SC, on ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees in Marubakaido rootstock M9 with filter. In all evaluation cycles, the experimental design was a randomized block with factorial arrangement (6x2 with six TDZ concentrations and two application forms, with six replicates, and the experimental unit consisting of one plant. The TDZ concentrations of each treatment were applied split into two seasons. The first application was performed on pink bud stage (E2 and the second application was in full bloom stage (F2. The variables evaluated were: fruit set (%, return bloom (%, number and weight of fruits per plant, mean fruit weight (g and average number of seeds per fruit. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, in which for significant variables by the F test, analysis of contrast and polynomial regression were performed in order to evaluate the response of variables with increasing TDZ concentration. TDZ is effective even at low concentrations, increasing the production and fruit set of ‘Gala’ apples in the climatic conditions of southern Brazil.

  13. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. It was easy, when apples and blackberries were only fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in company names are omnipresent. This is not accidental, companies deliberately chose ambiguous brand names, as part of their marketing and branding strategy. This procedure leads to new challenges, when it comes to finding information about the company on the Web. This paper is concerned with the task of classifying Twitter messages, whether they are related to a given company: for example, we classify a set of twitter messages containing a keyword apple, whether a message is re...

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-01-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  16. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  17. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Le Bourvellec

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee' managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26 over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013. The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic… encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside

  18. Method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from image of red apple in orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jidong; Xu, Liming

    2017-07-01

    This work proposed a method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from red apple image in orchard. To acquire fruit image, R-G image was extracted from the RGB image for corrosive working, hole filling, subregion removal, expansive working and opening operation in order. Finally, fruit image was acquired by threshold segmentation. To acquire leaf image, fruit image was subtracted from RGB image before extracting 2G-R-B image. Then, leaf image was acquired by subregion removal and threshold segmentation. To acquire branch image, dynamic threshold segmentation was conducted in the R-G image. Then, the segmented image was added to fruit image to acquire adding fruit image which was subtracted from RGB image with leaf image. Finally, branch image was acquired by opening operation, subregion removal and threshold segmentation after extracting the R-G image from the subtracting image. Compared with previous methods, more complete image of fruit, leaf and branch can be acquired from red apple image with this method.

  19. Responses of apple fruit size to tree water status and crop load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, A; Naschitz, S; Peres, M; Gal, Y

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of irrigation rate and crop load on apple yield and fruit size were examined in two commercial apple orchards (cv. Golden Delicious) in a semi-arid zone. The irrigation rates applied were 1, 3 and 7 mm day(-1), and the two fruit thinning treatments involved adjusting crop load to 100 and 300 fruits per tree at Ortal and 50 and 150 fruits per tree at Matityahu. Unthinned trees served as the control. The fruit from each tree was picked separately, and fruit size distribution was determined with a commercial grading machine. Midday stem water potentials varied from -0.9 to -2.8 MPa, crop load varied from 80,000 to 1,900,000 fruit ha(-1) and crop yield varied from 10 to 144 Mg ha(-1). Midday stem water potential decreased with increasing crop load in all irrigation treatments at Matityahu, but only in the 1 mm day(-1) treatment at Ortal. The extent of the lowering of midday stem water potential by crop load decreased with increasing soil water availability. At both orchards, a similar response of total crop yield to crop load on a per hectare basis was observed. Mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter increased with midday stem water potential, with the low crop loads having similar but steeper slopes than the high crop load. The responses of mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter to midday stem water potential were similar at both orchards, perhaps indicating that thresholds for irrigation scheduling are transferable to other orchards within a region. Factors that may limit the transferability of these thresholds are discussed.

  20. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the

  1. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on the translocation of Cs-134 from leaves to fruit of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katana, H.; Bunnenberg, C.; Kuehn, W.

    1988-01-01

    Besides the commonly considered pathway of radionulides into plant products, namely root uptake and surface deposition, another contamination process of edible parts of plants may occur when activity is intercepted by exposed plant surfaces and translocated within the plant into the fruit under consideration. This pathway seems especially relevant in case of fruit trees having large total leaf areas compared to the actual fruit surface. Besides the plant species and the nutritive element the most relevant parameters of the uptake and translocation efficiencies seem to be the age and the time and way of application, where these parameters include a number of sub-parameters. The present studies concern the translocation of cesium in apple tress from differently labeled plant parts into fruit in view of its possible contribution to fruit contamination

  3. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  4. [Quantitative models between canopy hyperspectrum and its component features at apple tree prosperous fruit stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun; Lei, Tong; Dong, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Hyperspectral technique has become the basis of quantitative remote sensing. Hyperspectrum of apple tree canopy at prosperous fruit stage consists of the complex information of fruits, leaves, stocks, soil and reflecting films, which was mostly affected by component features of canopy at this stage. First, the hyperspectrum of 18 sample apple trees with reflecting films was compared with that of 44 trees without reflecting films. It could be seen that the impact of reflecting films on reflectance was obvious, so the sample trees with ground reflecting films should be separated to analyze from those without ground films. Secondly, nine indexes of canopy components were built based on classified digital photos of 44 apple trees without ground films. Thirdly, the correlation between the nine indexes and canopy reflectance including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed. The results showed that the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf was the best, among which the max coefficient reached 0.815, and the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of leaf was a little better than that between reflectance and the density of fruit. Then models of correlation analysis, linear regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the hyperspectral reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf with the softwares of DPS and LIBSVM. It was feasible that all of the four models in 611-680 nm characteristic band are feasible to be used to predict, while the model accuracy of BP neural network and support vector regression was better than one-variable linear regression and multi-variable regression, and the accuracy of support vector regression model was the best. This study will be served as a reliable theoretical reference for the yield estimation of apples based on remote sensing data.

  5. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  6. Early Yield Prediction Using Image Analysis of Apple Fruit and Tree Canopy Features with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Since early yield prediction is relevant for resource requirements of harvesting and marketing in the whole fruit industry, this paper presents a new approach of using image analysis and tree canopy features to predict early yield with artificial neural networks (ANN; (2 Methods: Two back propagation neural network (BPNN models were developed for the early period after natural fruit drop in June and the ripening period, respectively. Within the same periods, images of apple cv. “Gala” trees were captured from an orchard near Bonn, Germany. Two sample sets were developed to train and test models; each set included 150 samples from the 2009 and 2010 growing season. For each sample (each canopy image, pixels were segmented into fruit, foliage, and background using image segmentation. The four features extracted from the data set for the canopy were: total cross-sectional area of fruits, fruit number, total cross-section area of small fruits, and cross-sectional area of foliage, and were used as inputs. With the actual weighted yield per tree as a target, BPNN was employed to learn their mutual relationship as a prerequisite to develop the prediction; (3 Results: For the developed BPNN model of the early period after June drop, correlation coefficients (R2 between the estimated and the actual weighted yield, mean forecast error (MFE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean square error (RMSE were 0.81, −0.05, 10.7%, 2.34 kg/tree, respectively. For the model of the ripening period, these measures were 0.83, −0.03, 8.9%, 2.3 kg/tree, respectively. In 2011, the two previously developed models were used to predict apple yield. The RMSE and R2 values between the estimated and harvested apple yield were 2.6 kg/tree and 0.62 for the early period (small, green fruit and improved near harvest (red, large fruit to 2.5 kg/tree and 0.75 for a tree with ca. 18 kg yield per tree. For further method verification, the cv.

  7. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula.

  8. Fruit quality of ‘Eva’ e ‘Princesa’ apples grown under nitrogen fertigation in semiarid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. de S. Miranda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe production of high quality fruits is a necessary factor for the adaptation and production of plant species with economic viability. Thus, an experiment was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 to evaluate the fruit quality of the ‘Eva’ and ‘Princesa’ apple cultivars as a function of nitrogen fertilization in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4, corresponding to apple cultivars (Eva and Princesa and nitrogen doses (40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, with four replications and three plants in each plot. The fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, skin color (luminosity, chromaticity, and colour angle, size (width and length, pulp firmness, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS and the SS/TA ratio, were recorded. Nitrogen doses do not affect fruit quality of studied apple cultivars. The fruit quality attributes are different between apple cultivars: fruit firmness, SS/TA ratio, fruit mass and fruit diameter are superior for Princesa cultivar, while the fruit length for Eva cultivar is superior.

  9. Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yun; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p

  10. Chemical Composition of the Fruits of Several Apple Cultivars Growth as Biological Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe CAMPEANU; Gabriela NEATA; Gina DARJANSCHI

    2009-01-01

    To obtain a better quality of fruits and to adapt to the requirements of consumers needs, the researchers regard the content of fruits attentively, especially the content of sugar, vitamins and mineral substances. The aims of the research were to test ten apple cultivars from the point of view of sugars, water content, proteins, acidity, vitamin C and also mineral elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe. Results obtain for sugars show a higher content of sugar between 9.53 and 12.34%. The higher...

  11. Heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system under intensive apple cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtić Senad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems confronting agricultural production is heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils, which imposes considerable limitations on productivity and leads to great consumer health and safety concerns about the products obtained on these soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system in an intensive apple cv. 'Idared' planting located in the Municipality of Goražde. Heavy metal contents in the soil samples and plant material were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu 7000 AA device, according to the instructions specified in the ISO 11047 method. The dynamics of the heavy metals analyzed, excepting zinc, in the soil-leaf-fruit system was characterized by relatively high total levels of heavy metals in the soil and a very low degree of their accumulation in the leaves and in particular the fruits. No fruit sample was found to have toxic levels of any of the heavy metals analyzed. In terms of soil contamination, this suggests the suitability of the study location for safe apple fruit production.

  12. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoghalaere, Fanny; Doucen, Thomas; Guitton, Baptiste; Keeling, Jeannette; Payne, Wendy; Ling, Toby John; Ross, John James; Hallett, Ian Charles; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Dayatilake, G A; Diak, Robert; Breen, Ken C; Tustin, D Stuart; Costes, Evelyne; Chagné, David; Schaffer, Robert James; David, Karine Myriam

    2012-01-13

    Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106). This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3) removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  13. Phytochemicals and nutritional composition in accessions of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra): Southern African indigenous fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpai, Semkaleng; du Preez, Rosemary; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2018-07-01

    Current study was initiated to identify the phytochemicals and the nutritional profile of eleven Kei-apple fruit accessions. Accession FH29 showed the highest level (492.45 mg 100 g -1 fresh weight) of total phenolic content, higher than the referral fruit, blueberry. Pyrogallol was identified as the predominant phenolic compound in all accessions. Accession FH 29 showed the highest (49.75 µmol TEAC g -1 fresh weight) antioxidant capacity. Catechin content was higher in accessions; FH151, FH15, FH14, FH29, FH243, FH 239 and FH 231. Accessions, FH14 and FH232 exhibited higher levels of β-carotene than the referral fruit apples (cv. Top red) and peaches (cv. Excellence). The total sugar (glucose and fructose) was highest (50 mg g -1 fresh weight) in accession FH240. Asparagine (3122.18 mg L -1 ) and gamma-aminobutyric (1688.87 mg L -1 ) were higher in accessions FH239 and FH243 respectively. Overall, the accession Kei-apple FH236 can be regarded as a good source of essential amino acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  15. Comprehensive QTL mapping survey dissects the complex fruit texture physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2012-02-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process in plants whereby cell wall programmed changes occur mainly to promote seed dispersal. Cell wall modification also directly regulates the textural properties, a fundamental aspect of fruit quality. In this study, two full-sib populations of apple, with 'Fuji' as the common maternal parent, crossed with 'Delearly' and 'Pink Lady', were used to understand the control of fruit texture by QTL mapping and in silico gene mining. Texture was dissected with a novel high resolution phenomics strategy, simultaneously profiling both mechanical and acoustic fruit texture components. In 'Fuji × Delearly' nine linkage groups were associated with QTLs accounting from 15.6% to 49% of the total variance, and a highly significant QTL cluster for both textural components was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-located with Md-PG1, a polygalacturonase gene that, in apple, is known to be involved in cell wall metabolism processes. In addition, other candidate genes related to Md-NOR and Md-RIN transcription factors, Md-Pel (pectate lyase), and Md-ACS1 were mapped within statistical intervals. In 'Fuji × Pink Lady', a smaller set of linkage groups associated with the QTLs identified for fruit texture (15.9-34.6% variance) was observed. The analysis of the phenotypic variance over a two-dimensional PCA plot highlighted a transgressive segregation for this progeny, revealing two QTL sets distinctively related to both mechanical and acoustic texture components. The mining of the apple genome allowed the discovery of the gene inventory underlying each QTL, and functional profile assessment unravelled specific gene expression patterns of these candidate genes.

  16. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3 on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fruit quality, 50 mg/l GA3 treatment increased the juice content, K+, TSS, total sugar and sugar acid ratio of wax apple fruits. In addition, higher vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, carotene content, PAL and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between the peel colour and TSS content and between the PAL activity and anthocyanin formation in the GA3-treated fruit. It was concluded that rubbing with 50 mg/L GA3 at inflorescence developing point of phloem once a week from the tiny inflorescence bud until the flower opening resulted in better yield and quality of wax apple fruits and could be an effective technique to safe the environment from excessive spray.

  17. Fruit self-thinning: a trait to consider for genetic improvement of apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Martinez, Sébastien; Bechti, Abdel; Khelifi Touhami, Amina; James, Marie José; Durel, Charles-Eric; Laurens, François; Costes, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    In apple (Malus×domestica Borkh), as in many fruiting crops, fruit maintenance vs abscission is a major criteria for production profitability. Growers routinely make use of chemical thinning agents to control total fruit load. However, serious threats for the environment lead to the demand for new apple cultivars with self-thinning properties. In this project, we studied the genetic determinism of this trait using a F1 progeny derived from the cross between the hybrid INRA X3263, assumed to possess the self-thinning trait, and the cultivar 'Belrène'. Both counting and percentage variables were considered to capture the fruiting behaviour on different shoot types and over three consecutive years. Besides low to moderate but significant genetic effects, mixed models showed considerable effects of the year and the shoot type, as well as an interaction effect. Year effect resulted mainly from biennial fruiting. Eight Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) were detected on several linkage groups (LG), either independent or specific of the year of observation or the shoot type. The QTL with highest LOD value was located on the top third of LG10. The screening of three QTL zones for candidate genes revealed a list of transcription factors and genes involved in fruit nutrition, xylem differentiation, plant responses to starvation and organ abscission that open new avenues for further molecular investigations. The detailed phenotyping performed revealed the dependency between the self-thinning trait and the fruiting status of the trees. Despite a moderate genetic control of the self-thinning trait, QTL and candidate genes were identified which will need further analyses involving other progenies and molecular investigations.

  18. Differentiated surface fungal communities at point of harvest on apple fruits from rural and peri-urban orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-02-01

    The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total of 111 fungal genera belonging to 4 phyla were identified, showing remarkable fungal diversity on the apple surface. Comparative analysis of rural samples harboured higher fungal diversity than those from peri-urban orchards. In addition, fungal composition varied significantly across apple samples. At the genus level, the protective genera Coniothyrium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Periconia were enriched in rural samples. The pathogenic genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Tilletiposis were enriched in peri-urban samples. Our findings indicate that rural samples maintained more diverse fungal communities on apple surfaces, whereas peri-urban-planted apple carried potential pathogenic risks. This study sheds light on ways to improve fruit cultivation and disease prevention practices.

  19. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  20. Effect of aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG on preharvest fruit drop and maturity of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante Cassandro Vidal Talamini do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees cultivars Gala and Fuji were sprayed four weeks before commercial harvest with aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG, at doses of 0, 125, or 250 mg L-1, and assessed for preharvest fruit drop, fruit growth, and maturation on tree. In 'Gala', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control treatment was 85%, and AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 reduced it to 10%. In 'Fuji', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control was 6%, while treatments with AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 increased fruit drop to 10%. AVG was a powerful retardant of fruit maturation for 'Gala' but not for 'Fuji'. In 'Gala', the most affected attribute was the skin background color, followed, in decreasing order, by soluble solids content, the starch index, skin red color, the flesh firmness, and titratable acidity. In 'Gala', only flesh firmness retention was improved by increasing AVG dose from 125 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The AVG at 250 mg L-1 inhibited "Gala" late fruit growth but not 'Fuji'.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on the texture of minimally processed apples for a fruit salad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adrianafabbri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is the third largest producer of fruits (43 million tons), being preceded only by China (175 million tons) and India (57 million tons). Regular consumption of fruit is associated with a better quality of life and is pointedly recommended by their high fiber content, water, vitamins and organic salts, as well as being tasty and quick digestion. Currently, the fresh market has grown significantly, especially the segment washed, peeled, cut or sliced, raw packaged and stored under refrigeration, known as minimally processed and / or ready for consumption. Apples in addition to several important nutritional characteristics are widely consumed fresh and are used as important components of desserts in Brazil, for example, fruit salads. Considering the many benefits demonstrated by the application of food irradiation, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the texture of minimally processed apples submitted to doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy in multipurpose irradiator located at IPEN / CNEN-SP during the 10 days after irradiation. The results indicated that radiation was beneficial for all treatments and that the presented statistical differences were more due to the intrinsic factors of the fruit, than the day or dose. These results were evaluated using Statistica 8.0, by tukey's test and two-way ANOVA. (author)

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the texture of minimally processed apples for a fruit salad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the third largest producer of fruits (43 million tons), being preceded only by China (175 million tons) and India (57 million tons). Regular consumption of fruit is associated with a better quality of life and is pointedly recommended by their high fiber content, water, vitamins and organic salts, as well as being tasty and quick digestion. Currently, the fresh market has grown significantly, especially the segment washed, peeled, cut or sliced, raw packaged and stored under refrigeration, known as minimally processed and / or ready for consumption. Apples in addition to several important nutritional characteristics are widely consumed fresh and are used as important components of desserts in Brazil, for example, fruit salads. Considering the many benefits demonstrated by the application of food irradiation, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the texture of minimally processed apples submitted to doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy in multipurpose irradiator located at IPEN / CNEN-SP during the 10 days after irradiation. The results indicated that radiation was beneficial for all treatments and that the presented statistical differences were more due to the intrinsic factors of the fruit, than the day or dose. These results were evaluated using Statistica 8.0, by tukey's test and two-way ANOVA. (author)

  4. Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila is the causal agent of lenticel spot on apple and pear fruit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Geijn, van de F.G.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In a survey for postharvest diseases of apples and pears in the Netherlands, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed. The disease appeared to originate from infected lenticels. A fungus was consistently isolated from the decayed fruits. The fungal pathogen was isolated on potato dextrose

  5. Video data of flowers, fruitlets, and fruit in apple trees during the 2017 growing season at USDA-ARS-AFRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This record contains videos of apple trees acquired from a ground vehicle throughout the growing season at the USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station. Research in precision management methods in orchard crops revolve around locating objects of interest, namely flowers, fruitlets, and fruit, a...

  6. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  7. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Alba, Rob; Schouten, Henk; Soglio, Valeria; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Sansavini, Silviero; Costa, Guglielmo; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James

    2010-10-25

    Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene. To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies), we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato) microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated.The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database) and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato) microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization during normal climacteric apple ripening, as well as

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  10. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.

  11. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'.

  12. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Dynamics of Starch and Total Sugars during Fruit Development for Ionathan, Starkrimson and Golden Delicious Apple Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andruţa Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apples represent one of the most important elements in the human diet. The research carried out involved three apple varieties (Starkimson, Ionathan and Golden Delicious harvested during development, which were analyzed in terms of physico-chemical profile. During fruit development, diameter and mass increased continuously for all the three apple varieties studied, acidity decreased and total soluble solids content increased significantly. The pH values of the apple pulp also increased confirming the results obtained for the acidity. The starch concentration was reduced in the early stages of fruit development in all three varieties of apple studied. Starch concentration significantly increased (p <0.05 starting 35 days after full bloom, similar for all three varieties studied. The peak of starch concentration for all three varieties under study was reached at 65 days after full bloom. Starch concentration gradually decreased starting 107 days after full bloom until technological maturity. The results provide important information on how to make the best use of the apple cultivars investigated, and not only, for both technological research and processing practice. Also, they determine the best time to use the apples from physiological falls in different foods and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Phytohormone Interaction Modulating Fruit Responses to Photooxidative and Heat Stress on Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-related physiological disorders such as sun damage on apples (Malus domestica Borkh are caused by cumulative photooxidative and heat stress during their growing season triggering morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in fruit tissues not only while it is on the tree but also after it has been harvested. The objective of the work was to establish the interaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA, abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET and its precursor ACC (free and conjugated, MACC during development of sun-injury-related disorders pre- and post-harvest on apples. Peel tissue was extracted from fruit growing under different sun exposures (Non-exposed, NE; Exposed, EX and with sun injury symptoms (Moderate, Mod. Sampling was carried out every 15 days from 75 days after full bloom (DAFB until 120 days post-harvest in cold storage (1°C, > 90%RH. Concentrations of IAA, ABA, JA, SA, were determined using UHPLC mass spectrometry, and ET and ACC (free and conjugated MACC using gas chromatography. IAA was found not to be related directly to sun injury development, but it decreased 60% in sun exposed tissue, and during fruit development. ABA, JA, SA, and ethylene concentrations were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in Mod tissue, but their concentration, except for ethylene, were not affected by sun exposure. ACC and MACC concentrations increased until 105 DAFB in all sun exposure categories. During post-harvest, ethylene climacteric peak was delayed on EX compared to Mod. ABA and SA concentrations remained stable throughout storage in both tissue. JA dramatically increased post-harvest in both EX and Mod tissue, and orchards, confirming its role in low temperature tolerance. The results suggest that ABA, JA, and SA together with ethylene are modulating some of the abiotic stress defense responses on sun-exposed fruit during photooxidative and heat stress on the tree.

  15. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  16. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  17. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  18. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. High Triterpenic Acids Production in Callus Cultures from Fruit Pulp of Two Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Apple Fruit Diameter and Length Estimation by Using the Thermal and Sunshine Hours Approach and Its Application to the Digital Orchard Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan?an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year da...

  1. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  2. Effect of bagging on fruit quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Fuji and Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Fateminia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple fruit color is determined by the amount of pigments in its peel which is directly affected by sunlight.  A method for improving apple fruit color is bagging. In present study, the effect of bagging and its optimum removing time was investigated on the amount of peel pigments and other fruit quantitative and qualitative characteristics for Fuji and Granny Smith apples. The experimental treatments were, no bag (control, debagging 7 and 14 days before harvest, and keeping the bag until harvest time. At the end of experiment, the amount of pigments, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pulp phenol, peel phenol, antioxidants percentage, fruit weight and volume were measured. The results showed that in debagging 7 and 14 days before harvest treatments, the amount of anthocyanin and soluble solids statistically increased as compared with control; however other measured characteristics were significantly reduced in both apple cultivars. The maximum amount of fruit anthocyanin (60.96 mg/g fresh weight belonged to Fuji cultivar in 14 days treatment and the least amount of fruit anthocyanin (1.64 mg/g fresh weight belonged to Granny Smith cultivar in zero-day treatment. The highest amount of fruit chlorophyll a (5.09µgr/lit was observed in control fruit and the lowest amount of fruit chlorophyll a (3.94 µgr/lit was observed in 14 days treatment. The decrease of chlorophyll amount is a positive characteristic for the Fuji and a negative one for Granny Smith. Therefore, bagging and 14 days before harvest debagging treatment increased the amount of anthocyanin and decreased chlorophyll which resulted in Fuji cultivar better coloring and reducing the green color quality of Granny Smith cultivar.

  3. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200–400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200–400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200–400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation. - Highlights: • A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during 9 month storage period. • Effects of γ radiation in combination with biocontrol agent on physico-chemical parameters of the apple fruits during cold storage. • The potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with biocontrol agent. • Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum (postharvest pathogen) control

  4. The drop of flowers and fruits in apple, with special reference to the June drop of Cox's orange pippin and its control with growth regulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, S.J.

    1971-01-01

    To study possibilities for increases of yield of the apple cultivar Cox's Orange Pippin, relevant information was gathered about fruit set and fruit drop, in particular about June drop. The information concerned pollination intensity, amount of fruit set, seed content of the fruit, number

  5. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  6. Effect of soil surface management on radiocesium concentrations in apple orchard and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaba, Shinnosuke; Matsuoka, Kaori; Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of soil surface management on radiocesium accumulation in an apple orchard in Fukushima Prefecture over 4 years after Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in mid-March 2011. Different types of soil surface management such as clean cultivation, intertillage management, intertillage with bark compost application, sod culture, and zeolite application were employed. The radiocesium concentrations in soil were higher in the surface layer (0–5 cm) than in the other layers. The radiocesium concentration in the surface layer soil with sod culture in 2014 increased non-significantly compared with that observed in 2011. The radiocesium concentration in the mid-layer soil (5–15 cm) managed with intertillage was higher than that in soil managed using other types of management. The radiocesium amount in the organic matter on the soil surface was the highest in sod culture, and was significantly lower in the management with intertillage. The radiocesium concentration in fruit decreased exponentially during the 4 years in each types of soil surface management. The decrease in radiocesium concentration showed similar trends with each type of soil surface management, even if the concentration in each soil layer varied according to the management applied. Furthermore, intertillage with bark compost application did not affect the radiocesium concentration in fruit. These results suggest that the soil surface management type that affected the radiocesium distribution in the soil or the compost application with conventional practice did not affect its concentration in fruit of apple trees for at least 4 years since the nuclear power plant accident, at a radiocesium deposition level similar to that recorded in Fukushima City. (author)

  7. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.

  8. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  9. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  10. Development of a method for detection of latent European fruit tree canker (Neonectria ditissima) infections in apple and pear nurseries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, Marcel; Jong, de Peter F.; Joosten, Nina N.; Goedhart, Paul W.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit tree canker caused by Neonectria ditissima is a serious problem in apple-producing regions with moderate temperatures and high rainfall throughout the year; especially in northwestern Europe, Chile, and New Zealand. Control measures are applied to protect primary infection sites, mainly leaf

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology of Pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Scherm, Barbara; Liu, Jia; Farrell, Robert; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena; Maserti, Bianca E; Wisniewski, Michael E; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-11-01

    Pichia fermentans (strain DISAABA 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against Monilinia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. Pichia fermentans grows as budding yeast on apple tissue and exhibits pseudohyphal growth on peach tissue, suggesting that dimorphism may be associated with pathogenicity. Two complementary suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategies, that is, rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) and PCR-based subtraction, were performed to identify genes differentially expressed by P. fermentans after 24-h growth on apple vs. peach fruit. Gene products that were more highly expressed on peach than on apple tissue, or vice versa, were sequenced and compared with available yeast genome sequence databases. Several of the genes more highly expressed, when P. fermentans was grown on peach, were related to stress response, glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, and alcoholic fermentation but surprisingly not to cell wall degrading enzymes such as pectinases or cellulases. The dual activity of P. fermentans as both a biocontrol agent and a pathogen emphasizes the need for a thorough risk analysis of potential antagonists to avoid unpredictable results that could negatively impact the safe use of postharvest biocontrol strategies. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François

    2003-10-08

    Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.

  13. Efficient sampling to determine distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, D.; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... ‘fractionator’ tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica ‘Fuji Raku Raku’) in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  14. Efficient sampling to determine the distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... 'fractionator' tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica 'Fuji Raku Raku') in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  15. Enzymatic browning and antioxidant activities in harvested litchi fruit as influenced by apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengke; Huber, Donald J; Qu, Hongxia; Yun, Ze; Wang, Hui; Huang, Zihui; Huang, Hua; Jiang, Yueming

    2015-03-15

    'Guiwei' litchi fruit were treated with 5 ga.i. L(-1) apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 25°C to investigate the effects on pericarp browning. APP treatment effectively reduced pericarp browning and retarded the loss of red colour. APP-treated fruit exhibited higher levels of anthocyanins and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, which correlated with suppressed anthocyanase activity. APP treatment also maintained membrane integrity and reduced oxidative damage, as indicated by a lower relative leakage rate, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The data suggest that decompartmentalisation of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and respective browning substrates was reduced. In addition, APP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power), which might be beneficial in scavenging ROS. We propose that APP treatment is a promising safe strategy for controlling postharvest browning of litchi fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ARA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and ABA-t-diol from postharvest apple fruits, cv. Granny Smith and confirmed their structure by GC-MS. These putative ABA biosynthetic precursors incorporate 18 O to a similar degree as ABA during 48 hours under 18 O 2 atmospheres. The presence of significant amounts of ABA-aldehyde can explain the unique 18 O labeling pattern of ABA in this tissue, where a majority of ABA molecules containing 18 O is labeled in the 1'-hydroxyl group and not in the side chain carboxyl group, the primary site of incorporation for stressed leaves. Exchange of the carbonyl oxygen of ABA-aldehyde with water would decrease 18 O enrichment in the side chain. Results of 18 O 2 experiments and feeding studies using hexadeutero-ABA-aldehyde will be presented and the biosynthetic relationship of these compounds discussed

  17. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005.

  18. Life cycle management on Swiss fruit farms. Relating environmental and income indicators for apple-growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouron, Patrik; Scholz, Roland W.; Weber, Olaf [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Human-Environment Systems, ETH Zentrum, HAD, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemecek, Thomas [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-25

    Integrated fruit production (IFP) has been practiced in Switzerland on a large scale basis since the late 1980s, with the aim of improving sustainable farming. The guidelines of IFP emphasise an ecosystem approach that is based on scientific knowledge about self-regulatory mechanisms at the tree and orchard level. Empirical studies at the farm level are rare. An understanding of the relationship between income and environmental impacts at the farm level is a prerequisite for devising a robust system for orchard portfolio management. An income analysis based on full cost principle and environmental life cycle assessment were applied to 445 annual data sets of apple orchards, recorded on 12 specialised fruit farms over a period of 4 years. The main result was that environmental impacts such as ecotoxicity, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use did not necessarily increase when farms increased their income. A higher input level of pesticides, fertilisers and machinery did not lead to increased yields and receipts. In contrast, the choice of apple cultivars and high investment in pre-harvest labour hours were significantly correlated with high eco-efficiency and high farm income. The results of this study were summarised in a pyramid-shaped management model, providing key issues of successful orchard farming and attributing management rules to master them. The management pyramid indicates that cognitive competences such as distributional, conditional and non-linear thinking are crucial when knowledge from tree and orchard management is integrated at the farm level. A main recommendation is that more attention should be paid to improving management competence in order to contribute to sustainable farming. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation effects on physico-chemical parameters of apple fruit during commercial post-harvest preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, Hossein Ahari; Mirmajlessi, Seyed Mahyar; Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad; Fathollahi, Hadi; Askari, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Red Delicious apple subjected to γ radiation were evaluated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Gy and stored at 1 °C. Apples were evaluated at three month intervals. The results showed that there was a clear link between phenolic content and antioxidant activity, so that dose range of 900 Gy and higher significantly decreased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The moisture percent of stored apples was more responsive to irradiation (at doses of 900–1200 Gy) than storage time and pathogen. Lesion diameter of pathogen-treated non-irradiated apples was significantly increased after three months. This means that storage at low temperature is not enough to avoid blue mold growth. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased; also pathogen accelerated softening of stored apples. This study showed conclusively that low irradiation doses (300 and 600 Gy) combined with cold storage is a way to minimize apple quality losses during nine month storage period. - Highlights: ► A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during nine month storage period. ► Effects of γ radiation and cold storage on physico-chemical parameters of the apple. ► Potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with cold storage. ► Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum control.

  20. Comparative analysis of allergen genes and pro-inflammatory factors in pollen and fruit of apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Roberta; Pagliarani, Giulia; Savazzini, Federica; Aloisi, Iris; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Tartarini, Stefano; Ricci, Giampaolo; Del Duca, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Allergy to freshly consumed apple fruits is often associated to pollinosis and manifested as oral allergy syndrome (OAS). The allergenic properties of apple varieties differ greatly, spanning from low allergenic to high allergenic varieties. The knowledge of the genetic determinants for allergenicity has been of great interest in scientific community for several years, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still little understood. Here, factors putatively involved in allergenicity were investigated at biochemical and molecular level in pollen and in fruits of apple varieties differing in their allergenic potential. Among putative sensitizing factors, transglutaminase (TGase) and phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) were considered together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and known apple allergen genes, with particular attention devoted to the Mal d 1 gene family, the most important one in sensitization. We found that the expression of some allergen genes and the activities of TGase, PLA 2 and ROS producing enzyme are lower in the hypo-allergenic variety 'Durello di Forlì' in comparison with the high-allergenic genotypes 'Gala' and 'Florina'. These results highlight correlations among allergen expressions, enzymatic activities and apple cultivars; these data underline the possibility that some of them could be used in the future as markers for allergenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  2. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Mario; Tadiello, Alice; Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  3. A Multidisciplinary Approach Providing New Insight into Fruit Flesh Browning Physiology in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies (‘Fuji x Pink Lady’ and ‘Golden Delicious x Braeburn’). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple. PMID:24205065

  4. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ apple response to controlled atmosphere storage with oxygen set point determined in response to fruit chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest management of apple fruit ripening using controlled atmosphere (CA) cold storage can be enhanced as CA oxygen concentration is decreased to close to the anaerobic compensation point (ACP). Monitoring fruit chlorophyll fluorescence is one technology available to assess fruit response to ...

  6. Effect of postharvest spray of apple polyphenols on the quality of fresh-cut red pitaya fruit during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Panhui; Huber, Donald J; Su, Zihan; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; Li, Min; Shi, Xuequn; Zhang, Zhengke

    2018-03-15

    Fresh-cut (FC) red pitaya fruit were treated with 5ga.i.l -1 apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 20°C for up to 4days to evaluate the effects on attributes. Results showed that FC pitaya fruit with APP treatment showed greater colour retention, delayed softening, reduced loss of soluble solids content, titratable acidity, betacyanin and total phenolics compared with untreated FC fruit. APP treatment also maintained antioxidant activity, as indicated by higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power compared with untreated FC pitaya fruit. APP treatment strongly suppressed microbial growth, contributing to improvement of product safety. Because APP is a natural product, we propose that application of APP could be a convenient, safe and low-cost approach to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of FC red pitaya fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of Aspergillus niger Virulence in Apple Fruits by Deletion of the Catalase Gene cpeB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Ke; Tang, Jun; Huang, Zhong-Qin; Hu, Kang-Di; Li, Yan-Hong; Han, Zhuo; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Lan-Ying; Yao, Gai-Fang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-05-30

    Aspergillus niger, a common saprophytic fungus, causes rot in many fruits. We studied the role of a putative catalase-peroxidase-encoding gene, cpeB, in oxidative stress and virulence in fruit. The cpeB gene was deleted in A. niger by homologous recombination, and the Δ cpeB mutant showed decreased CAT activity compared with that of the wild type. The cpeB gene deletion caused increased sensitivity to H 2 O 2 stress, and spore germination was significantly reduced; in addition, the reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) metabolites superoxide anions (·O 2 - ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the Δ cpeB mutant during H 2 O 2 stress. Furthermore, ROS metabolism in A. niger infected apples was determined, and our results showed that the Δ cpeB mutant induced an attenuated response in apple fruit during the fruit-pathogen interaction; the cpeB gene deletion significantly reduced the development of lesions, suggesting that the cpeB gene in A. niger is essential for full virulence in apples.

  8. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  10. The Phytoene synthase gene family of apple (Malus x domestica) and its role in controlling fruit carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Driedonks, Nicky; Lewis, David; Shumskaya, Maria; Chen, Xiuyin; Wurtzel, Eleanore T; Espley, Richard V; Allan, Andrew C

    2015-07-28

    Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genome to further understand their involvement in fruit carotenoid accumulation. The apple PSY gene family, containing six members, was predicted to have three functional members, PSY1, PSY2, and PSY4, based on translation of the predicted gene sequences and/or corresponding cDNAs. However, only PSY1 and PSY2 showed activity in a complementation assay. Protein localisation experiments revealed differential localization of the PSY proteins in chloroplasts; PSY1 and PSY2 localized to the thylakoid membranes, while PSY4 localized to plastoglobuli. Transcript levels in 'Granny Smith' and 'Royal Gala' apple cultivars showed PSY2 was most highly expressed in fruit and other vegetative tissues. We tested the transient activation of the apple PSY1 and PSY2 promoters and identified potential and differential regulation by AP2/ERF transcription factors, which suggested that the PSY genes are controlled by different transcriptional mechanisms. The first committed carotenoid pathway step in apple is controlled by MdPSY1 and MdPSY2, while MdPSY4 play little or no role in this respect. This has implications for apple breeding programmes where carotenoid enhancement is a target and would allow co-segregation with phenotypes to be tested during the development of new cultivars.

  11. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  12. Towards the onset of fruit tree growing north of the Alps: ancient DNA from waterlogged apple (Malus sp.) seed fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbaum, Angela; van Glabeke, Sabine; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel

    2012-01-20

    Wild apples (Malus sp.) have been a major food source in the northern Alpine region since prehistory and their use is well understood. The onset of deliberate fruit tree growing in the area is, however, less clear. It is generally assumed that horticulture was practised in Roman times, but it might be even earlier. In the archaeological record seed testa and pericarp remains are particularly frequent at sites with waterlogged preservation such as lakeshore settlements or wells, pits and ditches, but the distinction between wild and domestic plants is not morphologically possible. With waterlogged remains being one main source of information about past fruit cultivation, we have tested the feasibility of analysing ancient DNA from waterlogged preserved bulk samples of testa fragments. We studied apple seeds from three Neolithic and three Roman sites with waterlogged preservation in the Alpine foreland. Chloroplast markers failed in all samples, but nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer region 1) of the ribosomal DNA was successfully typed in two Roman samples from the site Oedenburg/Biesheim-Kunheim (Haut-Rhin, F). The retrieved ITS1 sequences are identical to each other and are shared with wild Malus sylvestris and Malus sieversii, and with domestic apple cultivars, supporting the potential of using waterlogged remains for identifying the genetic status of apple diachronically. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Penicillium expansum (compatible) and Penicillium digitatum (non-host) pathogen infection differentially alter ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Laura; Vall-Llaura, Núria; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi

    2017-11-01

    The role of ethylene on inducing plant resistance or susceptibility to certain fungal pathogens clearly depends on the plant pathogen interaction with little or no-information available focused on the apple-Penicillium interaction. Taken advantage that Penicillium expansum is the compatible pathogen and P. digitatum is the non-host of apples, the present study aimed at deciphering how each Penicillium spp. could interfere in the fruit ethylene biosynthesis at the biochemical and molecular level. The infection capacity and different aspects related to the ethylene biosynthesis were conducted at different times post-inoculation. The results show that the fruit ethylene biosynthesis was differently altered during the P. expansum infection than in response to other biotic (non-host pathogen P. digitatum) or abiotic stresses (wounding). The first symptoms of the disease due to P. expansum were visible before the initiation of the fruit ethylene climacteric burst. Indeed, the ethylene climacteric burst was reduced in response to P. expansum concomitant to an important induction of MdACO3 gene expression and an inhibition (ca. 3-fold) and overexpression (ca. 2-fold) of ACO (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) and ACS (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) enzyme activities, indicating a putative role of MdACO3 in the P. expansum-apple interaction which may, in turn, be related to System-1 ethylene biosynthesis. System-1 is auto-inhibited by ethylene and is characteristic of non-climateric or pre-climacteric fruit. Accordingly, we hypothesise that P. expansum may 'manipulate' the endogenous ethylene biosynthesis in apples, leading to the circumvention or suppression of effective defences hence facilitating its colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.

    1996-01-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  15. Consumer Perception Concerning Apple Fruit Quality, Depending on Cultivars and Hedonic Scale of Evaluation - a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina DAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse fruit quality through consumers’ perceptions and their preferences revealed by two panel questionnaires. Among the most common apple cultivars on the Romanian markets, were chosen the ones existing simultaneously and continuously (over two-years, during January-March: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Florina’, ‘Idared’. The consumers’ panel for sensory evaluation was represented by students, who completed two types of questionnaires. Both questionnaires refer to foremost traits for dessert apple, such as fruit appearance (size, shape, color and intrinsic peculiarities (pulp consistency, juiciness, taste, flavor. First questionnaire comprised different scales for the traits (1-3, 1-5 or 1-15, while the second one consisted of the hedonic scale (1-9 for all traits. For commercial appearance of the fruits were highlighted ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Braeburn’ and especially ‘Jonagold’. ‘Braeburn’ was distinct by the highest quality taste (average grade 13.9 on the scoring taste scale 1-15 and also for fruit flavor. ‘Granny Smith’, a commercially attractive-looking fruit, received only an average of 6.2 for taste and 2.6 for flavor. ‘Granny Smith’ presented the largest value for the coefficients of variation for taste, this variety being preferred less by female than male tasters. Inconsistency of the market, prices and foreign assortment on Romanian market was illustrated by the lack of statistical correlations between commercial fruit quality and price. The study could provide useful background information for apples breeders, farmers and marketing fruits strategy. The use of different scales for panel evaluation, dependent on the relevance of traits, might be a proper solution for reducing bias. In this case, the 1-15 large scale for apple taste compared with lower ones for other traits

  16. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  17. Dynamic Labeling Reveals Temporal Changes in Carbon Re-Allocation within the Central Metabolism of Developing Apple Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiye F. Beshir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of isotopically labeled substrates has received extensive attention in plant physiology. Measuring the propagation of the label through metabolic networks may provide information on carbon allocation in sink fruit during fruit development. In this research, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling was used to characterize the changing metabolic pool sizes in developing apple fruit at five growth stages (30, 58, 93, 121, and 149 days after full bloom using 13C-isotope feeding experiments on hypanthium tissue discs. Following the feeding of [U-13C]glucose, the 13C-label was incorporated into the various metabolites to different degrees depending on incubation time, metabolic pathway activity, and growth stage. Evidence is presented that early in fruit development the utilization of the imported sugars was faster than in later developmental stages, likely to supply the energy and carbon skeletons required for cell division and fruit growth. The declined 13C-incorporation into various metabolites during growth and maturation can be associated with the reduced metabolic activity, as mirrored by the respiratory rate. Moreover, the concentration of fructose and sucrose increased during fruit development, whereas concentrations of most amino and organic acids and polyphenols declined. In general, this study showed that the imported compounds play a central role not only in carbohydrate metabolism, but also in the biosynthesis of amino acid and related protein synthesis and secondary metabolites at the early stage of fruit development.

  18. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.

  19. A candidate gene based approach validates Md-PG1 as the main responsible for a QTL impacting fruit texture in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Hamblin, Martha T; Trainotti, Livio; Peace, Cameron P; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-03-04

    Apple is a widely cultivated fruit crop for its quality properties and extended storability. Among the several quality factors, texture is the most important and appreciated, and within the apple variety panorama the cortex texture shows a broad range of variability. Anatomically these variations depend on degradation events occurring in both fruit primary cell wall and middle lamella. This physiological process is regulated by an enzymatic network generally encoded by large gene families, among which polygalacturonase is devoted to the depolymerization of pectin. In apple, Md-PG1, a key gene belonging to the polygalacturonase gene family, was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-localized within the statistical interval of a major hot spot QTL associated to several fruit texture sub-phenotypes. In this work, a QTL corresponding to the position of Md-PG1 was validated and new functional alleles associated to the fruit texture properties in 77 apple cultivars were discovered. 38 SNPs genotyped by gene full length resequencing and 2 SSR markers ad hoc targeted in the gene metacontig were employed. Out of this SNP set, eleven were used to define three significant haplotypes statistically associated to several texture components. The impact of Md-PG1 in the fruit cell wall disassembly was further confirmed by the cortex structure electron microscope scanning in two apple varieties characterized by opposite texture performance, such as 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith'. The results here presented step forward into the genetic dissection of fruit texture in apple. This new set of haplotypes, and microsatellite alleles, can represent a valuable toolbox for a more efficient parental selection as well as the identification of new apple accessions distinguished by superior fruit quality features.

  20. A preliminary study on the mechanism of fertilization and setting fruit of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xueming; Ma Huanpu; Wang Fengzhen; Li Wuxing; Shan Yongming

    1995-01-01

    The content of GA 3 , GA 4+7 , ABA, IAA, Z and ZR in the fruits and fruiting shoots treated with PP 333 , GA 3 was measured by GC and that of 15 N was measured by MS. The results showed that the number of fruits was increased, but the size of fruit and length of fruiting shoot were inhibited by PP 333 treatment. Opposite results were observed with GA 3 treatment although the number of fruits was higher than that in control. The content of CTK was consistent with the ability of setting fruit, but no relationship was found between the other hormones and setting fruit. Together with evidences of the high level of 15 N and total N or IAA + CTK/GA 4=7 in fruits and the low level of those in fruiting shoots after PP 333 treatment allow us to conclude that the mechanism of PP 333 on setting fruit probably is to inhibit biosynthesis of GAs, to increase the content of CTK, and to promote the ratio value of IAA + CTK/GA 4+7 , increasing and changing the status of nutrition. The distribution of 15 N is changed from the order of king fruit>fruiting shoot>lateral fruit to king fruit>lateral fruit>fruiting shoot. Thus the competition between fruits and shoots growth was weaken, which resulted in the higher ability of setting fruit than that in the control and GA 3 treatment

  1. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan'an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  2. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012 of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT, an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT, an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  3. Identification of genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes in 'Red Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red) and their expression and melatonin production during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific replant disorder of apple. I. Introduction and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.

    1978-01-01

    A low pH of the soil prevents the specific apple replant disorder (SARD). Not much is known about the effect of a low pH on the growth of fruit trees. Most authors accept a pH of between 5.5 and 6.5 as optimum for apples but this assumption is not based on experimental research. It is feasible that

  5. IDENTIFIKASI CHARACTER IMPACT ODORANTS BUAH KAWISTA (Feronia Limonia [Identification of Character Impact Odorants of Wood Apple Fruit (Feronia Limonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles of the kawista fruit (wood apple were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Character impact odorants of the fruits were systematically characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA with GC-Olfactometry (GC-O. A total of 75 compounds were identified, including 28 esters, 11 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 1 acetal, 10 ketones, 4 lactones, 1 heterocyclic, 4 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 1 furan and 5 acids. However, only 44 volatiles were detected by GC-O. Among these, compounds with the most impact were ethyl butyrate (fruity, sweet, banan-likeand methyl butyrate (fruit, sour with a flavor dilution factor of 256 and 64, respectively. Based on AEDA results, butyric acid, 3-mathyl valeric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, pentyl isobutyrate, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, gamma-decalactone, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-octanone, 5-methyl-3-heptanone, 9-methyl-5-undecene and (E-2-hexenyl butyrate seem to contribute to kawista fruit flavor

  6. An experiment to detect apples infested by the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, S.; Nakamoto, Y.; Takanashi, M.; Masuda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy to detect apples ('Fuji' cultivar) infested by the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, was evaluated using a prevalent NIR device. A calibration equation was developed using both the NIR spectra and injury levels of the infested fruits. The equation predicted the injury levels of fruits using a simple correlation coefficient of 0.8868 and a standard error of prediction of 0.3688. At the level of estimates to discard ca 90% of infested fruits, 90.15% of the infested fruits and 39.24% of the uninfested fruits were excluded from the samples. Although its accuracy was not sufficient, the present NIR device has the potential to identify internally infested fruits

  7. Allergenicity assessment of apple cultivars: hurdles in quantifying labile fruit allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, L.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Kleine Budde, I.; Breiteneder, H.; Ma, Y.; Mills, C.; Sancho, A. I.; Meulenbroek, E. J.; van de Weg, E.; Gilissen, L.; Ferreira, F.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; van Ree, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of allergenicity of foods is important for allergic consumers and regulators. Immunoassays to measure major food allergens are widely applied, often giving variable results. Using the major apple allergen Mal d 1 as a model, we aimed to establish at the molecular level why

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Spore Germination and Mycelial Growth of Penicillium Expansum, Post harvest Disease of Apple Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, H. A.; Mirmajlessi, S. M.; Mirjalili, S. M.; Fathollahi, H.; Mansouripour, S. M.; Babaei, M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum causes most of the losses during the storage period in the world. In this study, the inhibition effect of different doses of gamma radiation on spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum was investigated. As a result, the Penicillium expansum was recovered from infected apple fruits. In order to evaluate the gamma radiation effect on the spore germination, spore suspension (10 4 spore/ml) exposed to 0, 100, 300 and 600 grey, using Co-60 gamma cell with a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/Sec. Also, a disk of mycelium (0.5 cm 2 ) was removed from the edge of a three-days colony and transferred to PDA plates and irradiated to 0, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500 Gy. The results showed that, the irradiation has completely inhibited the spore germination at 600 Gy. While, a dose of 3000 Gy completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum.

  9. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple.

  10. Novel hybridized drying methods for processing of apple fruit: Energy conservation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazervazifeh, Amin; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Moghaddam, Parviz A.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic outlook of apple cultivation and its significant post-processing challenges have been the leading factors for energy and time saving research approaches in apple processing. In this research, apple slices were subjected to hot air flow, microwave radiation and combined microwave-hot air flow drying. Drying time, energy consumption and thermal efficiency at different microwave power levels (500 W, 1000 W, 1500 W and 2000 W), hot air temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C) and inlet air velocities (0.5 ms"−"1, 1 ms"−"1, 1.5 ms"−"1 and 2 ms"−"1) were studied and compared. The minimum time of processing was 17 min when integrated hot air flow and microwave radiation was applied with 2000 W power at the temperature of 70 °C and air velocity of 2 ms"−"1. Furthermore, the minimum value of total energy consumption during entire process of apple slices drying was 2684 kJ which belonged to microwave drying with 2000 W power. - Highlights: • Microwave radiation is implemented to reduce the energy demand for drying. • Simultaneous impact of microwave and hot air on energy and time consumption was analyzed. • Minimum drying time occurs with combined utilization of microwave and hot air. • Thermal efficiency was desirable in low air velocities and high temperatures. • Thermal efficiency of microwave radiation increased by 200% compared to single hot air method.

  11. Evaluation of Physical-Chemical Indexes, Sugars, Pigments and Phenolic Compounds of Fruits from Three Apple Varieties at the End of Storage Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruta Elena Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apples are the most cultivated and consumed fruits in the world. They not only taste great, but there are also rich sources of monosaccharides, pigments, fibers, functional compounds such as polyphenols which are well-known for their antioxidant action. Due to the high level of apples consumption, it is important to monitor and know the detailed chemical composition of this fruits on the market shelf. The aim of this paper was to study the detailed chemical composition of apples from three varieties. Samples from three varieties (Ionathan, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson were taken from the Romanian market. Individual sugars composition was performed by HPLC, total polyphenols content by Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity by using the DPPH test, while pigments were analysed by spectrophotometric specific methods and the total starch content measured by a polarimetric method. Water content, acidity, total soluble solids and pH were also monitored through specific methods. There were found differences between varieties particularly in relation to the polyphenols content, carotenoids and chlorophyll. Regarding the individual sugars composition, fructose and glucose were predominant followed by sucrose for all samples. Values of starch, moisture, acidity, total soluble solids and the pH were according to other apple varieties found in literature. These results provide important information regarding the chemical composition of apple varieties from Romanian market, for both human direct consumption and industrial processing. 

  12. Apple (Malus domestica) MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening by suppressing MdACS1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Lichao; Tan, Dongmei; Wei, Yun; Yuan, Hui; Li, Tianlai; Wang, Aide

    2016-12-01

    Ripening in climacteric fruit requires the gaseous phytohormone ethylene. Although ethylene signaling has been well studied, knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is still limited. Here we show that an apple (Malus domestica) ethylene response factor, MdERF2, negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1, a gene that is critical for biosynthesis of ripening-related ethylene. Expression of MdERF2 was suppressed by ethylene during ripening of apple fruit, and we observed that MdERF2 bound to the promoter of MdACS1 and directly suppressed its transcription. Moreover, MdERF2 suppressed the activity of the promoter of MdERF3, a transcription factor that we found to bind to the MdACS1 promoter, thereby increasing MdACS1 transcription. We determined that the MdERF2 and MdERF3 proteins directly interact, and this interaction suppresses the binding of MdERF3 to the MdACS1 promoter. Moreover, apple fruit with transiently downregulated MdERF2 expression showed higher ethylene production and faster ripening. Our results indicate that MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening in apple by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1 via multiple mechanisms, thereby acting as an antagonist of positive ripening regulators. Our findings offer a deep understanding of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. [Effects of sand-covering on apple trees transpiration and fruit quality in dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiao-ning; Liu, Xiao-yong; Wang, Fa-lin

    2010-11-01

    Aiming at the seasonal drought in the dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu Province, a sand-covering experiment was conducted with 15-year-old Nagafu No. 2 apple trees, with the soil water content, temperature, stem sap flow velocity, leaf stomatal conductance, and fruit quality measured. In the orchard covered with 5-cm-thick riversand, the increment of soil temperature in February-April was lower than 1 degrees C, while in June-July, it was 2.44 degrees C and 2.61 degrees C on sunny and cloudy days, respectively. The soil water content was over 60% of field capacity throughout the growing season. On sunny days with high soil water content (H season), the stem sap flow curve presented a wide peak. Under sand- covering, the sap flow started 0.6 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 25.5% higher than the control. On cloudy days of H season, the maximum sap flow velocity was 165.6% higher than the control. On sunny days with low soil water content (L season), the sap flow curve had a single peak, and under sand covering, the sap flow started 0.5-1 h earlier than the control on sunny days. The maximum sap flow velocity was 794 g x h(-1). On cloudy days of L season, the sap flow started 1 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 311.0% higher than the control. The evaporation of the control was 156.0% higher than that of sand-covering from March to July, suggesting that excessive ground water evaporation was the main reason to cause soil drought. Under sand-covering, single fruit mass was improved obviously whereas fruit firmness was reduced slightly, and soluble solids, vitamin C, total sugar, and organic acid contents were somewhat promoted.

  15. Apple fruit acidity is genetically diversified by natural variations in three hierarchical epistatic genes MdSAUR37, MdPP2CH and MdALMTII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongjie; Shen, Fei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2018-05-11

    Many efforts have been made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to facilitate practical marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plants. In the present study, we identified four genome-wide major QTLs responsible for apple fruit acidity by MapQTL and BSA-seq analyses using two independent pedigree-based populations. Candidate genes were screened in major QTL regions, and three functional gene markers, including a non-synonymous A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of MdPP2CH, a 36-bp insertion in the promoter of MdSAUR37, and a previously reported SNP in MdALMTII, were validated to influence the malate content of apple fruits. In addition, MdPP2CH inactivated three vacuolar H + -ATPases (MdVHA-A3, MdVHA-B2 and MdVHA-D2) and one aluminium-activated malate transporter (MdALMTII) via dephosphorylation and negatively influenced fruit malate accumulation. The dephosphotase activity of MdPP2CH was suppressed by MdSAUR37, which implied a higher hierarchy of genetic interaction. Therefore, the MdSAUR37/MdPP2CH/MdALMTII chain cascaded hierarchical epistatic genetic effects to precisely determine apple fruit malate content. An A/G SNP (-1010) on MdMYB44 promoter region from a major QTL (qtl08.1) was closely associated with fruit malate content. The predicted phenotype values (PPVs) were estimated using the tentative genotype values of the gene markers, and the PPVs were significantly correlated with the observed phenotype values. Our findings provide an insight into plant genome-based selection in apples and will aid in conducting research to understand the physiological fundamentals of quantitative genetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  17. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...

  18. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  19. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction.

  20. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  1. The performance of five fruit-derived and freeze-dried potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains in apple, orange and grape juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Luciano, Winnie Alencar; de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; de Oliveira Arcanjo, Narciza Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-30

    This study assessed the survival of the fruit-derived and freeze-dried L. plantarum 49, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108, L. fermentum 111 and L. pentosus 129 strains during frozen storage and when incorporated into apple, orange and grape juice stored under refrigeration. Physicochemical parameters of juices containing the freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains and the survival of the test strains in the fruit juices during in vitro digestion were also evaluated. No decreases in survival rates (log N/log N0) of the freeze-dried cells were observed up to 1 month of storage. The survival rates of the freeze-dried strains L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 were >0.75 up to 4 months of storage. All freeze-dried strains exhibited survival rates of >0.75 up to 2 weeks of storage in apple juice; only L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 showed similar survival rates in orange and grape juices up to 2 weeks of storage. The contents of the monitored organic acids or sugars during storage varied depending on the added strain and the type of fruit juice. At the end of the in vitro digestion, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108 and L. fermentum 111 showed survival rates of >0.80 in apple juice. Apple juice was as the best substrate to the survival of the tested freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains over time. L. paracasei 108 and L. plantarum 49 as the strains presenting the best performance for incorporation in potentially probiotic fruit juices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  3. Factors affecting the conversion of apple polyphenols to phenolic acids and fruit matrix to short-chain fatty acids by human faecal microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocco, Sarah; Mattila, Ismo; Guyot, Sylvain; Renard, Catherine M G C; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2008-12-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by colonic microbiota. In the present article, the ability of human microbiota to ferment apple PAs is studied. Freeze-dried fruit preparations (apple, enzymatically digested apple, isolated cell-walls, isolated PAs or ciders) from two varieties, Marie Ménard and Avrolles, containing PAs of different chain lengths, were compared. Fermentation studies were performed in an in vitro colon model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The maximal extent of conversion to known microbial metabolites, was observed at late time point for Marie Ménard cider, having short PAs. In this case, the initial dose also contributed to the extent of conversion. Long-chain PAs were able to inhibit the in vitro microbial metabolism of PAs shown as low maxima at early time points. Presence of isolated PAs also suppressed SCFA formation from carbohydrates as compared with that from apple cell wall or faecal suspension without substrates. The low maximal extents at early time points suggest that there is a competition between the inhibitory effect of the PAs on microbial activity, and the ability to convert PAs by the microbiota.

  4. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars “Cripps Pink” and “Braeburn”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eisenstecken

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in the wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS, acidity (TA, firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose for two cultivars of apples (“Braeburn” and “Cripps Pink” was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  5. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars "Cripps Pink" and "Braeburn".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstecken, Daniela; Panarese, Alessia; Robatscher, Peter; Huck, Christian W; Zanella, Angelo; Oberhuber, Michael

    2015-07-24

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose) for two cultivars of apples ("Braeburn" and "Cripps Pink") was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA) a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA) and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS) regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  6. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  7. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  8. Effect of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in apple fruit: signature analysis, assessment, modelling, and relevance to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Melø, Thor Bernt; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    Whole apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) widely differing in pigment content and composition has been examined by recording its chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and diffuse reflection spectra in the visible and near UV regions. Spectral bands sensitive to the pigment concentration have been identified, and linear models for non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols via chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are put forward. The adaptation of apple fruit to high light stress involves accumulation of these protective pigments, which absorb solar radiation in broad spectral ranges extending from UV to the green and, in anthocyanin-containing cultivars, to the red regions of the spectrum. In ripening apples the protective effect in the blue region could be attributed to extrathylakoid carotenoids. A simple model, which allows the simulation of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in the visible range and a quantitative evaluation of competitive absorption by anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols, is described. Evidence is presented to support the view that anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols play, in fruit with low-to-moderate pigment content, the role of internal traps (insofar as they compete with chlorophylls for the absorption of incident light in specific spectral bands), affecting thereby the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum.

  9. Comparative ultrastructure of fruit plastids in three genetically diverse genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Scott M.; Christian, Ryan; Castro-Velasquez, Nohely; Hyden, Brennan; Lynch-Holm, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids—chromoplasts—are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs. Recently, in a comparative study of the predicted plastid-targeted proteomes across seven plant species, we reported that each plant species is predicted to harbor a unique set of plastid-targeted proteins. However, the temporal and developmental context of these processes remains unknown. In this study, an ultrastructural analysis approach was used to characterize fruit plastids in the epidermal and collenchymal cell layers at 11 developmental timepoints in three genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.): chlorophyll-predominant ‘Granny Smith’, carotenoid-predominant ‘Golden Delicious’, and anthocyanin-predominant ‘Top Red Delicious’. Plastids transitioned from a proplastid-like plastid to a chromoplast-like plastid in epidermis cells, while in the collenchyma cells, they transitioned from a chloroplast-like plastid to a chloro-chromo-amyloplast plastid. Plastids in the collenchyma cells of the three genotypes demonstrated a diverse array of structures and features. This study enabled the identification of discrete developmental stages during which specific functions are most likely being performed by the plastids as indicated by accumulation of plastoglobuli, starch granules, and other sub-organeller structures. Information regarding the metabolically active developmental stages is expected to facilitate biologically relevant omics studies to unravel the complex biochemistry of plastids in perennial non-model systems. PMID:28698906

  10. Yield, fruit quality, contents and sensory quality of old apple varieties trained as slender spindle under organic and integrated cultivation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl

    2015-04-01

    Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter

  11. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  12. Genetic variability in apple fruit polyphenol composition in Malus × domestica and Malus sieversii germplasm grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Richard K; McGhie, Tony K

    2011-11-09

    Variations in the concentrations of flavan-3-ol, oligomeric procyanidin, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcone, flavonol, and anthocyanin polyphenol groups and total polyphenols were examined in the fruit peel and cortical flesh of 93 (80 Malus × domestica and 13 Malus sieversii) apple genotypes in at least 1 year between 2003 and 2005 grown at one site in New Zealand (NZ). Differences among genotypes accounted for 46-97% of the total variation in the concentrations of total polyphenols and each of the individual phenol groups in the flesh and peel in both species, whereas effects of year and genotype × year were minimal, except for peel flavonols in M. × domestica and flesh flavonols in both species. In these cases, differences among genotypes accounted for less than 30% of the total variation, which was less than the variation found for the interaction between genotype and year. Total polyphenol concentrations among genotypes were spread over a 7- and 9-fold range in the flesh and a 4- and 3-fold range in the peel of M. sieversii and M. × domestica, respectively, with the spread in concentrations of individual polyphenol groups in each tissue and within each species varying from a 2-fold to over a 500-fold range. Higher concentrations were generally found in M. sieversii. In M. × domestica, cultivars and breeding selections originating in NZ had lower average flesh and peel total polyphenols and chlorogenic acid than older cultivars previously imported into NZ from overseas countries.

  13. The influence of different types of pesticides on elemental profiles of some fruit trees: Apple and plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Setnescu, Tanta; Setnescu, Radu; Culicov, Otilia; Zinicovscaia, Inga

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the elemental content of various samples from apple and plum orchard - located in Dambovita and Arges Counties - (soil, bark and leaves) and to characterize the influence of different types of pesticides commonly used in orchards. For this purpose, the effect of pesticide/ natural fertilizer couples was studied by characterization of treated and untreated soil composition. Heavy metals were also used as tracers for pesticides concentration monitoring, aiming to get information about their overall concentration and eventually, their critical accumulation into some parts of the studied plants (which shall not exceed the limits regulated by Romanian law and UE directives for pesticides use in fruit-grower). Solid samples were analyzed by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and instrumental nuclear activation methods (INAA). Moreover, soil properties (pH and electrical conductivity) were determined in order to characterize agricultural soils and to analyze relationships between heavy metal contents and soil properties. Multivariate data analysis was performed to identify a common source for heavy metals. Correlations between the concentrations of heavy metals in the analyzed samples and pesticides used in these areas were found.

  14. Apples are not the only fruit: The effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, a variable known as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of age of acquisition and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in semantic dementia, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the age of acquisition or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation.

  15. More apples fewer chips? the effect of school fruit schemes on the consumption of junk food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio; De Paola, Maria; Labartino, Giovanna

    2014-10-01

    Using Italian data, we evaluate the effects on the consumption of unhealthy snacks of a European Union-wide campaign providing fruit and vegetables to school children and promoting healthy diet habits. We use scanner data of supermarket sales in the city of Rome. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we compare the sales of these snacks before and after the campaign in supermarkets located within a 500 m radius of schools that participated to the program (the treated group) and in supermarkets located outside that radius (control group). We find that the campaign has been effective in reducing the increase in the sales of unhealthy snacks in treated stores - relative to control stores - only in the case of regular stores, which tend to locate in the wealthier areas of Rome. No effect is found, instead, for discount stores, where people with a higher risk of developing obesity are more likely to shop. Our results suggest that the European School Fruit campaign has restrained the consumption of junk food in the sub-group of the population (wealthier families) who is less likely to be exposed to overweight and obesity problems, but has not been effective at all for the sub-group more at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The AINTEGUMENTA genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, are associated with the regulation of cell production during fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Madhumita; Malladi, Anish

    2012-06-25

    Fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is mediated by cell production and expansion. Genes involved in regulating these processes and thereby fruit growth, are not well characterized. We hypothesized that the apple homolog(s) of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an APETALA2-repeat containing transcription factor, regulates cell production during fruit growth in apple. Two ANT genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, were isolated from apple and their expression was studied during multiple stages of fruit development. MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was high during early fruit growth coincident with the period of cell production, rapidly declined during exit from cell production, and remained low during the rest of fruit development. The effects of increase in carbohydrate availability during fruit growth were characterized. Increase in carbohydrate availability enhanced fruit growth largely through an increase in cell production. Expression of MdANT1 and MdANT2 increased sharply by up to around 5-fold in response to an increase in carbohydrate availability. Expression of the ANT genes was compared across two apple genotypes, 'Gala' and 'Golden Delicious Smoothee' (GS), which differ in the extent of fruit growth, largely due to differences in cell production. In comparison to 'Gala', the larger fruit-size genotype, GS, displayed higher levels and a longer duration of MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression. Expression of the ANTs and cell cycle genes in the fruit core and cortex tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection was studied. During early fruit growth, expression of the MdANTs was higher within the cortex, the tissue that constitutes the majority of the fruit. Additionally, MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was positively correlated with that of A- and B-type CYCLINS, B-type CYCLIN-DEPENDENT-KINASES (CDKBs) and MdDEL1. Multiple lines of evidence from this study suggest that MdANT1 and MdANT2 regulate cell production during fruit growth in apple. ANTs may coordinate the expression of

  17. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  18. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits. PMID:29073205

  19. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Bin; Li, Shen; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Zhao, Qiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the cold-induced bHLH transcription factor gene MdbHLH3 was isolated from an apple tree and was found to interact physically and specifically through two regions (amino acids 1-23 and 186-228) at the N terminus with the MYB partner MdMYB1 (allelic to MdMYB10). Subsequently, MdbHLH3 bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes MdDFR and MdUFGT and the regulatory gene MdMYB1 to activate their expression. Furthermore, the MdbHLH3 protein was post-translationally modified, possibly involving phosphorylation following exposure to LTs, which enhanced its promoter-binding capacity and transcription activity. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  1. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  2. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  3. Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarausch, W; Saillard, C; Dosba, F; Bové, J M

    1994-01-01

    A 1.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with apple proliferation was sequenced. Three putative open reading frames were observed on this fragment. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2 shows significant homologies with bacterial nitroreductases. From the nucleotide sequence four primer pairs for PCR were chosen to specifically amplify DNA from MLOs associated with European diseases of fruit trees. Primer pairs specific for (i) Malus-affecting MLOs, (ii) Malus- and Prunus-affecting MLOs, and (iii) Malus-, Prunus-, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs were obtained. Restriction enzyme analysis of the amplification products revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Malus-, Prunus, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs as well as between different isolates of the apple proliferation MLO. No amplification with either primer pair could be obtained with DNA from 12 different MLOs experimentally maintained in periwinkle. Images PMID:7916180

  4. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  5. Determination of S-genotype in apple and sweet cherry cultivars released at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apples and sweet cherries are generally characterized by self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the multiallelic locus S with gametophytic action. Thus the identification of S-genotype represents crucial information for fruit breeders and growers. The aim of this study was to identify the S-genotype of two apple (‘Čačanska Pozna’ and ‘Čadel’ and two sweet cherry (‘Asenova Rana’ and ‘Čarna’ cultivars developed at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method with consensus and allele-specific primers. The S-genotype of apple cultivars ‘Čačanska Pozna’ (S7S9 and ‘Čadel’ (S2S7 were consistent with parental combinations ‘Starking Delicious’ (S9S28 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9 and ‘Golden Delicious’ (S2S3 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9, respectively. For sweet cherry cultivars ‘Asenova Rana’ [‘Drogans Gelbe’ (S1S5 × ‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4] and ‘Čarna’ [‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4 × ‘Bigarreau de Schrecken’ (S1S3], S3S9 and S1S4 were identified respectively, suggesting that the reported pedigree is erroneous. The trueness-to-type of DNA samples of both sweet cherry cultivars was confirmed by comparison of cultivar samples from more than one site. Upon this testing, the remaining inconsistency indicated that aforementioned parentages of the sweet cherry cultivars were incorrect. These discrepancies could be the result of possible pollen contamination, or mistakes either in breeders recording or in seed processing and seedling production. The results of S-genotyping of apple and sweet cherry cultivars provide relevant information on correct assignment of these cultivars to cross-compatibility groups, which are important for cross design in developing new cultivar, as well as for orchard management in the efficient production of fruits. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31064: Development and preservation

  6. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  7. Insights into secondary growth in perennial plants: its unequal spatial and temporal dynamics in the apple (Malus domestica) is driven by architectural position and fruit load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, P E; Kelner, J J; Trottier, C; Costes, E

    2010-04-01

    Secondary growth is a main physiological sink. However, the hierarchy between the processes which compete with secondary growth is still a matter of debate, especially on fruit trees where fruit weight dramatically increases with time. It was hypothesized that tree architecture, here mediated by branch age, is likely to have a major effect on the dynamics of secondary growth within a growing season. Three variables were monitored on 6-year-old 'Golden Delicious' apple trees from flowering time to harvest: primary shoot growth, fruit volume, and cross-section area of branch portions of consecutive ages. Analyses were done through an ANOVA-type analysis in a linear mixed model framework. Secondary growth exhibited three consecutive phases characterized by unequal relative area increment over the season. The age of the branch had the strongest effect, with the highest and lowest relative area increment for the current-year shoots and the trunk, respectively. The growth phase had a lower effect, with a shift of secondary growth through the season from leafy shoots towards older branch portions. Eventually, fruit load had an effect on secondary growth mainly after primary growth had ceased. The results support the idea that relationships between production of photosynthates and allocation depend on both primary growth and branch architectural position. Fruit load mainly interacted with secondary growth later in the season, especially on old branch portions.

  8. 1H NMR and PCA-based analysis revealed variety dependent changes in phenolic contents of apple fruit after drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, Alessandra; Romeo, Stefania; Cifelli, Mario; Gori, Daniele; Domenici, Valentina; Sebastiani, Luca

    2017-04-15

    Dry and fresh apples have been studied monitoring their polyphenolic profiles through 1 H NMR, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content. Six ancient and underutilized apple varieties (Mantovana, Mora, Nesta, Cipolla, Ruggina, Sassola) and a commercial one (Golden Delicious) were dried with an air-drying system at 45°C for 19h. Although some of their polyphenol constituents were lost during drying, the antioxidant capacity of some apple varieties remained higher compared to Golden Delicious. This result is very important for ancient and underutilized varieties that are not consumed on large scale as fresh product since they have low attractiveness, due to their ugly appearance. Combining quantitative NMR spectroscopy with principal component analysis we have identified and quantified several polyphenols (such as catechin, epicathechin, and chlorogenic acid) that are important to establish the nutraceutical value of the different investigated apple varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)—‘McIntosh’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Mutsu’—were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of ‘McIntosh’ and the flesh of ‘Mutsu’. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  10. Efeito de horários de polinização artificial no pegamento e qualidade de frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L. Effect of artificial polllination improving fruit set and quality of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem se destacado como grande produtor de frutas, especialmente a pinha. A cultura é encontrada desde o norte do país até o estado de São Paulo. Atualmente, o cultivo desta fruteira se espalhou, com a ocorrência de grandes áreas em vários estados brasileiros. A polinização inadequada é um dos fatores limitantes na produção comercial destes frutos. Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da polinização artificial foram utilizadas 20 plantas provenientes de um pomar comercial de pinha localizado no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. As flores foram polinizadas no estádio de fêmea por meio do uso de um pincel número dois. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos de seis horários de polinização (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10 horas, com cinco repetições, utilizando-se 10 flores por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de pegamento dos frutos, o comprimento, o diâmetro e o peso dos frutos, a porcentagem de frutos desuniformes, o peso da casca, polpa e sementes, o número de sementes e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Os melhores tratamentos para as características de peso de frutos e porcentagem de pegamento foram obtidos entre 6 e 10 horas. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais não foi afetado. Foram detectadas correlações positivas e significativas para os seguintes pares de caracteres: peso de fruto e diâmetro e peso de fruto e peso de casca.Nowadays Brazil is an important productor of tropical fruits, especially sugar apple. The sugar apple is widely grown in all Brazilians states. An inadequate pollination is one of the factors limiting the commercial production of sugar apple fruits. In order to study the effects of artificial pollination were used 20 plants from a commercial orchad of sugar apple originated from Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. The flowers were pollinated in the female stage using a number two brush. The experiment was performed in a randomized

  11. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  12. The effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chair Effendi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is the tooth-colored restorative material which most of the people are fond of due to their aesthetic value. The composite resin discoloration may happen because of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Soda water is one of the beverages which can cause the composite resin discoloration. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratory study using 100 shade A3 nano hybrid composite resin specimens with the diameter of 5 mm and density of 2mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups, each group was immersed in different beverages. The beverages were mineral water; lemon-flavored soda; strawberry-flavored soda; fruit punch-flavored soda; and orange-flavored soda for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, in the temperature of 37o C. The discoloration measurement utilizes Spectrophotometer, Vita Easy Shade, and uses CIEL*a*b* method. Results: The result showed that the duration of immersion in soda had an effect on the Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Strawberry and fruit punch- flavored soda were the most influential components toward the discoloration. Nevertheless, the generally-occurred discoloration was clinically acceptable (∆E ≤ 3,3. Conclusion: The study suggested that the soda immersion duration has effect on Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration.Latar belakang: Resin komposit adalah material sewarna gigi yang diminati masyarakat karena memiliki nilai estetik yang baik. Perubahan warna resin komposit dapat terjadi karena faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Minuman soda merupakan salah satu minuman yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan warna pada resin komposit. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk meneliti perubahan warna resin komposit nanohibrida akibat perendaman dalam minuman soda. Metode: Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorik dengan menggunakan

  13. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  14. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  15. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  16. Results of a Study of the Vegetative Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Different Grafting Combinations of the Apple Cultivar ‘Krista’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Univer Toivo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term field trials with the apple cultivar ‘Krista’ on different vegetative rootstocks were held at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre (58°07`N, 25°32`E in Southern Estonia in 2005-2015. Trees were grafted on 13 rootstocks: M26, M27, P59, E75, B9, B396, B491, MTT1, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, Supporter 3, Supporter 4, and MM106. The apple cultivar ‘Krista’ is well suited for growing in the climatic and soil conditions of Estonia. The cultivar performs best on vegetative rootstocks that are well-adapted to the Estonian climate: MM106, E75, B396, M26, M27, and P59. The rootstocks Supporter 1, Supporter 2, Supporter 3, and Supporter 4 did not turn out to be suited for growing in Estonia. The trees grafted on rootstocks MM106, E75, MTT1, and M26 grew taller, had a bigger crown spread and crown volume. In dense orchards with the planting scheme 4 × 1.5 m, trees with a smaller crown diameter may be grown on rootstocks MM27, P59, and Supporter 4. During the trial, the largest yields were harvested from trees grafted onto rootstocks MM106, MTT1, B396, M26, E75, and B9. Some rootstock combinations appeared to be positively related to average fruit weight in some years, but the same cannot be concluded for the whole duration of the trial.

  17. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSD<5.05) and recovery (93.94-103.06%) and satisfactory results obtained. The sugars content varied across micropropagated plants in vitro, plants regenerated after cryostorage, growing trees in vivo, and fruit peel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-12-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  1. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  2. Qualidade de frutos ensacados em diferentes genótipos de macieira The quality of bagged fruit of different apple genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar se o ensacamento e a retirada das embalagens em diferentes épocas afetam a qualidade dos frutos de diferentes genótipos de macieira. O estudo foi conduzido em pomar orgânico de maçãs, na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador, SC, durante a safra 2005/06, com as cultivares "Fuji Suprema" e "Royal Gala" e com as seleções M-11/00, M-13/00 e MR-11/90. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente ao acaso, composto por cinco repetições, sendo que cada planta constituiu uma repetição, e desta ensacaram-se todos os frutos. Os tratamentos foram compostos por três épocas de retirada das embalagens (15 e sete dias antes da colheita e na colheita; dois tipos de embalagens (saco de papel manteiga parafinado branco e saco de polipropileno microperfurado transparente; e o controle (frutos não ensacados. Avaliaram-se diâmetro, peso, maturação através da cor de fundo, russeting e queimadura pelo sol. Verificou-se que o ensacamento pode influenciar o tamanho e o peso de frutos em relação aos frutos não ensacados. O tipo de embalagem e o maior tempo de permanência destas nos frutos podem afetar a maturação. Não houve nenhum efeito do ensacamento ou do tipo e época de embalagem sobre a incidência de "russeting". A embalagem de polipropileno microperfurado transparente propiciou em "Fuji Suprema", "Royal Gala" e "MR-11/90" mais queimaduras de frutos em relação à embalagem de papel manteiga parafinado e ao tratamento controle.This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of unbagging during different periods on the quality of the fruits of apple genotypes. The study was carried out in an organic apple orchard, at Epagri/Caçador Experimental Station, SC, during the 2005/06 season, with cv. ‘Fuji Suprema’ and ‘Royal Gala’ and the selections M-11/00, M-13/00 and MR-11/90. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized block design with five repetitions, and each plant

  3. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  4. Comparative ultrastructure of fruit plastids in three genetically diverse genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Scott M; Christian, Ryan; Castro-Velasquez, Nohely; Hyden, Brennan; Lynch-Holm, Valerie; Dhingra, Amit

    2017-10-01

    Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs. Recently, in a comparative study of the predicted plastid-targeted proteomes across seven plant species, we reported that each plant species is predicted to harbor a unique set of plastid-targeted proteins. However, the temporal and developmental context of these processes remains unknown. In this study, an ultrastructural analysis approach was used to characterize fruit plastids in the epidermal and collenchymal cell layers at 11 developmental timepoints in three genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.): chlorophyll-predominant 'Granny Smith', carotenoid-predominant 'Golden Delicious', and anthocyanin-predominant 'Top Red Delicious'. Plastids transitioned from a proplastid-like plastid to a chromoplast-like plastid in epidermis cells, while in the collenchyma cells, they transitioned from a chloroplast-like plastid to a chloro-chromo-amyloplast plastid. Plastids in the collenchyma cells of the three genotypes demonstrated a diverse array of structures and features. This study enabled the identification of discrete developmental stages during which specific functions are most likely being performed by the plastids as indicated by accumulation of plastoglobuli, starch granules, and other sub-organeller structures. Information regarding the metabolically active developmental stages is expected to facilitate biologically relevant omics studies to unravel the complex

  5. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  6. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Damos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  7. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In

  8. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  9. Identification of microRNAs and their targets associated with fruit-bagging and subsequent sunlight re-exposure in the ‘Granny Smith’ apple exocarp using high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand such phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of ‘Granny Smith’ apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0h, 6h, 1d (debagging, and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0h, 6h, 1d. 201 known miRNAs belonging to 43 miRNA families and 220 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after debagging, which indicated that miRNAs affected anthocyanin accumulation through their target genes in mature apple. To further explore the effect of debagging on miRNAs regulating the expression of anthocyanin regulatory genes, four miRNAs and their target genes regulating anthocyanin accumulation, miR156, miR828, miR858 and miR5072, were compared between green cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ and red cultivar ‘Starkrimson’. Results showed that mdm-miR828 and mdm-miR858 regulated anthocyanin contents in both apple cultivars, while mdm-miR156 only affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Granny Smith’, and miR5072 affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Starkrimson’. Additional analysis of gene ontology for the differentially expressed miRNAs after debagging treatments and their predicted target genes showed that they were involved in photo-protective response after debagging from 0h to 1d; they might play important roles in fruit development and adaptation to high light stress.

  10. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  11. Comparison studies on soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M; Yusof, N.N.M.; Hashim, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin were compared in this study. The physico-chemical properties and structural features of the isolated lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV), ash test, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C-NMR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nitrobenzene oxidation was performed on these two types of lignin especially for the HPLC analysis. Based on the CHN, 13 C-NMR and UV results there were no significant differences between soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin. The FTIR results also showed that there were no significant differences in terms of functional groups that exist in both lignins. (author)

  12. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  13. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  14. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  15. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth. PMID:27755580

  16. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
    Apple

  17. THE EFFECT OF CULTIVAR AND BEARING TREE ON BUD DIFFERENTIATION, FROST DAMAGE AND FRUIT SET IN APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pavičić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After severe winter frost, an examination was initiated of frost damage suffered by Idared and Golden Delicious clone B. The cultivars differed significantly in the differentiation intensity, the hare of damaged differentiated buds, but not in share of damaged undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars the bud damage was more intensive on long bearing wood than on spur, regardless differentiation grade. The interaction between the cultivar and the bearing wood was insignificant. The flower bud differentiation was better in Idared, but it also suffered more frost damage than the Golden Delicious clone B with differentiated buds, but not than that with undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars frost damage increases with increase of differentiated flower buds (R2=0.759; P≤0.001. The fruit set was within the limits of expectation only on the spurs of the Golden Delicious clone B, which showed strong tendency towards fruit set on long bearing shoots. In 2000, the yield of the cultivars was almost equal, as the result of thinning due to the frost damage on Idared.

  18. A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2012-08-01

    Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma

  19. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... the apple juice or powder with other tropical food to increase it vitamins and .... MANAGEMENT AND SPACING ON CASHEW APPLE. QUALITY. The quality ..... of beverages prepared from fruit and vegetable juices. (Gao and ...

  20. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  1. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...

  2. The mQTL hotspot on linkage group 16 for phenolic compounds in apple fruits is probably the result of a leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene at that locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Schaart, J.; Beekwilder, J.; Allan, A.C.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study on ripe apples from a progeny of a cross between the apple cultivars 'Prima' and 'Fiesta' showed a hotspot of mQTLs for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16, both in peel and in flesh tissues. In order to find the underlying gene(s) of this mQTL hotspot, we

  3. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  4. Yield and fruit quality of apple from conventional and organic production systems Rendimento e qualidade de maçãs em pomares conduzidos nos sistemas convencional e orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the yield and fruit quality of apple produced with a conventional and an organic production systems in Southern Brazil. The orchards consisted of alternate rows from 10 to 12-year old 'Royal Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees on M.7 rootstocks, grown as slender spindles, on 4x6 m spacing. Eighteen apple trees of each cultivar and management system were randomly selected and assessed for nutrition, flowering, fruit set, yield, and fruit quality during two growing seasons (2002/2003 and 2003/2004. The organic management system resulted in lower concentrations of K, Mg, and N in leaves and fruits, and in smaller fruits for both cultivars, and lower fruit yield for 'Fuji' than from the conventional production system. For both cultivars, fruits from the organic orchard harvested at commercial maturity had a more yellowish skin background color, higher percentage of blush in the fruit skin, higher soluble solids content, higher density, higher flesh firmness, and higher severity of russet than fruits from the conventional orchard. Fruit from the organic orchard had lower titratable acidity in 'Royal Gala', and higher incidence of moldy core and lower incidence of watercore in 'Fuji', than fruit from the conventional orchard. A non-trained sensory panel detected no significant differences for fruit attributes of taste, flavor and texture between fruit from the production systems for either cultivar.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o rendimento e a qualidade de frutos em pomares de macieira, nos sistemas convencional e orgânico de produção no Sul do Brasil. Os pomares consistiram de filas alternadas de plantas com 10 a 12 anos de idade das cultivares Royal Gala e Fuji, sobre porta-enxerto M.7, conduzidas com líder central, em espaçamento de 4x6 m. Dezoito plantas de cada cultivar e sistema de manejo foram marcadas aleatoriamente e avaliadas quanto à nutrição, floração, frutificação efetiva, rendimento e

  5. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  6. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  7. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  8. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  9. Responses of Several Apple Cultivare to Chemical Thinning Sprays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatments did not affect (PS 0.05) the number of seeds in the fruit, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit length to diameter .... Table 2. Eiïecl of Accel and Carbaiyi on number of fruit per cross sectional limb area, sugar. CETtet torix) and mean fmit weight of three Apple cultivars grown at the Pontotoc Research and Extension ...

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of PR genes in some pome fruit species with the emphasis on transcriptional analysis and ROS response under Erwinia amylovora inoculation in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Maryam; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Nasiri, Jaber; Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Attempts were made to identify eight pathogenesis related (PR) genes (i.e., PR-1a, PR3-ch1, PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch3, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5, PR-5 and PR-8) from 27 genotypes of apple, quince and pear, which are induced in response to inoculation with the pathogen Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Totally, 32 PR genes of different families were obtained, excepting PR3-Ch2 (amplified only in apple) and PR3-Ch4 (amplified only in apple and pear), the others were successfully amplified in all the genotypes of apple, quince and pear. Evolutionary, the genes of each family exhibited significant homology with each other, as the corresponded phylogenetic neighbor-joining-based dendrograms were taken into consideration. Meanwhile, according to the expression assay, it was deduced that the pathogen activity can significantly affect the expression levels of some selected PR genes of PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5 and particularly Cat I in both resistant (MM-111) and semi-susceptible (MM-106) apple rootstocks. Lastly, it was concluded that the pathogen E. amylovora is able to stimulate ROS response, particularly using generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both aforementioned apple rootstock.

  11. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  12. Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Explorando el uso Potencial de Mallas Foto-Selectivas para la Regulación del Crecimiento de Fruto en Manzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Bastías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of shading (i.e. reduction of sunlight availability on fruit growth physiology has been widely studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., but little knowledge exist about fruit growth responses to changes in the light spectrum. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of use of colored nets with differential sunlight transmission in the blue (B, 400-500 nm, red (R, 600-700 nm and far-red (FR, 700-800 nm spectra on apple fruit growth and physiological associated responses. Three year old 'Fuji' apple trees were covered with 40% photo-selective blue and red shade nets, 40% neutral grey shade net, and 20% neutral white net as control. Red and blue net reduced in the same proportion (27% the photosynthetically active radiation with respect to control. However, blue net increased by 30% and reduced by 10% the B:R and R:FR the light relations, respectively. Maximal fruit growth rate under blue and grey nets was 15-20% greater than control. Fruit weight under blue net was 17% greater than control, but no significant differences in fruit weight were found among red net and control. Leaf photosynthesis and total leaf area under blue net were 28% and 30% higher than control, respectively; with ensuing positive effect on tree net C assimilation rate and total dry matter production. Results suggest that shifting the B, R, and FR light composition with photo-selective nets could be a useful tool to manipulate the photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulating the carbohydrate availability for apple fruit growth.El efecto del sombreado (i.e. reducción de la cantidad de luz solar sobre la fisiología de crecimiento de fruto ha sido ampliamente estudiado en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh., pero existe poco conocimiento sobre respuestas de crecimiento del fruto a cambios en el espectro de la luz. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar el efecto del uso de mallas de color con transmisión diferencial de la luz en el

  13. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  14. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  15. Impact of noncovalent interactions between apple condensed tannins and cell walls on their transfer from fruit to juice: studies in model suspensions and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2007-09-19

    The adsorption of procyanidins (condensed tannins) on cell-wall material was quantified by bringing into contact solutions of procyanidins and suspensions of cell-wall material. A model was developed on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm formulation and a factorial experimental design. The parameters that influenced the adsorption were the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, the ionic strength of the solution, the temperature, and the apple cell-wall concentration. The model was applied to partitioning of procyanidins from apple between juice and mash. The parameters to be taken into account are the composition of the apples and, specifically, (i) the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, (ii) their acidity and pH as a determinant of the ionic strength, and (iii) their cell-wall content and the temperature at pressing. To estimate the ability of the model to relate procyanidin concentrations in the juice to their concentration in the apple, apples of three varieties of widely different procyanidin compositions were pressed in conditions that prevent oxidation. In these conditions, yields in the juice were >80% for phenolic acids or catechin monomers but <50% for procyanidins, with the lowest rates obtained for the higher polymers in accordance with the model.

  16. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  17. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  18. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  19. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naamusa

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern. Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were ... All the fungal isolates were pathogenic on the star apple fruits with the exception of ..... Mineapolis: Burgress Publishing Company, Minneapolis MN 241 p. Booth C (1971). The genus ...

  20. Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and Quality Attributes | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effect of the two bioregulators; Accel and Carbaryl, sprayed two weeks before bloom on Apple fruit set, yield and quality and to relate the degree of fruit set reduction to the yield of three Apple cultivars namely, \\'Empire`, \\'Jon-A-Red\\' and `Braeburn\\'.

  1. A Laboratory Exercise To Understand the Importance of Enzyme Technology in the Fruit-Processing Industry: Viscosity Decrease and Phenols Release from Apple Mash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    In a 4-h laboratory exercise, students accomplish a series of enzymatic macerations of apple mash, assess the viscosity of the mash during the maceration, extract the juice by centrifugation, and measure the levels of antioxidant phenols extracted into the juice after different enzyme treatments....

  2. A Laboratory Exercise to Understand the Importance of Enzyme Technology in the Fruit-Processing Industry: Viscosity Decrease and Phenols Release from Apple Mash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Nielsen, Michael K.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    In a 4-h laboratory exercise, students accomplish a series of enzymatic macerations of apple mash, assess the viscosity of the mash during the maceration, extract the juice by centrifugation, and measure the levels of antioxidant phenols extracted into the juice after different enzyme treatments. The exercise shows the impact of enzyme-catalyzed…

  3. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the

  4. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  5. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  6. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  7. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  8. Qualidade de cajus-de-mesa obtidos nos sistemas de produção integrada e convencional Post-harvest quality of the cashew apples gotten in the integrated fruit production and the conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    systems will contribute to minimize this scenery. The objective of this work was to compare the integrated fruit production (IFP and conventional cropping production (CP systems in dwarf cashew orchard, as to apple quality. The experiment was installed in a commercial orchard, located in Beberibe Country, State of Ceará, Brazil, in an area of 1.0 hectare, where the IFP and CP systems had been developed. Each system had occupied 0.5 hectare, separated by five crop lines of plants. In the IFP system, cropping practices were applied according to the Legal Marks of Integrated Fruit Production in Brazil. In CP system, cropping practices were applied accordingly with common used by local growers. Apple color, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, vitamin C content and pH were evaluated. For these variables, means were estimated from twelve samples obtained in both treatments, which were compared by test t (P<0.05. For the TA and vitamin C content variable, the IFP system was significantly superior to the CP ones. For the pH variable, a significant difference was observed between the averages of the systems, being the value gotten in the CP superior to the one of the IFP. The cashew apples obtained in the IFP system showed better quality. The post-harvest quality of the cashew apples had been influenced by the production systems.

  9. Purification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from apple fruits using s-adenosyl [3,414C]-methionine (SAM) as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Wingkip; Dong, Jianguo; Yang, Shang Fa

    1989-01-01

    Tomato ACC synthase is inactivated by its substrate SAM, with the moiety of aminobutyrate being covalently linked to ACC synthase during the catalytic reactions. A partial purified ACC synthase (the catalytic activity 100 μmol/h·mg protein) from pellets of apple extract was incubated with [3,4 14 C] SAM. Only one radioactive peak was revealed in a C-4 reverse phase HPLC and one radioactive band on SDS-PAGE with an M.W. of 48 kDa. Apple ACC synthase in native form is resistant to V8, α-chromtrypsin and carboxylpeptidase A digestion, but effectively inactivated by trypsin and ficin, as demonstrated by both the activity assay and SAM labeling. The radioactive protein cut from the SDS-PAGE was injected to three mice, two of the mice showed responses to the protein in western blot analysis. The antibodies from mice is currently under characterization

  10. Meio semiseletivo para recuperação e quantificação de Cryptosporiopsis perennans em maçãs Semi-selective medium for recovery and quantification of Cryptosporiopsis perennans from apple fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérri Spolti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão "olho de boi", causada pelo fungo Cryptosporiopsis perennans, é uma das doenças de pós-colheita da macieira mais importantes no Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar um meio semiseletivo para a recuperação e mensuração da população epífita de C. perennans em maçãs "Fuji". A suplementação de BDA com tetraciclina, nistatina e iprodiona, nas respectivas concentrações de 12,5; 1 e 1µg p.a mL-1, proporcionou o desenvolvimento de colônias de C. perennans estatisticamente igual (P>0,05 ao observado no meio BDA. Em condições de infecção natural e em amostras pré-inoculadas com C. perennans, o meio semiseletivo permitiu detectar e quantificar a população do fungo na superfície dos frutos, além de ter inibido o crescimento de fungos leveduriformes, dematiáceos e leveduras. Em lavagens de frutos previamente inoculados, o número de conídios recuperados com o meio semiseletivo apresentou correlação (r=0,88; PBull's eye rot, caused by Cryptosporiopsis perennans, is one of the most important apple's posharvest diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate a semi-selective media to recovery and quantification of the epiphytic population of C. perennans on the apple fruit surface. A PDA medium amended with tetracycline, nistatine and iprodione in concentrations of 12.5; 1 and 1µg i.a.mL-1, respectively, allowed the development of C. perennans colonies statistically similar (P>0.05 to those in PDA media. Nistatine concentrations higher than 1µg.mL-1 inhibited the growth of the pathogen. Under natural infection conditions and pre-inoculation with C. perennans, the media allowed the detection and quantification of the fungal population on the fruit surface without affecting C. perennans development. Number of conidia observed in pre-inoculated fruits was correlated (r=0.88; P<0.05 to inoculum concentration sprayed on the fruit surface.

  11. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  12. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  13. Construction design of apple sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieoczym Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the quality of fruit and packaging process, fruit-producing farms owners decide to evaluate fruit by people or automated sorting lines. The purchase of an automated sorting line generates high costs for the company, but it brings benefits in the form of increased work efficiency, and the better organization of fruit packaging and storage processes. The use of that machinery and equipment is common in agricultural farms as well as in fruit and vegetable processing companies. Despite the widespread use of various types of fruit sorters, the analysis of the operation of the designed device and the study of its technological parameters is still a current research problem. During operation of the devices for sorting fruit there are many technical problems affecting technological processes and quality of fruits. In order to improve the efficiency of sorting fruit, this process should be quickly and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to present the automated apple sorter line construction design, and software for quality controlling fruits. Selected elements of the sorter structure including endurance calculation using the Finite Element Method (FEM and fruit control system using image analysis were presented.

  14. Performance of Wild Fruit Marketing in Nigeria: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Wild Fruit Marketing in Nigeria: A Case Study of African Star Apple ( Chrysophllum ... This study examined marketing of wild fruits in Nigeria using African Star Apple as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  16. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  17. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  18. Efeito do ensacamento de frutos sobre danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em pomar orgânico de macieira Fruit bagging effect on the damage caused by biotics and abiotics factors in an organic apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de macieira na incidência de danos causados por insetos-praga, sarna, "russeting" e queimadura pelo sol, além da praticidade dos diferentes tipos de embalagens utilizadas no ensacamento. O estudo foi conduzido no pomar orgânico de macieira da empresa Fischer Fraiburgo Agrícola Ltda, em Fraiburgo-SC, na safra 2004-2005. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos foram: a frutos não ensacados (testemunha, e b frutos ensacados, seguido de desensacamento aos 15 e 7 dias antes da colheita, e na colheita. Ensacaram-se, por tratamento, 150 frutos da cultivar Royal Gala e 300 frutos da cultivar Suprema, utilizando-se de dois tipos de embalagens: saco de papel-manteiga parafinado branco e de polipropileno microperfurado transparente. Observou-se que o ensacamento reduziu o ataque de pragas em relação aos frutos não ensacados. Porém, a sarna desenvolveu-se, tanto em frutos ensacados, quanto em não ensacados. Em geral, houve menos frutos com "russeting", com a antecipação da retirada dos sacos. A embalagem de polipropileno é mais fácil de ser manuseada, resiste à chuva e ao granizo, e apresentou menor custo que a de papel; entretanto, facilitou a queimadura de frutos pelo sol, principalmente quando se encontra muito aderida à epiderme destes.This study had as objective the evaluation of fruit bagging effect on the damage incidence caused by insect pests, apple scab, russeting and sunburn on apple fruits, and the practicity of different bagging bags used in organic apple orchard. The study was carried out at Fischer Fraiburgo Agrícola Ltda, in Fraiburgo, SC. It was used a completely randomized block design. The treatments were applied as follows: a no bagging fruits (control; b bagging fruits, followed by the unbagging at 15 and 7 days before harvest, and on the harvest day. It was bagged per treatment, 150 'Royal Gala' fruits and 300

  19. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  20. Effect of preharvest spraying with thidiazuron on fruit quality and maturity of apples Efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita com thidiazuron sobre a qualidade e a maturação de frutos em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at the doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g (a.i. ha-1 and fruit were assessed for quality and maturity. In both cultivars, the increase of TDZ dose had detrimental effects on fruit quality, causing a reduction of fruit red surface and an increase of percentage of fruit that was asymmetrical and with calyx-end rot. TDZ caused an increment of calyx-end aperture that might have increased calyx-end rot. TDZ increased density and the length : diameter (L : D ratio of the fruit. The number of viable seeds was not affected by TDZ. TDZ resulted in a substantial delay of fruit maturity in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ also reduced soluble solids content (SSC in 'Gala' and reduced titratable acidity in both cultivars.Macieiras, cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas em plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ, nas doses de 0; 5; 10 e 20 g (i.a. ha-1, e os frutos avaliados em termos de qualidade e maturação. Em ambas as cultivares, o TDZ apresentou efeitos negativos na qualidade dos frutos, com redução na percentagem de cor vermelha na casca e aumento na percentagem de frutos assimétricos e com podridão carpelar. O TDZ causou aumento na abertura carpelar, o que pode ter ocasionado aumento de incidência de podridão carpelar. O TDZ aumentou a densidade e a relação comprimento : diâmetro (C : D dos frutos. O número de sementes viáveis não foi afetado pelo TDZ. O TDZ retardou substancialmente a maturação dos frutos na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. O TDZ reduziu os teores de sólidos solúveis totais na cultivar Gala e reduziu a acidez titulável em ambas as cultivares.

  1. [Effects of different nitrogen application rates on 15N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality of dwarf apple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Ning; Peng, Ling; Ge, Shun Feng; Jiang, Yuan Mao

    2017-07-18

    Seven-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M 26 /M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and 15 N trace technique were used to explore the characteristics of 15 N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality under different nitrogen application rates (N 100 , N 200 and N 300 ). The main results were as follows: the plant growth, 15 N absorption, utilization and loss differed significantly under different treatments. The plant leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (P n ), total N content of leaves and the biomass, as well as the root-shoot ratio of N 200 treatment were obviously higher than the N 100 and N 300 treatments. Significant differences were observed in the 15 N derived from fertilizer (Ndff value) of different organs under different nitrogen application rates. The Ndff of fruits (flowers), leaves, one-year-old branch, and perennial branches in each measurement period was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , while that of the roots at full-bloom and spring shoot growing slowly stage was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , and in a trend of N 200 >N 100 >N 300 at autumn shoot growing stage, fruit rapid-swel-ling stage and fruit maturity stage. At fruit maturity stage, plant 15 N nitrogen utilization ratio of N 200 treatment was 23.6%, which was obviously higher than the N 100 (16.3%) and N 300 (14.4%) treatments, with the 15 N loss rate of 56.4%, obviously lower than the N 100 (60.6%) and N 300 (66.1%) treatments. There were significant differences among the treatments in fruit mass, yield per plant, soluble solid, fruit firmness, soluble sugar, titratable acids and sugar-acid ratio of different nitrogen rates, and the N 200 treatment showed the best performance, followed by the N 300 treatment, and then the N 100 treatment.

  2. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  3. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  4. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...

  5. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...

  6. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  7. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  8. Knowing Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  9. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  10. Gazlı İçecek Sektörü ve Gazoz Pazarındaki KOBİ’ler İçin Niş Pazarlamasına Bir Örnek(A Sample of The Applıcatıon of Niche Marketing by SMEs In The Soda and Carbonated Beverages Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan AY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME rarely find themselves in distress like the ones do in carbonated beverages market. The reasons for that may be the market dominance of a few gigantic firms in terms of control and market share, and the disability of resource-limited SMEs in responding to market needs due to the competitive structure of the industry. In this paper we try to show how a local soda pop company can better deal with the challenges in its market through niche marketing.

  11. Production costs and fruit yield profitability in the initial harvest of custard apple trees Custo de produção e lucratividade da produção de frutos de inheiras nas primeiras safras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Silva Thé Pontes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the production cost and economic indicators associated with the production and sales of fruits from 20 custard apple progenies during the initial five harvests, in order to identify the harvest season from which custard apple exploitation becomes profitable, as well as the most promising progenies from an economic point of view. The fruit yield data upon which the present work was based were obtained during the period from 2001 to 2005, in an experiment that evaluated 20 custard apple half-sibling progenies, under sprinkler irrigation. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and plots consisting of four plants each. The exploitation of custard apple progenies only showed to be a profitable agribusiness after the fourth year. Before that, only A3 and A4 progenies in the second year, and P3 and P11 in the third year provided profitable incomes. Considering the methodological assumptions imposed concerning the time period analysis and the prices as of July 2007, the most important profitability indicators (operating profit, return index and equilibrium price evidenced that the A4 progeny is the most recommended, although other progenies are also highlighted, such as FJ1 and FJ2. As already discussed, the progenies showing the highest average yields of five harvests are not always the most economically recommendable ones.O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar o custo de produção e indicadores econômicos, relativos à produção e comercialização de frutos de 20 progênies de pinheiras, nas cinco primeiras safras, visando a identificar a safra a partir da qual a exploração da pinheira é lucrativa e as progênies mais promissoras, do ponto de vista econômico. Os dados de rendimentos de frutos em que se baseou o presente trabalho, foram obtidos no período de 2001 a 2005, em um experimento de avaliação de 20 progênies de meias-irmãs de pinheira, com irriga

  12. Detection and identification of six Monilinia spp. causing brown rot using TaqMan real-time PCR from pure cultures and infected apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot is a severe disease affecting stone and pome fruits. This disease was recently confirmed to be caused by the following six closely related species: Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructigena, Monilia polystroma, Monilia mumecola and Monilia yunnanensis. Because of differenc...

  13. Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.

  14. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  15. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  16. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  17. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  19. Aspectos da biologia floral relacionados à produção de frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L. = Floral biology aspects related to the production of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generosa Sousa Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O Estado da Bahia é o maior produtor de pinha no Brasil, apresentando uma área produtiva que ultrapassa os 5.400 ha. Para a boa produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, estudos relacionados à polinização são fundamentais e fornecem dados que subsidiamprogramas de fitomelhoramento. Este trabalho objetivou o estudo de aspectos da biologia floral relacionados à produção de frutos de pinha. O estudo foi realizado em dois pomares comerciais da região Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia, compreendendo: observação dodesenvolvimento floral; coleta e armazenamento dos grãos de pólen em duas condições de temperatura; análise da viabilidade e germinabilidade do pólen e polinização manual em cinco horários após a coleta do pólen. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi ointeiramente casualizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a antese ocorre às 5 horas da manhã nas condições edafoclimáticas avaliadas; os grãos de pólen permanecem viáveis por até 12 horas, permitindo a produção de frutos com peso comercial.The State of Bahia is the largest producer of sugar apple inBrazil, reaching a production area of 5,400 ha. In order to ensure good fruit productivity and quality, studies related to pollination are essential, and provide data that subsidize phyto-improvement programs. The objective of this work was the study of floral biologyaspects linked to the production of sugar apple. The study was carried out in two commercial orchards in the Southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, comprising the following steps: observation of the morphological characteristics of the flowers;collection and storage of pollen grains under two temperature conditions; analysis of the viability and pollen germinability; and manual pollination at five different times after collecting the pollen grains. The experimental design used was entirely randomized blocks. The results provided by the regression analysis and by the variance analysis enabled the

  20. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1

  1. Radiação, fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade de frutos em macieiras 'Royal Gala' cobertas com telas antigranizo Radiation, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apples under hail protection nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade e a qualidade da radiação solar disponibilizada às plantas e os seus impactos sobre a fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade dos frutos, em macieiras 'Royal Gala', cobertas ou não com telas antigranizo nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta provocou redução maior na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos acima do dossel das plantas (24,8%, em comparação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela preta recebeu menores valores de radiação ultravioleta, azul, verde, vermelho e vermelho distante, bem como da relação vermelho:vermelho distante, em relação às plantas descobertas. Estas alterações na quantidade e qualidade da luz sob tela preta aumentaram o teor de clorofila total e a área específica nas folhas, e reduziram a taxa fotossintética potencial, o peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não tiveram efeito sobre a severidade de "russeting" e sobre o número de sementes por fruto.The objective of this work was to assess the amount and quality of the light supplied to plants, and the resulting impacts on photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees uncovered or covered with white and black hail protection nets. The black net caused a higher reduction (24.8% of photosynthetic photon flux density, accumulated over the plant canopy during the day, than the white net (21.2%. The canopy internal portion of plants covered by black net received lower levels of ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far red radiation, and light with a lower red:far red ratio, in comparison to uncovered plants; these ligth changes increased chlorophyll content and specific area of the leaves, and reduced the potential photosynthesis, the weight of fruits per cm² of trunk cross section area, and the

  2. Identificação pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' por meio de infiltração com magnésio e análise dos teores de cálcio e nitrogênio nos frutos Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico pós-colheita em maçãs, ocasionado pela deficiência de Ca e agravado pela presença de elevados níveis de Mg, N e K nos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade prática da infiltração de maçãs 'Gala' com Mg, visando a avaliar, em pré-colheita, o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado, bem como a identificar os atributos minerais do fruto associados à ocorrência do distúrbio. Em 50 talhões de pomares localizados no município de Fraiburgo-SC, foram coletadas amostras de 25 frutos / talhão, cerca de 20 dias antes do início da colheita comercial, sendo os mesmos infiltrados a vácuo com Mg e avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Nos mesmos talhões, na maturação comercial, foram coletadas amostras de 120 frutos / talhão, sendo que 100 frutos foram armazenados em câmara fria convencional durante quatro meses (0 ± 0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, e 20 frutos foram utilizados para a análise mineral (teores de Ca, Mg, K e N. Cinco dias após a remoção da câmara fria, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Houve correlação linear altamente significativa (r² = 0,69; pBitter pit is a postharvest physiological disorder in apples, related to Ca deficiency, and aggravated by high levels of Mg, N, and K in the fruits. This work was carried out to assess the practical viability of 'Gala' apples infiltration with Mg, for preharvest identification of bitter pit risk during cold storage, as well as, to identify the mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of the disorder. Fruits were sampled in 50 plots of apple orchards located in Fraiburgo, SC (Southern Brazil. Samples of 25 fruits / plot were harvested about 20 days before commercial harvesting, and then vacuum infiltrated with Mg and assessed for incidence (% and severity (pits / fruit of

  3. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  4. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  5. Apple Based Agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advised to follow integration of apple fruit trees in their food production ... growing demands of increasing population, to compensate forests in the wake of fast .... Programme for the Sustainable Utilization of Natural Resource for Food Security.

  6. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  7. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  8. Thidiazuron effects on shoot growth, return bloom, fruit set and nutrition of apples Efeito do thidiazuron no crescimento, no florescimento, na frutificação e na nutrição em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g ha-1 of a.i. in order to evaluate its effects on plant growth and development, return bloom, fruit set, nutrition, and fruit yield. Fruit set increased with TDZ dose in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ did not affect fruit yield in any cultivar. In 'Gala', the return bloom was reduced in about 50% at TDZ doses of 10 or 20 g ha-1. TDZ increased shoot growth in both cultivars. In leaves, TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and Mg in 'Gala' and of Mg in 'Fuji', but did not affect the chlorophyll content, leaf area, length, width, and dry mass per cm² regardless of cultivar. In fruits, the effect of TDZ varied according to the portion evaluated. Highest doses of TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and K in 'Gala' and of K in 'Fuji' in the entire fruits (flesh + skin; in the skin, highest doses of TDZ reduced the levels of N, Ca, and Mg in both cultivars, in addition to the level of K in 'Fuji'.Macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh., cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas na plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ nas doses de 0, 5, 10 e 20 g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo com o objetivo de serem avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, florescimento, nutrição, frutificação e rendimento de frutos. A frutificação efetiva aumentou com a dose de TDZ na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de frutos em nenhuma cultivar. Na cultivar Gala o florescimento no ano posterior ao da aplicação de TDZ foi reduzido em cerca de 50% nas doses de 10 e 20 g ha-1. O TDZ promoveu aumento no crescimento dos ramos do ano em ambas as cultivares. Nas folhas, o aumento nas doses de TDZ reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na cultivar Gala, e de Mg na cultivar Fuji mas não afetou o conteúdo de clorofila, área, comprimento, diâmetro e massa seca cm-2 da folha, em ambas as cultivares. Em frutos inteiros

  9. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  11. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  12. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  13. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  14. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  15. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  16. First report of Sphaeropsis rot of apple caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2012, decayed ‘Empire’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse in Orleans County in New York State. The fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. The incidence o...

  17. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  18. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  19. Genome to Phenome Mapping in Apple Using Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Migicovsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple ( X Borkh. is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS. However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY. We find significant genetic differentiation between Old World and New World cultivars and demonstrate that the genetic structure of the domesticated apple also reflects the time required for ripening. A genome-wide association study (GWAS of 36 phenotypes confirms the association between fruit color and the MYB1 locus, and we also report a novel association between the transcription factor, NAC18.1, and harvest date and fruit firmness. We demonstrate that harvest time and fruit size can be predicted with relatively high accuracies ( > 0.46 using genomic prediction. Rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD in apples means millions of SNPs may be required for well-powered GWAS. However, rapid LD decay also promises to enable extremely high resolution mapping of causal variants, which holds great potential for advancing MAS.

  20. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  1. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henríquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay, antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit, of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple production in Chile, were studied. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics (dry weight, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and color were also evaluated. The results indicated that the total phenolic content, the antioxidant capacity, and the mineral composition, of peel were substantially higher than those of whole fruit, and pulp for all the cultivars studied. Among cultivars, ‘Red Delicious’ apple peels have a significantly much higher content of total phenolic (11.6 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1 FW and a higher FRAP (209.9 µmol Fe+2 g-1 FW. Additionally, a high correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in all the cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed, except in the apple pulp. On the other hand, the physical and chemical composition differed among cultivars and fruit tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, mineral composition, and physical and chemical characteristics vary considerably depending on the apple cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed.Las manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. han sido identificadas como una de las principales fuentes de antioxidantes en la dieta, principalmente de compuestos fenólicos. Estos compuestos varían en su composición y concentración según el cultivar y el tejido del fruto. En esta investigación se determinó: el contenido de fenoles totales (ensayo de Folin-Ciocalteau, la capacidad

  2. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  3. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  4. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  5. Resistência genética à podridão amarga em maçãs, determinada pela taxa de desenvolvimento da doença em frutos com e sem ferimentos Genetic resistance to bitter rot on apples determined by the development rate of the disease on fruits with and without wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Denardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A maçã é um dos mais importantes produtos agrícolas de Santa Catarina e a segunda mais importante fruteira de clima temperado do Brasil. No entanto, a produção brasileira está alicerçada em cultivares importadas suscetíveis a diversas doenças. A podridão amarga causada pelo fungo Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (forma imperfeita Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. é uma das mais importantes doenças de verão, podendo causar perdas muito elevadas. No presente trabalho, a inoculação artificial de C. gloesporioides em frutos com e sem ferimentos objetivou verificar a diferença de evolução da podridão amarga e identificar possíveis fontes de resistência nas seleções e novas cultivares de macieira desenvolvidas pela Epagri. Verificou-se ampla variação na reação de resistência entre as cultivares e seleções estudadas. O estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento da podridão amarga mostrou-se muito mais rápido através de ferimentos. As seleções M-6/00 e M-13/00 manifestaram resistência superior à das atuais cultivares Gala, Fuji e Golden Delicious. Essas seleções também apresentaram resistência superior à cv. Melrose, indicada como resistente em outros estudos.Apple is one of the most important agricultural product of Santa Catarina State and represents the second most important temperate-zone fruit in Brazil. However the production is based on imported cultivars susceptible to many fungal diseases. Bitter rot caused by the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (amorphous = Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., is one of the most important summer diseases of apple in southern Brazil. Severe damages may occur every year. In the present study, artificial inoculation of C. gloeosporioides on fruits with and without wounding was carried out to verify differences in the evolution of bitter rot and to identify sources of resistance to the disease among the new apple

  6. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were found associated with the deteriorating fruits. The fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. tamarii, A. flavus, Fusarium spp, Penicilium spp and ...

  7. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  8. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  9. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... metabolome than the other apple products. We observed an effect on branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids degradation, and a decreased use of lipid fuels indicating an improvement in glucose utilisation. A reduced level of plasma bile acids after apple consumption may indicate less re...

  10. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André von Randow de Assis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile

  11. Ionic gelation of low-esterification degree pectins from immature thinned apples

    OpenAIRE

    Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Martínez-López, Ana-Luisa; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Martínez-Robinson, Karla G.; Campa-Mada, Alma C.

    2016-01-01

    Fruit thinning is a regular practice in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) orchards to increase fruit size and to promote blooming. This practice generates immature, small (10 to 40 mm diameter) fruits, which are occasionally used as cattle feed. The use of thinned apples for pectin extraction could increase orchards profitability and promote development of new transformation processes. Pectin is a polysaccharide located on the cell wall of plant tissues. Commercial pectins are extracted from d...

  12. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  13. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.

  14. Towards an Integrated Use of Biological Control by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 in Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium

  15. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled

  16. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  17. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  18. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  19. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  20. Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.

  1. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  2. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD 7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of genetic resources and partial resistances for apple breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerhals, Markus; Duffy, Brion

    2006-01-01

    Modern apple breeding strategies are mainly considering the most advanced selections and culti-vars as parents. This tends to lead to a narrowed genetic basis. The introgression of traditional va-rieties and accessions of the gene pool is often feared due to undesirable characteristics that might be incorporated. However, there is scope for considering a wider genetic basis in apple breeding to support sustainable fruit production systems. The focus at Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW) is p...

  4. Thinning strategies for 'Elstar' apples - Experiences with ammonium thiosulphate, calcium hydroxide and benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    `Elstar¿, the most widely grown apple variety in the Netherlands, requires adequate fruit thinning to obtain regular bearing and the commercially desired fruit size and fruit quality. During several years studies have been carried out to look for alternative thinning methods to replace carbaryl, an

  5. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  6. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  7. METAMITRON REPLACING CARBARYL IN POST BLOOM THINNING OF APPLE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIZ PETRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carbaryl or the mixture of carbaryl with NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or BA (benzyladenine are the post-bloom chemical thinners most widely used in apple thinning in Brazil. The marketing restriction of carbaryl demands new options of apple post-bloom thinners, requiring the evaluation of others compounds for this purpose. Metamitron is one of the substances that may be used in chemical thinning of apples. Metamitron was evaluated at two concentrations, alone or in mixture with BA, in ‘MaxiGala’, ‘Fuji Suprema’ and ‘Fred Hough’ apple cultivars. Applications of metamitron at 384 mg L-1 and at 768 mg L-1 in a mixture with BA, ranging from 40 mg L-1 to 80 mg L-1, sprayed on fruits with diameter ranging from 5 to 25 mm were compared with the standard treatment and hand thinning. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4-6 repetitions of a single plant. The variables analyzed were: fruit set (%; percentage of floral clusters with 1, 2, 3, 4 or more fruits; fruit yield (kg; average fruit fresh mass (g and percentage of dropped fruit after thinning. Metamitron alone or in combination with BA reduced production per plant and significantly increased the fresh weight of fruits in all cultivars tested. Metamitron at 800 mg L-1 resulted in excessive fruit thinning, especially in ‘MaxiGala’ cultivar. Metamitron or metamitron + BA have potential to compose the program of chemical thinning of apple trees to replace carbaryl.

  8. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  9. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  10. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  11. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  12. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  14. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  15. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine; Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain. Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit. Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three diffe...

  16. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  17. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  18. Morphological and physiological aspects of the early phases of flower bud formation of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, F.A.

    1996-01-01


    For consistent yields in apple fruit production, knowledge of the factors affecting flower bud formation is required. The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the role of endogenous factors in flower bud formation of apple. The effects of temperature, applied gibberellin (GA

  19. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  20. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espley, R.V.; Bovy, A.G.; Bava, C.; Jaeger, S.R.; Tomes, S.; Norling, C.; Crawford, J.; Rowan, D.; McGhie, T.K.; Brendolise, C.; Putterill, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Hellens, R.P.; Allan, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10.

  1. Association between apple consumption and physician visits: appealing the conventional wisdom that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E

    2015-05-01

    Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (Paway: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at avoiding prescription medications (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63). There were no differences seen in overnight hospital stay or

  2. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  4. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  5. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  6. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  7. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  8. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  9. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  10. Effect ofthydiazuron and choline chloride bioregulators on yield and fruit quality ofthree apple (Malus domestica Borkh. varieties Efecto de Thidiazuron y cloruro de colina como biorreguladores sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto en tres variedades de manzano (Malus domestica borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincore Mauricio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve yield and quality of Colombian apple fruits, Thydiazuron (TDZ and Choline Chloride (CC biorregulators were evaluated as supposed stimulants of growth and development of 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' varieties in the «La Calera» zone (2650 masl. 50, lOOand 150 mg-L:' of TDZ were sprayed between 30 and 45 days after blooming (dab and 500, 1000 and 1500 mg-L-' of CC 118 dab, using a completely randomized design for 'Princesa' and 'Golden Delicious' and a completely randomized
    block design for 'Gala'. TDZ showed chemical thinning and
    cytokinine activity, decreasing the number and acidity of harvested fruits, but increased mean fruit weight, In 'Gala', TDZ increased the harvested fruit number per tree; with 150 mg-L:' fruit color increased while soluble solids (SS concentration declined. On the other side, in 'Gala' apples, CC applications decreased fruit number per tree and showed higher mean weights, volume and SS content of fruits, especially with 500 mg-L:'. In 'Golden Delicious' CC produced oblong fruits with higher SS content and lower flesh firrnness.
    Con el fin de mejorar rendimiento y calidad del fruto de la manzana nacional, se evaluaron los biorreguladores Thidiazuron (TDZ y Cloruro de Colina (CC como supuestos estimuladores del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto en las variedades 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' en la zona de «La Calera» (2650 msnm. Para tal fin, se aplicaron 50, 100 y 150 mg-L" de TDZ entre los 30 y 45 días después de floración (ddt y 500, 1000 y 1500 mg-L-' de CC 118 ddf,
    bajo diseño completamente aleatorizado para 'Princesa' y 'Golden Delicious' y bloque completos al azar para 'Gala'. Thidiazuron actuó como agente químico raleante y como citoquinina, disminuyendo en 'Golden Delicious' el número de frutos cosechados y la acidez, pero aumentando el peso promedio del fruto. En 'Gala', TDZ aumentó el número de frutos por árbol, a 150 mg-L-' aumentó la

  11. Degradation behaviour of potassium K-phosphite in apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although potassium phosphite is not registered for organic fruit production in Europe, it has long been regarded as a potential alternative to sulphur- and copper-containing fungicides. In 2005/2006 a field trial was carried out to verify the presence of residues of phosphoric acid over time in apples after applications of potassium phosphite at different time-points. No residues were present on fruits if treatments were applied before flowering, whereas treatments after flower...

  12. Volatiles Profile of Red Apple from Marche Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fraternale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of different parts (whole fruit, peel and flesh of a rare wild red apple named “Mela Rossa Val Metauro” was established by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction sampling, followed by GC-MS analysis. The most prominent constituent in all the three parts was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene. The presence of the ester ethyl hexanoate particularly in the flesh (39.8% gives a special exotic flavor to the fruit.

  13. Improvement Shelf-Life Extension of Apple by Pre storage Thermal Treatment, CaCl2 and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Moussa, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical methods to extend the shelf life of apple fruits by control the blue mold disease causing by Penicillium expansum. Apple fruits are subjected to different temperatures between 38, and 50 degree C for 24 hr. and stored at 0 degree C for 4 months. Increasing in temperature caused decreasing in firmness and blue mold incidence percentage (%) caused by P. expansum. At 50 degree C the treated apple fruits gave sharp softness and inhibition of blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum exposing for 4 days and cold storage at 0 degree C for 4 months and 5 days at 20 degree C. Dipping apple fruits in CaCl 2 at 2% and 4% decreased blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum and increased apple fruits firmness at 2 and 4 months storage periods. Also, CaCl 2 treatments gave insignificant change in total soluble solid (TSS%) and in titratable acidity (TA%) of apple fruits. Gamma irradiation doses above 1 kGy significantly decreased firmness of apple fruits with the decrement being higher at higher doses.

  14. Tratamento por água quente na qualidade de maçãs 'fuji', inoculadas artificialmente com Botryosphaeria dothidea, em armazenamento refrigerado Hot water treatments on fruit quality of 'fuji' apples artificially inoculated with Botryosphaeria dothidea, in refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Lunardi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de perdas físico-químicas em maçãs cultivar Fuji, previamente inoculadas com o fungo causador da podridão branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.:Fr. Ces. & De Not, em armazenamento refrigerado (AR, à temperatura de 0-1ºC. Os tratamentos foram combinações de 3 períodos (1, 2 e 3 minutos e 3 temperaturas da água de imersão (47, 49 e 52ºC. As maçãs foram avaliadas após 1, 3 e 5 meses em AR e após 7 dias em temperatura ambiente. Ao final de cada período de armazenagem, as maçãs foram avaliadas para as seguintes variáveis: firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável e perda de peso. O tratamento térmico reduziu os teores de acidez titulável, aumentou os teores de SST, e pouco influenciou na firmeza de polpa e perda de peso.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat treatments on quality parameters of 'Fuji' apples. Apples were immersed for either one, two or three minutes in water at 47, 49 or 52ºC. Before the heat treatments the apples had been artificially inoculated with the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.: Fr Ces. & De Not. After the heat treatments, the apples were stored in refrigerated air storage at 0-1ºC for one, three or five months plus seven days at room temperature. At the end of each storage period, apples were evaluated for flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity and weight loss. The heat treatments resulted in reduced titratable acidity, increased TSS contents and had little influence on flesh firmness and weight loss.

  15. Role of the genes Md-ACO1 and Md-ACS1 in ethylene production and shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Stella, S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guerra, W.; Cecchinel, M.; Dallavia, J.; Koller, B.; Sansavini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Shelf life determines the economic life time of mature apples, which can be either freshly harvested or stored. Good shelf life is highly associated with a slow decrease of fruit firmness at room temperature. Apple is a climacteric fruit, in which loss of firmness seems to be physiologically related

  16. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  17. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Shabaz Noranian; Ali Nobakht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Gen...

  18. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  19. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  20. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  1. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these

  2. Cryopreservation of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple (Malus sp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. Over the last three decades, great...

  3. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  4. A radiation-induced compact type Granny Smith apple mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.; Van Tonder, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    More successful compact mutant clones of Granny Smith apple are being sought, for those that have so far arisen naturally have undesirable tree and fruit charateristics. For this purpose, gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 radiation unit were used to induce mutant types artificially. One compact mutation of Granny Smith was produced via re-irradiation

  5. Efeito de tratamentos térmicos por imersão na qualidade de maçãs cv. Fuji inoculadas com Botryosphaeria dothidea e armazenadas em atmosfera controlada Effects of heat treatments on fruit quality of 'Fuji' apples innoculated with Botryosphaeria dothidea and stored in controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Lunardi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de perdas qualitativas em maçãs cultivar Fuji, previamente inoculadas com o agente causal da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea, durante armazenagem em atmosfera controlada (AC de 1,2-1,6 kPa de O2 e 0,2-0,4 kPa de CO2 à temperatura de 0-1ºC. Os tratamentos foram combinações de 3 períodos (1; 2 ou 3 minutos e 3 temperaturas da água de imersão (47; 49 ou 52ºC. As maçãs foram avaliadas após 1; 3 ou 5 meses em AC e mais 7 dias em temperatura ambiente. Ao final de cada período de armazenagem, as maçãs foram avaliadas para as seguintes variáveis: firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável e perda de peso. O armazenamento em AC manteve as características de qualidade, mas não controlou o desenvolvimento de sintomas da podridão-branca. Os tratamentos de calor não retardaram as perdas da firmeza de polpa e pouco influenciaram os teores de SST. 0s teores de acidez titulável diminuíram, e as porcentagens de perda de peso aumentaram com os tratamentos de calor por imersão em água quente.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of heat treatments on the quality of apples cv. Fuji. The fruits were immersed for one, two or three minutes in water at 47, 49 or 52ºC. Before the heat treatments, the apples were artificially inoculated with the fungus that causes white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea. After the heat treatments, the apples were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA of 1,2-1,6kPa O2 and 0,2-0,4kPa CO2 at 0-1ºC for one, three or five months, and seven days at room temperature. At the end of each storage period the apples were evaluated for flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity and weight loss. CA storage contributed to maintain fruit quality, but did not affect the development of B. dothidea. The heat treatments did not delay flesh firmness losses and had little influence on the TSS contents, however

  6. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Efficacy and Induction of Resistance against Botrytis cinerea through Priming of Defense Responses in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Banani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea. After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.

  7. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Efficacy and Induction of Resistance against Botrytis cinerea through Priming of Defense Responses in Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Houda; Olivieri, Leone; Santoro, Karin; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2018-01-23

    The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold) in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea . After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.

  8. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  9. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  10. Old Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) Varieties with Hypoallergenic Properties: An Integrated Approach for Studying Apple Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro

    2016-12-07

    Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".

  11. Predição de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' Por meio da infiltração dos frutos com magnésio Prediction of bitter pit in 'gala'apples by means of fruit infiltration with magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-12-01

    o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado em maçãs 'Gala' cultivadas no Sul do Brasil.Bitter pit is one of the main postharvest physiological disorders in apples. Fruit mineral analysis (concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and N, normally used to assess bitter pit risk, is expensive and shows a low predictive potential. This has stimulated the development of alternative methods to predict at the preharvest period the postharvest risk of bitter pit occurrence. The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of fruit infiltration with Magnesium (Mg to predict the risk of bitter pit occurrence during cold storage of 'Gala' apples. In addition, Ca concentrations (mg kg-1 of fresh weight in the flesh and skin tissues of the fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity and incidence, in both fruits, infiltrated with Mg or left in cold storage, were plotted to predict the risk of bitter pit in terms of Ca content. Fruits were harvested in an orchard with high incidence of bitter pit, in Lages, SC, in 2003/2004. Samples of fruits were harvested from 20 randomly marked trees, corresponding to 30 fruits for infiltration with Mg (harvested 20 days before the commercial maturity and 100 fruits for cold storage (harvested at the commercial maturity. The levels of Ca in the fruits above those which there were low risk of bitter pit were similar among fruits infiltrated with Mg and those left in cold storage, corresponding to 55 and 192 mg kg-1 for flesh and skin tissues, respectively. The Ca concentration quantified in the skin tissue provided a better prediction of bitter pit risk than when quantified in the flesh tissue. The results showed that fruit infiltration with Mg represents a feasible method to assess the bitter pit risk during cold storage in 'Gala' apples grown in Southern Brazil.

  12. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the weight of the combination. (ii) Any combination of apple and one, two, three, or four of such fruits in which the weight of each is not less than one-fifth and the weight of apple is not more than... the vegetables specified in this paragraph. (c) The following safe and suitable optional ingredients...

  13. Osmotic Drying and Nutrient Infusion of Fruits and Vegetables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... Initially, six commercial fruit products were chosen for long-term storage. Two representative products, mango-flavored apple cubes and cherries, were then prepared with infused vitamins and minerals...

  14. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  15. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  16. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  17. Phenological models for the beginning of apple blossom in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Frank M.; Bluemel, Klaus; Henniges, Yvonne [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Agricultural Climatology; Blanke, Michael [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Horticultural Science; Weber, Roland W.S. [Fruit Growing Research Institute Jork (Germany); Zoth, Michael [Competence Centre Fruit Growing Bodensee, Ravensburg-Bavendorf (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Five phenological models (M1-M5) were examined with respect to their suitability to calculate the beginning of apple blossom in Germany, the most important fruit crop in Western Europe. Blossoming is the most sensitive period, e.g.to frost, and determines the fruit set of the apple trees. Phenological observations and temperature data from the German Weather Service in the period 1961-2005 were used to fit these five models. For the calculations data from, 5,630 phenological and 523 temperature stations were attributed to a 10 km x 10 km grid using second order universal kriging. Model parameters were optimised on 3,672 grid points for the nationwide approach for Germany and on 148 points for 11 fruit growing regions. Root mean square errors (RMSE) between modelled and observed apple blossom data varied from 4.2 to 5.0 days for the internal and from 4.6 to 5.6 days for the external verification on the basis of phenological records from three fruit growing research centres. The very simple statistical model approach M5 had the advantage of causing the least effort to calculate the bloom date, but it never performed better than any of the best mechanistic models M1-M4. Also, the 'thermal time model' M1 and the sequential model M2 were both easy to handle which makes them a preferable choice for predictions and management decisions in apple orchards. These two models M1 and M2 are also suitable to be implemented in yield models and water budget models in order to replace the use of fixed developmental stages by dynamical calculations. The two combined chilling/forcing models M2 - a sequential model - and M3 - a parallel model - exhibited the lowest average RMSE. Both models (M2 and M3) could preferably be used to project the impact of climate change on the beginning of apple blossom, since these models can compensate a possible lack of chilling by a higher demand for forcing. The present study showed that a) all five models were able to calculate the

  18. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  19. FRUITS IN DIVAN OF NEDIM / NEDIM DIVANI’NDA MEYVELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet ÇÖPLÜOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fruit names in Nedim’s divan weredetermined and the similes of fruit names wereexamined. In Nedim’s divan fruit names on the wholewere used for expressing the lover’s body. In this respect,similies were made between almond – eye, apple – chin,pistachio – lip, cherry – lip, pomegranate – breast, orange– chin, breast; peach – cheek. The couplets whichcontain fruit names are given and also an index of thefruit names.

  20. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  1. Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Sintayehu Hailu; Kempen, van Luuk; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital) production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings

  2. Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Elephant apple; Hindi-Kaithbelj is a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Elephant apple; Hindi-Kaithbelj is a deciduous thorny tree with aromatic leaves and small white flowers. Fruits are large, globose ofthe size of tennis balls with a hard shell. The pulp of ripe fruit is sweet and edible. The gum exudate from the tree is used in dying and coloring. The wood is made ...

  3. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  4. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  5. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H

    2011-03-01

    Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.

  6. SODA: The reduced database for the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, A.; Michaud, D.; Caumartin, J.; de Villers, P.; Gauthier, Y.; Gauvreau, J.; Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    SODA which stands for Systgrave eme d close-quote Organisation des Donnacute ees et d close-quote Analyse, is a general database for TdeV. SODA has the following goals: to produce a database of a reduced set of physical data; to ensure that these data are validated; to record all the parameters relevant to tokamak operation and experiments; to facilitate the retrieval of data using given selection criteria; and to improve data accessibility and analysis. The relational database ORACLE trademark has been chosen to provide flexibility and to accommodate the increasing expectations of the TdeV researchers. In-house expertise allows custom-made tables and centralized data management. In the process of creating SODA several new interfaces for the scientific coordinator, machine operator, and diagnosticians have been added to provide a better definition of the experiment for the archiving system. The database includes the more relevant machine and diagnostic parameters, plasma perturbations (rf, biasing, gas hor-ellipsis), mean and standard deviation of physical signals, plasma profiles, and code results (equilibrium hor-ellipsis) for selected time windows in a discharge. Users of the X-window interface of SODA are not required to know the database structure or the SQL language. SODA has been operating successfully for over a year and its capabilities are continuously expanding. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...

  9. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.

    2005-01-01

    in a wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar...

  10. Apple Trees - A Source of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is a large quantity of leftover (cut-off) branches after the trimming of fruit trees, both during in winter or during the vegetation period. In intensive production, trimming most often occurs as a combined cut, which means it is done both manually and with the help of machines. The leftover mass has to be taken care of in both cases. This paper deals with the apple tree biomass in the last 10 years expressed in tons, covering both the winter and vegetation period, and also about the possibility of using this biomass to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Maturity and storage influence on the apple (Malus domestica) allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Rigby, Neil M.; Browne, Thomas; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Waldron, Keith W.; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the

  12. Long-term experiment with orchard floor management systems: influence on apple yield and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Licznar-Malanczuk, Maria; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-05-07

    The study focuses on the response of apple primary and secondary metabolism and some important quality parameters to three living mulch treatments, classical herbicide fallow, and black polypropylene strip application in two apple cultivars. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed after 10 years of ground cover experiments. Soluble solids, firmness, and color measurements indicate differences among orchard floor management treatments. Significantly, lower levels of individual sugars have been measured in fruit of different living mulch treatments compared with fruit harvested from trees subjected to the herbicide strip treatment. Total sugar content was higher in fruit of the herbicide strip treatment in both cultivars analyzed. Significantly higher levels of total organic acids were only detected in 'Pinova' fruit of the Festuca ovina L. treatment. Long-term response of both cultivars to living mulch treatments indicated that apples increase the accumulation of almost all analyzed individual phenolic compounds.

  13. Influence Of Soil Type On Yield And Quality Of Different Apple Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Viorica ILIE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine influence of different soil type on apple yield and quality. To investigate the variation in fruit quality, apples were harvested at commercial maturity on two different soil type. The investigations was conducted in experimental apple orchards located in Focsani region on two different soil type: luvic  brown typical and  luvic brown pseudogleizate. Fruits of Jonathan and Golden Delicios cultivars were tested for color, soluble solids content, total acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins content and chlorophyls content with specific analytrical methods. At harvest yield, dry matter, soluble solids content, ascorbic acid and acidity were affected by soil type. In this study, no significant soil effect was found on color, anthocyanins and chlorophyll fruit content. The results obtained in this study suggest that luvic brown pseudogleizate soil leading to increased yields and enhanced fruit quality.

  14. O tratamento pré-colheita com AVG, aliado à absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado, preserva a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' Preharvest treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine, in association with ethylene absorption during cold storage preserves fruit quality of 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-06-01

    management of fruit maturity at harvest and ethylene removal from the storage environment are important strategies for postharvest preservation of apple quality. This research was carried out to assess the combined effects of fruit maturity management at harvest achieved by preharvest spraying with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, and ethylene absorption with sachets containing pellets impregnated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4, on postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples. Fruits from trees treated with different doses of AVG (0.0, 62.5, 125.0, and 250.0 mg L-1 were harvested at different dates (corresponding to 0, 5, 10 and 14 days after the beginning of commercial harvest, packed in standard carton boxes (18kg, lined with high density polyethylene film of 30µm with or without the addition of one sachet of KMnO4, and cold stored for two months (at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH. Preharvest spraying with AVG delayed fruit maturity at harvest and its ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, as well as after one week storage at ambient condition (20±4ºC/70-80% RH. The use of one sachet of KMnO4 delayed fruit ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, resulting in higher values of firmness and hº on the green side (shaded side, less exposed to sun in early harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at the doses of 125-250 mg L-1. However, after one week storage at ambient condition, one sachet of KMnO4substantially delayed ripening of late harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at doses >62.5 mg L-1. The results show that preharvest spraying with AVG allow delays in fruit harvesting, but this might be accompanied by the use of one sachet of KMnO4 during cold stored for a better postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples.

  15. Coloração do fruto, distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças em maçãs 'Gala' e 'Fuji' pulverizadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Fruit color, physiological disorders and diseases of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apples sprayed with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita de macieiras 'Gala' e 'Fuji' com aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG sobre a qualidade dos frutos e a ocorrência de distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças. O experimento foi conduzido nos anos de 2005 e 2006, com pulverização de AVG (30 dias antes do início da colheita comercial dos frutos nas doses de 0; 125 e 250 mg L-1, sendo que, na segunda safra, também foi utilizada a dose de 62,5 mg L-1. Em maçãs 'Gala', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha e a permeância à perda de água na casca. Nesta mesma cultivar, em frutos avaliados após armazenamento refrigerado (três meses a 0±0,5ºC/90-95% UR, seguido de uma semana de vida de prateleira (20±4ºC/60-70% UR, o tratamento pré-colheita com AVG aumentou a incidência de "bitter pit", porém reduziu a incidência de escaldadura, rachadura peduncular e podridões. Em maçãs 'Fuji', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu a incidência e a severidade de pingo-de-mel em frutos colhidos tardiamente. A pulverização com AVG aumentou a severidade de mancha foliar de 'Gala' (Glomerella cingulata.The objective of this work was to study the effects of preharvest spraying of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and diseases. The experiments were carried out in 2005 and 2006, with AVG sprayed (30 days before anticipated fruit harvest at the doses of 0, 125 and 250 mg L-1, and also at the dose of 62.5 mg L-1 in 2006. In 'Gala' apples, the increase of AVG dose delayed red color development and reduced the water loss permanence of the skin. For this cultivar, the preharvest treatment with AVG increased the incidence of bitter pit, and reduced the incidence of scald, stem-end splitting and decay on fruits assessed after cold storage (three months at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH, followed by one week of shelf life (20±4ºC/60

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  17. Analysis Method for Pesticides Residues by GC/MS in Lebanese Apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, F.; Al Iskandarani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)

  18. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  19. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  20. Effect of alternative postharvest control treatments on the storability of 'Golden Delicious' apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Carletti, Letizia; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Stella, Elisabetta; Massantini, Riccardo

    2013-08-30

    Apples are subject to a high degree of fungal diseases, but the use of synthetic fungicides has been questioned because of public safety concerns, social rejection, and the development of resistance in pathogens. Thus, development of new postharvest treatments against apple fungal pathogens is necessary. Most studies have reported their effectiveness, but not all report the effects on the quality and storability of the fruit. In this study, the effects of physical (hot water), chemical (quercetin) and biological (yeast antagonist) microfungal control on the quality of 'Golden Delicious' apple during storage at 2 ± 0.5 °C, and 90 ± 2% of relative humidity, for 2 months were investigated and compared. Heat-treated apples exhibited peel fruit damage (surface browning and internal breakdown disorders) and promoted ripening in the fruit. The quercetin caustic spray caused the development of peel chemical burn in all treated fruit. Both yeast antagonist and quercetin treatments did not affect the apple ripening process but stimulated an increase in ethylene production and in respiratory activity. The data indicated that the effects on quality and storability were dependent on the method of treatment used, and antagonistic yeast was the best microfungal control because of it did not cause any disorders or negative effects on apple quality during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  2. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  3. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  4. Pre-sliced fruit in school cafeterias: children's selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Just, David R; Hanks, Andrew S; Smith, Laura E

    2013-05-01

    It is often assumed that children avoid fruit in school cafeterias because of higher relative prices and preferences for other foods. Interviews with children reveal that eating whole fresh fruit can be difficult for those with small mouths or braces. Older girls find whole fruits messy and unattractive to eat. To determine the effect of offering pre-sliced fruit in schools on selection and intake. Three of six schools were assigned randomly to serve apples in slices. Three control schools served apples whole. Selection, consumption, and waste of apples were measured prior to and during treatment. Cafeterias in six public middle schools in Wayne County NY in 2011. Participants included all students who purchased lunch on days when data were collected. Treatment schools were provided with a standard commercial fruit slicer, and cafeteria staff members were instructed to use it when students requested apples. Trained researchers recorded how much of each apple was consumed and how much was wasted in both control and treatment schools. Daily apple sales, percentage of an apple serving consumed per student, and percentage of an apple serving wasted per student. Data were analyzed in 2012. Schools that used fruit slicers to pre-slice fruit increased average daily apple sales by 71% compared to control schools (papples and ate more than half increased by 73% (p=0.02) at schools that served pre-sliced fruit, and the percentage that wasted half or more decreased by 48% (p=0.03). Sliced fruit is more appealing to children than whole fruit because it is easier and tidier to eat. This study applies the principle of convenience from behavioral economics and provides an example of a scalable, low-cost environmental change that promotes healthy eating and decreases waste. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  5. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng

    1993-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)

  6. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  7. A aplicação de nitrogênio ao solo em diferentes estádios não afetou o rendimento de frutos de cultivares de macieira Application of nitrogen to the soil in different stages did not affect on fruit yield of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanto o excesso quanto a deficiência de N causam efeitos negativos na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos de macieira. Como a taxa de absorção de N pelas árvores de macieira é afetada pela demanda das mesmas, dentro da estação de crescimento, e pelo N disponível no solo, é importante conhecer a necessidade da adição suplementar desse nutriente e a melhor época para aplicá-lo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da época de aplicação de N ao solo na produtividade de frutos de duas cultivares de macieira. Os experimentos, um para a Gala e outro para a Fuji, foram conduzidos de 1990 a 1996, em Vacaria, RS, num pomar plantado em 1988, na densidade de1481 árvores ha-1, sobre um Latossolo bruno com 4,0% de matéria orgânica, 60% de argila e pH 6,9. Os tratamentos constaram de 50kg de N ha-1 nos três primeiros anos, e 60kg de N ha-1 nas outras três safras, aplicados no inchamento das gemas (IG, ou na queda de pétalas (QP, ou dividido 2/3 no IG + 1/3 na QP, ou 2/3 na QP + 1/3 trinta dias após. O N foi sempre aplicado sobre a superfície do solo, sem incorporação, numa faixa de 2,0m ao longo da fila de plantio. Houve também um tratamento sem a aplicação de N. A produtividade média anual de frutos variou de 40 a 112t ha-1 para a cultivar Gala e de 38 a 76t ha-1 para a Fuji, e a produtividade média da Gala, no período, foi 35% superior à da Fuji. A aplicação de N ao solo, independentemente da época, não teve efeito na produtividade de frutos, no tamanho das brotações, na concentração de N nas folhas e no diâmetro do tronco das duas cultivares. Presume-se, portanto, que a quantidade de N liberada a partir da decomposição da matéria orgânica do solo foi suficiente para atender à demanda das plantas e permitir uma alta produtividade de frutos de macieira.Excess or deficiency of N have deleterious effects on apple yield and fruit quality. Since the rate of N uptake by apple trees depends on crop

  8. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Richard V; Bovy, Arnaud; Bava, Christina; Jaeger, Sara R; Tomes, Sumathi; Norling, Cara; Crawford, Jonathan; Rowan, Daryl; McGhie, Tony K; Brendolise, Cyril; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-05-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  10. Whole surface image reconstruction for machine vision inspection of fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. Y.; Lefcourt, A. M.; Kim, M. S.; Lo, Y. M.

    2007-09-01

    Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits and vegetables consumed by the public. Current automated inspection systems allow fruit such as apples to be sorted for quality issues including color and size by looking at a portion of the surface of each fruit. However, to inspect for defects and contamination, the whole surface of each fruit must be imaged. The goal of this project was to develop an effective and economical method for whole surface imaging of apples using mirrors and a single camera. Challenges include mapping the concave stem and calyx regions. To allow the entire surface of an apple to be imaged, apples were suspended or rolled above the mirrors using two parallel music wires. A camera above the apples captured 90 images per sec (640 by 480 pixels). Single or multiple flat or concave mirrors were mounted around the apple in various configurations to maximize surface imaging. Data suggest that the use of two flat mirrors provides inadequate coverage of a fruit but using two parabolic concave mirrors allows the entire surface to be mapped. Parabolic concave mirrors magnify images, which results in greater pixel resolution and reduced distortion. This result suggests that a single camera with two parabolic concave mirrors can be a cost-effective method for whole surface imaging.

  11. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were ...

  12. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  13. Disponibilidade de luz em macieiras 'Fuji' cobertas com telas antigranizo e seus efeitos sobre a fotossíntese, o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos Light supply to 'Fuji' apple trees covered with hail protection nets and its effects on photosynthesys, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em pomares de macieira, o dano de granizo pode ser evitado através da cobertura das plantas com telas. Todavia, as telas alteram a intensidade e a qualidade da luz solar e, assim, podem comprometer o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar estes aspectos em macieiras 'Fuji', cobertas com telas nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta ocasionou maiores reduções na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFFA disponíveis às plantas (24,8% em relação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela, especialmente quando cobertas com tela preta, recebeu radiação com menores valores da relação vermelho:vermelho distante (V:Vd em relação às plantas descobertas. Somente sob tela preta, a magnitude das reduções na DFFFA e na relação V:Vd da luz foi capaz de aumentar a área média e a área específica das folhas e reduzir a taxa fotossintética potencial, reduzindo assim o rendimento (número e peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não afetaram a severidade de "russeting" e o número de sementes por fruto.In apple orchards, hail damage can be avoided by covering the plants with nets. However, the nets might change light intensity and quality supplied to the plants and, therefore, affect yield and quality of the fruit. This research was carried out to assess these aspects on 'Fuji' apples trees uncovered and covered with white and black nets. The black net caused more substantial reduction of photosynthetic photons flux density (PPFD available to the plants during the day (24.8% than the white one (21.2%. The inner part of plants canopy covered by nets, especially under black net, received light with a lower red:far red ratio (R:FR, in comparison to uncovered plants. Only under black net, the reductions of PPFD and R:FR of the

  14. Redução da severidade da podridão-amarga de maçã em pós-colheita pela imersão de frutos em quitosana Reduction of the severity of apple bitter rot by fruit immersion in chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Barbosa Felipini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação de quitosana no controle da podridão-amarga da maçã em pós-colheita e seus efeitos sobre Colletotrichum acutatum e a atividade da peroxidase nos frutos. Frutos previamente infectados com o patógeno foram imersos em suspensões de quitosana com diferentes concentrações e pHs. Para estudar possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos no controle da doença, foram realizados testes in vitro, para avaliar o efeito da quitosana sobre a germinação de conídios de C. acutatum e sobre o crescimento micelial. Foi avaliada a capacidade da quitosana de induzir a síntese de enzimas relacionadas à defesa da planta (peroxidases, por meio de ensaio espectrofotométrico. Houve efeito de doses e de pH da quitosana sobre a redução da severidade da podridão-amarga em maçã. A suspensão de quitosana a 10 g L-1 e pH 4 foi a mais apropriada tecnicamente para o controle da doença, pois reduziu a severidade em 26%. O polissacarídeo não elevou a atividade de peroxidases nos frutos, mas reduziu a germinação de conídios e o crescimento micelial do patógeno. A quitosana aplicada em pós-colheita é uma medida alternativa aos fungicidas para o manejo da podridão-amarga.The objective of this work was to evaluate the aplication of chitosan on the control of apple bitter rot in postharvest conditions and its effects on Colletotrichum acutatum and fruit peroxidase activity. Apple fruit previously infected with the pathogen were immersed in chitosan suspensions with different concentrations and pHs. To study some possible action mechanisms, in vitro tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on spore germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. The capacity of chitosan to induce the synthesis of defense enzymes (peroxidases was evaluated in fruits by spectrofotometric assay. Different doses and pH of chitosan were found to be effective in the reduction of the disease severity. Chitosan at

  15. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianinsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw...

  16. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianingsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract- Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for no...

  17. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes with which they were compared. We presuppose that the reason less plaque is removed by non-baking soda

  18. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  19. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  20. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  1. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  2. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  3. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  6. Introduction of deciduous fruit tree growing in the tropical highlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    have ever been conducted to investigate the potential of temperate tree fruits .... year-old apple cultivars at altitudes of 1830 and 2500 m.a.s.l while tables 2 and 3 ..... breaking are established in addition to determining the best fruiting season.

  7. Efeito da aplicação foliar de boro e zinco sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da pinheira Leaf spray fertilization of boron and zinc on production, SST and ATT in fruits of pear and sugar apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2007-08-01

    is no research showing results on it. In this way, the aim of this study was to verify the effects of B and Zn applied on leaves on production, SST and ATT of pear fruit and sugar apple. The experiment was conducted on irrigated area in Ilha Solteira - SP, Brazil. A red brown Podzolic and plants of sugar apple and pear, Okussankichi cv. were used. The treatments were: T1. water, T2. boric acid, T3. zinc sulfate, T4. T2 + T3, T5. boric acid + urea + citric acid + EDTA, T6. zinc sulfate + urea + citric acid + EDTA, T7. T5 + T6, T8. boric acid + urea + citric acid + EDTA + sodium molibdate + sulfur + calcium chloride, T9. zinc sulfate + citric acid + EDTA + Fe sulfate + Mn sulfate + Mg sulfate and, T10. T8 +T9. It was used doses of 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn, in each application. A randomized blocks design was used and to compare the averages the Tukey test was applied. It can be concluded: a the production, SST and ATT of pear fruits and sugar apple fruits were not influenced by B and Zn leaf application, b boric acid plus quelates were efficient to supply B to pear plants but not to sugar apple plants, c Zn sulfate plus quelates caused an increase in Zn leaf content only in pear plants.

  8. Impact of vacuum cooking process on the texture degradation of selected apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourles, E; Mehinagic, E; Courthaudon, J L; Jourjon, F

    2009-01-01

    Thermal treatments are known to affect the textural properties of fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of vacuum cooking process on the mechanical properties of various apple cultivars. A total of 10 apple cultivars were industrially processed by vacuum pasteurization at 95 degrees C for 25 min. The raw material was characterized by penetrometry, uniaxial double compression, soluble solid content, and titrable acidity. Textural properties of processed apples were analyzed by uniaxial double compression. As expected, for all cultivars, fruit resistance was lower after processing than before. Results showed that texture degradation due to vacuum pasteurization was different from one cultivar to another. Indeed, some cultivars, initially considered as the most resistant ones, such as Braeburn, were less suitable for processing, and became softer than others after thermal treatment. Consequently, it is worth noting that the texture classification of the investigated apple cultivars was changed by the vacuum-cooking process.

  9. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on shelf-life and ripening of peaches and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Kabwe, M.; Wilson, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    ''Loring'' and ''Elberta'' peaches and ''Golden Delicious'' apples were irradiated with UV (254nm) to doses of 0.84 X 10(4) to 40 X 10(4) erg/mm2 then stored. ''Loring'' were stored 10 days and ''Elberta'' 20 days at 12 degrees C. ''Golden Delicious'' were stored 30 days at 20-25 degrees C in a dark room. Fruit were examined and differences in percentage rot and in physical-chemical properties determined. Percentage rot decreased with increasing UV dose. Fruit were firmer, pH and soluble solids lower and acidity higher for UV-treated than for nontreated peaches; pH was lower and acidity and ascorbic acid higher in UV treated than in nontreated apples. Percentage weight loss was less for UV-treated apples. The results indicated that UV treatment not only reduced storage rots but also delayed ripening of peaches and apples

  10. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  11. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  12. Damage evaluation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on five apple cultivars under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, E.S.; Vendramin, J.D.; Denardi, F.; Nora, I.

    1999-01-01

    The apple production losses in southern Brazil caused by the attack of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus can reach up to 100% in some years. Its control demands intensive systematic sprays of insecticides, which increase production costs and affect environmental quality. In terms of integrated pest management, the use of resistant cultivars represents one of the most important alternatives to control this apple pest. With the objective of identifying sources of host plant resistance, apple fruits of different cultivars from the Clonal Germplasm Repository of the EPAGRI Research Station of Cacador were tested. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments (cultivars) with 5 replicates. Fruits at the harvest stage were used. The fruits were placed in boxes (40x110 cm), where they were exposed to oviposition by the fruit fly. After infestation, fruits were left on shelves at room temperature for 10 days in order to evaluate the damage level according to the following scale: 1 = fruit without attack; 2 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation without galleries; 3 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation and galleries; 4 = fruit with punctures and/or deformations, galleries and larvae. The Gala cultivar was the most susceptible, with an average damage level of 3.4, differing from the cultivars Fuji and Royal Red Delicious (damage levels of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively). The Belgolden and Sansa clones presented intermediate damage levels. A. fraterculus preferred to oviposit in the Golden Delicious group compared with the Delicious group. These studies suggest good possibilities for reduction of insecticide sprays to control the fruit fly in the cv. Fuji, as well as the incorporation of resistance factor in apple cultivars. (author)

  13. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  14. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Buts, Kim; Hatoum, Darwish; Ho, Quang Tri; Johnston, Jason W; Watkins, Christopher B; Schaffer, Robert J; Gapper, Nigel E; Giovannoni, Jim J; Rudell, David R; Hertog, Maarten LATM; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-01-01

    Background Postharvest ripening of apple (Malus x domestica) can be slowed down by low temperatures, and a combination of low O2 and high CO2 levels. While this maintains the quality of most fruit, occasionally storage disorders such as flesh browning can occur. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with a flesh browning disorder related to controlled atmosphere storage using RNA-sequencing techniques. Samples from a browning-susceptible cultivar (‘Braeburn...

  15. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2011-01-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg -1 ) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg -1 ) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg -1 ). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  16. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo, UNICID, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 {+-} 0.04 gkg{sup -1}) and raisin (0.30 {+-} 0.08 gkg{sup -1}) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 {+-} 0.12 gkg{sup -1}). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  17. Apple pomace improves gut health in Fisher rats independent of seed content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...

  18. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  19. Quality Of Starking Apples After Exposure To Gamma Radiation As A Quarantine Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.; Al-Bachir, M.

    2004-01-01

    Starking apples approaching physiological maturity were exposed, immediately after harvest, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 100 to 400 Gy. The irradiated fruit were stored for six months in a cold storage facility at 1±1 deg. C and 90±5 % RH. Effects of gamma radiation on weight loss, fruit firmness, pH of fruit juice, fruit taste, color and visible injuries were evaluated. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased weight loss, particularly in the first 45 days of storage. Doses higher than 200 Gy, on the other hand, reduced apple firmness after 45 days of storage while a 400 Gy dose decreased fruit pH immediately after irradiation. (Authors)

  20. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Mangan

    Full Text Available As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella and negatively through fruit damage. We conducted transect surveys, observed bird frugivory and assessed bird and insect damage with an exclosure experiment in small organic farms in western Colorado. We found that organic apple orchards in this region provide habitat for a large number of both human-adapted and human-sensitive species and that the species in orchards were relatively similar to adjacent hedgerow habitats. Habitat use did not vary as a function of orchard characteristics, and apple damage by both birds and C. pomonella was consistent within and across apple blocks that varied in size. A small subset of bird species was observed foraging on apples yet the effect of birds as agents of fruit damage appeared rather minor and birds did not reduce C. pomonella damage. Our results demonstrate that organic apple orchards have the potential to provide habitat for diverse bird communities, including species typically sensitive to human activities, with little apparent effect on production.

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  2. Multilevel systematic sampling to estimate total fruit number for yield forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, Felipe Aravena; Tellez, Camilla Potin

    2012-01-01

    procedure for unbiased estimation of fruit number for yield forecasts. In the Spring of 2009 we estimated the total number of fruit in several rows of each of 14 commercial fruit orchards growing apple (11 groves), kiwifruit (two groves), and table grapes (one grove) in central Chile. Survey times were 10...

  3. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  4. Effect of apple pectin on gut microbiota - qPCR in applied microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Poulsen, Morten

    This study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial...... community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which could be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks...

  5. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain. Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit. Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking. Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00 and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export. Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples.

  6. Traceability of different apple varieties by multivariate analysis of isotope ratio mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Capici, Calogero; Tagliavini, Massimo; Cesco, Stefano; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2015-11-15

    The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy). Carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of the whole apple fruits and three sub-fractions (peel, pulp and seed) have been determined simultaneously by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of apples and apple sub-fractions, such as peel, seed and pulp, were significantly affected by the geographical origin and the fruit variety. The four varieties could be distinguished to a certain extent only within each district. A 99% correct identification of the samples according to their origin was, however, achieved by cross validation with the 'leave-one-out' method. This study proves the potential of stable isotopes to discriminate the geographical origin of apples grown in orchards located only a few hundreds of kilometres apart. Stable isotopes were also able to discriminate different apple varieties, although only within small geographical areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  8. Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Quality of Apples from the Major Producing Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang Qu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological conditions are important environmental factors affecting apple quality. To understand the possible impact of climate change on the apple quality of the major producing areas in China and assess the quality of major apple species (e.g., Fuji, Ralls, and Golden Delicious, we studied the variation trends and abrupt change characteristics of six major climate factors affecting seven physicochemical indices of apple quality across five apple regions, including the Loess Plateau, Bohai Bay, the Old Course of the Yellow River, Southwest Highlands, and Xinjiang, using statistical methods, meteorological indices, and the ArcGIS analysis tool based on the meteorological observational data from 1961 to 2013. The results show that the spatial and temporal distributions of annual average temperature, annual sunshine duration, average summer temperature, summer diurnal temperature range, and average summer relative humidity all significantly changed (except annual precipitation and that abrupt changes occurred. The annual temperatures and average summer temperatures in the Loess Plateau apple region and the Liaoning producing region of Bohai Bay increased within optimal ranges. In addition, for high-value regions, the hours of sunshine decreased, helping to improve the fruit shape index, sugar-acid ratio, and vitamin C (VC content. Relatively high temperatures continued to increase to high values which remained lower than the optimal upper limit; the diurnal temperature range continued to decrease; and the sunshine hours significantly decreased within the optimal range, which might have worsened fruit hardness, soluble sugar, and peel anthocyanin in the producing regions of Southwest Shandong of Bohai Bay, Southeast Hebei of the Old Course of the Yellow River, Northern Anhui, and Jiangsu. In the production regions of the Yun-Gui plateau in the Southwest highlands, increased summer temperature and the diurnal temperature range were both within

  9. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  10. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira em resposta à aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production by hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-01-01

    , detecting this effects along of productive season became important. Thus, this study was carried out during 2007/2008 season, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate different hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil combinations on phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production. The experimental design was a randomized block, with six replications, in factorial arrangement (5x2, with five budbreak promoter treatments (1. control; 2. mineral oil 3.2%; 3. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.20%; 4. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.39%; 5. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.59% and two cultivars (Imperial Gala and Suprema's Fuji. The budbreak promoters application anticipated and reduced the blooming period, increasing the blooming overlap between Imperial Gala and Suprema's Fuji cultivars. The budbreak promoters equalized and increased the budbreak in axillary and terminal buds, with the major budbreak level observed in Imperial Gala cultivar with 0.44% of hydrogen cyanamide and 3.2% of mineral oil treatment. The increase of hydrogen cyanamide concentration showed the tendency to decrease the fruit set. It was observed different treatment responses on production and mean fruit weight, probably to be related to fruit production predominance in different frutification structures.

  12. Potency of Mangrove Apple (Sonneratia alba as Mercury Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Cordova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic provide a negative impact on the surrounding environment. Mangrove species, such as Sonneratia alba would get the impact of anthropogenic activities, to accumulate the pollution of heavy metals. The aim of this study were to evaluate mercury accumulation in Mangrove Apple (S. alba and to analyze mangrove apple potency as mercury bioindicator. Samples were taken in April 2016 at Pari Island, Seribu Islands by purposive sampling. The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg in the Northern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and the lowest was in the fruit. The highest concentration of Hg in the Eastern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and lowest was in the fruit. The concentrations of Hg in the Eastern area higher the Northern area (significantly different. The accumulation of Hg mainly collected on the leaves with TF> 1, but the ability of S. alba trees absorb Hg in the environment showed a small value, namely BCF <1. The ability of S. alba in sediments, contaminated with mercury showed a high value of the leaves in the East Pari Island, but the fruit of S. alba both in the North and East of the Pari Island showed a small value.  Mangrove Apple leaves has a potency as mercury bioindicator organ.

  13. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  14. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  15. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  16. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of a Novel Apple NAC Transcription Factor Gene, MdNAC1, Confers the Dwarf Phenotype in Transgenic Apple (Malus domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongfeng; Gong, Xiaoqing; Li, Mingjun; Li, Chao; Sun, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Plant height is an important trait for fruit trees. The dwarf characteristic is commonly associated with highly efficient fruit production, a major objective when breeding for apple (Malus domestica). We studied the function of MdNAC1, a novel NAC transcription factor (TF) gene in apple related to plant dwarfing. Localized primarily to the nucleus, MdNAC1 has transcriptional activity in yeast cells. Overexpression of the gene results in a dwarf phenotype in transgenic apple plants. Their reduction in size is manifested by shorter, thinner stems and roots, and a smaller leaf area. The transgenics also have shorter internodes and fewer cells in the stems. Levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are lower in the transgenic plants, and expression is decreased for genes involved in the biosynthesis of those phytohormones. All of these findings demonstrate that MdNAC1 has a role in plants dwarfism, probably by regulating ABA and BR production. PMID:29702625

  18. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  19. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  20. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  1. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  2. Volatile response of four apple varieties with different coatings during marketing at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Hagenmaier, Robert D; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2002-12-18

    Five experimental coatings with different resistance to gas exchange were used with freshly harvested and 20-week commercially stored apples of Delicious, Fuji, Braeburn, and Granny Smith varieties. The coated or noncoated apples were held at 20 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The gas partial pressures inside the fruits with the various coatings ranged from 1 to 25 kPa CO(2) and from 20 to 1 kPa O(2). Volatile evaporation rates were measured, as also were the volatiles compositions in the fruit. The coatings with intermediate gas resistance (carnauba-shellac mixture and candelilla) gave intermediate values of CO(2) and O(2) in the internal atmosphere in Delicious, Fuji, and Braeburn apples and the highest concentrations of butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate in the fruits. The coatings with the highest gas resistance (shellac and shellac-protein) caused high internal CO(2) and low O(2), resulting in anaerobic fermentation in Braeburn and Granny Smith apples and relatively high amounts of low-molecular-weight ethyl esters trapped within the fruit. A small portion of the alcohols were evaporated from fruits compared to esters, this attributed to their high Henry's law coefficients.

  3. Screening of the fruit pulp extract of Momordica balsamina for anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-04

    Jan 4, 2007 ... Momordica Balsamina also refers to as balsam fruit or apple belongs to the family of cucurbitacea. It is a plant commonly used by local poultry farmers in Plateau State,. Nigeria for general well being of birds (Mgbojikwe et al.,. 2002). The Balsam apple is a climber or trailer with annuals stems attaining 4-5 m ...

  4. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  5. A mechanistic modelling approach to understand 1-MCP inhibition of ethylene action and quality changes during ripening of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Verlinden, Bert E; Hertog, Maarten Latm; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2017-08-01

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) inhibits ripening in climacteric fruit by blocking ethylene receptors, preventing ethylene from binding and eliciting its action. The objective of the current study was to use mathematical models to describe 1-MCP inhibition of apple fruit ripening, and to provide a tool for predicting ethylene production, and two important quality indicators of apple fruit, firmness and background colour. A model consisting of coupled differential equations describing 1-MCP inhibition of apple ripening was developed. Data on ethylene production, expression of ethylene receptors, firmness, and background colour during ripening of untreated and 1-MCP treated apples were used to calibrate the model. An overall adjusted R 2 of 95% was obtained. The impact of time from harvest to treatment, and harvest maturity on 1-MCP efficacy was modelled. Different hypotheses on the partial response of 'Jonagold' apple to 1-MCP treatment were tested using the model. The model was validated using an independent dataset. Low 1-MCP blocking efficacy was shown to be the most likely cause of partial response for delayed 1-MCP treatment, and 1-MCP treatment of late-picked apples. Time from harvest to treatment was a more important factor than maturity for 1-MCP efficacy in 'Jonagold' apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  8. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  9. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  10. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  11. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  12. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  13. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  14. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  15. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Du Toit; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Jerling, Johann

    2006-02-22

    The polyphenolic and ascorbate (ASC) components as well as the antioxidant capacity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice were analyzed and compared to three other fruit juices. The Kei-apple juice had significantly the highest total polyphenolic concentrations (1013 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and solid phase (C(18)) fractionation identified the majority of these polyphenols to be phenolic acids. The Kei-apple juice also had significantly the highest ASC concentrations (658 mg/L), which showed exceptional heat stability with very little conversion to dehydroascorbate (DHA). Antioxidant capacities of both the unfractionated fruit juices and their solid phase-extracted fractions, as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses, correlated well to the polyphenol concentrations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenol present (128.7 mg/L) in the Kei-apple juice; it contributed to 63% of the total antioxidant capacity (of all of the individual compounds identified). Other notable polyphenols identified in higher concentrations included p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Our results therefore support the putative high antioxidant value linked to this fruit and better define this potential in terms of the major antioxidants that exist in the Kei-apple.

  16. The effect of growth regulators on the uptake and distribution of calcium in Golden Delicious apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, J.; De Villiers, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    45 Ca, applied to the roots of Golden Delicious apple seedlings, was readily absorbed and transported to the leaves. Application of NAAm to the leaves of seedlings significantly increased the uptake of 45 Ca, whereas the growth regulators GA 3 , kinetin, SADH, CEPA and 2,4,5-TP had no such effect. Application of NAAm to intact fruits and fruit discs also significantly increased the uptake of 45 Ca [af

  17. Suitability of low-dose gamma irradiation for disinfestation of several fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.; Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fruits were treated with low radiation doses from 75 to 225 Gy to determine the suitability of this treatment for disinfestation against the Queensland fruit fly. No obvious effects on fruits were observed with Valencia oranges, table grapes, apples, pear, and tomatoes. Avocados were damaged by this treatment; an increase in vascular browning of fruit followed treatment with 75 to 225 Gy

  18. Pomegranate: the grainy apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Parfianka’ (Garnet Sash) has dark red, large to very large fruit and arils with soft seeds. The taste is sweet with balanced acidity offering interest to the flavor (Kennedy, 2010). It tested with 15.2 °Brix and a TA of 1.04 (Table 2), attesting for the sugar-acid balance. It was selected in Turkme...

  19. Transcriptomic signatures in seeds of apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during fruitlet abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Sergio; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Mendes, Marta Adelina; Botton, Alessandro; Eccher, Giulia; Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the regulated process of detachment of an organ from a plant. In apple the abscission of fruits occurs during their early development to control the fruit load depending on the nutritional state of the plant. In order to control production and obtain fruits with optimal market qualities, the horticultural procedure of thinning is performed to further reduce the number of fruitlets. In this study we have conducted a transcriptomic profiling of seeds from two different types of fruitlets, according to size and position in the fruit cluster. Transcriptomic profiles of central and lateral fruit seeds were obtained by RNAseq. Comparative analysis was performed by the functional categorization of differentially expressed genes by means of Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of the apple genome. Our results revealed the overexpression of genes involved in responses to stress, hormone biosynthesis and also the response and/or transport of auxin and ethylene. A smaller set of genes, mainly related to ion transport and homeostasis, were found to be down-regulated. The transcriptome characterization described in this manuscript contributes to unravelling the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in the physiological abscission of apple fruits and suggests a role for seeds in this process.

  20. ‘FUJI’ APPLE TREE RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILBERTO NAVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of orchard fertilization with increasing rates of phosphorus (P on yield and critical levels of P in the soil and in the leaf of ‘Fuji’ apple trees. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from 2010 to 2015, in an Inceptisol soil. The three apple orchards were planted in 2004 with the Fuji cultivar grafted on Marubakaido/ M9 rootstock and grown under a high-plant-density system (1984 trees ha-1. Annual fertilizer levels of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (as triple superphosphate were applied to the soil surface, without incorporation, in a randomized block design with five replicates. In the first and last years (2011 and 2015, soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20 and 0-20 cm layers and the available P content was analyzed. Annually, whole leaves were collected and analyzed for P content. The number and weight of fruits per tree and hfruit yield were also evaluated. Application of P increased the content of available P in the soil, but this increase was not accompanied by increased leaf P content nor by increased fruit yield. This suggests that, in soils with medium to high content of organic matter and well fertilized with P before planting, there is no response of apple trees for P reapplication in the 10 subsequent years.

  1. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  2. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this study is to measure acceptance of a specific functional food: apple (fruit) leather, based on organoleptic characteristics and to identify consumer types and preferences for natural additives which increase the product's functionality and meet current nutritional needs. a sample of 800 consumers provided an evaluation of apple leather in terms of acceptance (liking). A sensorial panel was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify different acceptance-based consumer types. In addition, a conjoint analysis was carried out to determine preference for different additives. the cluster analysis resulted in four groups with significant differences in the average likings obtained from the sensory panel. Results indicate that the sweetness of the tested apple leather was evaluated best among all groups and, on average, color was rated as the worst attribute. However, overall likings differ significantly between groups. Results from the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer natural additives included in the product which enhance functionality. although there is a "global acceptance" of the product, there are significant differences between groups. The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer the aggregation of natural additives which increase the product's functionality. Apple leather with natural additives, such as anticariogenics and antioxidants, can be considered a functional substitute of unhealthy snacks and/or sweets. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  4. Effect of strategic irrigation on infection of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Strategic irrigation is a method to prevent Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). It is performed by irrigating the orchard floor in dry periods during spring, 24 hours before rain forecast. Irrigating the old leaves on the orchard floor will elicit the release of ascospores, but due to the dry trees...... and the dry weather, the ascospores dry out without causing infections. The method relies on the occurrence of dry periods during the period of primary infection from April to mid-June. Experiments were carried out at the University of Copenhagen and in an unsprayed Danish organic orchard in 2014 and 2015....... Apple scab on fruit and leaves was reduced by strategic irrigation in ‘Elshof’ at the University field in both years. In the organic orchard the strategic irrigation reduced the infection of leaves by apple scab and Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot in some cultivars and some years. Studies of the ejection...

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of dried Portuguese apple variety (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-01

    Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii. There is very little information about 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple, so this study is important to inform consumers about an alternative source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  7. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO-controlled atmosphere (CA [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1 and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses, chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents, and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

  8. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    . None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0.......01 to 0.2 mg kg−1 for pyraclostrobin, the pesticide with the lowest variation. Residues of fenoxycarb and indoxacarb were only found in a few apples, probably due to the early application time of these two compounds. The evaluation of the effect of spray quality did not show any major difference between......In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...

  9. Mineral oil residues in soil and apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Mukhtar; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Sofi, Mubashir; Ara, Ishrat

    2018-03-09

    The study was undertaken to ascertain the persistence of Orchol-13, a mineral oil used against insect pests of horticultural fruit crops in soil and apple following the dormant and summer applications of 2 and 0.75% respectively. Soil samples were collected during dormant, while as both soil and apple samples were collected during summer season. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days post treatment in both the seasons. Average recoveries of paraffinic constituents (which constitute about 60% of mineral oils by composition) from soil and apple at 1 μg ml -1 spiking level were found to be 74.18 and 76.81% respectively. The final quantification of paraffinic constituents was performed on gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). No paraffinic constituents of mineral oil could be detected in soil and apple at 0 day post treatment in both the seasons.

  10. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  11. Gaby: a computer-based support system for integrated pest management in Dutch apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, van den E.; Blommers, L.; Trapman, M.

    1996-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a computerized advisory system (called Gaby) for integrated pest management (IPM) in apple has been developed to support the decision making of individual fruit growers. Gaby provides clear monitoring recommendations when this is appropriate for a particular pest in (a defined

  12. Apple Replant Disease: Role of microbial ecology in cause and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. Development of non-fumigant alternatives for the control of this disease has been hindered by the absence of consensus concerning the etiology...

  13. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Christensen, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus

  14. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles Eric; Mauroux, Jehan Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; De Weg, Van Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three

  15. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  16. Determination of extractable organohalogens in apple by neutron activation analysis and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Sun, H.B.; Zhang, J.L.; Sun, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to compounds such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which originate from by now well-known anthropogenic sources, there is increasing awareness of other halogenated compounds coming from a number of different processes, and probably also from natural source. To provide the reliable results and data for evaluation of hazard of extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) to food safety and to further characterize halogenated compounds in fruits, the concentrations of extractable organohalogen (EOX), EPOX, and identified organochlorine compounds including DDTs, hexachlorinated cyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes and PCBs in apple samples from Chinese homegrown and imports were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatography. The results indicated that the levels of EPOX in apples was in the order of EPOCl >> EPOBr > EPOI, which showed that EPOCl was the major fraction of the EPOX pollutions. Also, most chlorinated compounds in apple samples existed as inorganic species and water-soluble polar compounds, and about 1/10-4/5 of EOX was sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX contaminants. Meanwhile, about more than 94 % of EPOCl in detected specimens cannot be accounted for by DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs. Furthermore, the T-test result indicated that the EPOCl levels in apple were significantly higher than those in peeled apple , which stated that people consuming peeled apple will get lesser intakes of EPOCl pollutants than they consume unpeeled apple.

  17. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period.

  18. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  19. Construction design of apple sorter

    OpenAIRE

    Nieoczym Aleksander; Caban Jacek; Marczuk Andrzej; Brumerčik Frantiśek

    2018-01-01

    When assessing the quality of fruit and packaging process, fruit-producing farms owners decide to evaluate fruit by people or automated sorting lines. The purchase of an automated sorting line generates high costs for the company, but it brings benefits in the form of increased work efficiency, and the better organization of fruit packaging and storage processes. The use of that machinery and equipment is common in agricultural farms as well as in fruit and vegetable processing companies. Des...

  20. Differential Lipid Composition and Gene Expression in the Semi-Russeted “Cox Orange Pippin” Apple Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Legay, Sylvain; Cocco, Emmanuelle; André, Christelle M.; Guignard, Cédric; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2017-01-01

    Russeting is characterized by a particular rough and brown phenotype, which is mainly due to the accumulation of suberin in the inner part of the epidermal cell walls. In our previous bulk transcriptomic analysis, comparing fully russeted, and waxy apple varieties, showed, in apple fruit skin, a massive decreased expression of cutin, wax and some pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis genes in the russeted varieties, with an expected concomitant enhanced expression of the suberin biosynthetic ge...