WorldWideScience

Sample records for sociologists typically research

  1. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  2. Commentary: a sociologist's view on community genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Aviad E.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary illustrates and discusses potential research directions for sociologists and anthropologists interested in the field of community genetics and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk. Community genetics—the application of medical genetics in community settings for the benefit of individuals—also involves social issues of lay-professional misunderstandings (and more recently also the different perspectives of various expert communities), stigmatization, discrim...

  3. What did sociologists ever do for us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Averil

    2009-02-01

    I have just discovered that I am a baby boomer. Actually, that is not quite true; of course I knew I was born during the period that defines the boomer generation (the late 1940s to early 1960s, although sociologists argue over the boundaries), but I had not appreciated that my boomerhood defines the way that I think and react.

  4. Marginality, Credibility, and Impression Management: The Asian Sociologist in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, N. Prabha

    1988-01-01

    Relates personal experiences of a sociologist of Asian origin in an effort to illustrate problems inherent in the process of becoming accepted as an academic sociologist. Identifies important themes of marginality, credibility, and impression management. Points out ways in which the Asian sociologists can go about achieving credibility. (KO)

  5. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  6. Aging Management Plan for a Typical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahsa; Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Development of an aging management plan (AMP) is a crucial contributor to maintaining the reactor safety and controlling the risk of degradation of the concrete reactor building of a nuclear power plant. The design, operation and utilization of a research reactor (RR) fundamentally differ from those of power reactors. The AMP should nonetheless be present on account of radioactive materials and radiation risks involved. This is mainly because the RR is deemed to be used as an experiment itself or to conduct separate experiments during its operation. The AMP aims to determine the requisites for specific structural concrete components of the reactor building that entail regular inspections and maintenance to ensure safe and reliable operation of the plant. The safety of a RR necessitates the provision which is made in its design to facilitate aging management. Aging management of RR's structures is one of the vital factors to safety, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions.Moreover, engineering systems should be qualified to meet the functional requirements for which they were designed with aging and environmental conditions for all situations and at all times taken into account. This study aims to present an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building of a typical RR. For the purpose of safety analysis, geometry and ambient conditions were taken from a 5 MW pool-type, light-water moderated, heterogeneous, solid fuel RR in which the water is also used for cooling and shielding (Fig. 1). The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section concrete pool filled with water. This paper makes available background information regarding the document and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the reactor building concrete as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective

  7. "Why Don't I Know about These Women?": The Integration of Early Women Sociologists in Classical Theory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan E.; Kukulan, Annis

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, early women sociologists such as Harriet Martineau, Ida B. Wells, and Jane Addams have begun to appear in some introductory textbooks and theory books. Usually, they appear in a box, as a sidebar, or as selected "others." So why do we not know more about these women? Our research seeks to answer this question. Given the…

  8. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  9. Unveiling Hidden Social Design: New Roles for Sociologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Lubomir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will help foster a more favourable attitude to professional involvement in social design projects and highlight new areas of professional opportunity for sociologists. To overcome the psychological barriers to design engagement and to foster motivation for social design, the authors discuss a case of social design decision making by non-sociologists. The methodology is informed by Activity Theory and Design Theory, and the approach adopted is based on analyzing current best practices, departing from conventional and customary practices. The authors discuss the Fun Palace, which was an innovative architectural project in the 1960s Great Britain, conceived with a fundamental social aim of providing life-long education and professional retooling to working class people in a relaxed and entertaining environment. The paper highlights the sociological nature of decision making in the planning phase of the project as well as the need for sociological knowledge and skills. The explication of the social design activities in the Fun Palace project can inspire sociological practitioners with ideas about entering into various industries and, in particular, in the design of social organizations and buildings.

  10. Examples of in-service inspections and typical maintenance schedule for low-power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1997-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for low-power research reactors are described which have been developed during the past 37 years of the operation of the TRIGA reactor Vienna. Special tools have been developed during this period and their application for maintenance and in-serve inspection is discussed. Two practical in-service inspections at a TRIGA reactor and at a MTR reactor are presented. Further a typical maintenance plan for a TRIGA reactor is listed in the annex. (author)

  11. Construction of Fine Particles Source Spectrum Bank in Typical Region and Empirical Research of Matching Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Sun, Wenliang; Guo, Min; Li, Minjiao; Li, Wan

    2018-01-01

    The research object of this paper is fine particles in typical region. The construction of component spectrum bank is based on the technology of online source apportionment, then the result of the apportionment is utilized to verify the effectiveness of fine particles component spectrum bank and which also act as the matching basis of online source apportionment receptor sample. On the next, the particle source of air pollution is carried through the matching diagnosis empirical research by utilizing online source apportionment technology, to provide technical support for the cause analysis and treatment of heavy pollution weather.

  12. Sociology with a Southern Face: Why Are We Sociologists and What Are We Doing about It in the South?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    2008-01-01

    Sociology with a Southern face characterizes Southern sociologists and Southern social issues. This article asks why we are sociologists and what we are doing about it in the South. I posit that many Southern sociologists share common biographical experiences that provide insights for understanding and solving Southern problems. Longstanding…

  13. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  14. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y.; Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek

    2012-01-01

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran

  15. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  16. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

  17. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  18. The institutionalization and professionalization of sociology in Brazil and Argentina. Formation, organization and intervention of sociologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Blois

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the professional insertions of sociologists in Brazil and Argentina had a remarkable growth. The variety of activities and tasks was certainly wide as the spheres where these professionals were incorporated. Those changes implied a deep redefinition of the sociology scenery, with an increasing number of sociologists working in diverse institutions and social spheres. This article analyses the process of professional differentiation of sociology in Brazil and Argentina in a comparative perspective. Against what could be expected given the different historical trajectories of the discipline in each country, the way in which the sociologists work in the diverse spheres presents strong convergences, characterized by the dominance of a conception of the discipline that rejects the development of sociology as a consulting profession.

  19. Pierre Bourdieu:Sociologist of Dominnace and of the Dominated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radimská, Radka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2002), s. 395-398 ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : Pierre Bourdieu * dominace * capital Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2002

  20. Feminist Scholar-Activism Goes Global: Experiences of "Sociologists for Women in Society" at the UN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauk, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the experiences and strategies of members of Sociologists for Women in Society (SWS) who strive to bridge the worlds of social activism and academia. It concerns the International Committee's work at the United Nations (UN), specifically at the annual Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) meeting. It builds on…

  1. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  2. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  3. Music research with children and youth with disabilities and typically developing peers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura S; Jellison, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    Systematic reviews of research provide pertinent information to both practitioners and researchers. While there are several recent reviews of music research and children with specific disabilities (primarily autism), there is no current review of music research with children with a wide variety of disabilities. The aim of the current study is to identify and systematically review music research with children and youth published in peer reviewed journals for the years 1999 through 2009. Research questions focused on participant characteristics; research purposes, methodologies, and findings; as well as the presence of ideas from special education policies, and practices. We also asked how results have changed from those from an earlier review (Jellison, 2000). Using computer and hand-searches, we identified 45 articles that met our criteria for inclusion. Once identified, through a process of consensus we analyzed articles based on criteria, categories, and codes used in the earlier review. Additionally we analyzed measurement instruments and effectiveness of interventions as reported by the authors. Primary findings show a large majority of studies were experimental with most reporting effective or partially effective interventions, particularly for social variables. Compared to the earlier review, increases were found for participants with autism and for reports including ideas from special education. Percentages of articles measuring generalization and examining high-incident disability populations (specific learning disabilities) were low. The findings from this review and comparisons to the earlier review reveal important implications for practices with children with autism and preparation of researchers to design and conduct studies in inclusive music settings.

  4. CFD investigation of flow inversion in typical MTR research reactor undergoing thermal-hydraulic transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The 3D, CFD simulation of FLOFA accident in the generic IAEA 10 MW research reactor is carried out. → The different flow and heat transfer mechanisms involved in this process were elucidated. → The transition between these mechanisms during the course of FLOFA is discussed and investigated. → The interesting inversion process upon the transition from downward flow to upward flow is shown. → The temperature field and the friction coefficient during the whole transient process were shown. - Abstract: Three dimensional CFD full simulations of the fast loss of flow accident (FLOFA) of the IAEA 10 MW generic MTR research reactor are conducted. In this system the flow is initially downward. The transient scenario starts when the pump coasts down exponentially with a time constant of 1 s. As a result the temperatures of the heating element, the clad, and the coolant rise. When the flow reaches 85% of its nominal value the control rod system scrams and the power drops sharply resulting in the temperatures of the different components to drop. As the coolant flow continues to drop, the decay heat causes the temperatures to increase at a slower rate in the beginning. When the flow becomes laminar, the rate of temperature increase becomes larger and when the pumps completely stop a flow inversion occurs because of natural convection. The temperature will continue to rise at even higher rates until natural convection is established, that is when the temperatures settle off. The interesting 3D patterns of the flow during the inversion process are shown and investigated. The temperature history is also reported and is compared with those estimated by one-dimensional codes. Generally, very good agreement is achieved which provides confidence in the modeling approach.

  5. Sensitivity analysis to a RELAP5 nodalization developed for a typical TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Patrícia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Silva, Clarysson A.M.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated how much the code results are affected by the code user. ► Two essential modifications were made on a previously validated nodalization. ► We used the RELAP5 code to predict the results. ► Results highlight the necessity of sensitivity analysis to have the ideal modeling. - Abstract: The main aim of this work is to identify how much the code results are affected by the code user in the choice of, for example, the number of thermal hydraulic channels in a nuclear reactor nodalization. To perform this, two essential modifications were made on a previously validated nodalization for analysis of steady-state and forced recirculation off transient in the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor. Experimental data were taken as reference to compare the behavior of the reactor for two different types of modeling. The results highlight the necessity of sensitivity analysis to obtain the ideal modeling to simulate a specific system.

  6. Research into Behaviour Patterns Typical for Consumers of Construction Material as the Mission of Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the co-authors is to study the motivation of purchasers of construction/finishing materials and the criteria that govern their selection. No systemic studies of consumer behavioral models and stereotypes in respect of residential housing have been performed so far. However, the environmentally determined management techniques, applicable to the production of building materials and construction of residential housing, are highly relevant both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. The co-authors have developed an original research methodology, drafted a questionnaire, and conducted a pilot survey. Its findings have proven that the price and quality of construction materials are the main factors that influence the decision making process in favor of particular items. Mere 14% of the respondents chose environmental friendliness as the decision making criterion. The findings of the focus group projects have also proven the trustworthiness of the stereotypes and behavioral models identified by the co-authors. The co-authors make a conclusion that further sociological surveys are needed to implement the patterns of environmentally determined management and to influence the value paradigms of the population.

  7. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at a pneumatic rabbit station of a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkawi, S.R.; Ahmad, N.

    2002-01-01

    The method of multiple foil activation was used to measure the neutron energy spectrum, experimentally, at a rabbit station of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor. The computer codes MSITER and SANDBP were used to adjust the spectrum. The pre-information required by the adjustment codes was obtained by modelling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions by using the one dimensional transport theory code WIMS-D/4 and the multidimensional finite difference diffusion theory code CITATION. The input spectrum covariance information required by MSITER code was also calculated from the CITATION output. A comparison between calculated and adjusted spectra shows a good agreement

  8. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  9. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  10. Safety analysis of loss of flow transients in a typical research reactor by RELAP5/MOD3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maro, B.; Pierro, F.; Adorni, M.; Bousbia Salah, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of the following study is to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code capability in simulating transient dynamic behaviour in nuclear research reactors. For this purpose typical loss of flow transient in a representative MTR (Metal Test Reactor) fuel type Research Reactor is considered. The transient herein considered is a sudden pump trip followed by the opening of a safety valve in order to allow passive decay heat removal by natural convection. During such transient the coolant flow decay, originally downward, leads to a flow reversal and the cooling process of the core passes from forced, mixed and finally to natural circulation. This fact makes it suitable for evaluating the new features of RELAP5 to simulate such specific operating conditions. The instantaneous reactor power is derived through the point kinetic calculation, both protected and unprotected cases are considered (with and without Scram). The results obtained from this analysis were also compared with previous results obtained by old version RELAP5/MOD2 code. (author)

  11. "What Is a Sociologist Doing in a School of Management?" Reflections on the Use of Sociological Concepts in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    Written from an auto-biographic perspective, this paper is based on reflections and insights arising from a journey of adaptation by a "sociologist-teaching-in-a-school-of-management". These reflections unveil the relevance to management studies of four interrelated conceptual tools: critical thinking, reflection, reflexivity and the sociological…

  12. Critical Sociological Thinking and Higher-Level Thinking: A Study of Sociologists' Teaching Goals and Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Otto, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    We argue that the literature on critical thinking in sociology has conflated two different skill sets: critical sociological thinking and higher-level thinking. To begin to examine how sociologists weigh and cultivate these skill sets, we interviewed 20 sociology instructors and conducted a content analysis of 26 assignments. We found that while…

  13. [Assessment of shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in typical terrestrial ecosystems of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) during 2004-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Wen-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N) concentrations of 38 shallow groundwater wells from 31 of the typical terrestrial ecosystems on Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) were assessed using the monitoring data from 2004 to 2009. The results showed that the average values of NO3(-) -N concentrations were significantly higher in the agricultural (4.85 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)), desert (oasis) (3.72 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)) and urban ecosystems (3.77 mg x L(-1) 0.51 mg x L(-1)) than in the grass (1.59 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.35 mg L(-1)) and forest ecosystems (0.39 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.03 mg x L(-1)). Nitrate was the major form of nitrogen, with between 56% to 88% of nitrogen in the nitrate-N form in the shallow groundwater of desert (oasis), urban and agricultural ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentrations for some agricultural ecosystems (Ansai, Yanting, Yucheng) and desert (oasis) ecosystems (Cele, Linze, Akesu) analysis exceeded the 10 mg x L(-1) World Health Organization drinking water standards between 14.3% and 84.6%. Significant seasonality was found in Ansai, Fengqiu, Yanting agricultural ecosystems and the Beijing urban ecosystem using the relatively high frequency monitoring data, with the higher nitrate concentrations usually found during summer and winter months. The monitoring results indicated that the shallow groundwater of agricultural ecosystems was contaminated by agricultural management practices, i.e. fertilization, while the shallow groundwater of forest ecosystems was under natural condition with no contamination from human activities.

  14. ACADEMIC DEPENDENCY ON WESTERN DISCIPLINARY KNOWLEDGE AND CAPTIVE MIND AMONG SOUTH ASIAN SOCIOLOGISTS: A CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Gamage

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how academic dependency of South Asia on the West has resulted in what has been termed ‘captive mind’, and its impact on the knowledge production process of South Asia. To this end, it observes that the relationship between Western centres of Social Science teaching and learning vs. those of the global South, in particular Asia, is an unequal one that stems from the colonial past, leading to the treatment of Western methods and types of knowledge production as superior and therefore worthy of imitation. The application of American and European methods of studying the Social Sciences to Asian settings without due adaptation, it argues, has rendered South Asian Sociology largely incapable of generating original knowledge to contribute to the growth of an emancipatory sociological imagination that will function for the benefit of the populace. Therefore it appeals to South Asian Sociologists – and other Social Scientists – to abandon the practice of studying regional social institutions as if these are exotic phenomena, practices, norms and ritual, and evolve their disciplinary framework in more critical, creative, and relevant ways.

  15. Typical tourists : Research into the theoretical and methodological foundations of a typology of tourism and recreation experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.; Lengkeek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Typical tourists are recognisable from a distance. They appear out of place with their loud coloured outfits, often sunburned, walking around loaded with cameras and video-equipment and studying city maps. Yet, tourists are not always all the same. Adventurous eco-tourists, with hiking boots and a

  16. Typical investigational medicinal products follow relatively uniform regulations in 10 European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Kubiak, Christine; Whitfield, Kate

    2012-01-01

    In order to facilitate multinational clinical research, regulatory requirements need to become international and harmonised. The EU introduced the Directive 2001/20/EC in 2004, regulating investigational medicinal products in Europe.......In order to facilitate multinational clinical research, regulatory requirements need to become international and harmonised. The EU introduced the Directive 2001/20/EC in 2004, regulating investigational medicinal products in Europe....

  17. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  18. Research study on typical feature of the media coverage on nuclear accidents in the national newspapers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, T.; Kimura, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on survey of the characteristics of the media coverage on three well-known nuclear accidents. From a quantitative standpoint of the media reporting, it was revealed that the amount of the articles in the surveyed national newspapers tend to increase soon after accidents happen. Plus, as a qualitative research the author interviewed three leader writers, who suggested that the Japanese nuclear industry should prepare to distribute information more timely and sufficiently. They also answered the PR staff needs to contact journalists regularly in order to recognize their awareness and earn their trust. (author)

  19. Effect of new cross-section evaluations on criticality and neutron energy spectrum of a typical material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Ahmad, Nasir; Aslam

    2004-01-01

    Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the k eff obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries

  20. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary scoping study of some neutronic aspects of new shim safety rods for a typical 5 MW research reactor by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoushtari, M.K.; Kakavand, T. [Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, P.O. BOX 1415, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaforian, H. [Faculty of Science and Technology of Marine, P.O. BOX 212 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiai, S.M. Sadat [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTR), Nuclear Science Research, A.E.O.I. P.O. BOX 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sadatkiai@yahoo.com

    2009-02-15

    A Monte Carlo simulation of a typical 5 MW research reactor (TRR) was carried out using MCNP4C code. The geometry of the reactor core was modeled including the details of all fuel elements, control rods, all irradiation channels, graphite reflectors, reactor pool and thermal column. The model predicted neutron flux distributions within the core, control rod (CR) worth, core reactivity ({rho}), shutdown margin, and some kinetic parameters when the control rod insert or withdraw. This study was carried out to reduce blockage probability of shim safety rod (SSR)s of the TRR. Two introduced more blackness SSRs were chosen and made thinner in a way adequate blackness, in comparison to the present rods, achieved.

  2. On Second Chances and Stratification: How Sociologists Think about Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges increase college access, extending postsecondary educational opportunities to underserved students, yet, these students exhibit low rates of program completion and transfer to 4-year colleges. Sociological research on community colleges focuses on the tension between increasing educational opportunity and failing to improve…

  3. Analysis of a total flow blockage of a Fuel Assembly in a typical MTR Research Reactor by RELAP5/MOD3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorni, M.; Salah, A.B.; Di Maro, B.; Pierro, F.; D'Auria, F.; Hamidouche, T.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of full understanding of complex mechanisms connected with the interaction between thermal-hydraulics and neutronics still challenge the design and the operation of nuclear reactors by the adoption of conservative safety limits. The recent availability of powerful computer and computational techniques together with the continuing increase in operational experience imposes the revisiting of those areas and eventually the identification of design/safety requirements that can be relaxed [1]. Currently, the enlarged commercial exploitation of nuclear Research Reactors (RR) has increased the consideration to their corresponding safety issues. Almost all of the safety analyses have so far been performed using conservative computational tools [2]. Nowadays, the application of Best-Estimate (BE) methods constitutes a real necessity in order to increase their commercial productivity. In this framework, an attempt is made to apply the BE technique to perform a safety evaluation under research reactors operational conditions. In fact, this technique has been largely verified and validated for power reactors using coupled system thermal-hydraulic and three-dimensional neutron kinetics [1]. For this purpose, as typical representative of research reactors, the IAEA 10 MW MTR Research Reactors problem [3] is considered. The system thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 [4] code was developed to simulate transient scenarios in Power reactors such PWR, BWR, VVER, etc. However, only limited work was performed to access the applicability of the code to Research Reactors operating conditions (low pressure, mass flow rates, power, etc) [5]. Previous works performed in this field are reported in [5], [6] and [7]. In this framework, total and partial blockage of a single Fuel Assembly cooling channel are investigated. As a first attempt the calculations are performed by applying the BE thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5 alone using its point kinetic model to derive the instantaneous core

  4. Eric Hobsbawm, sociólogo do milenarismo campesino Eric Hobsbawm, sociologist of peasant millenarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2010-01-01

    is one of the most interesting research hypotheses outlined by Hobsbawm in his work of that period. He illustrated his idea in two fascinating case studies: rural anarchism in Andalusia and the Sicilian peasant leagues, both arising at the end of the nineteenth century and continuing into the twentieth.

  5. Research on Soft Reduction Amount Distribution to Eliminate Typical Inter-dendritic Crack in Continuous Casting Slab of X70 Pipeline Steel by Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Wang, Chang; Liu, Guo-liang; Ding, Ning; Sun, Qi-song; Tian, Zhi-hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the formation of one kind of typical inter-dendritic crack around triple point region in continuous casting(CC) slab during the operation of soft reduction, fully coupled 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models was developed, also plant trials were carried out in a domestic continuous casting machine. Three possible types of soft reduction amount distribution (SRAD) in the soft reduction region were analyzed. The relationship between the typical inter-dendritic cracks and soft reduction conditions is presented and demonstrated in production practice. Considering the critical strain of internal crack formation, a critical tolerance for the soft reduction amount distribution and related casing parameters have been proposed for better contribution of soft reduction to the internal quality of slabs. The typical inter-dendritic crack around the triple point region had been eliminated effectively through the application of proposed suggestions for continuous casting of X70 pipeline steel in industrial practice.

  6. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  7. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  8. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  9. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  10. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  11. Integrity and sustainability in the digital age : Storing, sharing, and documenting digital data by sociologists in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution brought lasting benefits for scientific research, but it also brought new challenges. Perhaps one of the biggest current challenges is how digital data can be handled in an integer and sustainable way. In this small-scale study we conducted in-depth interviews with fourteen

  12. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  13. Effect of kinetic parameters on simultaneous ramp reactivity insertion plus beam tube flooding accident in a typical low enriched U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel-based material testing reactor-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Rubina; Mirza, Nasir M. [Dept. of, Physics, Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mirza, Sikander M. [Dept. of, Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Post Office Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    This work looks at the effect of changes in kinetic parameters on simultaneous reactivity insertions and beam tube flooding in a typical material testing reactor-type research reactor with low enriched high density (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) fuel. Using a modified PARET code, various ramp reactivity insertions (from $0.1/0.5 s to $1.3/0.5 s) plus beam tube flooding ($0.5/0.25 s) accidents under uncontrolled conditions were analyzed to find their effects on peak power, net reactivity, and temperature. Then, the effects of changes in kinetic parameters including the Doppler coefficient, prompt neutron lifetime, and delayed neutron fractions on simultaneous reactivity insertion and beam tube flooding accidents were analyzed. Results show that the power peak values are significantly sensitive to the Doppler coefficient of the system in coupled accidents. The material testing reactor-type system under such a coupled accident is not very sensitive to changes in the prompt neutron life time; the core under such a coupled transient is not very sensitive to changes in the effective delayed neutron fraction.

  14. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  15. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  16. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  17. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  18. Commissioning of radiotherapy treatment planning systems: Testing for typical external beam treatment techniques. Report of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Procedures for Quality Assurance of Dosimetry Calculations in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    users at the hospitals. Commissioning is one of the most important parts of the entire QA programme for both the RTPS and the planning process. Commissioning involves testing of system functions, documentation of the different capabilities and verification of the ability of the dose calculation algorithms to reproduce measured dose calculations. The current report is limited to treatment simulation tests for external high-energy photon beams that are performed prior to clinical use of RTPS. The report deals with the verification of the dose calculations through commissioning tests that cover typical treatment techniques only. This report also summarizes the results of a pilot study of the clinical commissioning recommendations that was performed by the participants of the Coordinated Research Project at their home institutions. The summary of the pilot study is available to medical physicists as an example of the implementation of the clinical commissioning procedures for RTPSs at their hospitals. Issues related to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or other specialized techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery are not addressed in this clinical commissioning report. While recognizing the specific scope of this report, this publication is useful to the purchasers of RTPSs in any country although they may have to perform tests beyond those described in this report to meet the needs of specialized techniques that have not been addressed here

  19. The Documentary Research Method – Using Documentary Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociologists in particular and social scientists in general tend to quickly turn to social surveys to collect data for their research projects. This stems from mainstream social science research tradition that is dominated by positivist and empiricist tradition that emphasizes quantification. There is however another method of data ...

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Tritium in some typical ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The environmental significance of 3 H releases prompted an IAEA-sponsored coordinated research programme on various aspects. Data were collected to help health physicists, radioecologists, radiobiologists and environmentalists to predict the behaviour of 3 H in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world. A common methodology was used to carry out a variety of projects in widely varying biomes, from tropical to arctic regions: in Belgium, on terrestrial food chains, with deposition of tritiated water (HTO) on crops and pasture, and incorporation of 3 H into proteins, nucleic acids, etc.; in Finland, plots of pasture and forest were labelled by HTO, and plant uptake were studied; in France, 3 H-content in water, in relation to different parts of vines, orange and olive trees in a Mediterranean climate; in the Federal Republic of Germany, contamination due to 3 H-releases; in India, mean 3 H-residence time in some tropical trees; in Mexico, 3 H-persistence as free-water 3 H and tissue-bound 3 H in crops; in the Netherlands, 3 H-metabolism in ruminants; in the Philippines, residence time in soil and in various commonly edible crops, and excretion time; in Thailand, half residence time in soil and local vegetation; in the USA, the effects of HTO vapour and liquid exposure in a wide range of climatic conditions, including organic fixation and concentration factors. An extensive bibliography is attached, and also annexes of laboratories and project titles; plant species, exposure and residence times; comparable lists for animals studied; scientific and common names of the species, and a glossary

  2. To Use or Not to Use: Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software Usage among Early-Career Sociologists in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rodik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically analyse the usage of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS among early-career sociology researchers in Croatia. In Croatia, the CAQDAS community is very small and is dominated by problems of great expectations coming from early-career researchers. This is elaborated through a case study that addresses issues of spread and availability of CAQDAS, opportunity for its usage, reasons why early-career researchers decide to use it or not and grounds for their decisions for use of a particular software package. The perceived advantages and limitations of CAQDAS are analysed and some misconceptions about CAQDAS are contextualised and related to the dominant quantitative research framework in Croatian sociology. The broadening of the number of qualitative researchers in the sociological community in Croatia, together with more educational programmes on CAQDAS, which would highlight reflexive usage of software, open perspectives for strengthening of qualitative research in Croatia. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501127

  3. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  4. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  5. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  6. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  7. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  8. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  9. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  10. Pierre Bourdieu: The Sociologist of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Bourdieu had modest, peasant roots. He was born in 1930, in a rural family in the Béarn province of south-western France. He was the first one in his family to finish high school. His father, the son of a sharecropper, was a postal worker. Bourdieu, being a "scholarship boy," made his way to the elite École Normale Supérieure.…

  11. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  12. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  13. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  15. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  16. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  18. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  19. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  20. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  1. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  2. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  3. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  4. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  5. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  6. The international emergency management society conference 1997. National and international issues concerning research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Hansen, V.

    1997-01-01

    The International Emergency Management Society (TIEMS) is a non-profit organisation that aims to bring together users, planners, researchers, managers, technicians, response personell, and other interested emergency management parties to learn, teach, and exchange experience, knowledge, and ideas about how information management tools can be used to avoid, mitigate, and recover from disasters and other emergencies; and consequently, how the use of information management methods and technologies may improve efficiency in emergency management. TIEMS'97 is the fourth conference in the sequence of conferences. The conferences emphasise the major goal of TIEMS: to bring together people with diverse backgrounds but who share a dedication to improve emergency management. In the discussions, formal and informal, at the conferences, nuclear scientists listen to psychologists, sociologists share ideas with engineers, and practitioners discuss emergency management issues with scientists. In recent years we have experienced a tremendous advancement in information and communication technologies and, consequently, increased the possibilities in coping with emergency situations. At the same time the management of emergency situations has typically become more complex due to the increased complexity of industrial plants which are often the sources of manmade catastrophes. Besides the aspects normally covered in the TIEMS conferences, such as decision support, modelling, handling of man-made or natural disasters, training, etc., this conference has been enhanced by including aspects involving medical car and economic constraints. (EG)

  7. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  8. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  10. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  11. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  12. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  13. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  14. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study bases its professional competencies[5] (Table 1, left column) on ... available literature reports that international students are typically exposed ... [10] Furthermore, the transition period in a foreign country is ... platform to grow as person and as a ... NOMA students' own accounts of their experiences of the module.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching and learning in DPM typically include leadership, strategic ... In this pilot study a custom-designed questionnaire, in English, with open- and ... n=81), public sector and military (15.1%, n=27), working abroad (13.4%, n=24) and ...

  17. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  19. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  20. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  1. Acupuncture Research: Strategies for Clinical Evaluation: Workshop Report, York, July 5–8, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Hopwood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a ground-breaking workshop on the strategic direction of acupuncture research which was held in York in early July 2006. Three days were spent discussing the history, the philosophy and the practicalities of researching acupuncture. Attending the workshop were an international group of researchers with varied backgrounds, including acupuncturists, physicians, physiotherapists, sociologists and anthropologists. Supported by the Medical Research Council's Health Services Research Collaboration, Elsevier and others, this workshop was an opportunity to brainstorm the issues and to the concerns in the field and set out directions for research that would tackle some of the major challenges facing the acupuncture research community.

  2. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  5. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  9. The Sociology of Emotions: Current Status and Trends in Research%情感社会学:研究的现状与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 侯钧生

    2005-01-01

    Emotions used to be treated as a boundary research area in sociology until about thirty years aga and since then, this area has stimulated an evergrowing interest from sociologists. Viewing emotions and emotional processes as social phenomena rather than just mere instincts, sociologists have examined the social sources of emotions; applied theories of emotional processes to such domains as deviation and social control or group solidarity;and discussed the effects of emotions on individual behaviors and social life.This review paper summarizes the research literature in three areas of social sources of emotions, emotional socialization, and social consequences ofemotions, fo llowed by a discussion of future trends in this line of research.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  15. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  17. Study on the knowledge base system for the identification of typical target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the research on target knowledge base, target database, texture analysis, shape analysis, this paper proposed a new knowledge based method for typical target identification from remote sensing image. By extracting the texture characters and shape characters, joining with spatial analysis in GIS, reasoning according to the prior knowledge in the knowledge base, this method can identify and ex- tract typical target from remote sensing images. (authors)

  18. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  19. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  14. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  16. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  17. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  18. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  19. Suicide research before Durkheim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D; Schioldann, Johan A; Dunn, Kirsten I

    2008-01-01

    The casual reader could be forgiven for assuming that there had been little systematic research on suicide before the work of the French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, published in 1897. This historical review demonstrates that there had been extensive studies in the preceding centuries, addressing not only the importance of social factors, but also those factors which are now subsumed in the medical model. In fact, some earlier reviews can now be seen as more balanced and comprehensive than that of Durkheim. In the twentieth century. the predominant focus of suicide research was on the importance of psychosocial factors, a focus which was undoubtedly a legacy of the influential work of Durkheim. Indeed, in 1971 Alvin Alvarez stated that the study of suicide had become the subject of intensive scientific research. The change began in 1897 with the publication of Emile Durkheim's classic Suicide: A Study in Sociology, and more recently Alexander Murray noted that, if the study of suicide had its own era it would divide into two ages, before and after that book ... Le Suicide ... which, more than any other, established its subject as a specialization. Therefore it is not unexpected that many believe that there had not been any substantial suicide research before Durkheim, let alone any which had addressed illness and biological factors and their inter-relationship with society.

  20. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  1. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  2. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  3. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  4. The importance of being 'well-placed': the influence of context on perceived typicality and esthetic appraisal of product appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijlevens, Janneke; Gemser, Gerda; Mugge, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Earlier findings have suggested that esthetic appraisal of product appearances is influenced by perceived typicality. However, prior empirical research on typicality and esthetic appraisal of product appearances has not explicitly taken context effects into account. In this paper, we investigate how a specific context influences perceived typicality and thus the esthetic appraisal of product appearances by manipulating the degree of typicality of a product's appearance and its context. The findings of two studies demonstrate that the perceived typicality of a product appearance and consequently its esthetic appraisal vary depending on the typicality of the context in which the product is presented. Specifically, contrast effects occur for product appearances that are perceived as typical. Typical product appearances are perceived as more typical and are more esthetically appealing when presented in an atypical context compared to when presented in a typical context. No differences in perceived typicality and esthetic appraisal were found for product appearances that are perceived as atypical. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Typical and atypical (cerebral palsy) development of unimanual and bimanual grasp planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested 13 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 24 typically developing children (7-12 years old) in a unimanual and bimanual motor planning task. We focused on two research questions: (1) How does motor planning develop in children with and without CP? and (2) Is motor

  6. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  7. The Readiness of Typical Student in Communication By Using Sign Language in Hearing Impairment Integration Programe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hanafi Mohd Yasin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is regarding the readiness of typical student in communication by using sign language in Hearing Impairment Integration Programme. There were 60 typical students from a Special Education Integration Programme of secondary school in Malacca were chosen as research respondents. The instrument of the research was a set of questionnaire which consisted of four parts, namely Student’s demography (Part A, Student’s knowledge (Part B, Student’s ability to communicate (Part C and Student’s interest to communicate (Part D. The questionnaire was adapted from the research of Asnul Dahar and Rabiah's 'The Readiness of Students in Following Vocational Subjects at Jerantut District, Rural Secondary School in Pahang'.  Descriptive analysis was used to analysis the data. Mean score was used to determine the level of respondents' perception of each question. The findings showed a positive relationship between typical students towards communication medium by using sign language. Typical students were seen to be interested in communicating using sign language and were willing to attend the Sign Language class if offered.

  8. Theory of Mind and Children's Trait Attributions about Average and Typically Stigmatized Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Candace; Boseovski, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children hold negative beliefs about peers with foreign accents, physical disabilities, and people who are obese. The current study examined skills associated with individual differences in children's social judgements about these typically stereotyped groups. Theory of mind, memory, and cognitive inhibition were…

  9. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Thalamus in Patients with Typical Absence Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, D.; Brázdil, M.; Horký, Jaroslav; Mikl, M.; Kuba, R.; Krupa, P.; Rektor, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2/Suppl. B (2006), B30 ISSN 1335-9592. [International Danube Symposium for Neurological Sciences and Continuing Education /38./. 06.04.2006-08.04.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : typical absence epilepsy * idiopathic generalized epilepsy * proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy * thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  10. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  11. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  12. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  13. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  15. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  16. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  17. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  18. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  19. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  20. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  3. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  4. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  5. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  6. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  7. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  8. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  9. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  10. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Moving Bioethics Toward Its Better Self: a sociologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E C

    2016-01-01

    The value and belief questions with which bioethics deals have social, cultural, moral, and societal implications that are not confined to certain spheres of biology and medicine, health and illness, and the delivery of medical care. And yet, throughout its history, the field has continued to be focused on a narrow array of medically associated phenomena to which it has applied a limited set of ethical precepts that originate in Western and American philosophical thought. It has done so in an intellectual atmosphere that has not been characterized by vigorous debate. This paper reflects on these attributes of bioethics, offers some suggestions about how it might expand its topical, ethical, cross-cultural, and international orbit, and invites participants in the field to bring this about through a self-critical process.

  12. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  13. Undergraduate Students Do Not Understand Some Library Jargon Typically Used in Library Instruction. A review of: Hutcherson, Norman B. “Library Jargon: Student Recognition of Terms and Concepts Commonly Used by Librarians in the Classroom.” College and Research Libraries 65.4 (July 2004: 349‐54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To determine students' level of recognition for 28 commonly used terms in library instruction. Design - Survey, multiple-choice questionnaire. Setting - Large state university library in the United States (this is assumed from the author's current affiliation. Subjects - 300 first- and second-year university students enrolled in a library skills course between September 2000 and June 2003. Methods - Two 15-question multiple choice questionnaires were created to verify students' understanding of 28 terms commonly used in library instruction, or "library jargon". Each questionnaire included 12 unique terms and, in order to ensure consistency between questionnare results, three common terms. For each question, a definition was provided and four terms, including the correct one, were offered as possible answers. Four variants of each survey were developed with varied question and answer order. Students who completed a seven-week library skills lab received one of the two questionnares. Lab instructors explained the objective of the survey and the students completed them in 10 to 15 minutes during class time. Of the 300 students enrolled in the lab between September 2000 and June 2003, 297 returned completed questionnaires. The researcher used Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics, includeing then mean, median, and standard deviation for individual questionnaires as well as combined results. No demographic data were collected. Main results - The mean score for both questionnaires was 62.31% (n= 297. That is, on average, students answered 9.35 out of 15 questions correctly, with a standard deviation of +-4.12. Students were able to recognize library-related terms to varying degrees. Terms identified correctly most often included: plagarism (100%, reference servives (94.60%, research (94.00%, copyright (91.58%, and table of contents (90.50%. Terms identified correctly the least often included: Boolean logic (8

  14. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  15. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  16. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  17. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  18. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  19. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  20. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  2. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  3. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  4. Advancing Continence in Typically Developing Children: Adapting the Procedures of Foxx and Azrin for Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzak, William J; Forcino, Stacy S; Sanberg, Sela Ann; Gross, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    To (1) identify and summarize procedures of Foxx and Azrin's classic toilet training protocol that continue to be used in training typically developing children and (2) adapt recent findings with the original Foxx and Azrin procedures to inform practical suggestions for the rapid toilet training of typically developing children in the primary care setting. Literature searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases used the search terms "(toilet* OR potty* AND train*)." Selection criteria were only peer-reviewed experimental articles that evaluated intensive toilet training with typically developing children. Exclusion criteria were (1) nonpeer reviewed research, (2) studies addressing encopresis and/or enuresis, (3) studies excluding typically developing children, and (4) studies evaluating toilet training during infancy. In addition to the study of Foxx and Azrin, only 4 publications met the above criteria. Toilet training procedures from each article were reviewed to determine which toilet training methods were similar to components described by Foxx and Azrin. Common training elements include increasing the frequency of learning opportunities through fluid loading and having differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet versus elsewhere. There is little research on intensive toilet training of typically developing children. Practice sits and positive reinforcement for voids in the toilet are commonplace, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol, whereas positive practice as a corrective procedure for wetting accidents often is omitted. Fluid loading and differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet also are suggested procedures, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol.

  5. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  7. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  8. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  9. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  10. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  11. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  12. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  13. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  14. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  15. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  16. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  17. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  18. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  19. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  20. Analysis of the influencing factors of PAEs volatilization from typical plastic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chi, Chenchen; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Meng; Ronda, Cees; Shen, Xueyou

    2018-04-01

    The primary emphasis of this research was to investigate the foundations of phthalate (PAEs) pollutant source researches and then firstly confirmed the concept of the coefficient of volatile strength, namely phthalate total content in per unit mass and unit surface area of pollutant sources. Through surveying and evaluating the coefficient of volatile strength of PAEs from typical plastic products, this research carried out reasonable classification of PAEs pollutant sources into three categories and then investigated the relationship amongst the coefficient of volatile strength as well as other environmental factors and the concentration level of total PAEs in indoor air measured in environment chambers. Research obtained phthalate concentration results under different temperature, humidity, the coefficient of volatile strength and the closed time through the chamber experiment. In addition, this study further explored the correlation and ratio of influencing factors that affect the concentration level of total PAEs in environment chambers, including environmental factors, the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs and contents of total PAEs in plastic products. The research created an improved database system of phthalate the coefficient of volatile strengths of each type of plastic goods, and tentatively revealed that the volatile patterns of PAEs from different typical plastic goods, finally confirmed that the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs is a major factor that affects the indoor air total PAEs concentration, which laid a solid foundation for further establishing the volatile equation of PAEs from plastic products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  2. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  3. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  4. Promoting human subjects training for place-based communities and cultural groups in environmental research: curriculum approaches for graduate student/faculty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    A collaborative team of environmental sociologists, community psychologists, religious studies scholars, environmental studies/science researchers and engineers has been working together to design and implement new training in research ethics, culture and community-based approaches for place-based communities and cultural groups. The training is designed for short and semester-long graduate courses at several universities in the northeastern US. The team received a 3 year grant from the US National Science Foundation's Ethics Education in Science and Engineering in 2010. This manuscript details the curriculum topics developed that incorporate ethical principles, particularly for group protections/benefits within the field practices of environmental/engineering researchers.

  5. Failure mode and effects analysis on typical reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    An updated failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA , has been performed on a typical reactor trip system. This upgrade helps to avoid system damage and ,as a result, extends the system service life. It also provides for simplified maintenance and surveillance testing. The operating conditions under which the system is to carry out its function and the operational profile expected for the system have been determined. The results of the FMEA have been given in terms of operating states of the subsystem.The results are given in form of table which is set up such that for a given failure one can read across it and determine which items remain operating in the system. From this data one can identify the number of components operating in the system for monitors pressure exceeds the setpoint pressure.

  6. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  7. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  8. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  9. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  10. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP 1 and WAP 2 . We show that WAP 2 , the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP 1 , however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP 1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning

  11. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  12. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  13. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  14. Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed

  15. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg"−"1. The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol"−"1, while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol"−"1. The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  16. DISRUPTION OF CONDITIONED REWARD ASSOCIATION BY TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C.L.; Elmer, G.I.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100 μg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3–30 μg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  17. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  19. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  20. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  1. Brain mechanisms for social perception: lessons from autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin A; Carter, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-01

    In this review, we summarize our research program, which has as its goal charting the typical and atypical development of the social brain in children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism. We highlight recent work using virtual reality stimuli, eye tracking, and functional magnetic resonance imaging that has implicated the superior temporal sulcus (STS) region as an important component of the network of brain regions that support various aspects of social cognition and social perception. Our work in typically developing adults has led to the conclusion that the STS region is involved in social perception via its role in the visual analysis of others' actions and intentions from biological-motion cues. Our work in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism has implicated the STS region as a mechanism underlying social perception dysfunction in this neurodevelopmental disorder. We also report novel findings from a study of biological-motion perception in young children with and without autism.

  2. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  4. Musical Mnemonics Enhance Verbal Memory in Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Knott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17% when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9–11 year olds.

  5. Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengattini, Simone; Bigazzi, Alexander York

    2018-03-30

    This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada. Masses were also measured, along with other bicycle attributes such as tire pressure and size. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance, effective frontal area, bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m 2 , 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in existing literature, which focusses on sport cyclists. Significant correlations are identified between resistance parameters and rider and bicycle attributes, indicating higher resistance parameters for less sport-oriented cyclists. The findings of this study are important for appropriately characterising the full range of urban cyclists, including commuters and casual riders.

  6. Typical and atypical clinical presentation of uterine myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoma is the most common benign neoplasm that can occur in the female reproductive system, most frequently seen in women in their 50s. Although the majority of myomas are asymptomatic, some patients have symptoms and/or signs of varying degrees. Typical myoma-related symptoms or signs include: (1 menstrual disturbances like menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding, (2 pelvic pain unrelated to menstruation, (3 compression symptoms, similar to a sensation of bloatedness, urinary frequency and constipation, (4 subfertility status such as recurrent abortion, preterm labor, dystocia with an increased incidence of Cesarean section, and postpartum hemorrhage, and (5 cosmetic problems due to increased abdominal girth However, there are undoubtedly some clinical presentations secondary to uterine myomas are not so specific, such as: (1 uncommon compression-related symptoms, (2 cardiac symptom and atypical symptoms secondary to vascular involvement or dissemination, (3 abdominal symptoms mimicking pelvic carcinomatosis, (4 dyspnea, (5 pruritus, (6 hiccup or internal bleeding, and (7 vaginal protruding mass or uterine inversion. Familiarization with these symptoms and awareness of other unusual or atypical presentations of uterine myomas will remind clinical practitioners of their significance, and of the necessity of follow-up examinations and individualized management to fit the needs and childbirth desires of the patients.

  7. Typical balance exercises or exergames for balance improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Malliou, Paraskevi; Batzios, Stavros; Sofokleous, Polina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kouli, Olga; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Godolias, George

    2013-01-01

    Balance training is an effective intervention to improve static postural sway and balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus exercises for improving balance ability in healthy collegiate students in comparison with a typical balance training program. Forty students were randomly divided into two groups, a traditional (T group) and a Nintendo Wii group (W group) performed an 8 week balance program. The "W group" used the interactive games as a training method, while the "T group" used an exercise program with mini trampoline and inflatable discs (BOSU). Pre and Post-training participants completed balance assessments. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to determine the effect of training program. Analysis of the data illustrated that both training program groups demonstrated an improvement in Total, Anterior-posterior and Medial Lateral Stability Index scores for both limbs. Only at the test performed in the balance board with anterior-posterior motion, the improvement in balance ability was greater in the "T group" than the "W group", when the assessment was performed post-training (p=0.023). Findings support the effectiveness of using the Nintendo Wii gaming console as a balance training intervention tool.

  8. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  11. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  12. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  13. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  14. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  15. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  16. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  17. Sex typicality and attractiveness in childhood and adulthood: assessing their relationships from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Gygax, Lorenz; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Siler-Knogl, Amber; Moskowitz, David A; Bailey, J Michael

    2011-02-01

    Prior research suggests that sex typicality (especially femininity of females, but also masculinity of males) relates to perceptions of attractiveness, for both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Using videos from childhood and adulthood, we investigated how different components of sex typicality contributed to this effect, whether the sex of the evaluator or of the target moderated the effect, and how the relationship of attractiveness with sex typicality varied across the lifespan. In Study 1, videos of 45 female and 50 male heterosexual and homosexual adult targets (ages 18-30 years) were judged by 56 female and 65 male heterosexual and homosexual raters (ages 18-30 years). Results suggested that both heterosexual men and lesbians viewed more feminine women as more attractive. Femininity of appearance was a primary contributor to this relationship. Masculinity was not related to men's attractiveness. Study 2 used similar methodology (44 male and 46 female heterosexual and homosexual targets and 22 male and 20 female heterosexual raters). Study 2 replicated results of Study 1. In addition, Study 2 included ratings of childhood videos of targets (ages 0-15). Results suggested that childhood femininity related to attractiveness of both young girls and young boys and that the relationship became stronger for girls as they got older. The impact of femininity on attractiveness may, therefore, depend on both targets' sex and their maturity.

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    Efficient and cost effective transportation and logistics plays a vital role in the supply chains of the modern world’s manufacturers. Global distribution of goods is a very complicated matter as it involves many different distinct planning problems. The focus of this presentation is to demonstrate...... a number of important issues which have been identified when addressing the Distribution Network Design problem from a modelling angle. More specifically, we present an analysis of the research which has been performed in utilizing operational research in developing and optimising distribution systems....

  19. A review of typical thermal fatigue failure models for solder joints of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ruifeng; Wang, Yongdong

    2017-09-01

    For electronic components, cyclic plastic strain makes it easier to accumulate fatigue damage than elastic strain. When the solder joints undertake thermal expansion or cold contraction, different thermal strain of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate is caused by the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate, leading to the phenomenon of stress concentration. So repeatedly, cracks began to sprout and gradually extend [1]. In this paper, the typical thermal fatigue failure models of solder joints of electronic components are classified and the methods of obtaining the parameters in the model are summarized based on domestic and foreign literature research.

  20. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  1. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  2. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  3. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  4. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  6. Typical career dilemmas of academic staff during the early career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Higher education institutions need to identify, and fami- .... ment to the organisation, declining psychological and physical health, problematic inter- ... More research focusing on the quality of worklife of academics within the South African .... panel concerned to determine whether they understood the question, before being ...

  7. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  8. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  9. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  10. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  11. How Does the Electron Dynamics Affect the Reconnection Rate in a Typical Reconnection Layer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether the microscale controls the macroscale or vice-versa remains one of the most challenging problems in plasmas. A particular topic of interest within this context is collisionless magnetic reconnection, where both points of views are espoused by different groups of researchers. This presentation will focus on this topic. We will begin by analyzing the properties of electron diffusion region dynamics both for guide field and anti-parallel reconnection, and how they can be scaled to different inflow conditions. As a next step, we will study typical temporal variations of the microscopic dynamics with the objective of understanding the potential for secular changes to the macroscopic system. The research will be based on a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling.

  12. Benefits of Mother Goose: Influence of a Community-Based Program on Parent-Child Attachment Relationships in Typical Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project,…

  13. "the other side of the coin": What do business schools teach the typical business undergraduate student about the nonprofit sector? A case study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); E.M. ten Hoorn (Esther); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article focuses on the exposure of the typical undergraduate business student to the nonprofit sector and management, as opposed to focusing on learning opportunities available to interested students in particular, as is typically reviewed in research on nonprofit management

  14. Secondary Analysis: A Strategy for the Use of Knowledge from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a «rapidly expanding demand for sociologists services by organizations and groups for aid in solving their operating problems (Parsons, 1959. When a prospective client approaches the social scientist with a problem and asks what research can do to help solve it, he will generally focus this question in one or two ways: 1 what research already exists that may help and/or 2 what research can be done directly in the present situation? (Likert & Lippitt, 1953. This paper will discuss on strategy for applying existing research in the hope that it may help social scientist cope more effectively with the expanding demand for applied social research.

  15. Publications | Page 73 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , the Philippines has the highest unemployment rate in the ASEAN region — more than 7%. Particularly hard hit are youth, who account for more than half of the close to 3 million unemployed. As sociologist Clarence ...

  16. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  17. Researching new social (political movements as protagonists of social engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a retrospective of the theoretical research of the sociologist Slobodan Antonic dedicated to evolution and strengthening of two important social (political movements: radical-feminist and -LGBT. Contesting the scientific-methodological basis of theories that 'explain' them, the author emphasizes the importance of the neoliberal ideological platform on which these theories and derived movements are based. At the same time, numerous dangers that social engineering for which their members plead for are pointed out. Regardless the radical changes of social consciousness, social values and power relations in the contemporary society for which these movements plead for, they actually represent pro-systematic movements that help in preservation of neoliberal capitalism with their demands.

  18. Review: typically-developing students' views and experiences of inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Helen; McCafferty, Aileen; Quayle, Ethel; McKenzie, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to summarize and critique existing qualitative studies that have examined typically-developing students' views of inclusive education (i.e. the policy of teaching students with special educational needs in mainstream settings). Guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were followed, outlining the criteria by which journal articles were identified and critically appraised. Narrative Synthesis was used to summarize findings across studies. Fourteen studies met the review's inclusion criteria and were subjected to quality assessment. Analysis revealed that studies were of variable quality: three were of "good" methodological quality, seven of "medium" quality, and four of "poor" quality. With respect to findings, three overarching themes emerged: students expressed mostly negative attitudes towards peers with disabilities; were confused by the principles and practices of inclusive education; and made a number of recommendations for improving its future provision. A vital determinant of the success of inclusive education is the extent to which it is embraced by typically-developing students. Of concern, this review highlights that students tend not to understand inclusive education, and that this can breed hostility towards it. More qualitative research of high methodological quality is needed in this area. Implications for Rehabilitation Typically-developing students are key to the successful implementation of inclusive education. This review shows that most tend not to understand it, and can react by engaging in avoidance and/or targeted bullying of peers who receive additional support. Schools urgently need to provide teaching about inclusive education, and increase opportunities for contact between students who do and do not receive support (e.g. cooperative learning).

  19. The BioFIND study: Characteristics of a clinically typical Parkinson's disease biomarker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Xie, Tao; Tuite, Paul; Henchcliffe, Claire; Hogarth, Penelope; Amara, Amy W.; Frank, Samuel; Rudolph, Alice; Casaceli, Cynthia; Andrews, Howard; Gwinn, Katrina; Sutherland, Margaret; Kopil, Catherine; Vincent, Lona; Frasier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Identifying PD‐specific biomarkers in biofluids will greatly aid in diagnosis, monitoring progression, and therapeutic interventions. PD biomarkers have been limited by poor discriminatory power, partly driven by heterogeneity of the disease, variability of collection protocols, and focus on de novo, unmedicated patients. Thus, a platform for biomarker discovery and validation in well‐characterized, clinically typical, moderate to advanced PD cohorts is critically needed. Methods BioFIND (Fox Investigation for New Discovery of Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease) is a cross‐sectional, multicenter biomarker study that established a repository of clinical data, blood, DNA, RNA, CSF, saliva, and urine samples from 118 moderate to advanced PD and 88 healthy control subjects. Inclusion criteria were designed to maximize diagnostic specificity by selecting participants with clinically typical PD symptoms, and clinical data and biospecimen collection utilized standardized procedures to minimize variability across sites. Results We present the study methodology and data on the cohort's clinical characteristics. Motor scores and biospecimen samples including plasma are available for practically defined off and on states and thus enable testing the effects of PD medications on biomarkers. Other biospecimens are available from off state PD assessments and from controls. Conclusion Our cohort provides a valuable resource for biomarker discovery and validation in PD. Clinical data and biospecimens, available through The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, can serve as a platform for discovering biomarkers in clinically typical PD and comparisons across PD's broad and heterogeneous spectrum. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:27113479

  20. Artistic research, context research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Benjamín Toledo Castellanos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts in contemporary art works, dealing with some life aspects and passed through the sensitive and expressive test, are formulated in this paper and shed light on the foundation of researches about singular phenomenons of the existence. For this, it is argued that there are researches belonging to arts, fundamental researches that compromise the certainty of the assumptions where the sense system of a context has its bases (epoch, culture, nation, region. These researches come ahead of the researches of the rational-discursive enunciation fields, given that the last ones haven’t passed any protocol accepted yet by any community. To bring into play the certainty is done by a cognitive movement named by Martin Heidegger unconcealment [Unverborgenheit], and it consist on the interruption of the habituality of the beings who form the (trustworthy family setting to put into perspective the fundamental structures that allow to produce its sense. The unconcealment, typical in art and in creative actions, sets up an event that stops the solidity of the established (social, ethical, technical, scientific, philosophical order, and unleashes conditions for changing the lifestyles hold until then.

  1. LOCA assessment experiments in a full-elevation, CANDU-typical test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, P.J.; McGee, G.R.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The RD-14 thermal-hydraulics test facility, located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, is a full-elevation model representative of a CANDU primary heat transport system. The facility is scaled to accommodate a single, full-scale (5.0 MW, 21 kg/s), electrically heated channel per pass. The steam generators, pumps, headers, feeders and heated channels are arranged in a typical CANDU figure-of-eight geometry. The loop has an emergency coolant injection system (ECI) that may be operated in several modes, including typical features of the various ECI systems found in CANDU reactors. A series of experiments has been performed in RD-14 to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour during the blowdown and injection phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The tests were designed to cover a full range of break sizes from feeder-sized breaks to guillotine breaks in either an inlet or an outlet header. Breaks resulting in channel flow stagnation were also investigated. This paper reviews the results of some of the LOCA tests carried out in RD-14, and discusses some of the behaviour observed. Plans for future experiments in a multiple-channel RD-14 facility, modified to contain multiple flow channels, are outlined. (orig.)

  2. Visual Scan Paths and Recognition of Facial Identity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Palermo, Romina; Brock, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. Methodology and Principal Findings Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the ‘Dynamic Scanning Index’ – which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas – was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. Conclusions and Significance In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined. PMID:22666378

  3. Feasibility Exploration of Electrodermal Response to Food in Children with ASD Compared to Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Suarez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD frequently have food selectivity that causes additional health and quality of life stressors for the child and the family. The causes of food selectivity are currently unknown but may be linked, at least in part, to sensory processing problems. Method: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using electrodermal activity (EDA measurement in response to food to gain insight into the physiological processes associated with eating for children with ASD compared to typically developing children. In addition, differences in food acceptance and the relationship between food acceptance and sensory over-responsivity were explored. Results: Children with ASD had significantly different EDA during food presentation compared to typically developing controls. In addition, children with ASD accepted significantly fewer foods as part of their regular diet, and the number of foods accepts was significantly related to a measure of SOR. Discussion: This information has the potential to inform research and treatment for food selectivity

  4. Three Dimensional Characterization of Typical Urban and Desert Particles: Implications to Particle Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V.; Mishra, S.; Ahlawat, A. S.; Sharma, C.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol particles are generally considered as chemically homogeneous spheres in the retrieval techniques of ground and space borne observations which is not accurate approach and can lead to erroneous observations. For better simulation of optical and radiative properties of aerosols, a good knowledge of aerosol's morphology, chemical composition and internal structure is essential. Till date, many studies have reported the morphology and chemical composition of particles but very few of them provide internal structure and spatial distribution of different chemical species within the particle. The research on the effect of particle internal structure and its contribution to particle optics is extremely limited. In present work, we characterize the PM10 particles collected form typical arid (the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India) and typical urban (New Delhi, India) environment using microscopic techniques. The particles were milled several times to investigate their internal structure. The EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) spectra were recorded after each milling to check the variation in the chemical composition. In arid environment, Fe, Ca, C, Al, and Mg rich shell was observed over a Si rich particle whereas in urban environment, shell of Hg, Ag, C and N was observed over a Cu rich particle. Based on the observations, different model shapes [homogenous sphere and spheroid; heterogeneous sphere and spheroid; core shell] have been considered for assessing the associated uncertainties with the routine modeling of optical properties where volume equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation is considered. The details will be discussed during presentation.

  5. The role of strategic information systems planning a typical Small or Medium-sized Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are linked in a developing country. SISP has also been a concern for many in the Information Technology (IT industry and IT based businesses as a whole. This research seeks to address this shortcoming by exploring what constitutes a typical SME, what role Information Systems (ISs play in SMEs and what role SISP plays in SMEs. Consequently, a Delphi panel comprising a questionnaire in the first phase and an interview in the second phase was employed. Some correlation was found to exist with the literature, with the exception of the role of IS in SMEs, whether SISP is an on-going activity, and the fact that SISP can be outsourced. Some new facts were discovered, especially on the topic of outsourcing. Keywords: company strategy; strategic information systems planning; small and mediumsized enterprises; SME sustainability; stakeholders and management; Viewpoint Training and Consulting

  6. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  7. Study and design on the typical plan for regional hybrid energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhenyu; Zheng, Shuai; Sha, Zhicheng

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of the energy internet has changed people's understanding of energy production, transmission, storage, conversion, consumption and so on. However, how to promote the development of the energy of the Internet, how to make it with the existing various types of energy entities organic integration, so that it can play an important role, we still need do more in-depth research and practice. After introducing the current situation for energy internet at home and abroad, the definition, character and motion traits of regional energy internet, this paper comprehensively studied typical scheme for regional energy internet based on Multi-energy complementary and developed the feasible suggestion key techniques and directions on development for regional energy internet.

  8. Analysis and Comparison on the Flood Simulation in Typical Hilly & Semi-mountainous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Qinghua; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Jiahong; Fu, Xiaoran; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Water-logging and flood are both serious in hilly and semi-mountainous cities of China, but the related research is rare. Lincheng Economic Development Zone (EDZ) in Hebei Province as the typical city was selected and storm water management model (SWMM) was applied for flood simulation in this study. The regional model was constructed through calibrating and verifying the runoff coefficient of different flood processes. Different designed runoff processes in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year return periods in basic scenario and in the low impact development (LID) scenario, respectively, were simulated and compared. The result shows that: LID measures have effect on peak reduction in the study area, but the effectiveness is not significant; the effectiveness of lagging peak time is poor. These simulation results provide decision support for the rational construction of LID in the study area, and provide the references for regional rain flood management.

  9. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  10. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  11. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  12. The Micro- and Macro-Politics of the Classroom and of Classroom Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2018-01-01

    understanding of classroom research is at stake in such discussions. The essay takes its point of departure in a reading of this situation, and it suggests a broader curriculum- and sociologically based concept for how to understand the classroom on a societal macro-level and on a daily life practice micro......-level among teachers and pupils. Based on this concept, inspired by the curriculum historian and sociologist Ulf P. Lundgren, the state of the art of Danish RE research with education practice at the center is discussed, as well as possible future directions.......The political and public demand for classroom research as evidence for policy plays an increasing role in debates about Danish educational politics and policy implementation with regard to general school reform as well as with regard to the politics of religious education. The question is what...

  13. Mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research: interviews with experienced nursing faculty in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  15. Development of cortical asymmetry in typically developing children and its disruption in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Philip; Lalonde, Francois; Lepage, Claude; Rabin, Cara; Eckstrand, Kristen; Sharp, Wendy; Greenstein, Deanna; Evans, Alan; Giedd, J N; Rapoport, Judith

    2009-08-01

    Just as typical development of anatomical asymmetries in the human brain has been linked with normal lateralization of motor and cognitive functions, disruption of asymmetry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). No study has examined the development of cortical asymmetry using longitudinal neuroanatomical data. To delineate the development of cortical asymmetry in children with and without ADHD. Longitudinal study. Government Clinical Research Institute. A total of 218 children with ADHD and 358 typically developing children, from whom 1133 neuroanatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired prospectively. Cortical thickness was estimated at 40 962 homologous points in the left and right hemispheres, and the trajectory of change in asymmetry was defined using mixed-model regression. In right-handed typically developing individuals, a mean (SE) increase in the relative thickness of the right orbitofrontal and inferior frontal cortex with age of 0.011 (0.0018) mm per year (t(337) = 6.2, P left-hemispheric increase in the occipital cortical regions of 0.013 (0.0015) mm per year (t(337) = 8.1, P right-handed typically developing individuals was less extensive and was localized to different cortical regions. In ADHD, the posterior component of this evolving asymmetry was intact, but the prefrontal component was lost. These findings explain the way that, in typical development, the increased dimensions of the right frontal and left occipital cortical regions emerge in adulthood from the reversed pattern of childhood cortical asymmetries. Loss of the prefrontal component of this evolving asymmetry in ADHD is compatible with disruption of prefrontal function in the disorder and demonstrates the way that disruption of typical processes of asymmetry can inform our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  16. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  17. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2nd and 5th Graders

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid swit...

  18. Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanium Thiyageshwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH. Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF in black soil (typic Haplustalf and red soil (typic Rhodustalf soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility.

  19. Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expressions with Direct or Averted Eye Gaze and Varying Expression Intensities in Children with Autism Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye gaze direction and expression intensity effects on emotion recognition in children with autism disorder and typically developing children were investigated. Children with autism disorder and typically developing children identified happy and angry expressions equally well. Children with autism disorder, however, were less accurate in identifying fear expressions across intensities and eye gaze directions. Children with autism disorder rated expressions with direct eyes, and 50% expressions, as more intense than typically developing children. A trend was also found for sad expressions, as children with autism disorder were less accurate in recognizing sadness at 100% intensity with direct eyes than typically developing children. Although the present research showed that children with autism disorder are sensitive to eye gaze direction, impairments in the recognition of fear, and possibly sadness, exist. Furthermore, children with autism disorder and typically developing children perceive the intensity of emotional expressions differently.

  20. Gamma knife radiosurgery for typical trigeminal neuralgia: An institutional review of 108 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Lamm, Andrew F.; Demakas, John J.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Pfeffer, Robert D.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Benjamin J.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, we present the previously unreported pain relief outcomes of 108 patients treated at Gamma Knife of Spokane for typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) between 2002 and 2011. Methods: Pain relief outcomes were measured using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. In addition, the effects gender, age at treatment, pain laterality, previous surgical treatment, repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and maximum radiosurgery dose have on patient pain relief outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results: All 108 patients included in this study were grouped into BNI class IV or V prior to GKRS. The median clinical follow-up time was determined to be 15 months. Following the first GKRS procedure, 71% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 31%; II = 3%; IIIa = 19%; IIIb = 18%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 11.8 months. New facial numbness was reported in 19% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 7% of patients after the first GKRS procedure. A total of 19 repeat procedures were performed on the 108 patients included in this study. Following the second GKRS procedure, 73% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 44%; II = 6%; IIIa = 17%, IIIb = 6%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 4.9 months. For repeat procedures, new facial numbness was reported in 22% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 6% of patients. Conclusions: GKRS is a safe and effective management approach for patients diagnosed with typical TN. However, further studies and supporting research is needed on the effects previous surgical treatment, number of radiosurgery procedures, and maximum radiosurgery dose have on GKRS clinical

  1. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968–1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981–2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007–2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981–2007 as the reference period were −81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968–1980, and −117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007–2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought

  2. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. To describe the speech development of 24 typically developing first language Swahili-speaking children between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was used with six groups of four children in 6-month age bands. Single-word speech samples were obtained from each child using a set of culturally appropriate pictures designed to elicit all consonants and vowels of Swahili. Each child's speech was audio-recorded and phonetically transcribed using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) conventions. Children's speech development is described in terms of (1) phonetic inventory, (2) syllable structure inventory, (3) phonological processes and (4) percentage consonants correct (PCC) and percentage vowels correct (PVC). Results suggest a gradual progression in the acquisition of speech sounds and syllables between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years. Vowel acquisition was completed and most of the consonants acquired by age 3;0. Fricatives/z, s, h/ were later acquired at 4 years and /θ/and /r/ were the last acquired consonants at age 5;11. Older children were able to produce speech sounds more accurately and had fewer phonological processes in their speech than younger children. Common phonological processes included lateralization and sound preference substitutions. The study contributes a preliminary set of normative data on speech development of Swahili-speaking children. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of phonological development, and may be used as a basis for further normative studies with larger numbers of children and ultimately the development of a contextually relevant assessment of the phonology of Swahili

  3. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  4. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP.

  5. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  6. An Evaluation of Imitation Recognition Abilities in Typically Developing Children and Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has indicated that both typically developing children and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a range of imitation recognition behaviors in response to a contingent adult imitator. However, it is unknown how the two groups perform comparatively on this construct. In this study, imitation recognition behaviors for children with ASD and typically developing children were observed during periods of contingent imitation imbedded in a naturalistic imitation task. Results from this study indicate that children with ASD are impaired in their ability to recognize being imitated relative to typically developing peers as demonstrated both by behaviors representing basic social attention and more mature imitation recognition. Display of imitation recognition behaviors was independent of length of contingent imitation period in typically developing children, but rate of engagement in imitation recognition behaviors was positively correlated with length of contingent imitation period in children with ASD. Exploratory findings also suggest a link between the ability to demonstrate recognition of being imitated and ASD symptom severity, language, and object imitation for young children with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  8. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  9. Why research into the history of geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    Study of the history of various sciences is rather heterogeneous. Some disciplines, such as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy, have numerous noteworthy compendia and even specialized journals where papers on the history of these sciences can be published.The situation in geophysics, meteorology, and other subdivisions of the geosciences is far less favorable. This neglect is an outcome of a dogma of autonomy that is essentially oriented toward progress in understanding, without much reference to historical developments. But even the geoscientists cannot ignore that the phenomenon ‘science’ must be viewed in the context of sociological processes. In the initial stages, sociologists and some philosophers, in the context of the general theory of perception, began research into the development of scientific thought, but the geoscientists and other natural scientists contributed very little. It has since become clear that research on these topics requires historical assessment and more insight. The development of the ‘science of science’ is directed toward understanding and explanation of the complex human involvement in science, not only in the sense of theorizing about the scientific processes but also in sociological, political, and historical context [Kuhn, 1973; Burrichter, 1979; Sandkühler and Plath, 1979.

  10. Pupillary Response and Phenotype in ASD: Latency to Constriction Discriminates ASD from Typically Developing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Georgina T F; James, Stephen M; VanDam, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Brain imaging data describe differences in the ASD brain, including amygdala overgrowth, neural interconnectivity, and a three-phase model of neuroanatomical changes from early post-natal development through late adolescence. The pupil reflex test (PRT), a noninvasive measure of brain function, may help improve early diagnosis and elucidate underlying physiology in expression of ASD endophenotype. Commonly observed characteristics of ASD include normal visual acuity but difficulty with eye gaze and photosensitivity, suggesting deficient neuromodulation of cranial nerves. Aims of this study were to confirm sensitivity of the PRT for identifying adolescents with ASD, determine if a phenotype for a subtype of ASD marked by pupil response is present in adolescence, and determine whether differences could be observed on a neurologic exam testing cranial nerves II and III (CNII; CNIII). Using pupillometry, constriction latency was measured serving as a proxy for recording neuromodulation of cranial nerves underlying the pupillary reflex. The swinging flashlight method, used to perform the PRT for measuring constriction latency and return to baseline, discriminated ASD participants from typically developing adolescents on 72.2% of trials. Results further confirmed this measure's sensitivity within a subtype of ASD in later stages of development, serving as a correlate of neural activity within the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. A brainstem model of atypical PRT in ASD is examined in relation to modulation of cranial nerves and atypical arousal levels subserving the atypical pupillary reflex. Autism Res 2018, 11: 364-375. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Milder forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to diagnose based on behavioral testing alone. This study used eye-tracking equipment and a hand-held penlight to measure the pupil reflex in adolescents with "high functioning" ASD and in adolescents

  11. Predictors and consequences of gender typicality: the mediating role of communality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2013-04-01

    Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.

  12. Lack of Effect of Typical Rapid-Weight-Loss Practices on Balance and Anaerobic Performance in Apprentice Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; Dolan, Eimear; O Brien, Kate; McGoldrick, Adrian; Warrington, Giles

    2015-11-01

    Balance and anaerobic performance are key attributes related to horse-racing performance, but research on the impact of making weight for racing on these parameters remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss in preparation for racing on balance and anaerobic performance in a group of jockeys. Twelve apprentice male jockeys and 12 age- and gender-matched controls completed 2 trials separated by 48 h. In both trials, body mass, hydration status, balance, and anaerobic performance were assessed. Between the trials, the jockeys reduced body mass by 4% using weight-loss methods typically adopted in preparation for racing, while controls maintained body mass through typical daily dietary and physical activity habits. Apprentice jockeys decreased mean body mass by 4.2% ± 0.3% (P balance, on the left or right side, or in peak power, mean power, or fatigue index were reported between the trials in either group. Results from this study indicate that a 4% reduction in body mass in 48 h through the typical methods employed for racing, in association with an increase in dehydration, resulted in no impairments in balance or anaerobic performance. Further research is required to evaluate performance in a sport-specific setting and to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms involved.

  13. Mind and body: concepts of human cognition, physiology and false belief in children with autism or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(4), 579-600], most children with autism correctly understood the functions of the brain (84%) and the mind (64%). Their explanations were predominantly mentalistic. They outperformed typically developing preschoolers in understanding inner physiological (heart, lungs) and cognitive (brain, mind) systems, and scored as high as age-matched typical children. Yet, in line with much previous ToM research, most children with autism (60%) failed false belief, and their ToM performance was unrelated to their understanding of. human biology. Results were discussed in relation to neurobiological and social-experiential accounts of the ToM deficit in autism.

  14. Development of a georeferenced data bank of radionuclides in typical food of Latin America - SIGLARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Lucia Maria Evangelista do

    2014-01-01

    The related management information related to the environmental assessment activity aims to provide the world community with better access to meaningful environmental information and help use this information in making decisions in case of contamination due to accident or deliberate actions. In recent years, the geotechnologies acquired are fundamental to research and environmental monitoring, once it possible, efficiently obtaining large amount of data natural resources. The result of this work was the development of a database system to store georeferenced data values of radionuclides in typical foods in Latin America (SIGLARA), defined in three languages (Spanish, Portuguese and English), using free software. The developed system meets the primary need of the RLA 09/72 ARCAL Project, funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as having eleven participants countries in Latin America. The database of georeferenced created for SIGLARA system was tested in its applicability through the entry and manipulation of real data analyzed, which showed that the system is able to store, retrieve, view reports and maps of the samples of registered food. Interfaces that connect the user with the database show up efficient, making the system easy operability. Their application to environmental management is already showing results, it is hoped that these results will encourage its widespread adoption by other countries, institutions, the scientific community and the general public. (author)

  15. TYPICAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF AN OPERATOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michaylovich Lushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement the concept of acceptable risk all airlines should have the Safety Management System (SMS from 01.01.2009 - at the request of ICAO and from 01.01.2010 - at the request of the Federal Air Transport Agen- cy. State requirements for SMS have not been formulated clearly. Leading airlines, in an effort to meet international stand- ards, develop and implement SMS on their own. So the implemented SMS differ in control settings (level of safety, proce- dures and methodological support of the processes of safety management. The summary of the best experience in develop- ment, implementation and improvement of SMS in leading airlines, allows to create a standard SMS to the airline, where the basic procedures required by the standards are systematized. The standard SMS is formed on experience in design, implementation and development of corporate SMS in three leading Russian airlines, in which the author worked in 2006-2015, and can be the basis of an SMS of the airlines operat- ing the planes and helicopters. Taken into account in a typical SMS requirements of international and national standards, research results, developed and implemented methodical maintenance of management procedures level of safety, contribut- ed to the successful passage of IATA periodic audits on developing standards of operational safety IOSA by the airline members and achieve the best level of safety not only in Russia but also in the world.

  16. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Dong, Wenyi; Ballantine, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010. Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater, and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made. Results indicated that most of the NO3(-)-N concentrations in groundwater from the agro- and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard: Quality Standard for Ground Water (ecosystems (4.1 +/- 0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 +/- 0.04 mg/L). NO3(-)-N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N /L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems. These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai, Yucheng, Linze, Fukang, Akesu, and Cele field sites, which were located in arid and semi-arid areas where irrigation rates are high. We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  17. Further validation of the Health Promoting Activities Scale with mothers of typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F

    2014-10-01

    The Health Promoting Activities Scale (HPAS) measures the frequency that mothers participate in self-selected leisure activities that promote health and wellbeing. The scale was originally validated on mothers of school-aged children with disabilities, and the current article extends this research using a comparative sample of mothers of typically developing school-aged children. Australian mothers (N = 263) completed a questionnaire containing the HPAS, a measure of depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) and questions concerning their weight, height, sleep quality and demographics. Statistical analysis assessed the underlying structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the HPAS. Inferential statistics were utilised to investigate the construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the HPAS. It showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78). Significantly lower HPAS scores were recorded for women who were obese; had elevated levels of depression, anxiety and stress; had poor quality sleep or had heavy caring commitments. The mean HPAS score in this sample (M = 32.2) was significantly higher than was previously reported for women of children with a disability (M = 21.6: P < 0.001). Further psychometric evaluation of the HPAS continues to support the HPAS as a sound instrument that measures the frequency that women participate in meaningful occupation that is associated with differences in mental health and wellbeing and other health indicators. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  19. Perspectives on the rhythm–grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Jacobs, Magdalene S.; Schuele, C. Melanie; McAuley, J. Devin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (a) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (b) co-morbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (c) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in six-year-old children’s production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  20. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  1. Typical cost analysis of I and C System Upgrade for NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, J. W.; Sung, C. H.; Chung, H. Y.

    2007-01-01

    About 450 nuclear power plants are operating in the world and almost half of these nuclear power plants are at least 20 years old. Most existing I and C(Instrumentation and Control) systems in nuclear power plants throughout the world were built with analog equipment and relays that were designed 30 to 50 years ago. And among these nuclear power plants many utilities are needed to modernize their I and C systems due to obsolescence and aging etc. Due to the upgrade characteristics of High cost and long term, in-depth feasibility study with systematic investment planning is needed for successful I and C modernization. Besides, in order to perform an efficient modernization project, cost effective analysis which is an essential factor for the Cost-benefit investment must be considered first. In this paper, a typical calculation has been made for evaluating the cost of each I and C upgrade for the target of Westinghouse plants in Korea and compared with the operating maintenance cost. This study is made in a part of economic analysis for research task, named 'Development of Reliability Evaluation system for Upgrading Nuclear Power Plant I and C systems', which performed during 2004 - 2007

  2. Nutrient density score of typical Indonesian foods and dietary formulation using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jati, Ignasius Radix A P; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Nöhr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2012-12-01

    The present research aimed to analyse the nutrient density (ND), nutrient adequacy score (NAS) and energy density (ED) of Indonesian foods and to formulate a balanced diet using linear programming. Data on typical Indonesian diets were obtained from the Indonesian Socio-Economic Survey 2008. ND was investigated for 122 Indonesian foods. NAS was calculated for single nutrients such as Fe, Zn and vitamin A. Correlation analysis was performed between ND and ED, as well as between monthly expenditure class and food consumption pattern in Indonesia. Linear programming calculations were performed using the software POM-QM for Windows version 3. Republic of Indonesia, 2008. Public households (n 68 800). Vegetables had the highest ND of the food groups, followed by animal-based foods, fruits and staple foods. Based on NAS, the top ten food items for each food group were identified. Most of the staple foods had high ED and contributed towards daily energy fulfillment, followed by animal-based foods, vegetables and fruits. Commodities with high ND tended to have low ED. Linear programming could be used to formulate a balanced diet. In contrast to staple foods, purchases of fruit, vegetables and animal-based foods increased with the rise of monthly expenditure. People should select food items based on ND and NAS to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies in Indonesia. Dietary formulation calculated using linear programming to achieve RDA levels for micronutrients could be recommended for different age groups of the Indonesian population.

  3. Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot J Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups – children with ASD and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

  4. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  5. Study of typical nuclear containment purge valves in an accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.C.; Steele, R. Jr.; Hill, R.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents the results of the containment purge and vent valve test program, conducted under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The test program investigated butterfly valve operability and leak integrity under light-water-reactor design basis and severe accident conditions. Three nuclear-designed butterfly valves typical of those used in domestic nuclear power plant containment purge and vent applications were tested. For a comparison of response, two valve of the same size with differing internal designs were tested. For extrapolation insights, a larger-sized valve similar to one of the smaller valves was also tested. Dynamic flow tests were performed over the range of design basis accident pressures. Leak integrity testing was also performed at both design basis and severe accident temperatures and pressures. The valve experiments were performed with various piping configurations and valve orientations to the flow to simulate the various installation options in field applications. Testing was also performed in a standard ANSI test section

  6. Discrimination and identification of long vowels in children with typical language development and specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hia; Shafer, Valerie; Kurtzberg, Diane

    2004-05-01

    Researchers have claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have particular difficulties in discriminating and identifying phonetically similar and brief speech sounds (Stark and Heinz, 1966; Studdert-Kennedy and Bradley, 1997; Sussman, 1993). In a recent study (Shafer et al., 2004), children with SLI were reported to have difficulty in processing brief (50 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/). The current study investigated perception of long (250 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/) in 8- to 10-year-old children with SLI and typical language development (TLD). The purpose was to examine whether phonetic similarity in vowels leads to poorer speech-perception in the SLI group. Behavioral and electrophysiological methods were employed to examine discrimination and identification of a nine-step vowel continuum from /I/ to /E/. Similar performances in discrimination were found for both groups, indicating that lengthening vowel duration indeed improves discrimination of phonetically similar vowels. However, these children with SLI showed poor behavioral identification, demonstrating that phonetic similarity of speech sounds, irrespective of their duration, contribute to the speech perception difficulty observed in SLI population. These findings suggest that the deficit in these children with SLI is at the level of working memory or long term memory representation of speech.

  7. The Action Observation System when Observing Hand Actions in Autism and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J; Hatt, Naomi V; Colombi, Costanza; Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be in part due to difficulty perceiving and recognizing the actions of others. Evidence from imitation studies, which involves both observation and execution of an action, suggests differences, in individuals with ASD, between the ability to imitate goal-directed actions involving objects (transitive actions) and the ability to imitate actions that do not involve objects (intransitive actions). In the present study, we examined whether there were differences in how ASD adolescents encoded transitive and intransitive actions compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents, by having participants view videos of a hand reaching across a screen toward an object or to where an object would be while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. Analyses focused on areas within the action observation network (AON), which is activated during the observation of actions performed by others. We hypothesized that the AON would differentiate transitive from intransitive actions only in the ASD group. However, results revealed that object presence modulated activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the TD group, a differentiation that was not seen in the ASD group. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences between the TD and ASD groups in any of the conditions. This suggests that there is not a global deficit of the AON in individuals with ASD while observing transitive and intransitive actions. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills—a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  9. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eLanderl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year. Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development.

  10. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  11. Relative Error Evaluation to Typical Open Global dem Datasets in Shanxi Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Zhang, S.; Cheng, W.

    2018-04-01

    Produced by radar data or stereo remote sensing image pairs, global DEM datasets are one of the most important types for DEM data. Relative error relates to surface quality created by DEM data, so it relates to geomorphology and hydrologic applications using DEM data. Taking Shanxi Plateau of China as the study area, this research evaluated the relative error to typical open global DEM datasets including Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) data with 1 arc second resolution (SRTM1), SRTM data with 3 arc second resolution (SRTM3), ASTER global DEM data in the second version (GDEM-v2) and ALOS world 3D-30m (AW3D) data. Through process and selection, more than 300,000 ICESat/GLA14 points were used as the GCP data, and the vertical error was computed and compared among four typical global DEM datasets. Then, more than 2,600,000 ICESat/GLA14 point pairs were acquired using the distance threshold between 100 m and 500 m. Meanwhile, the horizontal distance between every point pair was computed, so the relative error was achieved using slope values based on vertical error difference and the horizontal distance of the point pairs. Finally, false slope ratio (FSR) index was computed through analyzing the difference between DEM and ICESat/GLA14 values for every point pair. Both relative error and FSR index were categorically compared for the four DEM datasets under different slope classes. Research results show: Overall, AW3D has the lowest relative error values in mean error, mean absolute error, root mean square error and standard deviation error; then the SRTM1 data, its values are a little higher than AW3D data; the SRTM3 and GDEM-v2 data have the highest relative error values, and the values for the two datasets are similar. Considering different slope conditions, all the four DEM data have better performance in flat areas but worse performance in sloping regions; AW3D has the best performance in all the slope classes, a litter better than SRTM1; with slope increasing

  12. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Gas Shield ER25MR08.004 ...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Indicator Finger ER25MR08.003 ...

  14. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical hatchery...

  15. Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

  16. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  17. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  18. For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Oikawa, M.; Oikawa, H.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel,

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  20. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  1. Development of Gender Discrimination: Effect of Sex-Typical and Sex-Atypical Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.

    Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…

  2. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  3. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  4. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  5. Effects of Biofeedback on Control and Generalization of Nasalization in Typical Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth S. Heller; Mendoza, Joseph O.; Gill, Simone V.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of biofeedback on control of nasalization in individuals with typical speech. Method: Forty-eight individuals with typical speech attempted to increase and decrease vowel nasalization. During training, stimuli consisted of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) tokens with the center vowels…

  6. Typical and Atypical Development of Basic Numerical Skills in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Kolle, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical processing have been identified as a central and potentially causal problem in developmental dyscalculia; however, so far not much is known about the typical and atypical development of such skills. This study assessed basic number skills cross-sectionally in 262 typically developing and 51 dyscalculic children in…

  7. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  8. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  9. Predictors of sense of coherence in typically developing adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L O; Elder, J H; Storch, E A; Rowe, M A

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be a stressor for family members yet there is little published research on the impact of having a child with ASD on their typically developing (TD) adolescent siblings. According to Antonovsky's salutogenic model, a strong sense of coherence leads to the view that the stressor is a manageable challenge rather than a burden and promotes healthier adaptation. This study examines the relationship between stress, TD sibling resources and the sense of coherence in TD siblings. This quantitative mail-based study uses a survey methodology, analysing the responses of TD adolescent siblings (n = 96) of individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified to several rating scales. Adolescent siblings, ages 11 to 18 years, completed the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experience (ACOPE), Network of Relationship Inventory - Social Provision Version (NRI-SPV), Youth Self Report (YSR), and Sense of Coherence (SOC) instruments; parents completed the Child Autism Rating Scale - 2nd Edition (CARS-2). The salutogenesis model was used to guide and inform this research. Findings suggested the following: (a) the stress of ASD severity and resource of adjustment are related in TD adolescent siblings; (b) TD sibling adjustment has a strong relationship with sense of coherence levels; and (c) a greater number of positive coping strategies buffer TD sibling coherence levels when ASD severity scores are high. ASD severity and TD adolescent sibling resources influence sense of coherence in adolescent TD siblings of individuals with ASD. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Criticality Calculations for a Typical Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant with Low Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Hade; Nagy, Mohamed; Agamy, Said; Shaat, Mohmaed

    2013-01-01

    The operations with the fissile materials such as U 235 introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel and can lead the facility to shutdown. Therefore, the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The objectives of criticality safety are to prevent a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and to minimize the consequences. Sixty criticality accidents were occurred in the world. These are accidents divided into two categories, 22 accidents occurred in process facilities and 38 accidents occurred during critical experiments or operations with research reactor. About 21 criticality accidents including Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co. (JCO) accident took place with fuel solution or slurry and only one accident occurred with metal fuel. In this study the nuclear criticality calculations have been performed for a typical nuclear fuel fabrication plant producing nuclear fuel elements for nuclear research reactors with low enriched uranium up to 20%. The calculations were performed for both normal and abnormal operation conditions. The effective multiplication factor (k eff ) during the nuclear fuel fabrication process (Uranium hexafluoride - Ammonium Diuranate conversion process) was determined. Several accident scenarios were postulated and the criticalities of these accidents were evaluated. The computer code MCNP-4B which based on Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations were performed for the cases of, change of moderator to fuel ratio, solution density and concentration of the solute in order to prevent or mitigate criticality accidents during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The calculation results are analyzed and discussed

  11. Typicality aids search for an unspecified target, but only in identification and not in attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander; Cave, Kyle R

    2008-08-01

    Participants searched for a picture of an object, and the object was either a typical or an atypical category member. The object was cued by either the picture or its basic-level category name. Of greatest interest was whether it would be easier to search for typical objects than to search for atypical objects. The answer was"yes," but only in a qualified sense: There was a large typicality effect on response time only for name cues, and almost none of the effect was found in the time to locate (i.e., first fixate) the target. Instead, typicality influenced verification time-the time to respond to the target once it was fixated. Typicality is thus apparently irrelevant when the target is well specified by a picture cue; even when the target is underspecified (as with a name cue), it does not aid attentional guidance, but only facilitates categorization.

  12. The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to distinguishing typical from atypical meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Atypical/malignant meningiomas recur more frequently then typical meningiomas. In this study, the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to the differentiation of atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas and to the determination of histological subtypes of typical meningiomas was investigated. The study was performed prospectively on 39 patients. The signal intensity of the lesions was evaluated on trace and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean ADC values in atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas were 0.75{+-}0.21 and 1.17{+-}0.21, respectively. Mean ADC values for subtypes of typical meningiomas were as follows: meningothelial, 1.09{+-}0.20; transitional, 1.19{+-}0.07; fibroblastic, 1.29{+-}0.28; and angiomatous, 1.48{+-}0.10. Normal white matter was 0.91{+-}0.10. ADC values of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas significantly differed (P<0.001). However, the difference between peritumoral edema ADC values was not significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, the difference between the subtypes of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas was significant (P<0.001). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of atypical/malignant meningiomas and typical meningiomas differ. Atypical/malignant meningiomas have lower intratumoral ADC values than typical meningiomas. Mean ADC values for peritumoral edema do not differ between typical and atypical meningiomas. (orig.)

  13. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  14. Research Library Year in Review 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, Frances Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varjabedian, Kathryn Ruth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boorman, Helen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heckethorn, Susan Kay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Magnoni, Dianna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-16

    2016 was a year of strategy, analysis and moving forward. We launched January with a strategic planning process. Building on the Lab’s Strategic Plan and Purpose Statement, we created a process that reached out to Lab leadership, scientists & engineers, and Research Library (RL) staff. An external consultant was engaged to help drive the process and to lead a fullday staff retreat. A survey was created and administered to staff, seeking feedback on priorities and direction. A parallel survey was created for stakeholders. Stakeholder questions began with the macro – from the external climate to Lab and division priorities – to the micro concerning priorities and directions for the RL. Stakeholders were personally interviewed by teams of two that included an interviewer and a scribe. These thirty-plus interviews were collated into a spreadsheet. A sociologist provided semantic analysis for the feedback, creating an impact document of the interviews. The full day retreat provided an opportunity for staff to build on their feedback as well as stakeholder feedback. A great deal of brainstorming led to categorized priorities and scenarios. The RL Compass Team, encompassing library leadership, moved the next stage of the process forward by taking retreat feedback and creating a first draft of a plan. Two more rounds of feedback with smaller staff groups as well as the Library Advisory Board led to the final plan. The core plan is included in this report.

  15. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  16. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themelis Karaminis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b a baseline (single-face emotion discrimination task; and c a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

  17. [Max Weber's disease. Research on the disease and therapeutic management at the turn of the century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1998-05-01

    This article on the German economist and sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) continues our pathographic and psychohistoric studies on the interrelations between his life, his illness, and his work on "Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism". In a former paper (Frommer u. Frommer, 1993) we focussed on Weber's definition of modern society as an "iron cage" determined by Western rationalism. His theory, which shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual, converges with current psychopathological approaches on the personality of depressed patients. In the second article we report on results of our research on further personal documents, and some medical certificates by Weber's physicians. These documents demonstrate the diagnosis of a severe depression in a narcisstic and hypernomic personality.

  18. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the leak current using a twin platinum electrode set-up. Localized extraction of residue was carried...

  19. Prospective memory deficits in illicit polydrug users are associated with the average long-term typical dose of ecstasy typically consumed in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denis T; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Robinson, Sarita J; Judge, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that ecstasy-related reductions in SERT densities relate more closely to the number of tablets typically consumed per session rather than estimated total lifetime use. To better understand the basis of drug related deficits in prospective memory (p.m.) we explored the association between p.m. and average long-term typical dose and long-term frequency of use. Study 1: Sixty-five ecstasy/polydrug users and 85 nonecstasy users completed an event-based, a short-term and a long-term time-based p.m. task. Study 2: Study 1 data were merged with outcomes on the same p.m. measures from a previous study creating a combined sample of 103 ecstasy/polydrug users, 38 cannabis-only users, and 65 nonusers of illicit drugs. Study 1: Ecstasy/polydrug users had significant impairments on all p.m. outcomes compared with nonecstasy users. Study 2: Ecstasy/polydrug users were impaired in event-based p.m. compared with both other groups and in long-term time-based p.m. compared with nonillicit drug users. Both drug using groups did worse on the short-term time-based p.m. task compared with nonusers. Higher long-term average typical dose of ecstasy was associated with poorer performance on the event and short-term time-based p.m. tasks and accounted for unique variance in the two p.m. measures over and above the variance associated with cannabis and cocaine use. The typical ecstasy dose consumed in a single session is an important predictor of p.m. impairments with higher doses reflecting increasing tolerance giving rise to greater p.m. impairment.

  20. Diversity in research projects - A key to success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Taubner, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    According to demographers, psychologists, sociologists and economists diverse groups, which are groups of different race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation, are more innovative than homogeneous groups. This is also true for groups working together in research collaborations and international cooperation involving a culturally and functionally diverse mix of individuals who have to be integrated into an effective unit - a project team. If the goal is scientific excellence, diversity should be an essential ingredient to conduct science on high level productivity, quality and innovation. Effective teamwork is a key to project success and prime responsibilities of the project manager. Therefore, the project manager has to take into consideration different characteristics such as cultures, languages, and different values related to individual project partners. Here we show how diversity can affect the performance of a research project. Furthermore, the presentation indicates skills and abilities which are required for the management in order to deal also with the challenges of diversity in research projects. The presentation is based on insights experienced in the context of an Innovative Training Network (ITN) project within Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions of the European HORIZON 2020 program and TRION a Collaborative Research Project in the Framework of the Trilateral Program of the German Research Foundation.

  1. Towards an Ethical Framework for Publishing Twitter Data in Social Research: Taking into Account Users' Views, Online Context and Algorithmic Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew L; Burnap, Pete; Sloan, Luke

    2017-12-01

    New and emerging forms of data, including posts harvested from social media sites such as Twitter, have become part of the sociologist's data diet. In particular, some researchers see an advantage in the perceived 'public' nature of Twitter posts, representing them in publications without seeking informed consent. While such practice may not be at odds with Twitter's terms of service, we argue there is a need to interpret these through the lens of social science research methods that imply a more reflexive ethical approach than provided in 'legal' accounts of the permissible use of these data in research publications. To challenge some existing practice in Twitter-based research, this article brings to the fore: (1) views of Twitter users through analysis of online survey data; (2) the effect of context collapse and online disinhibition on the behaviours of users; and (3) the publication of identifiable sensitive classifications derived from algorithms.

  2. Video game use in boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Engelhardt, Christopher R

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine video game use in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with those with ADHD or typical development (TD) and to examine how specific symptoms and game features relate to problematic video game use across groups. Participants included parents of boys (aged 8-18) with ASD (n = 56), ADHD (n = 44), or TD (n = 41). Questionnaires assessed daily hours of video game use, in-room video game access, video game genres, problematic video game use, ASD symptoms, and ADHD symptoms. Boys with ASD spent more time than did boys with TD playing video games (2.1 vs 1.2 h/d). Both the ASD and ADHD groups had greater in-room video game access and greater problematic video game use than the TD group. Multivariate models showed that inattentive symptoms predicted problematic game use for both the ASD and ADHD groups; and preferences for role-playing games predicted problematic game use in the ASD group only. Boys with ASD spend much more time playing video games than do boys with TD, and boys with ASD and ADHD are at greater risk for problematic video game use than are boys with TD. Inattentive symptoms, in particular, were strongly associated with problematic video game use for both groups, and role-playing game preferences may be an additional risk factor for problematic video game use among children with ASD. These findings suggest a need for longitudinal research to better understand predictors and outcomes of video game use in children with ASD and ADHD.

  3. Assessing the microbiomes of scalder and chiller tank waters throughout a typical commercial poultry processing day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, M J; Locatelli, A; Glenn, T C; Thomas, J C; Caudill, A C; Kiepper, B H; Hiett, K L

    2016-10-01

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbiota of processing water tanks within the processing plant. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the microbiomes of the scalder and chiller tanks during a typical commercial processing d, and determine how bacterial populations, including foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, change during the processing day in relation to the bacterial communities as a whole. Additionally, considering this is the first microbiomic analysis of processing tank waters, 2 water sampling methods also were compared. Results of this study show that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented over half of the sequences recovered from both tanks at the phylum level, but the microbiomic profiles needed to be analyzed at the genus level to observe more dynamic population shifts. Bacteria known to predominate in the live production environment were found to increase in the scalder tank and gram negative spoilage-related bacteria were found to decrease in the chiller tank throughout the processing day. Directly sampling the scalder water, as compared to analyzing filtered samples, resulted in significantly different microbiomic profiles dominated by Anoxybacillus species. While no sequences related to major foodborne pathogens were found, further sampling collection and processing optimization should provide researchers and the poultry industry a new tool to understand the ecological role of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within processing tank waters. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. A comparison of four typical green exercise environments and prediction of psychological health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Brown, Daniel K; Sandercock, Gavin; Wooller, John-James; Barton, Jo

    2016-05-01

    'Green exercise' (GE) is physical activity while simultaneously being exposed to nature. GE comprises three physical components: the individual, the exercise and the environment, and one processes component encompassing a range of psychological and physiological processes. Previous research has consistently shown affective benefits of GE compared to equivalent non-GE. Investigating the possibility of optimum GE environments may help maximise health benefits. The aim of this study was to compare affective outcomes of GE participation between four different typical GE environments (beach, grasslands, riverside, heritage), and further examine influences of several physical component-related variables and one processes component-related variable, on these outcomes. Participants (N = 331) completed questionnaires before and after a 5km run, at one of four parkrun event locations. Self-esteem (Δ = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.30, 1.93)), stress (Δ = -2.36, 95% CI = (-3.01, -1.71)) and mood (Δ = -5.25, 95% CI = (-7.45, -3.05)) all significantly improved from pre- to post-run (p self-esteem improvement, 1.6% of perceived stress improvement, and 9.5% of mood improvement. GE offers accessible provision for improving acute psychological wellbeing. Although nature-based exercise environments can facilitate affective outcomes, the overall type of nature may be less critical. Other characteristics of the individual, exercise and environment can significantly influence attainment of psychological GE benefits. However, the results support a greater importance of the processes component in attaining previously reported affective outcomes. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  5. Dynamic assessment of nonlinear typical section aeroviscoelastic systems using fractional derivative-based viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, T. P.; Marques, Flávio D.; Pereira, Daniel A.; Rade, Domingos A.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear aeroelastic systems are prone to the appearance of limit cycle oscillations, bifurcations, and chaos. Such problems are of increasing concern in aircraft design since there is the need to control nonlinear instabilities and improve safety margins, at the same time as aircraft are subjected to increasingly critical operational conditions. On the other hand, in spite of the fact that viscoelastic materials have already been successfully used for the attenuation of undesired vibrations in several types of mechanical systems, a small number of research works have addressed the feasibility of exploring the viscoelastic effect to improve the behavior of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. In this context, the objective of this work is to assess the influence of viscoelastic materials on the aeroelastic features of a three-degrees-of-freedom typical section with hardening structural nonlinearities. The equations of motion are derived accounting for the presence of viscoelastic materials introduced in the resilient elements associated to each degree-of-freedom. A constitutive law based on fractional derivatives is adopted, which allows the modeling of temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior in time and frequency domains. The unsteady aerodynamic loading is calculated based on the classical linear potential theory for arbitrary airfoil motion. The aeroelastic behavior is investigated through time domain simulations, and subsequent frequency transformations, from which bifurcations are identified from diagrams of limit cycle oscillations amplitudes versus airspeed. The influence of the viscoelastic effect on the aeroelastic behavior, for different values of temperature, is also investigated. The numerical simulations show that viscoelastic damping can increase the flutter speed and reduce the amplitudes of limit cycle oscillations. These results prove the potential that viscoelastic materials have to increase aircraft components safety margins regarding aeroelastic

  6. Sequential egocentric navigation and reliance on landmarks in Williams syndrome and typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah eBroadbent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial difficulties in Williams syndrome (WS are well documented. Recently, research has shown that spatial difficulties in WS extend to large-scale space, particularly in coding space using an allocentric frame of reference. Typically developing (TD children and adults predominantly rely on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate a large-scale route (retracing a sequence of left-right body turns. The aim of this study was to examine whether individuals with WS are able to employ a sequential egocentric strategy to guide learning and the retracing of a route. Forty-eight TD children, aged 5, 7 and 9 years and 18 participants with WS were examined on their ability to learn and retrace routes in two (6-turn virtual environment mazes (with and without landmarks. The ability to successfully retrace a route following the removal of landmarks (use of sequential egocentric coding was also examined.Although in line with TD 5 year-olds when learning a route with landmarks, individuals with WS showed significantly greater detriment when these landmarks were removed, relative to all TD groups. Moreover, the WS group made significantly more errors than all TD groups when learning a route that never contained landmarks. On a perceptual view-matching task, results revealed a high level of performance across groups, indicative of an ability to use this visual information to potentially aid navigation. These findings suggest that individuals with WS rely on landmarks to a greater extent than TD children, both for learning a route and for retracing a recently learned route. TD children, but not individuals with WS, were able to fall back on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate when landmarks were not present. Only TD children therefore coded sequential route information simultaneously with landmark information. The results are discussed in relation to known atypical cortical development and perceptual-matching abilities

  7. Three typical examples of activation of the international charter space and major disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    The purpose of the International Charter is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery for users affected by disasters, to promote co - operation between space agencies and space system operators and to allow participation in the organisation of emergency assistance or subsequent operations. The Charter which is officially in operation since November 1, 2000 was signed on June 20, 2000 by CNES (1) and ESA (2) and enlarged later on with the membership of the CSA (3) in October 2000 and of the NOAA (4) and the ISRO (5), both in September 2001. All Partner agencies undertake to co-operate on a voluntary basis with no exchange of funds between them in the event of a major natural or man-induced disaster. This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North East of France early 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It will include feedback from the Authorised Users concerning the usefulness of the Charter and the suggested improvements in terms of response time, sensors capability and resolution, delivered products (scale and ease of operational utilisation) and adapted scenarios.(1) Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, (2) European Space Agency, (3) Canadian Space Agency, (4) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , (5) Indian Space Research Organisation

  8. Land Cover Change Monitoring of Typical Functional Communities of Sichuan Province Based on ZY-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. M.; Li, S.; Ying, G. W.; Wu, X. P.

    2018-04-01

    According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  10. Gender Norm Salience Across Middle Schools: Contextual Variations in Associations Between Gender Typicality and Socioemotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle Sayre; Schacter, Hannah L; Enders, Craig; Juvonen, Jaana

    2018-05-01

    Youth who feel they do not fit with gender norms frequently experience peer victimization and socioemotional distress. To gauge differences between schools, the current study examined the longitudinal effects of school-level gender norm salience-a within-school association between gender typicality and peer victimization-on socioemotional distress across 26 ethnically diverse middle schools (n boys  = 2607; n girls  = 2805). Boys (but not girls) reporting lower gender typicality experienced more loneliness and social anxiety in schools with more salient gender norms, even when accounting for both individual and school level victimization. Greater gender norm salience also predicted increased depressed mood among boys regardless of gender typicality. These findings suggest particular sensitivity among boys to environments in which low gender typicality is sanctioned.

  11. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  12. Determinants of Occupational Gender Segregation : Work Values and Gender (A)Typical Occupational Preferences of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The study examines micro-level determinants of the occupational gender segregation, analyzing work values and their effects on gender (a)typical occupational preferences of adolescents. Human capital theory assumes that women develop higher preferences for a good work/life balance in youth, whereas men develop higher extrinsic work values. Socialization theory predicts that female adolescents form higher preferences for social work content. This gender typicality in work values is expected to...

  13. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhu Xu; Yanhui Hou; Lihua Zhang; Tao Liu; Guangsheng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two ...

  14. A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS AND TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Fatih Emrah; Ozdemir, Selda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of students with visual impairments with social skills of typically developing students. The study groups consisted of 64 students with visual impairments and 68 typically developing students from the first to fourth grade. The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) Teacher Form was used to evaluate the social skills of both groups. The results of the study indicated that cooperation, assertiveness, and self-control sub-scale scores and o...

  15. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents’ speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent–child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of m...

  16. A Fast Implementation for the Typical Testor Property Identification Based on an Accumulative Binary Tuple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez-Diaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a fast implementation of the CT EXT algorithm for testor property identification, that is based on an accumulative binary tuple. The fast implementation of the CT EXT algorithm (one of the fastest algorithms reported, is designed to generate all the typical testors from a training matrix, requiring a reduced number of operations. Experimental results using this fast implementation and the comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms that generate typical testors are presented.

  17. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with advanced WEEE utilization technology could invest or participate in this area, producing profits for themselves while helping to develop and implement environmentally friendly and energy-saving technologies applicable to the Chinese market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The correlational research on the physical mechanical indexes of typical soil collecting from the Xu Wei Lianyungang port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yuanzhan; Liu, Aimin

    2017-11-01

    The tests on the physical mechanical indexes of the reclaimed soft clay are necessary to be done before the foundation strengthening treatment. This paper focus on the study of correlational relationship between the physical mechanical indexes, such as the natural water content, the void ratio, the liquid limit etc., by fitting the data of model test on samples collecting from the Xu Wei Lianyungang port. The linear relationship fitting curve of the physical mechanical indexes is proposed, and these results support the high efficient operation in engineering practice.

  19. Frequency of celiac disease in adult patients with typical or atypical malabsorption symptoms in isfahan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Kouhestani, Soheila; Karimi, Somayeh; Baghaei, Abdolmahdi; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Jamali, Nahid; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD) have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical) form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN) were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology), duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8 ± 12.6 and 35.8 ± 14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.). Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151) and 1.25% (3/173) based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151) and 4.0% (7/173) when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  20. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  1. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  2. Advanced software tool for the creation of a typical meteorological year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal; Ghani, Bashar Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The generation of a typical meteorological year is of great importance for calculations concerning many applications in the field of thermal engineering. In this context, method that has been proposed by Hall et al. is selected for generating typical data, and an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month (TMM) was demonstrated. The final selection of the most representative year was done by examining a composite score S. The composite score was calculated as the weighed sum of the scores of the four meteorological parameters used. These parameters are air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and global solar radiation intensity. Moreover, a new modern software tool using Delphi 6.0 has been developed, utilizing the Filkenstein-Schafer statistical method for the creation of a typical meteorological year for any site of concern. Whereas, an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month was employed. Such tool allows the user to perform this task without an intimate knowledge of all of the computational details. The final alphanumerical and graphical results are presented on screen, and can be saved to a file or printed as a hard copy. Using this software tool, a typical meteorological year was generated for Damascus, capital of Syria, as a test run example. The data processed used were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and cover a period of 10 years (1991-2000)

  3. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Adult Patients with Typical or Atypical Malabsorption Symptoms in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology, duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8±12.6 and 35.8±14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.. Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151 and 1.25% (3/173 based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151 and 4.0% (7/173 when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  4. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F B Murphy

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up" and cognitive ("top-down" processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG, memory group (MG, auditory sensory group (SG, placebo group (PG; drawing, painting, and a control, untrained group (CG. Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest, most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness, as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further

  5. Difficulties in making career decisions in students with mild intellectual disability and their typically developing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Šestić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Making career decisions is an important task for young people, which intensifies at the end of primary school when they assess their working abilities with regard to the requirements of their future vocation. The general aim of this research is to determine whether there is a difference between students with mild intellectual disability (MID and typically developing (TD students in making career decisions, and if there is, what the nature of that difference is. The influence of age, gender, family environment and general school success on making career decisions is separately assessed. The sample consists of 71 examinees (31 or 43.7% students with MID and 40 or 56.3% TD students, of both genders, attending the seventh and eighth grade at three Belgrade primary schools. Career Decision Scale - CDS was used to assess the ability to make career decisions. The research results indicate that students with MID are inconsistent in choosing careers when compared to TD students, since they have more difficulty in understanding the congruence between personal characteristics, abilities and skills, and the selected career (p=0.023, they are less informed on the careers (p=0.014, they make decisions less frequently (p=0.043, they do not have enough information on the vocational training in which they are interested (p=0.001, and they are more in need of organized support in choosing careers (p=0.012. Some TD students do not agree with their parents in making their career choice (p=0.000, they are not equally informed on what career leads to the fastest employment (p=0.032, uncertain TD student would like to do a test which would help them decide on the career which is best for them (p=0.000, and a number of TD students do not know whether they can relate what they like doing at present to their future career (p=0.032. Girls showed greater maturity in choosing careers than boys, as well as eighth grade students when compared to seventh-graders (p=0.000. The

  6. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Moore, David R; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up") and cognitive ("top-down") processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention) learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG), memory group (MG), auditory sensory group (SG), placebo group (PG; drawing, painting), and a control, untrained group (CG). Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest), most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention) training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span) within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness), as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further research

  7. Compression of Cognitive Flexibility and Adjustment of Students with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and Typically Developing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sadeghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research is to compare cognitive flexibility and adjustment between two groups of students with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and typically developing students. Methods: For this purpose, 50 students with DCD and 50 typically developing students were chosen among 12 primary schools. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q, Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST were used to measure the research variables. Results: The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed that the mean score of cognitive flexibility and emotional, educational and social adjustment is significantly higher in the students with developmental coordination disorder (P<0.001. The results of multivariate regression analysis also showed that a 25% variance percentage of cognitive flexibility and adjustment can explain the variance of developmental coordination disorder in people with such a disorder (P<0.001. Discussion: The result of the present study provides further evidence based on low cognitive flexibility and Adjustment in students with DCD.

  8. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  9. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  10. Computing in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenhurst, Robert L.

    The introduction and diffusion of automatic computing facilities during the 1960's is reviewed; it is described as a time when research strategies in a broad variety of disciplines changed to take advantage of the newfound power provided by the computer. Several types of typical problems encountered by researchers who adopted the new technologies,…

  11. "Hunting with a Knife and... Fork": Examining Central Coherence in Autism, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Typical Development with a Linguistic Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rhonda; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    A local processing bias, referred to as "weak central coherence," has been postulated to underlie key aspects of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research has examined whether individual differences in this cognitive style can be found in typical development, independent of intelligence, and how local processing relates to executive control.…

  12. Prevalence at Birth of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate : Data From the International Perinatal Database of Typical Oral Clefts (IPDTOC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Maraschini, Alice; Leoncini, Emanuele; Mosscy, Peter; Bower, Carol; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Halliday, Jane; Little, Julian

    As part of a collaborative project on the epidemiology of craniofacial anomalies, funded by the National Institutes for Dental and Craniofacial Research and channeled through the Human Genetics Programme of the World Health Organization, the International Perinatal Database of Typical Orofacial

  13. People typically experience extended periods of relative happiness or unhappiness due to positive feedback loops between LS and variables which are both causes and consequences of LS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Long term panel data enable researchers to construct trajectories of LS for individuals over time. Bar charts of trajectories, and subsequent statistical analysis, show that respondents typically spend multiple consecutive years above and below their own long-term mean level of LS. We attempt to

  14. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  15. Inversion Effects in the Perception of the Moving Human Form: A Comparison of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Laura; Looney, Kathy; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The "body inversion effect" refers to superior recognition of upright than inverted images of the human body and indicates typical configural processing. Previous research by Reed et al. using static images of the human body shows that people with autism fail to demonstrate this effect. Using a novel task in which adults, adolescents…

  16. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  17. The Effects of Color Cues on Typically Developing Preschoolers' Speed of Locating a Target Line Drawing: Implications for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; Wilkinson, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined how the presence of color in relation to a target within an augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed with which typically developing preschoolers located a target line drawing. Method: Fifteen children over the age of 4 years (from 4;2 [years;months] to 5;4) and 15 children under the age…

  18. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  19. Celiac disease in 87 children with typical and atypical symptoms in Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Gönül; Atalay, Erdal; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease presents with a spectrum of clinical disorders. The variety of clinical presentations largely depends on age and extraintestinal findings. This study aimed to determine typical and atypical cases according to presenting symptoms and to evaluate their biochemical and pathological parameters. Eighty-seven patients with celiac disease in our unit between 2000 and 2007 were reviewed. Their diagnosis was made by serological and histological examination. The patients were divided into two groups according to their typical or atypical symptoms. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 8.2 years (range, 1-18 years), but patients presenting with typical symptoms were younger than those presenting with atypical symptoms. The patients in the two groups did not differ significantly in sex, weight and height Z scores except age. Diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal distention (65.4%) and failure to thrive (60%) were the most common clinical presentations in the typical group, and short stature (62.5%) and anemia (31.2%) were the most common in the atypical group. Total/subtotal villous atrophy was significantly higher in the typical group than in the atypical group. Many children with celiac disease show an atypical form. The understanding of presentations of celiac disease may prevent delayed diagnosis. Celiac disease should be specially investigated in patients with recurrent iron deficiency anemia, short stature and autoimmune disorders.

  20. Clinical correlates of parenting stress in children with Tourette syndrome and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stephanie B; Greene, Deanna J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Church, Jessica A; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2015-05-01

    To determine the impact of tic severity in children with Tourette syndrome on parenting stress and the impact of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology on parenting stress in both children with Tourette syndrome and typically developing children. Children with diagnosed Tourette syndrome (n=74) and tic-free typically developing control subjects (n=48) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Parenting stress was greater in the group with Tourette syndrome than the typically developing group. Increased levels of parenting stress were related to increased ADHD symptomatology in both children with Tourette syndrome and typically developing children. Symptomatology of OCD was correlated with parenting stress in Tourette syndrome. Parenting stress was independent of tic severity in patients with Tourette syndrome. For parents of children with Tourette syndrome, parenting stress appears to be related to the child's ADHD and OCD comorbidity and not to the severity of the child's tic. Subthreshold ADHD symptomatology also appears to be related to parenting stress in parents of typically developing children. These findings demonstrate that ADHD symptomatology impacts parental stress both in children with and without a chronic tic disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. One for all: The effect of extinction stimulus typicality on return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheveneels, Sara; Boddez, Yannick; Bennett, Marc Patrick; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, an animal-like figure was paired with a brief electric shock to the wrist. In a subsequent extinction phase, a different but perceptually similar animal-like figure was presented without the shock. Before testing the generalization of extinction with a third animal-like figure, participants were either instructed that the extinction stimulus was a typical or an atypical member of the animal family. The typicality instruction effectively impacted the generalization of extinction; the third animal-like figure elicited lower shock expectancies in the typical relative to the atypical group. Skin conductance data mirrored these results, but did not reach significance. These findings suggest that verbal information about stimulus typicality can be a promising adjunctive to standard exposure treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stored object knowledge and the production of referring expressions: The case of color typicality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eWesterbeek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When speakers describe objects with atypical properties, do they include these properties in their referring expressions, even when that is not strictly required for unique referent identification? Based on previous work, we predict that speakers mention the color of a target object more often when the object is atypically colored, compared to when it is typical. Taking literature from object recognition and visual attention into account, we further hypothesize that this behavior is proportional to the degree to which a color is atypical, and whether color is a highly diagnostic feature in the referred-to object's identity. We investigate these expectations in two language production experiments, in which participants referred to target objects in visual contexts. In Experiment 1, we find a strong effect of color typicality: less typical colors for target objects predict higher proportions of referring expressions that include color. In Experiment 2 we manipulated objects with more complex shapes, for which color is less diagnostic, and we find that the color typicality effect is moderated by color diagnosticity: it is strongest for high-color-diagnostic objects (i.e., objects with a simple shape. These results suggest that the production of atypical color attributes results from a contrast with stored knowledge, an effect which is stronger when color is more central to object identification. Our findings offer evidence for models of reference production that incorporate general object knowledge, in order to be able to capture these effects of typicality on determining the content of referring expressions.

  3. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  4. Comparing Levels of Mastery Motivation in Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Mahyar; Vameghi, Roshanak; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Saeedi, Ahmad; Gharib, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare motivation in school-age children with CP and typically developing children. 229 parents of children with cerebral palsy and 212 parents of typically developing children participated in the present cross sectional study and completed demographic and DMQ18 forms. The rest of information was measured by an occupational therapist. Average age was equal to 127.12±24.56 months for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 128.08±15.90 for typically developing children. Independent t-test used to compare two groups; and Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS software applied to study correlation with other factors. There were differences between DMQ subscales of CP and typically developing groups in terms of all subscales ( P Manual ability classification system (r=-0.782, P<0.001) and cognitive impairment (r=-0.161, P<0.05). Children with CP had lower mastery motivation than typically developing children. Rehabilitation efforts should take to enhance motivation, so that children felt empowered to do tasks or practices.

  5. Contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailinger Rita L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This article aims to identify the contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing. BACKGROUND: Qualitative research dates back to the 1920s and 1930s, when anthropologists and sociologists used qualitative research methods to study human phenomena in naturalistic settings and from a holistic viewpoint. Afterwards, other subject matters, including nursing, adopted qualitative methods to answer their research questions. The restructuring of health care over the past decade has brought about increased accountability in nursing research. One method for increasing this accountability is evidence-based practice. METHOD: The method used was a search in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature database from 1999-present. The search resulted in 61 citations for evidence-based practice in nursing research; however, only 5 citations focused on evidence-based practice and qualitative research. FINDINGS: The authors' findings revealed six contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice: generation of hypotheses; development and validation of instruments; provision of context for evaluation; development of nursing interventions; development of new research questions; and application of Qualitative Outcome Analysis. CONCLUSION: Qualitative research makes important contributions to the quality of evidence-based practice.

  6. Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors. Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3(rd) Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted. Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness. Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness

  7. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  8. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T

    2002-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  9. Fashion in the context of contemporary sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Voronkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the content of the various options of fashion’s theory and research strategies of national sociological schools is identified and analyzed in the article. To those schools belong scientists from the USA, France and Germany: R. Barthes, H. Blumer, J. Baudrillard, P. Bourdieu, Th. Veblen, G. Simmel, W. Sombart. In particular, representatives of American sociology study fashion, especially in the context of a definition of psychological factors affecting both the individual (Th. Veblen, and so on Collective (G. Bloomer behavior of members of modern society. French researchers P. Bourdieu, R. Barthes and J. Baudrillard offer analyze fashion as a social phenomenon that puts the functioning of all spheres of personality and needs, especially solid theoretical interpretations. German sociologists examined fashion, especially as one of many forms of life (G. Simmel, in which the trend towards social cohesion combined with the trend towards individual differences that are beginning to engage in the conditions of formation and development of capitalist society (W. Sombart. It is substantiated that the historical development of each country affected the establishment of national sociological schools. This reflected not only in the formation of the leading areas of research, but also on specificity of the analysis of other social phenomena and processes, particularly in the study of the problem field of fashion.

  10. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: a typical case diagnosed by CT allowing successful conservative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulier, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Segmental omental infarction (SOI) is an uncommon cause of right lower quadrant pain in children that is often misdiagnosed as appendicitis. During the last decade, imaging findings of SOI have proved to be sufficiently typical to avoid unnecessary surgery in the majority of reported adult patients. The condition has a spontaneous favourable evolution under medical treatment. In children the surgical option remains controversial. We report a typical case of SOI in a 10-year-old boy. The diagnosis was suspected by sonography, unambiguously confirmed by multidetector CT and successfully treated conservatively. This report emphasizes the use of CT in selected acute abdominal situations, peculiarly in obese children, to avoid unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  11. Profitability of labour factor in the typical dairy farms in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Parzonko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article was to analyse the productivity and profitability of labour factor and to present asset endowments of the typical dairy farms distinguished within IFCN (International Farm Comparison Network. Among analysed 103 typical dairy farms from 34 countries, the highest net dairy farm profit characterised large farms from USA, Australia and New Zealand. Those farms generated also significantly higher profit per working hour then the potential wages that could be earned outside the farm. The highest assets value per 100 kg of produced milk characterised European farms (especially with low production scale.

  12. Summary of typical routine maintenance activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Supplement (March, 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Typical maintenance activities, such as replacement of worn out parts and cleaning of filter elements, routinely performed during steady operation are summarized. [The Summary of Typical Routine Maintenance Activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant] (JNC TN 8450 2001-006) was already prepared in September, 2001. The purpose of this summary is to give elementary understanding on these activities to people who are responsible for explanation them to the public. At this time, the same kind of summary is prepared as a supplement of the previous one. (author)

  13. Recognizing the same face in different contexts: Testing within-person face recognition in typical development and in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Karaminis, Themelis; Jenkins, Rob; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar face recognition follows a particularly protracted developmental trajectory and is more likely to be atypical in children with autism than those without autism. There is a paucity of research, however, examining the ability to recognize the same face across multiple naturally varying images. Here, we investigated within-person face recognition in children with and without autism. In Experiment 1, typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds, 8- and 9-year-olds, 10- and 11-year-olds, 12- to 14-year-olds, and adults were given 40 grayscale photographs of two distinct male identities (20 of each face taken at different ages, from different angles, and in different lighting conditions) and were asked to sort them by identity. Children mistook images of the same person as images of different people, subdividing each individual into many perceived identities. Younger children divided images into more perceived identities than adults and also made more misidentification errors (placing two different identities together in the same group) than older children and adults. In Experiment 2, we used the same procedure with 32 cognitively able children with autism. Autistic children reported a similar number of identities and made similar numbers of misidentification errors to a group of typical children of similar age and ability. Fine-grained analysis using matrices revealed marginal group differences in overall performance. We suggest that the immature performance in typical and autistic children could arise from problems extracting the perceptual commonalities from different images of the same person and building stable representations of facial identity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  15. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we…

  16. Bridging the Gaps in the Study of Typical and Atypical Cognitive Development: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan A.; Madigan, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development" examine the cognitive development of children who are following typical and atypical developmental pathways. The articles offer a mixture of theory-based considerations, reviews of the literature, and new empirical data addressing fundamental aspects of…

  17. Parenting a Child with ASD: Comparison of Parenting Style between ASD, Anxiety, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Lei, Jiedi; Paisley, Courtney; Lebowitz, Eli; Silverman, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Parenting children with ASD has a complex history. Given parents' increasingly pivotal role in children's treatment, it is critical to consider parental style and behaviours. This study (1) compares parenting style of parents of children with ASD, parents of children with anxiety disorders, and parents of typically developing (TD) children and (2)…

  18. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  19. Swedish Upper Secondary Students' Perspectives on the Typical Mathematics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Larson, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a group interview study of Swedish upper secondary students' perspectives on the typical mathematics lesson. Students, from four demographically different schools, constructed a collective synthesis of their many years' experience of mathematics classrooms. Transcriptions were subjected to a constant comparison analysis, which…

  20. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  1. Spontaneous Lexical Alignment in Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Holly P.; Tosi, Alessia; Gillespie-Smith, Karri

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that adults converge on common referring expressions in dialogue, and that such lexical alignment is important for successful and rewarding communication. The authors show that children with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children also show spontaneous…

  2. Computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Jensen, Jesper; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Norling Mathiassen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30 J...... of safe cancellation of planned ICAs....

  3. Severity of Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Poor and Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…

  4. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  5. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  6. Of tissue blocks and higher anatomy: A typical day in the life of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    succumb, sleep the only respite life has gifted me. Tomorrow shall be yet another day…yet another opportunity to learn. It starts as a typical Monday... all Mondays do - the frantic typing that fills the air, reminiscent of a typing press. Be it a literature review or the presentation for the afternoon class, the innocent bystander may ...

  7. Comparison of Endoscopic and Histological Findings between Typical and Atypical Celiac Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Pooja; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Rahul; Garg, Kapil

    2018-04-01

    Celiac disease is a common non-communicable disease with varied presentations. Purpose of this study was to find the duodeno-endoscopic features in celiac disease and to compare duodeno-endoscopic and histological findings between typical and atypical celiac disease in children. Hospital based observational study was conducted at Sir Padampat Mother and Child Health Institute, Jaipur from June 2015 to May 2016. Patients were selected and divided in two groups- typical and atypical celiac disease based upon the presenting symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy was performed for serology positive patients. Results were analysed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Out of 101 enrolled patients, 47.5% were male. Age ranged from 1 to 18 years. Study showed that 54.5% were typical and 45.5% were atypical. Patients presenting with atypical symptoms were predominantly of older age group. On endoscopy, scalloping, mosaic pattern, reduced fold height and absent fold height; and in histology, advanced Marsh stage were significantly higher in the typical group. Awareness of atypical presentations as well as duodeno-endoscopic features may have considerable practical importance for the diagnosis of celiac disease in children. Scalloping, mosaic pattern, reduced fold height and nodularity are main endoscopic markers of celiac disease in children. Endoscopic markers of duodenal mucosa may be important in early diagnosis of celiac disease, in children subjected to endoscopy for atypical presentations or indication other than suspected celiac disease.

  8. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  9. Typical Plan : The Architecture of Labor and the Space of Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marullo, F.

    2014-01-01

    In a short essay dealing with the repetitive homogeneity of the Manhattan’s office layouts, Rem Koolhaas defined the term Typical Plan as one of the purest American architectural archetypes. A plan stripped of all its qualities and reduced to a calculated relation between discreet standardised

  10. Comparison with the Typical College Student Predicts Graduation When Identity Is Uncertain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of personal identity and social comparison on college graduation. First-year college students completed an online survey measuring exploration and commitment to personal identity and perceptions of the prototypical student. Those who perceived the typical student as favorable but dissimilar to themselves had the…

  11. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  12. The Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct "intolerance of uncertainty" and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged…

  13. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young Seh

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

  14. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS). Under current IHS procedures, an environmental review is performed on all construction projects. During the IHS...

  15. Adjunctive Treatment of Acute Mania with Risperidone versus Typical Antipsychotics: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hsiu Tsai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have directly compared atypical antipsychotics (e.g. risperidone with typical antipsychotics as adjunctive therapy in patients hospitalized for acute mania, especially during a lengthy hospital stay. Our retrospective, case-controlled study is a chart review of 64 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, defined bipolar I disorder (current episode, mania. Patients were divided into two groups according to the adjunctive medications used: the risperidone group (mood stabilizers plus risperidone and the control group (mood stabilizers plus typical antipsychotics. Outcome at discharge, medications, adverse drug effects, and length of hospital stay were compared between groups, controlling for gender, age, number of prior admissions, and duration of illness. Results indicated no statistically significant differences between groups in the controlled factors, Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores, and adverse drug events. Patients in the risperidone group used significantly lower doses of trihexyphenidyl than those in the control group (p < 0.05. Patients treated with risperidone had a shorter hospital stay than those treated with typical antipsychotics (p < 0.01. In conclusion, antipsychotics are effective as adjunctive agents in the treatment of acute mania. The use of risperidone, in particular, decreases the need for anticholinergics and may lead to a shorter hospital stay compared with typical antipsychotics.

  16. Maternal Support for Autonomy: Relationships with Persistence for Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal…

  17. Effects of biochar addition on evaporation in the five typical Loess Plateau soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil evaporation is the main route of soil moisture loss and often exceeds precipitation in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. This study was conducted to determine whether biochar addition could reduce soil evaporation in drylands. We measured the evaporative loss in five typical ...

  18. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing…

  19. A Hybrid Method for Generation of Typical Meteorological Years for Different Climates of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a representative dataset of the climatological features of a location is important for calculations relating to many fields, such as solar energy system, agriculture, meteorology and architecture, there is a need to investigate the methodology for generating a typical meteorological year (TMY. In this paper, a hybrid method with mixed treatment of selected results from the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto method, and the modified typical meteorological year method is proposed to determine typical meteorological years for 35 locations in six different climatic zones of China (Tropical Zone, Subtropical Zone, Warm Temperate Zone, Mid Temperate Zone, Cold Temperate Zone and Tibetan Plateau Zone. Measured weather data (air dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, sunshine duration and global solar radiation, which cover the period of 1994–2015, are obtained and applied in the process of forming TMY. The TMY data and typical solar radiation data are investigated and analyzed in this study. It is found that the results of the hybrid method have better performance in terms of the long-term average measured data during the year than the other investigated methods. Moreover, the Gaussian process regression (GPR model is recommended to forecast the monthly mean solar radiation using the last 22 years (1994–2015 of measured data.

  20. Social Analogical Reasoning in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M.; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In…

  1. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  2. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  3. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  4. Dietary Patterns and Feeding Problems of Turkish Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…

  5. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents' speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent-child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of maternal and paternal language were categorized in terms of the primary function of each speech unit. Parents (both mothers and fathers) of children with Down syndrome used more affect-salient speech compared to parents of typically developing children. Although parents used the same amounts of information-salient speech, parents of children with Down syndrome used more direct statements and asked fewer questions than did parents of typically developing children. Concerning parent gender, in both groups mothers used more language than fathers and specifically more descriptions. These findings held controlling for child age and MLU and family SES. This study highlights strengths and weaknesses of parental communication to children with Down syndrome and helps to identify areas of potential improvement through intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1512 - Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Actuator Showing Grip Dimension EC03OC91.072 ...

  7. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  8. LAND COVER CHANGE MONITORING OF TYPICAL FUNCTIONAL COMMUNITIES OF SICHUAN PROVINCE BASED ON ZY-3 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  9. Training Class Inclusion Responding in Typically Developing Children and Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Siri; Mulhern, Teresa; Stewart, Ian; Moran, Laura; Bynum, Kellie

    2018-01-01

    In a "class inclusion" task, a child must respond to stimuli as being involved in two different though hierarchically related categories. This study used a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) paradigm to assess and train this ability in three typically developing preschoolers and three individuals with autism spectrum disorder, all of whom had…

  10. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and prognosis in typical angina pectoris and negative exercise electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairey, C.N.; Rozanski, A.; Maddahi, J.; Resser, K.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a history of typical angina but negative exercise electrocardiography represent a subgroup with an intermediate likelihood of having coronary artery disease and future cardiac events. A retrospective study of the prognostic utility of stress-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed in 190 such patients. A second group of 203 patients with typical angina and a positive exercise electrocardiogram were analyzed for comparative scintigraphic purposes. The cardiac event rate for the 144 negative exercise electrocardiogram patients with normal thallium results was 5 vs 15% in the 46 patients with abnormal thallium results (p = 0.01). These patients were further stratified into high (14 to 18%), intermediate (9%) and low (less than 2%) risk groups for future cardiac events based on combining the thallium results with the percentage of maximal predicted heart rate achieved. A multivariate analysis revealed that an abnormal thallium result was the only significant correlate of future cardiac events. Mechanisms responsible for the discordant finding of a negative exercise electrocardiogram in patients with typical angina include (1) false-positive angina symptomatology in low prevalence coronary artery disease groups in whom the thallium test is negative, and (2) electrocardiographically silent ischemia in patients in whom the thallium test is positive. These findings reveal that thallium stress-redistribution scintigraphy can be used to stratify 1-year prognosis in this subgroup of patients with typical angina and negative exercise electrocardiograms

  11. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion

  12. The typical steps of radiation processes development. Experience in investigation, designing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, I. Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The typical steps of radiation processes development are discussed as: primary laboratory investigations; primary economic evaluation; more exact estimation of situation in industry; comparative analysis; development of a flow sheet; pilot plant; obtaining of initial data for designing of industrial scale plant; prediction of industrial situation; designing of semi-industrial or industrial plant; industrial plant. (U.K.)

  13. The Production of Figurative Language in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lauren; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the development of figurative language production, including different types of figurative expressions, during a fictional narrative in 20 typically developing (TD) children and 20 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 7-18 years old. In contrast to previous studies, developmental trajectories showed that (1) the…

  14. Development of Novel Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task…

  15. The Development of Metaphorical Language Comprehension in Typical Development and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Van Duuren, Mike; Purser, Harry R. M.; Mareschal, Denis; Ansari, Daniel; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The domain of figurative language comprehension was used to probe the developmental relation between language and cognition in typically developing individuals and individuals with Williams syndrome. Extending the work of Vosniadou and Ortony, the emergence of nonliteral similarity and category knowledge was investigated in 117 typically…

  16. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  17. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  18. Television, Video Game and Social Media Use among Children with ASD and Typically Developing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…

  19. Development of Pointing Gestures in Children with Typical and Delayed Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Carina; Ritterfeld, Ute; Grimminger, Angela; Liszkowski, Ulf; Rohlfing, Katharina J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study compared the development of hand and index-finger pointing in children with typical language development (TD) and children with language delay (LD). First, we examined whether the number and the form of pointing gestures during the second year of life are potential indicators of later LD. Second, we analyzed the…

  20. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  1. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  2. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  3. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacke, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  4. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  5. Building Alliance for Preschool Inclusion: Parents of Typically Developing Children, Attitudes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; Maine, Erica; McNeil, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes of parents of typically developing children enrolled in inclusive 3-year-old and 4-year-old preschool classrooms. Using a qualitative approach, guided by ecological system theory semi-structured interviews with parents (N = 7) were completed. Several common themes related to…

  6. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  7. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  8. Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of the Typical, Desirable, and Ideal Woman and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Over 400 college students used the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to describe either a typical, desirable, or ideal man or woman. Findings obtained from Bem's androgeny score are contrasted with those from its component masculinity and femininity scale scores. Recommendations are made for using the component scores as separate variables. (Author/GC)

  9. Working hard and working smart: Motivation and ability during typical and maximum performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between what people can do (maximum performance) and what they will do (typical performance) has received considerable theoretical but scant empirical attention in industrial-organizational psychology. This study of 138 participants performing an Internet-search task offers an

  10. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  11. Social maturity and theory of mind in typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia P; Paynter, Jessica

    2007-12-01

    Results of several studies using the Vineland scale to explore links between social behavior and theory of mind (ToM) have produced mixed results, especially for children on the autism spectrum. The present pair of studies developed a psychometrically sound, age-referenced measure of social maturity to explore these issues further. In Study 1, 37 typically developing preschoolers took a battery of standard false belief tests of ToM and were rated by their teachers on a newly developed age-referenced social maturity scale with 7 items. In Study 2, a further group of 43 children aged 4 to 12 years (13 with autism, 14 with Asperger's disorder and 16 with typical development) took part in the same procedure. In Study 1, ToM was found to predict typical preschoolers' social maturity independently of age and verbal maturity. In Study 2, children with autism scored below age-matched and younger typical developers in both ToM and social maturity. Those with Asperger's disorder did well on ToM but poorly on social maturity. Study 2 replicated Study 1's finding (for typical children and for the full sample) that ToM was linked with social maturity independently of age and verbal ability, although the link was not independent of autism diagnosis. Teachers are capable of rating children's social behavior with peers as advanced, on-time or delayed for their age. Suggestive links between these ratings and ToM require further investigation, especially among children on the autism spectrum.

  12. Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2002-01-01

    Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Prediction, analysis and solution of flow inversion phenomenon in a typical MTR reactor with upward core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din

    2010-01-01

    Research reactors of power greater than 20 MW are usually designed to be cooled with upward coolant flow direction inside the reactor core. This is mainly to prevent flow inversion problems following a pump coast down. However, in some designs and under certain operating conditions, flow inversion phenomenon is predicted. In the present work, the best-estimate Material Testing Reactors Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis program (MTRTHA) is used to simulate a typical MTR reactor behavior with upward cooling under a hypothetical case of loss of off-site power. The flow inversion phenomenon is predicted under certain decay heat and/or pool temperature values below the design values. The reactor simulation under loss of off-site power is performed for two cases namely; two-flap valves open and one flap-valve fails to open. The model results for the flow inversion phenomenon prediction is analyzed and a solution of the problem is suggested. (orig.)

  14. [Early responses of soil fauna in three typical forests of south subtropical China to simulated N deposition addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guolian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhou, Guoyi

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, simulated N deposition addition (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1)) by spreading water or NH4NO3 was conducted to study the early responses of soil fauna in three typical native forests (monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest, pine forest, and broadleaf-pine mixed forest) of subtropical China. The results showed that in monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest, N deposition addition had an obviously negative effect on the three indexes for soil fauna, but in pine forest, the positive effect was significant (P soil fauna community could reach the level in mixed forest, even that in monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at sometime. The responses in mixed forest were not obvious. In monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest, the negative effects were significant (P soil fauna groups. The results obtained might imply the N saturation-response mechanisms of forest ecosystems in subtropical China, and the conclusions from this study were also consisted with some related researches.

  15. A comparison of individual qualities of resiliency in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a chronic adversity that increases the likelihood of negative developmental outcomes. The aim of this research is to examine differences between adolescents with mild ID and typically developing (TD adolescents in personal qualities which contribute to successful adaptation. The sample consisted of 92 adolescents with mild ID and 772 TD adolescents, 13-19 years of age, of both sexes. Resiliency was assessed using the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents. In comparison to TD adolescents, adolescents with mild ID have significantly lower levels of sense of mastery and sense of relatedness and a higher level of emotional reactivity. In the subsample of adolescents with mild ID there were no age or sex differences for resiliency. Adolescents with mild ID have a lower level of resiliency than TD adolescents, which highlights the need to develop programs focused on personal qualities associated with positive developmental outcomes.

  16. The impact of human activities on dolines (sinkholes: Typical geomorphologic features on Karst (Slovenia and possibilities of their preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernatič-Gregorič Anica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on dolines, one of the main geomorphologic features on Karst (Slovenia. Dolines are a dominant surface feature and also a main source of fertile soil on Karst. Consequently they represent a significant element of the Karst landscape and an important part of traditional agricultural land use. Negative impacts due to rapid economic development in the last decade are affecting Karst seriously, mostly by degradation of typical landscape features. The main purpose of our work was to document the current extent of damage caused on dolines and consequently on Karst landscape. The paper discusses the gravity of the problem and points out the insufficiency of current legislation concerning landscape protection. Based on the research results the paper comments on possible consequences if the degradation process continues. .

  17. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: javier.mantecon@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  18. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  19. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  20. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  1. Environmental insurance: research information support

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  2. The ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and adolescents with typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milosav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are common among people with intellectual disabilities. In literature there is a limited number of studies which deal with this problem. The main objective of this research is to analyze the ability to maintain postural balance in adolescents with mild intellectual disability (ID by comparing it to their peers who do not have ID. The sample included 64 male adolescents, aged 16 to 18, out of which 32 belonged to the experimental group (e-group and had mild ID, while the control group (c-group consisted of 32 adolescents of typical population. The ability to maintain postural balance in both groups was tested by using three tests: Expanded Timed Up and Go Test (ETUGT, Modified Functional Reach Test (M-FRT and One-leg Stance (OLS. The research was conducted in the period from 2008 to 2010 in 'Petar Leković' Secondary School, Belgrade (Serbia, as well as in the Institution for people with special needs 'Caritas' in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results show that the use of ETUG test showed a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of time needed for the completion of the test, while on the M-FR test the participants from e-group achieved significantly lower results than the c-group. The OLS test showed that the participants of both groups completed the test equally well on both legs when not blindfolded, while the experimental group achieved significantly lower results on both legs when blindfolded. The results suggest that adolescents with ID achieve lower results on most of the applied postural balance tests when compared to typical adolescent population.

  3. Typical use of inverse dynamics in perceiving motion in autistic adults: Exploring computational principles of perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Shinya; Forbes, Paul A G; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2018-05-07

    There is increasing evidence for motor difficulties in many people with autism spectrum condition (ASC). These difficulties could be linked to differences in the use of internal models which represent relations between motions and forces/efforts. The use of these internal models may be dependent on the cerebellum which has been shown to be abnormal in autism. Several studies have examined internal computations of forward dynamics (motion from force information) in autism, but few have tested the inverse dynamics computation, that is, the determination of force-related information from motion information. Here, we examined this ability in autistic adults by measuring two perceptual biases which depend on the inverse computation. First, we asked participants whether they experienced a feeling of resistance when moving a delayed cursor, which corresponds to the inertial force of the cursor implied by its motion-both typical and ASC participants reported similar feelings of resistance. Second, participants completed a psychophysical task in which they judged the velocity of a moving hand with or without a visual cue implying inertial force. Both typical and ASC participants perceived the hand moving with the inertial cue to be slower than the hand without it. In both cases, the magnitude of the effects did not differ between the two groups. Our results suggest that the neural systems engaged in the inverse dynamics computation are preserved in ASC, at least in the observed conditions. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We tested the ability to estimate force information from motion information, which arises from a specific "inverse dynamics" computation. Autistic adults and a matched control group reported feeling a resistive sensation when moving a delayed cursor and also judged a moving hand to be slower when it was pulling a load. These findings both suggest that the ability to estimate force information from

  4. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition.

  5. Pyrosequencing of microbial community of typical chernozem in contrast land use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina; Olga, Kutovaya; Azida, Tkhakakhova

    2015-04-01

    Chernozems are the principal soil resourse of Russia, so the sustainable use of these fertile soils in the intensive agriculturural production is of great importance, especially in terms of agro-ecological security of the country. The increase in agricultural inputs - intensive cropping, soil fallowing application accompanied with high frequency of mechanical treatment, result in decrease in soil organic matter content as well as soil structure degradation and, finally, lead to the loss of soil fertility. Soil microorganisms can serve as bioindicators of anthropogenic stress experienced by the soil during its agricultural use, so they may be universal indicators of soil quality (soil health) used for optimization and biologization of agricultural systems. The way to study the relationship between the structural status of the soil, its microbial communities and the organic matter content is the comparative analysis of soil aggregates in conditions of different land use practices. The objects of our research were soil samples of soil with permanent wheat cropping (50 years), continuous dead fallow (50 years) soil, and recovering soil (for 18 years under native steppe vegetation, fallowed in previous). The analysis of 16 S rRNA gene amplicon libraries of typical chernozem in conditions of different land use systems revealed that the way of agricultural use is a strong determinant of soil microbiome taxonomic composition. It was shown that the continuous «dead fallowing» application (for 50 years) lead to the establishment of olygothrophic components of microbial community, including spore-forming members of phylum Firmicutes. The increase of Acidobacteria lineages in this variant may be an indicator of some acidification of soil during long-time fallowing application. The variant of continuous wheat cropping lead to increasing in Proteobacteria lineages. The variant of soil under native steppe vegetation was characterized by the highest values of biodiversity

  6. Autism spectrum disorder traits in typically developing emerging adults and associated parenting: A person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Gadke, Daniel L; Malkin, Mallory L

    2018-02-15

    Research on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates these children receive parenting tailored to their condition. However, little is known about ASD in adulthood, especially in emerging adults at college, and how they are parented. The current study examined how emerging adults in a non-clinical typically-developing sample differed in their current perceptions of parenting as a function of ASD traits. Participants completed questionnaires about their current perceptions of parenting and self-reported ASD traits. Parenting characteristics assessed included parenting style, discipline, parent-child relationship quality, and parental distress. Results indicated that higher levels of self-reported ASD traits were associated with increasingly ineffective parenting characteristics including lower authoritative style, harsher discipline, poorer parent-child relationship quality (e.g., lower involvement), and higher parental distress. Researchers are encouraged to extend ASD research into adulthood by validating diagnostic methods with adults and investigating processes in adulthood that have been well-established in the childhood ASD literature.

  7. Effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stargardt, Tom; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Busse, Reinhard; Juckel, Georg; Gericke, Christian A

    2008-06-01

    In two recent randomised clinical trials, a meta-analysis and in an effectiveness study analysing routine data from the U.S. Veterans Administration the superiority of the newer atypical drugs over typical antipsychotic drugs, concerning both their efficacy and their side-effect profile, has been questioned. To analyse the effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in routine care. Cohort study using routine care data from a statutory sickness fund with 5.4 million insured in Germany. To be included, patients had to be discharged with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in 2003 and fulfil membership criteria. Main outcome measures were rehospitalisation rates, mean hospital bed days, mean length of stay, cost of inpatient and pharmaceutical care to the sickness fund during follow-up and medication used to treat side-effects. 3121 patients were included into the study. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of atypical and typical antipsychotics on rehospitalisation during follow-up (rehospitalisation rate ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.33). However, there were consistent observations of atypical antipsychotics being more effective for severe cases of schizophrenia (14.6% of study population; >61 prior bed days per year in 2000-2002) in the follow-up period, whereas for the other severity strata typical antipsychotics seemed more effective in reducing various rehospitalisation outcomes. Patients treated with atypical antipsychotics received significantly less prescriptions for anticholinergics or tiaprid (relative risk 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.38). The effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia on rehospitalisation measures appeared similar to that of typical antipsychotics. With the exception of severe cases, the higher costs for atypical antipsychotics were not offset by savings from reduced inpatient care. Major limitations include the lack of

  8. Phonological awareness of children with developmental dysphasia and children with typical language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is the ability of phonological processing of words. Children with developmental dysphasia manifest interference in the development of phonological abilities vital for the development of other language skills. The aim of this study is to investigate phonological awareness in children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia at preschool age. Phonological awareness is tested in 60 preschool children by a part of the ELLA test (Emerging Literacy & Language Assessment. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the tested elements of phonological awareness among children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia. The most significant differences are deletion of phonemes (p≤0.000, replacement of phonemes, as well as segmentation at the level of whole words (p≤0.000.

  9. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  10. Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: friend versus non-friend comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-07-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments included: mothers' and teachers' reports about friends' and friendship characteristics and observed individual and dyadic behaviors throughout interactions with friends versus non-friends during construction, drawing, and free-play situations. Findings revealed group differences in peer interaction favoring the typical development group, thus supporting the neuropsychological profile of HFASD. However, both groups' interactions with friends surpassed interactions with acquaintances on several key socio-communicative and intersubjective capabilities, thus suggesting that friendship may contribute to enhancement and practice of social interaction in HFASD.

  11. Analysis of radiological consequences in a typical BWR with a mark-II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    INS/NUPEC in Japan has been carrying out the Level 3 PSA program. In the program, the MACCS2 code has been extensively applied to analyze radiological consequences for typical BWR and PWR plants in Japan. The present study deals with analysis of effects of the AMs, which were implemented by industries, on radiological consequence for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment. In the present study, source terms and their frequencies of source terms were used based on results of Level 2 PSA taking into account AM countermeasures. Radiological consequences were presented with dose risks (Sv/ry), which were multiplied doses (Sv) by containment damage frequencies (/ry), and timing of radionuclides release to the environment. The results of the present study indicated that the dose risks became negligible in most cases taking AM countermeasures and evacuations. (author)

  12. Maternal support for autonomy: relationships with persistence for children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal strategies when helping their child. There were also no group differences in child mastery behaviors, measured as persistence with two optimally challenging tasks. However, the two groups differed in the relationships of maternal style with child persistence. Children with Down syndrome whose mothers were more supportive of their autonomy in the shared task displayed greater persistence when working independently on a challenging puzzle, while children of highly directive mothers displayed lower levels of persistence. For typically developing children, persistence was unrelated to maternal style, suggesting that mother behaviors may have different causes or consequences in the two groups.

  13. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  14. A technique to identify some typical radio frequency interference using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchao; Li, Mingtao; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to automatically identify some typical radio frequency interference from pulsar surveys using support vector machine. The technique has been tested by candidates. In these experiments, to get features of SVM, we use principal component analysis for mosaic plots and its classification accuracy is 96.9%; while we use mathematical morphology operation for smog plots and horizontal stripes plots and its classification accuracy is 86%. The technique is simple, high accurate and useful.

  15. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  16. Generation of typical solar radiation data for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Haixiang; Xu, Qingshan; Bian, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, typical solar radiation data are generated from both measured data and synthetic generation for 35 stations in six different climatic zones of China. (1) By applying the measured weather data during at least 10 years from 1994 to 2009, typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 35 cities are generated using the Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of daily global solar radiation (DGSR) for each year is compared with the CDF of DGSR for the long-term years in six different climatic stations (Sanya, Shanghai, Zhengzhou, Harbin, Mohe and Lhasa). The daily global solar radiation as typical data obtained from the TMYs are presented in the Table. (2) Based on the recorded global radiation data from at least 10 years, a new daily global solar radiation model is developed with a sine and cosine wave (SCW) equation. The results of the proposed model and other empirical regression models are compared with measured data using different statistical indicators. It is found that solar radiation data, calculated by the new model, are superior to these from other empirical models at six typical climatic zones. In addition, the novel SCW model is tested and applied for 35 stations in China. -- Highlights: ► Both TMY method and synthetic generation are used to generate solar radiation data. ► The latest and accurate long term weather data in six different climates are applied. ► TMYs using new weighting factors of 8 weather indices for 35 regions are obtained. ► A new sine and cosine wave model is proposed and utilized for 35 major stations. ► Both TMY method and the proposed regression model perform well on monthly bases.

  17. Promoting interaction during sociodramatic play: teaching scripts to typical preschoolers and classmates with disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, H; Cisar, C L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teaching sociodramatic scripts on subsequent interaction among three triads, each containing 2 typical children and 1 child with autistic characteristics. The same type and rate of teacher prompts were implemented throughout structured play observations to avoid the confounding effects of script training and teacher prompting. After learning the scripts, all children demonstrated more frequent theme-related social behavior. These improvements in social-communica...

  18. Quantification of Gains and Risks of Static Thermal Rating Based on Typical Meteorological Year

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heckenbergerová, Jana; Musílek, P.; Filimonenkov, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2013), s. 227-235 ISSN 0142-0615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Overhead power transmission lines * Conductor ampacity * Probabilistic static thermal rating * Typical meteorological year * Risk tolerance * Energy throughput Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2012

  19. Case Reports of Cat Scratch Disease with Typical and Atypical Clinical Manifestations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Umbreen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation

  20. Value of noninvasive diagnostic procedures in cardiology: typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebeling, V.; Bubenheimer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Routine chest X-ray often yields poor information for diagnosis of heart disease. The diagnostic value of invasive procedures in cardiology is generally accepted. The patient's as well as the physician's risk of the examination, however, has to be considered. A high number of heart diseases, e.g. hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is mainly detected by noninvasive procedures such as auscultation, electrocardiography, phonomechanocardiography, echocardiography, physical manoeuvres, and pharmacological provocation tests. Typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  1. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Meisenzahl, E.; Scherer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  2. Do Verbal Children with Autism Comprehend Gesture as Readily as Typically Developing Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, N.; Özçalışkan, Ş.; Adamson, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Gesture comprehension remains understudied, particularly in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have difficulties in gesture production. Using a novel gesture comprehension task, Study 1 examined how 2- to 4-year-old typically-developing (TD) children comprehend types of gestures and gesture-speech combinations, and showed better comprehension of deictic gestures and reinforcing gesture-speech combinations than iconic/conventional gestures and supplementary gesture-speech combina...

  3. Distribution of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae in typical and atypical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernanda B; Abreu, Afonso G; Nunes, Kamila O; Gomes, Tânia A T; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P

    2017-06-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an agent of acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide, categorized in typical or atypical subgroups. Some EAEC virulence factors are members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE). The presence of SPATE-encoding genes of different E. coli pathotypes was searched in a large collection of EAEC strains, and a possible association between SPATEs and E. coli phylogroups was investigated. Among 108 typical and 85 atypical EAEC, pic was the most prevalent gene, detected in 47.1% of the strains, followed by sat (24.3%), espI (21.2%), pet (19.2%), sepA (13.5%), sigA (4.1%), eatA (4.1%), vat (1.0%), espP and tsh, detected in one strain (0.5%) each; while epeA and espC were not detected. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 39.9% of the strains belonged to group A, 23.3% to B1, 10.9% to B2, 7.8% to D, 8.8% to E and 1.5% to F. The majority of the SPATE genes were distributed in typical and atypical strains without association with any phylogroup. In addition, pic and pet were strongly associated with typical EAEC and sepA was detected in close association with atypical EAEC. Our data indicate that SPATEs may represent important virulence traits in both subgroups of EAEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FORECASTING AT VARIOUS TYPICAL URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kapsky

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides investigation results pertaining to development of methodology for forecasting traffic accidents using a “conflict zone” method that considers potential danger for two typical urban areas, namely: signaled crossings and bumps that are made in the areas of zebra crossings and it also considers various types and kinds of conflicts. The investigations have made it possible to obtain various indices of threshold sensitivity in respect of  potential risks  and in relation to tra...

  5. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Horwood, Anna M.; Toor, Sonia S.; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction\\ud Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency and intermittent strabismus, true treatment effects can be confounded by placebo, practice and encouragement factors. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in typical naïve young adults after two weeks of exercises compared to control conditions to assess the extent of treatment effects occur above other factors.\\ud Methods\\ud 156 asymptomatic young a...

  6. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  7. The non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Wu Qingde; Yao Xuanjun; Chen Jie; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Ding Yi; Ge Zili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts in order to improve their diagnoses. Methods: 10 cases with branchial cleft cysts proven by surgery and pathology were collected and their MRI features were analyzed. There were 6 male and 4 female, aged 15 to 70, with an averaged age of 37. All patients underwent plain MR scan, 6 patients underwent enhanced scan, and 4 patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography. Results: All 10 cases were second branchial cleft cysts, including 4 of Bailey type I and 6 of type II. The non-typical MRI findings were composed of haematocele (2 cases), extraordinarily thick cyst wall (4 cases), solidified cystic fluid (2 cases), and concomitant canceration (2 cases), which made the diagnoses more difficult. Conclusion: The diagnoses of the branchial cleft cysts with non-typical MRI features should combined with its characteristic of position that located at the lateral portion of the neck adjacent to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the mandibular angle. The findings, such as thickened wall, ill-defined margin, and vascular involvement or jugular lymphadenectasis, strongly suggest cancerous tendency. (authors)

  8. [Inventory and environmental impact of VOCs emission from the typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Wang, Xing-Rui; He, Min; Guo, Wei-Guang

    2013-12-01

    Based on Sichuan province environmental statistical survey data and other relevant activity data, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province were calculated for the year of 2011 by applying the emission factor method. Besides, ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of these typical anthropogenic sources were discussed. The total VOC emission from these sources was about 482 kt in Sichuan province, biomass burning, solvent utilization, industrial processes, storage and distribution of fuel, and fossil fuel combustion contributed 174 kt, 153 kt, 121 kt, 21 kt and 13 kt, respectively; architecture wall painting, furniture coating, wood decoration painting and artificial board were the major emission sectors of the solvent utilization; while for the industrial processes, 19.4% of VOCs emission was from the wine industry. Chengdu was the largest contributor compared to the other cities in Sichuan, whose VOCs emission from these typical anthropogenic sources in 2011 was 112 kt. OFP of these sources was 1,930 kt altogether. Solvent utilization contributed 50.5% of the total SOA formation potentials, biomass burning and industrial processes both contributed about 23% , with storage and distribution of fuel and fossil fuel combustion accounting for 1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  9. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  10. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health.

  11. Suicide ideation and attempts in children with psychiatric disorders and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson Mayes, Susan; Calhoun, Susan L; Baweja, Raman; Mahr, Fauzia

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for suicide behavior. This is the first study to compare frequencies of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with specific psychiatric disorders and typical children while controlling for comorbidity and demographics. Mothers rated the frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 1,706 children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and typical development, 6-18 years of age. For the typical group, 0.5% had suicide behavior (ideation or attempts), versus 24% across the psychiatric groups (bulimia 48%, depression or anxiety disorder 34%, oppositional defiant disorder 33%, ADHD-combined type 22%, anorexia 22%, autism 18%, intellectual disability 17%, and ADHD-inattentive type 8%). Most alarming, 29% of adolescents with bulimia often or very often had suicide attempts, compared with 0-4% of patients in the other psychiatric groups. It is important for professionals to routinely screen all children and adolescents who have psychiatric disorders for suicide ideation and attempts and to treat the underlying psychiatric disorders that increase suicide risk.

  12. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  13. Probabilistic Harmonic Analysis on Distributed Photovoltaic Integration Considering Typical Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Che; Ruoying, Yu; Dongsheng, Dang; Xiangyan, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) integrating to the network would cause the harmonic pollution which would cause damages on electrical devices and affect the normal operation of power system. On the other hand, due to the randomness of the wind and solar irradiation, the output of DG is random, too, which leads to an uncertainty of the harmonic generated by the DG. Thus, probabilistic methods are needed to analyse the impacts of the DG integration. In this work we studied the harmonic voltage probabilistic distribution and the harmonic distortion in distributed network after the distributed photovoltaic (DPV) system integrating in different weather conditions, mainly the sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day and the snowy day. The probabilistic distribution function of the DPV output power in different typical weather conditions could be acquired via the parameter identification method of maximum likelihood estimation. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was adopted to calculate the probabilistic distribution of harmonic voltage content at different frequency orders as well as the harmonic distortion (THD) in typical weather conditions. The case study was based on the IEEE33 system and the results of harmonic voltage content probabilistic distribution as well as THD in typical weather conditions were compared.

  14. Connectivity dynamics in typical development and its relationship to autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan L; Miller, Robyn; Damaraju, Eswar; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Erhardt, Erik B; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-03-30

    Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided significant insights into developmental trajectories of human brain function. Characterizations of typical neurodevelopment provide a framework for understanding altered neurodevelopment, including differences in brain function related to developmental disorders and psychopathology. Historically, most functional connectivity studies of typical and atypical development operate under the assumption that connectivity remains static over time. We hypothesized that relaxing stationarity assumptions would reveal novel features of both typical brain development related to children on the autism spectrum. We employed a "chronnectomic" (recurring, time-varying patterns of connectivity) approach to evaluate transient states of connectivity using resting-state functional MRI in a population-based sample of 774 6- to 10-year-old children. Dynamic connectivity was evaluated using a sliding-window approach, and revealed four transient states. Internetwork connectivity increased with age in modularized dynamic states, illustrating an important pattern of connectivity in the developing brain. Furthermore, we demonstrated that higher levels of autistic traits and ASD diagnosis were associated with longer dwell times in a globally disconnected state. These results provide a roadmap to the chronnectomic organization of the developing brain and suggest that characteristics of functional brain connectivity are related to children on the autism spectrum. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlsten, O C O; Oliveira, R; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In Oliveira et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 130502) we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within O(N 3 ) steps, where N is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cutoff moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically, we find that the mutual information appears to behave similarly to the quantum correlations and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium. We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions

  16. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  17. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  18. A novel STXBP1 mutation causes typical Rett syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, Kotaro; Iwama, Kazuhiro; Yonee, Chihiro; Matsufuji, Mayumi; Sano, Nozomi; Saikusa, Tomoko; Yae, Yukako; Yamashita, Yushiro; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2018-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age. Her epilepsy onset was earlier than is typical for RTT patients. However, she fully met the 2010 diagnostic criteria of typical RTT. STXBP1 mutations cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), various intractable epilepsies, and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the case described here presented a unique clinical presentation of typical RTT without EIEE and a novel STXBP1 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood apraxia of speech: A survey of praxis and typical speech characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmenholt, Ann; Lohmander, Anette; McAllister, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge of the diagnosis childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in Sweden and compare speech characteristics and symptoms to those of earlier survey findings in mainly English-speakers. In a web-based questionnaire 178 Swedish speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anonymously answered questions about their perception of typical speech characteristics for CAS. They graded own assessment skills and estimated clinical occurrence. The seven top speech characteristics reported as typical for children with CAS were: inconsistent speech production (85%), sequencing difficulties (71%), oro-motor deficits (63%), vowel errors (62%), voicing errors (61%), consonant cluster deletions (54%), and prosodic disturbance (53%). Motor-programming deficits described as lack of automatization of speech movements were perceived by 82%. All listed characteristics were consistent with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) consensus-based features, Strand's 10-point checklist, and the diagnostic model proposed by Ozanne. The mode for clinical occurrence was 5%. Number of suspected cases of CAS in the clinical caseload was approximately one new patient/year and SLP. The results support and add to findings from studies of CAS in English-speaking children with similar speech characteristics regarded as typical. Possibly, these findings could contribute to cross-linguistic consensus on CAS characteristics.

  20. Cultural differences in rated typicality and perceived causes of memory changes in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cultural differences in stereotypes and attributions regarding aging and memory. Two subcultures belonging to the same country, Italy, were compared on general beliefs about memory. Sardinians live longer than other areas of Italy, which is a publically shared fact that informs stereotypes about that subculture. An innovative instrument evaluating simultaneously aging stereotypes and attributions about memory and memory change in adulthood was administered to 52 Sardinian participants and 52 Milanese individuals divided into three age groups: young (20-30), young-old (60-70), and old-old (71-85) adults. Both Milanese and Sardinians reported that memory decline across the life span is more typical than a pattern of stability or improvement. However, Sardinians viewed stability and improvement in memory as more typical than did the Milanese. Interestingly, cultural differences emerged in attributions about memory improvement. Although all Sardinian age groups rated nutrition and heredity as relevant causes in determining the memory decline, Sardinians' rated typicality of life-span memory improvement correlated strongly with causal attributions to a wide number of factors, including nutrition and heredity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.