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Sample records for societal alignment strategy

  1. “Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

  2. Aligning with new Digital Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Adrian; Soh, Christina; Hansen, Rina

    2017-01-01

    Prior IS research has not fully addressed the aligning process in the highly dynamic context of digital strategy. To address this gap, we conduct a longitudinal analysis of a B2B company's journey to enact its B2C digital strategy, using the dynamic capabilities approach. We found...... that as an organization shifts towards a digital strategy, misalignments between the emergent strategy and resources give rise to tension. Our study resulted in the development of an aligning process model that is comprised of three phases (exploratory, building, and extending) and generalizable organizational aligning...... actions that form the organization's sensing, seizing, and transforming capacities. These aligning actions iteratively reconfigured organizational resources and refined strategy in order to respond to both changes in the environment and internal tensions. We also recognized that there are challenges...

  3. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    2009-01-01

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment

  4. The alignment strategy of HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechenova, O., E-mail: O.Pechenova@gsi.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Pechenov, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Galatyuk, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Hennino, T. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Holzmann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kornakov, G. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Markert, J.; Müntz, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Salabura, P. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University of Kraków, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Schmah, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Schwab, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stroth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-06-11

    The global as well as intrinsic alignment of any spectrometer impacts directly on its performance and the quality of the achievable physics results. An overview of the current alignment procedure of the DiElectron Spectrometer HADES is presented with an emphasis on its main features and its accuracy. The sequence of all steps and procedures is given, including details on photogrammetric and track-based alignment.

  5. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  6. Information Capital and Organization's Strategy Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Djukic; Jovica Stankovic

    2005-01-01

    In digital economy very important role has information capital which produce numerous benefits and costs for organizations. But, organization capital creates grate value in an organization only if it is aligned with organization strategy. So, main management problem is being able to make alignment of information capital and organization strategy

  7. Alignment Strategy for the ATLAS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckman de Renstrom, P

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose spectrometer in preparation to take data on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It will start its operation in autumn 2007. Charged particle tracking is realized by the Inner Detector. ID consists of two silicon subsystems: Pixel Detector and Semiconductor Tracker complemented by straw proportional gas chambers. In order to exploit the excellent intrinsic resolution of the precision tracking devices a high accuracy alignment is required. In this report the strategy to align silicon detectors of the ATLAS ID will be reviewed together with the current status of preparation.

  8. Strategies and tools for whole genome alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Bray, Nicolas; Ishkhanov,Tigran; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Rubin, Edward; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna

    2002-11-25

    The availability of the assembled mouse genome makespossible, for the first time, an alignment and comparison of two largevertebrate genomes. We have investigated different strategies ofalignment for the subsequent analysis of conservation of genomes that areeffective for different quality assemblies. These strategies were appliedto the comparison of the working draft of the human genome with the MouseGenome Sequencing Consortium assembly, as well as other intermediatemouse assemblies. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignmentsexhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90 percent ofknown coding exons in the human genome. We have obtained such coveragewhile preserving specificity. With a view towards the end user, we havedeveloped a suite of tools and websites for automatically aligning, andsubsequently browsing and working with whole genome comparisons. Wedescribe the use of these tools to identify conserved non-coding regionsbetween the human and mouse genomes, some of which have not beenidentified by other methods.

  9. Investigating the Alignment of Concurrent Design Strategies with Business Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Mirfakhredini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managing the interface between design and other activities has received considerable attention. Effective coordination among these areas is therefore vital for effectiveness of the organization. The ideal situation would be continuous interdepartmental contact with well-developed channels of communication. In this study, the best strategy for product design department has been chosen using the strategic formulation framework with fuzzy approach. Subsequently, alignment of each functional design strategy with SAPCO business strategies has been explained. Findings indicate that developing partnerships with global automotive and engineering design companies and building strategic alliances with rival firms to achieve competitive advantages have maximum alignment with business strategies. In addition, findings provide a basis for firms in evaluating the concurrent design strategies and a reference for them to strengthen their concurrent capabilities. There are few reports on sustained use of concurrent design as an on-going strategic process in an organization. This study aims at contributing to the concurrent design solutions.

  10. Aligning Instructional Strategies with Learning Outcomes and Leadership Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Allen, Scott J

    2017-12-01

    This chapter provides recommendations for aligning instructional strategies with learning outcomes and leadership competencies to foster intentional student leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Overlay performance with advanced ATHENA trademark alignment strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Huijbregtse, Jeroen; Jeunink, Andre; Megens, Henry; Navarro, Ramon; Simons, Geert; Swinnen, Bart; Tolsma, Hoite; Van Bilsen, Frank; Van Haren, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of the ATHENA**T**M alignment sensor has made advanced applications of the sensor data increasingly important to meet the tightening overlay specifications for future technology nodes. As part of the total overlay budget, the effects of different alignment strategies on overlay performance need to be investigated. Keeping in mind that such strategies are simple and easy to use, two developments are addressed: advanced alignment recipes and advanced mark designs. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  12. IT in construction. Aligning IT and business strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, A.; Laan, Albertus; Leuven, A.; Kolkman, S.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Greenwood, D

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which information technology (IT) infrastructures and strategies are aligned with business processes and strategies varies widely along firms. The objective of this paper is to explain the success or failure of IT in construction firms by focusing on the alignment (or lack of it)

  13. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  14. Economy and Society: Strategies for a More Equal Distribution of Societal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Hoedl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unequal distribution of societal power is to a large extent responsible for poverty, hunger, the destruction of nature, and inhuman living conditions. From the perspective of its redistribution, we distinguish three basic means of power: The ownership of material and immaterial properties, the kind of organisation and the values according to which properties and their organisation are handled. This framework permits us to identify crucial power structures in less industrialised and industrial countries and within the financial, real productive, political and social subsystems of the society and allows us to sketch strategies for redistribution of societal power: Industrial countries have to reduce their real and financial capital inputs in favour of higher human capital investments and increase their direct investments in less industrialised countries, supported by a Global Marshall Plan. Less industrialised countries need to enhance both their industrial and alternative sectors, establish more democratic structures and human-centered educational systems. By these cooperative strategies the costs of former colonialism can be partly refunded. The main obstacle for such global cooperation is the global financial system, which has to be decentralised towards a multi-currency system, including regional currencies and barter. In the real productive sector, financial governance and capital-oriented hierarchies should be markedly reduced, which will increase creativity and productivity of work, underpinned by an enlarged human-centered education. Redistributing the prevailing power of the financial and productive sector rests considerably on democratic governance, which has to include increasing informal and legitimate interests and prevent plutocratic tendencies. For this, an economic democracy should be evolved where each individual not only has a vote, but also a guaranteed minimum income. Individual security, welfare and well-being are the

  15. Aligning ERP and Business Strategy after going live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Steering enterprises with Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) is not only an issue of implementation and of “once and for all” aligning the ERP system with the strategy of the company, it is a long term exercise. This paper is about managing ERP systems after going live. It is argued...... that companies has to align the ERP systems with the strategy of the company and guidelines as to how this can be achieved is given....

  16. Comprehensive comparison of graph based multiple protein sequence alignment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyusnin Ilya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alignment of protein sequences (MPSA is the starting point for a multitude of applications in molecular biology. Here, we present a novel MPSA program based on the SeqAn sequence alignment library. Our implementation has a strict modular structure, which allows to swap different components of the alignment process and, thus, to investigate their contribution to the alignment quality and computation time. We systematically varied information sources, guiding trees, score transformations and iterative refinement options, and evaluated the resulting alignments on BAliBASE and SABmark. Results Our results indicate the optimal alignment strategy based on the choices compared. First, we show that pairwise global and local alignments contain sufficient information to construct a high quality multiple alignment. Second, single linkage clustering is almost invariably the best algorithm to build a guiding tree for progressive alignment. Third, triplet library extension, with introduction of new edges, is the most efficient consistency transformation of those compared. Alternatively, one can apply tree dependent partitioning as a post processing step, which was shown to be comparable with the best consistency transformation in both time and accuracy. Finally, propagating information beyond four transitive links introduces more noise than signal. Conclusions This is the first time multiple protein alignment strategies are comprehensively and clearly compared using a single implementation platform. In particular, we showed which of the existing consistency transformations and iterative refinement techniques are the most valid. Our implementation is freely available at http://ekhidna.biocenter.helsinki.fi/MMSA and as a supplementary file attached to this article (see Additional file 1. Additional file 1 Source code, Makefile, installation instructions and test alignments. Click here for file

  17. Alignment strategy for the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckman de Renstrom, P

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose spectrometer in preparation to take data on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It will start its operation in autumn 2007. Charged particle tracking is realized by the Inner Detector. ID consists of two silicon subsystems: Pixel Detector and Semiconductor Tracker complemented by straw proportional gas chambers. In order to exploit the excellent intrinsic resolution of the precision tracking devices a high accuracy alignment is required. In this report the strategy to align sub-detectors of the ATLAS ID is reviewed together with the current status of preparation. Both track-based and hardware alignment methods are presented.

  18. Alignment Strategy for the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckman de Renstrom, P

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose spectrometer in preparation to take data on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It will start its operation in autumn 2007. Charged particle tracking is realized by the Inner Detector. ID consists of two silicon subsystems: Pixel Detector and Semiconductor Tracker complemented by straw proportional gas chambers. In order to exploit the excellent intrinsic resolution of the precision tracking devices a high accuracy alignment is required. In this report the strategy to align sub-detectors of the ATLAS ID is reviewed together with the current status of preparation. Both track-based and hardware alignment methods are presented

  19. Alignement strategy for the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brückman de Renstrom, P

    2007-01-01

    002704675 ATLAS is a general-purpose spectrometer in preparation for taking data at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It will start operation in autumn 2007. Charged particle tracking is realized by the Inner Detector. The Inner Detector consists of two silicon subsystems: a Pixel Detector and a Semiconductor Tracker complemented by straw proportional gas chambers. In order to exploit the excellent intrinsic resolution of the precision tracking devices high accuracy alignment is required. In this report the strategy to align the sub-detectors of the ATLAS Inner Detector is reviewed, together with the current status of preparation. Both track-based and hardware alignment methods are presented.

  20. Information technology strategy and alignment issues in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveroth, Einar; Fryk, Pontus; Rapp, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) plays a key role in public health care management because it could improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers and practitioners repeatedly contend that a health care organization's information systems strategy should be aligned with its objectives and strategies, a notion commonly known as IT alignment. Actor-related IT alignment issues in health care institutions were explored in this study. More specifically, it explores the possibility of moving beyond the current IT alignment perspective and, in so doing, explores whether IT alignment-as currently conceptualized in the dominant body of research-is sufficient for attaining improved quality, efficiency, and patient care in health care organizations. The findings are based on a qualitative and longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data were gathered over the 2005-2011 period from interviews, a focus group, observations, and archival material. The data suggest recurrent misalignments between IT strategy and organizational strategy and operations due to the failure to deconstruct the IT artifact and to the existence of various levels of IT maturity. A more complex picture of IT alignment in health care that goes beyond the current perspective is being offered by this study. It argues that the previously common way of handling IT as a single artifact and applying one IT strategy to the entire organizational system is obsolete. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The article suggests that considerable benefits can be gained by assessing IT maturity and its impact on IT alignment. The article also shows that there are different kinds of IT in medical care that requires diverse decisions, investments, prioritizations, and implementation approaches.

  1. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  2. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Methods Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale (“Value” variable were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. Results A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p < 0.05. Conclusions Of the nine cleaning strategies examined, only that involving 5 min of ultrasonication at 42 k Hz combined with a 0.3% germicidal cationic detergent was observed to be statistically effective at removing the bacterial biofilm from the surface of F22 aligners.

  3. Board and Senior Management Alignment on School Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.; Cooper, Brian K.; Santora, Joseph C.; Baker, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which senior executive members of a school's decision-making team (senior management team and board of directors) are aligned on fundamental principles of school strategy. Our study is based on a conceptual framework of strategic leadership as it applies in an Australian independent school context. We also examine…

  4. Validation of the CLIC alignment strategy on short range

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Rude, V; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    The pre-alignment of CLIC consists of aligning the components of linacs and beam delivery systems (BDS) in the most accurate possible way, so that a first pilot beam can circulate and allow the implementation of the beam based alignment. Taking into account the precision and accuracy needed: 10 µm rms over sliding windows of 200m, this pre-alignment must be active and it can be divided into two parts: the determination of a straight reference over 20 km, thanks to a metrological network and the determination of the component positions with respect to this reference, and their adjustment. The second part is the object of the paper, describing the steps of the proposed strategy: firstly the fiducialisation of the different components of CLIC; secondly, the alignment of these components on common supports and thirdly the active alignment of these supports using sensors and actuators. These steps have been validated on a test setup over a length of 4m, and the obtained results are analysed.

  5. Alignment of business and information strategies and its impact on business performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    Alignment between business strategy and information strategy has been focused on for several years with research suggesting different explanations to how this alignment influences a firm’s performance. This article presents results from an investigation of firms in Slovenia about how business...... people perceived their business strategy and information strategy to be aligned. Respondents’ statements from the questionnaire survey on their perceived alignment between business strategy and information strategy were checked against the firms’ revenue growth. The analysis of perceived alignment...... between business strategy, information strategy, and revenue growth shows that there is a significant relationship between alignment and revenue growth in Slovenia, and this link is positive. Managers should aim to align business and information strategies in order to achieve better business performance....

  6. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  7. PRALINE™: a strategy for improved multiple alignment of transmembrane proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirovano, Walter; Feenstra, K. Anton; Heringa, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    .... Multiple alignment techniques use scoring schemes tailored for sequences of soluble proteins and are therefore in principle not optimal to align membrane-bound proteins. Results: Transmembrane (TM...

  8. Business Alignment: Measurement-Based Alignment of Software Strategies and Business Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Jürgen; Heidrich, Jens; Mandić, Vladimir

    Most of today’s products and services are software-based. Organizations that develop software want to maintain and improve their competitiveness by controlling software-related risks. To do this, they need to align their business goals with software development strategies and translate them into quantitative project management. There is also an increasing need to justify cost and resources for software and system development and other IT services by demonstrating their impact on an organization’s higher-level goals. For both, linking business goals and software-related efforts in an organization is necessary. However, this is a challenging task, and there is a lack of methods addressing this gap.

  9. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  10. MIND THE GAP: ALIGNING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY WITH THE BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business organizations engage in strategic planning sessions in order to become more compet itive in the chan ging markets, However, despite evidence to the contrary, they do not seem to realize the grow ing value of information and technology in achieving this. Rarely do business organizations reali ze the need for strategic IT planning, and more over , alignment of the busines s and IT strategies in one synergistic, cohesive whole . This paper explores the evolution of IT as competitive medium and as center for growth, innovation and radical change, The notion of IT centered organizations over and above IT as support or enabling function is discussed, It is maintained that organizations that do not deal with the above, that stay in flux or believe in incremental change , will not remain competitive and will be lost in the Information world.

  11. Alignment of service characteristics with competitive strategy & customer satisfaction : A Comparative study in fast food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goraya, Muneeb; Zaaroura, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Competitive strategies are an essential tool for sustainable competitive advantage. Particularly in the service industry, strategy has its significance as it plays a vital role in achieving customer satisfaction. This study investigates alignment of four service characteristics i.e. servicescape, service quality, quality and value with the firms’ strategy and how this alignment achieves customer satisfaction. A set of hypotheses were formulated to portray the significance of each of the four ...

  12. ICT strategy in an ICT user perspective: exploring alignment between ICT users and managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fardal, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This study adds to the body of knowledge in research of ICTs in organizations by exploring the relevance of alignment between ICT users and managers responsible for the ICT strategy and ICT project processes...

  13. IT education strategy oriented to the alignment between business and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Čičin-Šain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the significance of IT education strategy oriented to the alignment between in - formation systems and business systems. We establish goals and develop concepts, and present a metho - dological frame of strategic IT education. We report the results of our research and investigate the way and intensity of the impact of strategic IT education on the factors influencing the alignment and linking between information systems and business strategies. From the point of view of our research, we have focused on factors that have an influence on the alignment between information systems and business strategies, and factors affecting organisational effectiveness. Factors influencing strategic IT education have also been systematized within the categories of busine - ss/information system alignment, and organisational effectiveness. Since strategic IT education has been recognized and organized in different concepts, we have included three concepts in our questionnaires: strategic IT education for managers, organisational learning and e-learning

  14. Una strategia bi-direzionale per gestire una società pluralista || A two-way process strategy to build a pluralistic society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Bartolino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Il carattere multiculturale delle società moderne ci pone serie di sfide, tra cui trovare il modo di gestire una società pluralista in ogni sua forma organizzativa. Lo scopo principale del paper è proporre una strategia socio-politica per l’integrazione degli stranieri in una società di cui non conoscono ancora i valori, partendo dal presupposto che l’inserimento degli immigrati dipenda tanto dalla loro volontà di far parte della società nella quale risiedono, quanto dalla capacità della società di ricezione di accoglierli. Collaborando costruendo assieme una strategia “bi-direzionale”, il processo di integrazione potrebbe essere più bilanciato e più proficuo per entrambe le parti. Abstract: The multicultural identity of modern societies poses a series of challenges, which need being faced. One of these challenges is that of organizing a pluralist society in all its practical aspects as well as possible. The main aim of this paper is that of putting forward a political and social strategy to better integrate foreigners in a society whose values and traditions they do not know. The first assumption is that the integration of the immigrant population could depend as much on their will to take part in the society as on the receiving society’s ability to host them within its territory. By collaborating in order to achieve this objective and by building together a “bi-directional” strategy, the integration process could turn out to be more balanced and fruitful for both parties at play.

  15. Open Source Partner Strategy: Are Your Core Businesses Aligned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Riekki-Odle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology companies have historically viewed partnerships through myopic, one-way lenses, asking only: "What can this partner do for me?" This type of thinking is even more pervasive with channel sales partnerships, where technology vendors limit the exploration of value to short term revenue contribution. Vendors must broaden their scope and range of site when embarking on a path of partnership strategy. Ecosystem analysis, economic modeling, and creative go-to-market development are critical components of successful partnership strategies. This article discusses this critical business strategy through a real world example and an overview of best practice.

  16. Aligning corporate real estate with the corporate strategies of higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how corporate real estate (CRE) managers of higher education institutions formulate their CRE strategies and CRE operating decisions to align CRE with the corporate strategies of these institutions. Design/methodology/approach – An analytical

  17. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi; Aarabi, Sied Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2013-08-02

    Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006-2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy.

  18. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial

  19. Post-merger IT integration strategies: An IT alignment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Stegwee, R.A.; Fa, Rachel Tjang A

    2006-01-01

    When a company decides to merge with or to acquire another company, a major question is to what extent to integrate the information technologies and the organization. Interpreting merger objectives to proper IT integration strategies is a complex and time-consuming process, due to a lack of explicit

  20. Aligning USGS senior leadership structure with the USGS science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is realigning its management and budget structure to further enhance the work of its science programs and their interdisciplinary focus areas related to the USGS Science Strategy as outlined in 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). In 2007, the USGS developed this science strategy outlining major natural-science issues facing the Nation and focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well being of the Nation and the world. These areas include global climate change, water resources, natural hazards, energy and minerals, ecosystems, and data integration.

  1. Success in COIN aligning organizational structure with strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Currently, there is no organization specifically designed to accomplish the U.S. military strategy in counterinsurgency. This thesis uses organizational theory to assess the qualities and structure of the Organization for Community Engagement (OCE), an organization designed to accomplish the key tenets of counterinsurgency. It presents an analysis of counterinsurgency doctrine, classic and contemporary counterinsurgency theorists, cur...

  2. Managing the Right Projects: Best Practices to Align Project and Corporate Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    If there's a human endeavor that exemplifies teamwork, it is space exploration. And that teamwork absolutely cannot happen effectively if the boots on the ground the people doing the work - don't understand how their work aligns with the larger goal. This presentation will discuss some best management practices from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that have succeeded in helping employees become informed, engaged and committed to the space agency's important missions. Specific topics include: Alignment Criteria: Linking Projects To Corporate Strategy. Resource Management: Best Practices For Resource Management. Strategic Analysis: Supporting Decision Making In A Changing Environment. Communication Strategies: Best Practices To Communicate Change. Benefits Achieved And Lessons Learned.

  3. Information Technology Project Portfolio and Strategy Alignment Assessment Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Analía Sánchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that companies face considerable difficulties in assessing the strategy value contribution of Information Technology (IT investments. One of the major obstacles to achieving strategy alignment is that organizations find extremely difficult to link and quantify the IT investments benefits with strategic goals. The aim of this paper is to define an approach to assess portfolio-strategy alignment. To this end a formal specification of Kaplan and Norton Strategy Map is developed utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML. The approach uses the Strategy Map as a framework for defining the portfolio value contribution and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used as the methodology for measuring efficiency of project portfolios.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.66

  4. Alignment strategies for the entrainment of music and movement rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Bart; Leman, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Theories of entrainment assume that spontaneous entrainment emerges from dynamic laws that operate via mediators on interactions, whereby entrainment is facilitated if certain conditions are fulfilled. In this study, we show that mediators can be built that affect the entrainment of human locomotion to music. More specifically, we built D-Jogger, a music player that functions as a mediator between music and locomotion rhythms. The D-Jogger makes it possible to manipulate the timing differences between salient moments of the rhythms (beats and footfalls) through the manipulation of the musical period and phase, which affect the condition in which entrainment functions. We conducted several experiments to explore different strategies for manipulating the entrainment of locomotion and music. The results of these experiments showed that spontaneous entrainment can be manipulated, thereby suggesting different strategies on how to embark. The findings furthermore suggest a distinction among different modalities of entrainment: finding the beat (the most difficult part of entrainment), keeping the beat (easier, as a temporal scheme has been established), and being in phase (no entrainment is needed because the music is always adapted to the human rhythm). This study points to a new avenue of research on entrainment and opens new perspectives for the neuroscience of music. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Efficient strategy to Cu/Si catalyst into vertically aligned carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efficient strategy to Cu/Si catalyst into vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with bamboo shape by CVD technique. V MOHANA KRISHNA and T SOMANATHAN. ∗. Department of Nanoscience, School of Basic Sciences, Vels University, Chennai 600 117, India. MS received 17 November 2015; accepted 8 February 2016.

  6. Chinese Business Students' Changes in Beliefs and Strategy Use in a Constructively Aligned PBL Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students' transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students' beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course for business communication.…

  7. Management strategies for aligning higher education accommodation with the user needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, D.J.M.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – This paper aims to explore the management strategies of facility managers and corporate real estate managers to align corporate real estate (CRE) with the needs of their organization and the end users in a changing context. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper first outlines the

  8. Management strategies for aligning higher education accomodation with the user needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald Beckers; Geert Dewulf; Theo van der Voordt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the management strategies of facility managers and corporate real estate managers to align corporate real estate (CRE) with the needs of their organization and the end users in a changing context. Design/methodology/approach The paper first outlines the

  9. Measuring the Maturity of IT and Business Strategies Alignment in Organization: Case Study of SAIPA-Yadak Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmmad Reza Taghva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available IT strategic planning towards realizing organizational is one of the most important topics among managers of leading companies. It is known as alignment of IT and business strategies. The alignment factors identified in Luftman model on IT-Business Alignment form the basis of the present study. Luftman model is comprised of five levels, each level consisting of six factors. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among managemers in Saipa Yadak in order to identify the impact of each alignment factor. Thereafter in order to measure the extent of IT-Business alignment, another questionnaire was devised to determine company’s current status. Finally a balanced alignment factor was calculated. Results indicate that Saipa Yadak is at the third alignment level according to Luftman model. This illustrates a stage of total focus. Tactics are offered for approaching the fourth level of alignment.

  10. Strategy and validation of fiducialisation for the pre-alignment of CLIC components

    CERN Document Server

    Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Mainaud Durand, H; Rude, V; Sterbini, G

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of the high energy e+ e- linear collider CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) is very dependent on the ability to accurately pre-align its components. There are two 20 km long Main Linacs which meet in an interaction point (IP). The Main Linacs are composed of thousands of 2 m long modules. One of the challenges is to meet very tight alignment tolerances at the level of CLIC module: for example, the magnetic centre of a Drive Beam Quad needs to be aligned within 20 µm rms with respect to a straight line. Such accuracies cannot be achieved using usual measurement devices. Thus it is necessary to work in close collaboration with the metrology lab. To test and improve many critical points, including alignment, a CLIC mock-up is being assembled at CERN. This paper describes the application of the strategy of fiducialisation for the pre-alignment of CLIC mock-up components. It also deals with the first results obtained by performing measurements using a CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) to ensure the f...

  11. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Shaun; Auron, Philip E; Benos, Panayiotis V

    2007-03-30

    Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations). We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the comparative study

  12. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor (TF proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations. We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the

  13. Chinese business students’ changes in beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students’ transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students’ beliefs and strategy use in a constructively...... aligned PBL course for business communication. Eight students who had made notable progress were chosen for retrospective analysis. The data included 48 journal entries, interviews, and writing samples collected at different stages of the course. This study identified taxonomies of participants’ beliefs...... about learning and writing, their perceptions of assessment, and their strategy use for learning. It also examined changes in beliefs, perceptions, and strategy use to determine the nature of the students’ learning experience in this PBL course. Findings suggest a recognised need to design PBL courses...

  14. An experimental investigation of a psychoeducational strategy designed to reduce men's endorsement of societal ideals of women's attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Thompson, J Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated whether a psychoeducational manipulation, focused on reducing an unrealistic view of women's attractiveness, might affect men's ratings of the attractiveness of females. The participants were 159 male undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to four conditions: psychoeducational message (beauty ideals; marketing strategies) and photo exposure (attractive females; household products). The results indicated that males pre-exposed to attractive female images subsequently evaluated average females as less attractive than those exposed to household products. However, a psychoeducational information condition designed to challenge "beauty ideals" did not reduce the adverse exposure effect and was comparable in effectiveness to the "marketing strategies" manipulation. The limitations of the findings are discussed and avenues for future research in this area offered.

  15. Aligning innovation with grand societal challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2016-01-01

    the input and output sides of the system. This constitutes an important, though narrow, type of legitimacy in regard to specific technology developments, and questions remain about the performance of the ETPs in relation to small and medium-sized enterprises and social representation. This paper provides...

  16. Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2005-12-30

    Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection.

  17. The Alignment of Pay-For-Performance with the Strategy in Environment of Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Albuquerque de Vasconcelos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Kaplan and Norton (1997 a fixed compensation no longer meets the diverse expectations of reward and remuneration of staff. In this scenario, the economic agents seek business management tools that allow connecting individual performance to organizational performance. Taking these in considerations, this study aims to analyze if the criteria for the use of pay-for-performance is in accordance with the organization's strategy expressed by the indicators and goals used in the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. A qualitative approach was through a field survey of descriptive character, using, for data collection, a structured questionnaire with open and closed questions. The sample consists of 17 Brazilian companies in three business segments (heavy construction, industry and technology / services and leaders in the market in which they operate. The results showed that, although it was clear the use of indicators associated with the use of BSC, the pay-for-performance models studied did not included in a balanced way, the indicators associated with BSC. There is a dissonance between corporate rhetoric and practice and mainly, the non-recognition of compensation management as a tool for alignment and support business strategies

  18. Structure alignment of membrane proteins: Accuracy of available tools and a consensus strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-09-01

    Protein structure alignment methods are used for the detection of evolutionary and functionally related positions in proteins. A wide array of different methods are available, but the choice of the best method is often not apparent to the user. Several studies have assessed the alignment accuracy and consistency of structure alignment methods, but none of these explicitly considered membrane proteins, which are important targets for drug development and have distinct structural features. Here, we compared 13 widely used pairwise structural alignment methods on a test set of homologous membrane protein structures (called HOMEP3). Each pair of structures was aligned and the corresponding sequence alignment was used to construct homology models. The model accuracy compared to the known structures was assessed using scoring functions not incorporated in the tested structural alignment methods. The analysis shows that fragment-based approaches such as FR-TM-align are the most useful for aligning structures of membrane proteins. Moreover, fragment-based approaches are more suitable for comparison of protein structures that have undergone large conformational changes. Nevertheless, no method was clearly superior to all other methods. Additionally, all methods lack a measure to rate the reliability of a position within a structure alignment. To solve both of these problems, we propose a consensus-type approach, combining alignments from four different methods, namely FR-TM-align, DaliLite, MATT, and FATCAT. Agreement between the methods is used to assign confidence values to each position of the alignment. Overall, we conclude that there remains scope for the improvement of structural alignment methods for membrane proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Strategy for alignment of electron beam trajectory in LEReC cooling section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kayran, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kewisch, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pinayev, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    We considered the steps required to align the electron beam trajectory through the LEReC cooling section. We devised a detailed procedure for the beam-based alignment of the cooling section solenoids. We showed that it is critical to have an individual control of each CS solenoid current. Finally, we modeled the alignment procedure and showed that with two BPM fitting the solenoid shift can be measured with 40 um accuracy and the solenoid inclination can be measured with 30 urad accuracy. These accuracies are well within the tolerances of the cooling section solenoid alignment.

  20. HAlign: Fast multiple similar DNA/RNA sequence alignment based on the centre star strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Quan; Hu, Qinghua; Guo, Maozu; Wang, Guohua

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is important work, but bottlenecks arise in the massive MSA of homologous DNA or genome sequences. Most of the available state-of-the-art software tools cannot address large-scale datasets, or they run rather slowly. The similarity of homologous DNA sequences is often ignored. Lack of parallelization is still a challenge for MSA research. We developed two software tools to address the DNA MSA problem. The first employed trie trees to accelerate the centre star MSA strategy. The expected time complexity was decreased to linear time from square time. To address large-scale data, parallelism was applied using the hadoop platform. Experiments demonstrated the performance of our proposed methods, including their running time, sum-of-pairs scores and scalability. Moreover, we supplied two massive DNA/RNA MSA datasets for further testing and research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Societal assessment overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

  2. The Lisbon Strategy and the alignment of economic and social concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Hansen, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    -development and employment is seen to go hand-in-hand with economic innovation and competitiveness. This alignment, which is expressed through the worshipping of the Nordic welfare model in general and the notion of flexicurity in particular, seems to have a strong depoliticizing effect....

  3. A Multi-Objective Method to Align Human Resource Allocation with University Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Universities are currently under considerable pressure to reach their stakeholders' expectations. Management tools that use strategic plans, key performance indicators and quality assurance methods are increasingly deployed. This paper aims to demonstrate how resource allocation can be aligned with institutional strategic plans with a very simple…

  4. The Relevance of IT Service Management Maturity for IT Alignment and Its Strategy and Organization Size Contingencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Wulf, Jochen; Brenner, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The paradigm to manage information technology (IT) services in accordance with widely accepted ‘good practices’ has led to the widespread adoption of IT Service Management (ITSM) frameworks such as the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL). Little academic research, however, has been conducted...... with ITSM experts in which we measure levels of maturity of different ITSM planning and execution processes and focus on the organizations’ IS strategy (innovative versus conservative) as well as organization size as contingency factors hypothesized to moderate the effect of ITSM maturity on IT alignment...... that ITSM practices entail an even greater potential for smaller organizations as well as for those with more conservative IS strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed....

  5. USING ANALYTIC NETWORK FOR SELECTION OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP ALIGNED TO BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Medeiros Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP must be made judiciously by the high costs involved in the acquisition of such systems. Managers in areas such as accounting, financial and information technology need support and tools that help in selecting an appropriate ERP for their business. With this article, we present a study aimed at investigating the possibility of a Decision Support System (DSS to be used for this selection interrelating evaluation criteria, which could allow to contemplate the strategic alignment between Business and Information Technology. From the literature review 28 factors related to the selection of software packages, with special emphasis on ERP were identified. For the research procedures, the qualitative ones were adopted, in that the 18 factors considered relevant to a good selection of ERP were classified with the Delphi technique and used as input in a DSS: Analytical Network Process (ANP, applied as a Case Study in a small business that hired the ERP. The results showed that the ANP was efficient in interrelated criteria and evaluated the strategic alignment between Business and Information Technology.

  6. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-11-01

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  8. Both sides of the coin: a teaching strategy to facilitate an alignment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many South African fashion designers are unsuccessful in terms of business and design strategy, by creating products that express their own artistic design style without sufficient consideration of specific consumer requirements. The argument is made that fashion design education that neglects the consumer in the design ...

  9. Aligning the diverse: the development of a biodiversity conservation strategy for the Cape Floristic Region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lochner, Paul A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Action Plan for the Environment (CAPE) sought to develop a long-term strategy and action plan to conserve biodiversity in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR). The high levels of biodiversity in the CFR are matched by complex and fragmented...

  10. Pushing or sharing as value-driven strategies for societal change in global supply chains: two case studies in the British-South African fresh fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Business strategy is linked to organisational values and culture, which is determined to some extent by national culture. This can provide a challenge in a global supply chain where culture and values at one end of the chain do not correspond with culture at the other end. This paper contends that

  11. Composite growth factor supplementation strategies to enhance tenocyte bioactivity in aligned collagen-GAG scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2013-05-01

    Biomolecular environments encountered in vivo are complex and dynamic, with combinations of biomolecules presented in both freely diffusible (liquid-phase) and sequestered (bound to the extracellular matrix) states. Strategies for integrating multiple biomolecular signals into a biomimetic scaffold provide a platform to simultaneously control multiple cell activities, such as motility, proliferation, phenotype, and regenerative potential. Here we describe an investigation elucidating the influence of the dose and mode of presentation (soluble, sequestered) of five biomolecules (stromal cell-derived factor 1α [SDF-1α], platelet-derived growth factor BB [PDGF-BB], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and growth/differentiation factor 5 [GDF-5]) on the recruitment, proliferation, collagen synthesis, and genomic stability of equine tenocytes within an anisotropic collagen-GAG scaffold for tendon regeneration applications. Critically, we found that single factors led to a dose-dependent trade-off between driving tenocyte proliferation (PDGF-BB, IGF-1) versus maintenance of a tenocyte phenotype (GDF-5, bFGF). We identified supplementation schemes using factor pairs (IGF-1, GDF-5) to rescue the tenocyte phenotype and gene expression profiles while simultaneously driving proliferation. These results suggest coincident application of multi-biomolecule cocktails has a significant value in regenerative medicine applications where control of cell proliferation and phenotype are required. Finally, we demonstrated an immobilization strategy that allows efficient sequestration of bioactive levels of these factors within the scaffold network. We showed sequestration can lead to a greater sustained bioactivity than soluble supplementation, making this approach particularly amenable to in vivo translation where diffusive loss is a concern and continuous biomolecule supplementation is not feasible.

  12. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high

  13. A Framework for Higher Education Labor Market Alignment: Lessons and Future Directions in the Development of Jobs-­-Driven Strategies. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Jennifer; Van Noy, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession and several other factors have heightened concerns among policymakers and the public at large about higher education's role in employment, leading to a renewed wave of pressures, policies, and incentives to create job-driven strategies at all levels. Policymakers and the public often assume that aligning higher education with…

  14. The Superintendent as Societal Architect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Walter L.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the superintendent as a societal architect is one which combines the needs of clients with the superintendent's educational beliefs and philosophy. This role creates a learning environment that deals with the future needs of society. (CJ)

  15. What successful math teachers do, grades 6-12 80 research-based strategies for the common core-aligned classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Jaye, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    The math teacher's go-to resource-now updated for the Common Core! What works in math and why has never been the issue; the research is all out there. Where teachers struggle is the "how." That's the big service What Successful Math Teachers Do provides.  It's a powerful portal to what the best research looks like in practice strategy by strategy-now aligned to both the Common Core and the NCTM Standards. For each of the book's 80 strategies, the authors present A brief description A summary of supporting research The corresponding NCTM and Common Core Standards Classroom applications Possible pitfalls Recommended reading and research.

  16. Women, Educational Leadership and Societal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Shah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that women’s participation in the public and their access to senior leadership positions is defined by cultural and belief systems in a society. It draws upon a study of Women College heads of women-only colleges, in a region in Pakistan, to unveil the discursive dynamics in that societal context where complex factors interact to determine what is acceptable in that culture. This has implications for women’ roles and determines their practices as college heads. The study also unveiled the culturally-informed strategies adopted by these women professionals to exercise their role as college heads in the presence of multiple cultural constraints.

  17. Microterritorialidade e controle societal Micro-territoriality and societal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Moretto Amâncio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa empírica que revelou uma intensa atuação de controle societal relacionada com a provisão de serviços públicos de saúde e assistência realizada em regiões de baixa renda em São Paulo. O foco microterritorial adotado permitiu tornar visíveis os atores coletivos que, contrariando as proposições da literatura, não constituem protagonistas dos seus respectivos setores e não restringem ações de controle societal aos espaços de participação institucionalizada.The paper presents results of an empirical research that revealed the existence of intense societal accountability actions related to service delivery in health and social assistance performed in low income regions in the city of Sao Paulo. The micro-territorial approach adopted by the research gave visibility to collective actors that, contrary to what might be expected based on the literature, are not the protagonists of their respective sectors and do not restrict their societal accountability actions to institutionalized participatory spaces.

  18. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled in a Dan......This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled...

  19. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  20. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  1. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit

  2. Strategy-aligned fuzzy approach for market segment evaluation and selection: a modular decision support system by dynamic network process (DNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Nasrabadi, Ali; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-05-01

    In competitive markets, market segmentation is a critical point of business, and it can be used as a generic strategy. In each segment, strategies lead companies to their targets; thus, segment selection and the application of the appropriate strategies over time are very important to achieve successful business. This paper aims to model a strategy-aligned fuzzy approach to market segment evaluation and selection. A modular decision support system (DSS) is developed to select an optimum segment with its appropriate strategies. The suggested DSS has two main modules. The first one is SPACE matrix which indicates the risk of each segment. Also, it determines the long-term strategies. The second module finds the most preferred segment-strategies over time. Dynamic network process is applied to prioritize segment-strategies according to five competitive force factors. There is vagueness in pairwise comparisons, and this vagueness has been modeled using fuzzy concepts. To clarify, an example is illustrated by a case study in Iran's coffee market. The results show that success possibility of segments could be different, and choosing the best ones could help companies to be sure in developing their business. Moreover, changing the priority of strategies over time indicates the importance of long-term planning. This fact has been supported by a case study on strategic priority difference in short- and long-term consideration.

  3. Primary Drivers of Adult Cervical Deformity: Prevalence, Variations in Presentation, and Effect of Surgical Treatment Strategies on Early Postoperative Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Jalai, Cyrus M; Lafage, Virginie; Lafage, Renaud; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Ramchandran, Subaraman; Horn, Samantha R; Poorman, Gregory W; Gupta, Munish; Hart, Robert A; Deviren, Vedat; Soroceanu, Alexandra; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-08-05

    Primary drivers (PDs) of adult cervical deformity (ACD) have not been described in relation to pre- and early postoperative alignment or degree of correction. To define the PDs of ACD to understand the impact of driver region on global postoperative compensatory mechanisms. Primary cervical deformity driver/vertebral apex level were determined: CS = cervical; CTJ = cervicothoracic junction; TH = thoracic; SP = spinopelvic. Patients were evaluated if surgery included PD apex, based on the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV): CS: LIV ≤ C7, CTJ: LIV ≤ T3, TH: LIV ≤ T12. Cervical and thoracolumbar alignment was measured preoperatively and 3 mo (3M) postoperatively. PD groups were compared with analysis of variance/Pearson χ 2 , paired t -tests. Eighty-four ACD patients met inclusion criteria. Thoracic drivers (n = 26) showed greatest preoperative cervical and global malalignment against other PD: higher thoracic kyphosis, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), T1 slope C2-T3 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and C0-2 angle ( P 3M alignment changes were observed between surgical PD groups, in PI-LL, LL, T1 slope minus cervical lordosis (TS-CL), cervical SVA, C2-T3 SVA ( P 3M correction. CTJ drivers trended toward greater LL correction compared to CS drivers (-6.00° vs 0.88°, P = .050). Patients operated at CS driver level had a difference in the prevalence of 3M TS-CL modifier grades (0 = 35.7%, 1 = 0.0%, 2 = 13.3%, P = .030). There was a significant difference in 3M chin-brow vertical angle modifier grade distribution in TH drivers (0 = 0.0%, 1 = 35.9%, 2 = 14.3%, P = .049). Characterizing ACD patients by PD type reveals differences in pre- and postoperative alignment. Evaluating surgical alignment outcomes based on PD inclusion is important in understanding alignment goals for ACD correction.

  4. Strategy Implementation and the Executive Style : A Study on Strategic Alignment and Performance in Small and Medium Industries of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fabiano Pereira de Macedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and midsize businesses are a number of restrictions on the market where they compete , they are caused by lack of resources or integration difficulties . For the company to develop and market in which it operates , highlights the role of the executive in the strategic process . This research investigation aims check for alignment between executive style and strategies and the impact of the performance of small and medium industries Mossley / RN . Methodologically , it is a descriptive study with data collection by surveying a structured and self-administered questionnaire , adapted from Håkonsson et al (2012 model was developed . Closed questions were asked , using Likert 5-point scale . The assumptions of the model were tested by Mann- Whitney test. It was found that the vast majority of companies presents a misalignment between the styles of business and enterprise strategy , the main type of misalignment : Style manager - analytical strategy . The general hypothesis , that the alignment between cognitive style and enterprise strategy leads to improved performance has been confirmed . The results corroborate the results obtained by Håkonsson et al (2012 .

  5. An aligned porous electrospun fibrous membrane with controlled drug delivery- an efficient strategy to accelerate diabetic wound healing with improved angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Han, Yiming; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Yuqi; Yi, Zhengfang; Xu, He; Ke, Qinfei

    2018-02-14

    A chronic wound in diabetic patients is usually characterized by poor angiogenesis and delayed wound closure. The exploration of efficient strategy to significantly improve angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed and thereby accelerate wound healing is still a significant challenge. Herein, we reported a kind of aligned porous poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes containing dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DS) for diabetic wound healing. The PLLA electrospun fibers aligned in a single direction and there were ellipse-shaped nano-pores in situ generated onto the surface of fibers, while the DS were well distributed in the fibers and the DMOG as well as Si ion could be controlled released from the nanopores on the fibers. The in vitro results revealed that the aligned porous composite membranes (DS-PL) could stimulate the proliferation, migration and angiogenesis-related gene expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with the pure PLLA membranes. The in vivo study further demonstrated that the prepared DS-PL membranes significantly improved neo-vascularization, re-epithelialization and collagen formation as well as inhibited inflammatory reaction in the diabetic wound bed, which eventually stimulated the healing of the diabetic wound. Collectively, these results suggest that the combination of hierarchical structures (nanopores on the aligned fibers) with the controllable released DMOG drugs as well as Si ions from the membranes, which could create a synergetic effect on the rapid stimulation of angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed, is a potential novel therapeutic strategy for highly efficient diabetic wound healing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah; Molinari, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Studies on patients' societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants' age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Although patients' satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients' economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT.

  7. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  8. The societal value of universal childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Isabelle; Goetghebeur, Mireille M; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre

    2004-05-07

    Availability of new vaccines preventing infectious diseases in healthy children populations is increasing worldwide. In Canada, despite the current recommendation of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization to include recent vaccines in routine schedule, only a few provinces have incorporated some of the newer vaccines in routine vaccination programs. A review was undertaken of economic evaluations of childhood vaccination strategies performed from the societal point of view in industrialized countries, to gain perspective on their global benefits. The general trend supports most universal vaccination programs as cost-saving or cost-effective for society. Comparison of vaccination programs with other health care interventions indicates that vaccines are often one of society's best healthcare investments. Current data suggest that the Canadian society would benefit from a more complete immunization program.

  9. The societal costs of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Wade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan G WadeCPS Research, Glasgow, ScotlandObjective: Insomnia can be broadly defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or sleep that is not refreshing or of poor quality with negative effect on daytime function. Insomnia can be a primary condition or comorbid to an underlying disorder. Subjective measures of insomnia used in population studies, usually based on complaints of unsatisfactory sleep, put the prevalence at about 10%. Insomnia is more common in the elderly and in women, and is often associated with medical and psychiatric disorders. This review examines the measures used to assess quality of sleep (QOS and daytime functioning and the impact of insomnia on society using these measures.Methods: Literature searches were performed to identify all studies of insomnia (primary and comorbid in adults (aged 18–64 years and the elderly (aged ≥ 65 years with baseline and/or outcomes relating to QOS or daytime functioning. The impact of poor QOS on quality of life (QOL, psychomotor and cognitive skills, health care resource utilization, and other societal effects was examined.Results: Although definitions and measurement scales used to assess sleep quality vary widely, it is clear that the societal consequences of insomnia are substantial and include impaired QOL and increased health care utilization. The impact of poor QOS and impaired daytime functioning common in insomnia can lead to indirect effects such as lower work productivity, increased sick leave, and a higher rate of motor vehicle crashes.Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to society. It is almost impossible to separate the costs associated with primary and comorbid insomnia. More studies are required which control for the severity of any primary disorder to accurately evaluate the costs of comorbid insomnia. Development of standardized diagnostic and assessment scales will enable more accurate quantification of the true

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  11. BEAMS: backbone extraction and merge strategy for the global many-to-many alignment of multiple PPI networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2014-01-01

    on backbone extraction and merge strategy (BEAMS) for the problem. We finally show, through experiments based on biological significance tests, that the proposed BEAMS algorithm performs better than the state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, the computational burden of the BEAMS algorithm in terms...

  12. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This strategy, which enables the alignment of nanotubes in a controlled fashion to any length and direction of interest, was examined to determine the force required to align a nanotube. A model is developed to understand the alignment process. Using the nanoscratch technique to mimic this strategy, and incorporating the ...

  13. A Practice-Led Approach to Aligning Learning Theories with Learning and Teaching Strategies in Third Level Chemistry Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Connor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large class sizes and a diverse student cohort have resulted in challenges for academics in third level institutes both nationally and internationally. This is a result of widening of participation and the drive to create a knowledge-based society in Ireland for the future. The focus in this paper is on third level chemistry education and looking at the issues arising both in the class and laboratory and suggesting learning and teaching strategies in order to overcome them or to enhance efficiencies. The learning and teaching strategies suggested however may be applied across many disciplines. The learning theories that underpin these strategies are highlighted throughout the text to strengthen the pedagogical framework on which they are based. Behaviourism, constructivism, cognitivism and social constructivism are the four main learning theories that support the discussion. Exemplars from the literature and practice led, and all designed, developed and evaluated in the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. The role of learning technologies has been included where appropriate. There are many ways of addressing issues of teaching diverse groups at third level that are free and readily accessible, it is hoped that this paper will encourage academics to try a new educational approach in their practice.

  14. Societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Jamie W.; Mundzir, Ibnu; Patt, Anthony; Rosemary, Rizanna; Safrina, Lely; Mahdi, Saiful; Daly, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties in forecasting extreme events force an unavoidable tradeoff between false alarms and misses. The appropriate balance depends on the level of societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuations, but there has been little empirical research on this. Intuitively it may seem that an unnecessary evacuation would make people less likely to evacuate again in the future, but our study finds no support for this intuition. Using new quantitative (n=800) and qualitative evidence, we examine individual- and household-level evacuation decisions in response to the strong 11-Apr-2012 earthquake in Aceh, Indonesia. This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. In our sample, the vast majority of people (86%) evacuated in the 2012 earthquake, and nearly all (94%) say they would evacuate again if a similar earthquake happened in the future. Self-reported level of fear at the moment of the 2012 earthquake explains more of the variance in evacuation decisions and intentions than does a combination of perceived tsunami risk and perceived efficacy of evacuation modeled on protection motivation theory. These findings suggest that the appropriate balance between false alarms and misses may be highly context-specific. Investigating this in each context would make an important contribution to the effectiveness of early-warning systems.

  15. Public Leadership and processes of societal innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Societal actors can come against problems that cross the traditional boundaries of sectors, organisations and routines. Processes of societal innovation are started on the way to an unknown future, creating new solutions and new corporations. In this paper I focus on the question how public leaders

  16. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  17. The EU societal awareness of landscape indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, P.J.; Andersen, E.; Capitani, C.; Carvalho Ribeiro, S.; Griffiths, G.H.; Loupa-Ramos, I.; Madeira, L.; Mortimer, S.R.; Paracchini, M.L.; Pinto Correia, T.; Schmidt, A.M.; Simoncini, R.; Wascher, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that agricultural landscapes meet multiple societal needs and demands beyond provision of economic and environmental goods and services. Accordingly, there have been significant calls for the inclusion of societal, amenity and cultural values in agri-environmental

  18. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...

  19. A paedophile scan to prevent child sexual abuse in child care? A thought experiment to problematize the notion of alignment in Responsible Research and Innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Kupper, Frank; de Ruiter, Corine; Broerse, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    .... This thought experiment problematizes this particular notion: ethically acceptable and societally desirable outcomes are not necessarily achieved when alignment is a consequence of early closure...

  20. Linking soil systems to societal value systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Daedlow, Katrin; Techen, Anja; Kaiser, David Brian

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable management of soils is needed to avoid soil degradation and to maintain soil functions. This requires the assessment of how human activities drive soil management, how soil management affect soil functions and soil degradation, which trade-offs occur and how they compromise sustainable development targets. In the frame of the German research programme "Soils as a sustainable resource for the bio-economy - BonaRes", we developed an enhanced approach of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impact-response) cycle which helps to assess these interrelations. Because not all soil functions can be maximized simultaneously in space and time and trade-offs are inevitable, it depends on the societal value system to decide which management practices and respective soil functional performances are valued sustainably. We analysed the applicability of three valuation concepts being prominent in research about social-ecological systems, namely resource efficiency, ecosystem services, and ethics and equity. The concept of resource efficiency is based in the life-cycle thinking and is often applied at the level of the farming systems and in the context of bio-economy strategies. It covers the use of natural (water, energy, nutrients, land) and economic resources. At the landscape level, the concept of ecosystem services is prominent. Here, the contribution of soils to the provisioning, regulating and cultural services of the natural ecosystems is considered. Ethical considerations include the intrinsic values of nature as well as issues of local and global equity between different societal groups, generations, and localities. The three concepts cover different problem dimensions and complexity levels of soil management and decision making. Alone, none of them are capable to discover complex questions of sustainable soil management and development. Rather, the exact spatial and temporal framing of the sustainability problem at stake determines which combination of the value

  1. Archives and societal provenance Australian essays

    CERN Document Server

    Piggott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Records and archival arrangements in Australia are globally relevant because Australia's indigenous people represent the oldest living culture in the world, and because modern Australia is an ex-colonial society now heavily multicultural in outlook. Archives and Societal Provenance explores this distinctiveness using the theoretical concept of societal provenance as propounded by Canadian archival scholars led by Dr Tom Nesmith. The book's seventeen essays blend new writing and re-workings of earlier work, comprising the fi rst text to apply a societal provenance perspective to a national sett

  2. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    ..., and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability...

  3. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  4. The effect of recent trends in vehicle design on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled, and their projected future relationship with vehicle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars. The effects three recent trends in vehicle designs and technologies have on societal fatality risk per VMT are estimated, and whether these changes might affect the relationship between vehicle mass and fatality risk in the future. Side airbags are found to reduce fatality risk in cars, but not necessarily light trucks or CUVs/minivans, struck in the side by another light-duty vehicle; reducing the number of fatalities in cars struck in the side is predicted to reduce the estimated detrimental effect of footprint reduction, but increase the detrimental effect of mass reduction, in cars on societal fatality risk. Better alignment of light truck bumpers with those of other vehicles appears to result in a statistically significant reduction in risk imposed on car occupants; however, reducing this type of fatality will likely have little impact on the estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction on risk. Finally, shifting light truck drivers into safer, car-based vehicles, such as sedans, CUVs, and minivans, would result in larger reductions in societal fatalities than expected from even substantial reductions in the masses of light trucks. A strategy of shifting drivers from truck-based to car-based vehicles would reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, while improving societal safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Processes and Societal Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-23

    Best Available Copy .. ^’PWBa^aarta^ftftwi^wiMMÄ’j ■■ ■ ■■ i»*1P»»"^""^""W^""l^^lT Cognitive Processes and Societal Risk Taking Paul Slovlc...Baruch Fischhoff and Sarah Lichtenstein Oregon Research Institute ■ rt-^wrtwr. CoRnltive Processes and Societal Risk Taking Paul Slovlc, Baruch...and use of psychological tests ( Meehl & Rosen, 1955). ifad>aiMllWl«WW»1[Wliil.lirMill««m^ 14 One additional Implication of the research on man’s

  6. Alignment of helical membrane protein sequences using AlignMe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Stamm

    Full Text Available Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P, in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T, in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set.

  7. Individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dømgaard, Mikala; Bagger, Malene; Rhee, Nicolai Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -sectional survey of Danish Diabetes Association members was conducted to investigate individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 3117/9951 individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) (32.2%) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (67.8%) completed the survey. The calculated incidence rates of self...

  8. Interaction of societal development and communication technoloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casimir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Societal development has always been influenced by technology, and by information and communication technology (ICT) in particular. Communication technology has an impact on daily life: Consumption patterns and daily activities change, the concept of a household is affected, and the organisation of

  9. Applications and societal benefits of plastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anthony L. Andrady; Mike A. Neal

    2009-01-01

    .... Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  10. The societal impact value of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ``de facto`` risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 {times} 10{sup 7}) NR{sub i}{sup 4/3} where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity.

  11. Shaping Societal Impact: between control and cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messemaker, M.; Wolbers, J.J.; Treurniet, W.; Boersma, F.K.; Comes, T; Fiedrich, F; Fortier, S; Geldermann, J; Muller, T

    2013-01-01

    In our modern society, the impact of large-scale safety and security incidents can be large and diverse. Yet, this societal impact is makeable and controllable to a limited extent. At best, the effect of concrete response actions is that the direct damage is somewhat reduced and that the recovery is

  12. Transition Experiments: Exploring societal changes towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.M. van den Bosch (Suzanne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis presents the outcome of exploratory research on how transition experiments can be used as instruments to further sustainable development. A transition experiment is a specific type of innovation project that is aimed at exploring radically new ways to meet societal

  13. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  14. Understanding the Societal Impact of Humanities Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Johansson, Lasse Gøhler

    2016-01-01

    The critical problem for understanding the societal impact of humanities scholarship is that we currently have no satisfactory tools for understanding how wider social impacts occur and, by implication, very few guidelines for stimulating a reflexive dialogue about the influence of the humanities...

  15. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  16. Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, C; Green, A; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide comprehensive real-world evidence on societal diabetes-attributable costs in Denmark. METHODS: National register data are linked on an individual level through unique central personal registration numbers in Denmark. All patients in the Danish National Diabetes Register in 2011 (N...... = 318 729) were included in this study. Complication status was defined according to data from the Danish National Hospital Register. Diabetes-attributable costs were calculated as the difference between costs of patients with diabetes and the expected costs given the annual resource consumption...... of the diabetes-free population. RESULTS: Societal costs attributable to diabetes were estimated to be at least 4.27 billion EUR in 2011, corresponding to 14,349 EUR per patient-year. A twofold higher healthcare resource usage was found for patients with diabetes as compared with the diabetes-free population...

  17. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  18. Societal impact of synthetic biology: responsible research and innovation (RRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorowius, Daniel; Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2016-11-30

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field at the interface between biology and engineering, which has generated many expectations for beneficial biomedical and biotechnological applications. At the same time, however, it has also raised concerns about risks or the aim of producing new forms of living organisms. Researchers from different disciplines as well as policymakers and the general public have expressed the need for a form of technology assessment that not only deals with technical aspects, but also includes societal and ethical issues. A recent and very influential model of technology assessment that tries to implement these aims is known as RRI (Responsible Research and Innovation). In this paper, we introduce this model and its historical precursor strategies. Based on the societal and ethical issues which are presented in the current literature, we discuss challenges and opportunities of applying the RRI model for the assessment of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  20. Productive interactions for societal impact: Developing a research information system for agriculture (RIS-Agric) at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, N.; Esterhuyse, H.

    2016-07-01

    Assessments of the societal impact of research rely on primary data as input to the relevant indicators. In the current project, the data collection for indicator construction is guided by the SIAMPI approach to societal impact assessment. According to SIAMPI, the achievement of societal impact involves two elements: stakeholders and productive interactions. The latter includes three kinds of interactions: direct personal interactions; indirect interactions where contact is mediated by a material or human ‘carrier’; and financial interactions that refer to the economic exchanges between researchers and stakeholders. The question to be explored is whether the assessment of the societal impact of research can be facilitated by capturing any direct, indirect and financial interactions between researchers and societal stakeholders in a research information system. CREST/SciSTIP is developing such a system, called RIS-Agric, in cooperation with the Faculty of AgriSciences at Stellenbosch University and four agricultural research funders in South Africa that represent different agricultural commodities. A RIS with productive interactions at its core – and the funded research project as the unit of observation – will produce the necessary data for indicators linked to the societal impact of research, in addition to generating insights about the ‘pathway’ from research to societal impact. The indicators need to be ‘socially robust’ in the sense that their validation processes should include the research beneficiaries and their representatives. In doing so, RIS-Agric will produce a useful, standardised measurement mechanism that is aligned across the different commodities. The focus on productive interactions will be supplemented by other methods in order to enable the quantification of societal impact in the form of ‘impact scores’. (Author)

  1. Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

  2. Da psicologia social à psicologia societal

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Doise

    2002-01-01

    O principal fator que diferencia os psicólogos sociais, para além dos diferentes paradigmas científicos, é sua posição em relação à legitimidade e à necessidade de uma psicologia societal. O objetivo desta psicologia sempre foi o de articular explicações no nível do indivíduo e explicações de ordem social, mostrando como o indivíduo dispõe de processos que lhe permitem funcionar em sociedade e, de uma maneira complementar, como as dinâmicas sociais, particularmente interacionistas, posicionai...

  3. Post-communist democracy vs. totalitarianism: Contrasting patterns of need satisfaction and societal frustration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2017), s. 99-111 ISSN 0967-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Totalitarianism * Post-communism * Frustration * Societal frustration * Democracy * Memory * Maslow * Hierarchy of needs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016

  4. Societal and economic impact of anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Koenig, Lane; Kocher, Mininder S; Dall, Timothy M; Gallo, Paul; Scott, Daniel J; Bach, Bernard R; Spindler, Kurt P

    2013-10-02

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings

  5. Da psicologia social à psicologia societal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Doise

    Full Text Available O principal fator que diferencia os psicólogos sociais, para além dos diferentes paradigmas científicos, é sua posição em relação à legitimidade e à necessidade de uma psicologia societal. O objetivo desta psicologia sempre foi o de articular explicações no nível do indivíduo e explicações de ordem social, mostrando como o indivíduo dispõe de processos que lhe permitem funcionar em sociedade e, de uma maneira complementar, como as dinâmicas sociais, particularmente interacionistas, posicionais ou de valores e de crenças gerais, orientam o funcionamento desses processos.

  6. Da psicologia social à psicologia societal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doise Willem

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator que diferencia os psicólogos sociais, para além dos diferentes paradigmas científicos, é sua posição em relação à legitimidade e à necessidade de uma psicologia societal. O objetivo desta psicologia sempre foi o de articular explicações no nível do indivíduo e explicações de ordem social, mostrando como o indivíduo dispõe de processos que lhe permitem funcionar em sociedade e, de uma maneira complementar, como as dinâmicas sociais, particularmente interacionistas, posicionais ou de valores e de crenças gerais, orientam o funcionamento desses processos.

  7. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  8. Applications and societal benefits of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

  9. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  10. Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Taylor, P.; Bahn, O.; Das, S.R.; Wei, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a

  11. Capitolo III. Che cos’è una società?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarde, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Il nostro concetto di società risulta molto chiaramente da quanto precede, ma è importante precisare ulteriormente questa nozione fondamentale. I Che cos’è una società? Si è risposto generalmente: un gruppo di individui diversi che si aiutano a vicenda. Da questa definizione, tanto falsa quanto chiara, sono sorte tutte le confusioni stabilitesi molto frequentemente tra le cosiddette società animali, o la maggior parte di esse, e le sole vere società, tra le quali ve ne sono, da un certo punto...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  14. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    2011-08-01

    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  15. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Societal investment for such preventive services and provision of effective treatment for those diagnosed at early stages will yield economic benefits in reducing premature deaths of women at the prime of their productive lives. From a societal perspective, this should be a priority area for national investment towards the ...

  16. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Societal investment and cervical cancer outcomes. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2017; 21 (4): 17. COMMENTARY. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer. Outcomes in Nigeria: A commentary. DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2017/v21i4.2. Jonah Musa. Department of Obstetrics and ...

  17. Model-Based Exploration of Societal Aging in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Mismanagement of societal aging is an important threat to health care, social security, and the economy of many nations. A System Dynamics simulation model related to societal aging in the Netherlands and its implications for the Dutch welfare system is used here to generate exploratory scenarios

  18. Newborn jaundice and kernicterus--health and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H

    2003-05-01

    Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per CDCs Financial Burden of Disability study, 1992), but also results in profound and uncompromising grief for the family and loss to siblings of healthy, talkative playmates. And for the child with kernicterus (usually remarkably intelligent, but trapped in an uncontrollable body), grief and frustration are enormous. In 2001 national healthcare organizations, including Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued alerts to all accredited hospitals and public health professionals in the United States that all healthy infants are at potential risk of kernicterus if their newborn jaundice is unmonitored and inadequately treated. The re-emergence of kernicterus in the United States is the result of interacting phenomena including (a) Early hospital discharge (before extent of jaundice is known and signs of impending brain damage have appeared); (b) Lack of adequate concern for the risks of severe jaundice in healthy term and near newborns; (c) An increase in breast feeding; (d) Medical care cost constraints; (e) Paucity of educational materials to enable parents to participate in safeguarding their newborns; and (f) Limitations within in healthcare systems to monitor the outpatient progression of jaundice. A multidisciplinary approach that encompasses both healthcare and societal needs should be evaluated at a national level for practical and easy to implement strategies. An approach that is based on principles of evidence-based medicine, patient-safety and family centeredness is

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  20. Girder Alignment Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  1. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  2. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barrett

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i cellular and mesh networks, (ii transportation networks and (iii mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number

  3. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  4. Emotionally based strategic communications and societal stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Krešimir; Srbljinović, Armano; Popović, Siniša; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the potential of emotionally based strategic communications (EBSCs) as an extension of traditional strategic communications in prevention of societal stress-related disorders. The concept of EBSCs takes into consideration dominant emotional maps of a specific sociocultural environment in which communications take place. EBSCs may have a significant potential to transform mainly negative-dominant emotional maps of targeted social groups into more positive ones, as a precondition of building a more resilient and stress-resistant social environment. A better understanding of dominant emotional maps and their conditioning may facilitate restoration of more positive emotional maps by touching the right emotions of significant parts of the targeted social groups in the right way. Dominant emotional maps of societies afflicted by economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts etc., are typically characterized by negatively valenced emotions. Persistent negatively valenced group-based dominant emotions may be used as a quantitative statistical measure of potential stress-related disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders among respected group members. The toxic power of extreme negative emotions, attitudes, actions, and behavior might be reduced by EBSCs as a communication method for transforming negative-dominant emotional maps into more positive ones. EBSCs are conceptualized as the positively valenced stimulation of a negatively emotionally affected group by an appropriate communication strategy to minimize dominant-negative emotional maps and behavior of the targeted group.

  5. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Societal dimensions of biosphere reserves - biosphere reserves for people. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse-Graumann, L. [ed.] [Fernuniversitaet (Gesamthochschule) Hagen (Germany). Lehrgebiet Oekologische Psychologie

    1995-12-31

    The overall purpose of the Koenigswinter workshop from January 23 to 25, 1995, was to bring together social science experts and MAB representatives interested in promoting the idea that MAB should strengthen the social science perspective in all its project areas and, in particular, with respect to biosphere revers. It was decided to concentrate on (1) content related and on (2) strategic goals. Content related goals include the identification of problems and topics relevant for the functioning of biosphere reserves (e.g. acceptance of biosphere reserves by the local population; problems of management; advantages and disadvantages of tourist activities). Another area of discussion centers on research strategies that call for cooperation with the natural sciences. Strategic goals include the discussion of appropriate formats of an EUROMAB network on Societal Dimensions, on objectives and concrete future activities in order to establish contacts among researchers and practitioners, to organize workshops on special topics, to develop interdisciplinary and crosscultural research projects. It should also be considered if the impact of social science approaches can be promoted by Advisory Councils for Social Science Research, e.g., for environmental education, for social monitoring or other relevant social issues of Man and the Biosphere. The abstracts contain the presentations of the Koenigswinter Workshop and present the final recommendations from the participants and EUROMAB representatives for further discussion. (orig./MG)

  7. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  8. Alinhamento entre estrutura organizacional de projetos e estratégia de manufatura: uma análise comparativa de múltiplos casos Alignment between project management organizational structure and manufacture strategy: a comparative analysis of multiple cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alves Patah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho é estabelecer uma relação entre a estrutura de gerenciamento de projetos de uma organização e sua estratégia de manufatura. Pretende-se verificar também se existe um alinhamento entre a configuração da estrutura organizacional e o tipo de estratégia de manufatura de uma organização. A abordagem metodológica utilizada foi o estudo de múltiplos casos, realizado em três empresas dos setores de cosméticos, eletro-eletrônico e aeroespacial. Os principais resultados apontam para estruturas mais complexas de gerenciamento de projetos à medida que se caminha no continuum entre volume e variedade.The main goal of this paper is to establish a relation between the project management organization for a company and its manufacture strategy. Another objective is also to verify whether there is an alignment between the configuration of the organizational structure and the model of the manufacture strategy for a company. The methodological approach used was the multiple cases analysis conducted in three companies of the cosmetics, electronic, and airspace sectors. The main results point to more complex project management structures in the process along the continuum between volume and variety.

  9. STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.

  10. Empowering Graduate Students to Lead on Interdisciplinary Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    than problem-spotting activities with stakeholders. The ELISS strategy of establishing a cultural norm that young scientists can and should engage global societal issues is a novel approach to fostering leadership skills and interdisciplinary comfort that can readily be translated to both academic and nonacademic success.

  11. Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Yaw-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform. PMID:23671842

  12. Implementation of a Parallel Protein Structure Alignment Service on Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lun Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein structure alignment has become an important strategy by which to identify evolutionary relationships between protein sequences. Several alignment tools are currently available for online comparison of protein structures. In this paper, we propose a parallel protein structure alignment service based on the Hadoop distribution framework. This service includes a protein structure alignment algorithm, a refinement algorithm, and a MapReduce programming model. The refinement algorithm refines the result of alignment. To process vast numbers of protein structures in parallel, the alignment and refinement algorithms are implemented using MapReduce. We analyzed and compared the structure alignments produced by different methods using a dataset randomly selected from the PDB database. The experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm refines the resulting alignments more accurately than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, the computational performance of the proposed service is proportional to the number of processors used in our cloud platform.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  14. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  15. Gauging the societal impacts of natural disasters using a capability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2010-07-01

    There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals' capabilities. The DII can be interpreted as the disaster impact per capita. Capabilities are dimensions of individual well-being and refer to the genuine opportunities individuals have to achieve valuable states and activities (such as being adequately nourished or being mobile). After discussing the steps required to construct the DII, this article computes and compares the DIIs for two earthquakes of similar magnitude in two societies at different levels of development and of two disasters (earthquake and wind storm) in the same society.

  16. Model-Based Exploration of Societal Aging in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Pruyt; Tom Logtens

    2015-01-01

    Mismanagement of societal aging is an important threat to health care, social security, and the economy of many nations. A System Dynamics simulation model related to societal aging in the Netherlands and its implications for the Dutch welfare system is used here to generate exploratory scenarios and to test policy robustness across many scenarios. Key concerns derived from this research are (i) the existence of plausible scenarios with severe labor scarcity, especially in health care, (ii) u...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  19. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  1. Tectono-Magmatic Investigations with Societal Implications: Progress on the Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Saria, E.; Jones, J. R.; Daniels, M. D.; Mencin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Cross-domain collaborations amongst geoscientists and technologists become necessary when the scientific and societal needs surpass current cyberinfrastructure and data access mechanisms. For example, characterizing magma movement and fault-slip in real-time on and around active volcanoes is crucial for volcanic hazards and risk assessment. The necessary real-time positioning sensors are available, however the technological capacity for import, export, and analysis are in the early phases of development. Here, we present progress on the new, multi-national Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO) initiated in June 2016. The observatory currently utilizes the pilot EarthCube cyberinfrastructure "Cloud-hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences" (CHORDS) to visualize near-real time positioning data (http://tzvolcano.chordsrt.com/) that are accessible through the UNAVCO real-time archive. Our work aligns with the "resilience to disasters" and "holistic disaster risk management at all levels" targets of Sustainable Development Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities.

  2. estrategy and cognition: the strategy execution process through cognitive alignment Estrategia y cognición: la ejecutabilidad de la estrategia a través del alineamiento cognitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ramón Levy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The alternative-generating processes and strategic decision making are results of mental maps subjectively built by decision makers and executors. The different agents of the organization, understood as a socio-technical complexity, decide and act through mental maps used to “read” the reality. The alignment of these mental maps, that is based on convergent communication, contributes to reduce cognitive dispersion in the agents and, becomes the key to strategy execution and organizational learning.Los procesos de generación de opciones alternativas y de toma de la decisión estratégicason producto de los mapas mentales subjetivamente construidos por los decisores y delos ejecutores. Los diferentes agentes de la organización, entendida como un sistemasociotécnico complejo, deciden y operan a través de mapas mentales con los que “leen” larealidad. El alineamiento de esos mapas mentales, basado en la comunicación convergenteorientada a reducir la dispersión cognitiva de esos agentes, es la clave de la ejecución dela estrategia y del aprendizaje organizacional.

  3. Global Network Alignment in the Context of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Fazle Elahi; Zhao, Han; Milenkovic, Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Analogous to sequence alignment, network alignment (NA) can be used to transfer biological knowledge across species between conserved network regions. NA faces two algorithmic challenges: 1) Which cost function to use to capture "similarities" between nodes in different networks? 2) Which alignment strategy to use to rapidly identify "high-scoring" alignments from all possible alignments? We "break down" existing state-of-the-art methods that use both different cost functions and different alignment strategies to evaluate each combination of their cost functions and alignment strategies. We find that a combination of the cost function of one method and the alignment strategy of another method beats the existing methods. Hence, we propose this combination as a novel superior NA method. Then, since human aging is hard to study experimentally due to long lifespan, we use NA to transfer aging-related knowledge from well annotated model species to poorly annotated human. By doing so, we produce novel human aging-related knowledge, which complements currently available knowledge about aging that has been obtained mainly by sequence alignment. We demonstrate significant similarity between topological and functional properties of our novel predictions and those of known aging-related genes. We are the first to use NA to learn more about aging.

  4. COMMUNITY INSECURITY IN THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA. SELECTIVE FILES OF SOCIETAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA ŞERBAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of the article is based on the theoretical and methological distinction between different types of social problems. From a plurality of disfunctional aspects that are affecting Romanian society, we focused in our analysis on societal insecurities, i.e. those class of social problems that, through the amplitude of the repercussions, endanger the stability of the entire social body. The article is an illustration of three most significant forms of societal insecutity, with consequences preponderantly in the rural side of the country. The main social problems affecting Romanian rural area are not only the problems of Romanian rurality, but a social indicator for the insecurity condition of the entire Romanian society, whose persons, families, professional groups and organisations are constained to build on their own micro strategies for survival in a socio-political environment voided of integrated and coherent development directions. The main conclusion of the article is that Romanian rural communities are the social place with the highest social costs discharging and a significant indicator for the actual state of societal vulnerability of Romania

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  7. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  8. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  9. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT: ANALYSIS OF ALIGNMENT MODELS AND PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Sobrosa Affeldt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT is a resource capable of supporting businesses, which provides agile operations and mobility and decision support tools. The link between IT and business strategy has been studied regarding the best fitted model to improve company performance. This paper analyzes, through bibliographic research, the strategic alignment concept and the evolution of the strategic alignment theoretical models that are considered references in this area. The paper presents a comparison between these referential models and some perspectives for future research related IT strategic alignment.

  11. Assessing and Responding to the Risks of Global and Societal Changes in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    combined risks posed by the MENA region being considered a climatic and a societal "hot spot", as described above. These risks will have to be effectively communicated to stakeholders and the research community in order to outline, specify and implement research towards efficacious mitigation and adaption strategies aimed to minimize adverse effects of challenges posed by global and societal changes in the MENA region. The paper will describe the current state of advancing such a process and will introduce a first draft of a "Future Earth Research Strategy for the MENA Region", as formulated by the FEMRC and its Regional Advisory Committee.

  12. Physician alignment strategies and real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  14. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Developmen

    CERN Document Server

    Bhojan, Anand; Peter, J

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises research papers presented at the International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Development (ICICTS 2014) held at Karunya University, India. The content focuses on the recent advancements in image or signal processing, computer vision, communication technologies, soft computing, advanced computing, data mining, and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this volume is to facilitate advancement and application of the knowledge and to promote ideas that solve problems faced by society through cutting-edge technologies. The chapters contain selected articles from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in the form of frameworks, models, and architectures. Practical approaches, observations, and results of research that promotes societal development are also incorporated. This volume will serve as a useful compendium for interested readers and researchers working towards societal development from the technological perspective.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  18. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by

  19. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  20. Who Watches the Watchmen? An Appraisal of Benchmarks for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Iantorno, Stefano; Gori, Kevin; Goldman, Nick; Gil, Manuel; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental and ubiquitous technique in bioinformatics used to infer related residues among biological sequences. Thus alignment accuracy is crucial to a vast range of analyses, often in ways difficult to assess in those analyses. To compare the performance of different aligners and help detect systematic errors in alignments, a number of benchmarking strategies have been pursued. Here we present an overview of the main strategies--based on simulation, c...

  1. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...... particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... theoretical understandings of language, body and mind....

  2. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...... theoretical understandings of language, body and mind....

  3. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  4. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns - the alignment area - by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment. MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical...... show that it is not advisable to exclude gapped columns from phylogenetic analyses unless MaxAlign is used first. Finally, we find that the sequences removed by MaxAlign from an alignment tend to be those that would otherwise be associated with low phylogenetic accuracy, and that the presence of gaps...

  5. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  7. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  8. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  9. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-10-22

    To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. The UK. The UK adult population. Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets.

  10. Societal Renewal : where social entrepreneurship and municipal government meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glad, Tatiana; Bos, Rense; During, R.

    2015-01-01

    On November 2014 at Impact Hub Amsterdam, 30 civil servants, politicians and social entrepreneurs were brought together for a two-part innovation lab – named the Societal Renewal Lab – where a dedicated group with diverse perspectives was invited to take a deeper dive into understanding the system

  11. Une societe aux reperes ambigus | Belinga | African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une societe aux reperes ambigus. JMZ Belinga. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i1.46101 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  12. Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the enormous capital required to fund remote sensing initiatives, governments worldwide are increasingly adopting earth observation technologies to optimise operational efficiency and societal benefit. However, the value of information derived from earth observation will increase substantially if augmented by ...

  13. Societal aspects of bridge management and safety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatter, H.E.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Noortwijk, J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The main reason for the existence of civil infrastructures is public interest. Therefore, various societal aspects should drive an infrastructure program. Civil infrastructures are long-lived as-sets. Bridges and other structures are designed for lifetimes of 50 to 100 years. A bridge can last much

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  15. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  16. Power and contexts – some societal conditions for participatory projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen; Kristiansen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    between two societal Discourses: an economic-management Discourse versus a pedagogic-social Discourse. Unfortunately, we were not aware of the strength and the extent of the economic-management Discourse before it was too late. Thirdly, the article speaks in favor of continuous context inquiring dialogues...

  17. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  18. Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion can serve as a strong force in boosting societal development and can as well retard it. This, for me, is as a result of man's inability to discover his place and role in existence as a being with responsibility and sequel to this, he always fails to contribute his own quota in solving a myriad of problems surrounded him ...

  19. Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Religion can serve as a strong force in boosting societal development and can as well retard it. This, for me, is as a result of man's inability to discover his place and role in existence as a being with responsibility and sequel to this, he always fails to contribute his own quota in solving a myriad of problems ...

  20. Societal perspective on the burden of migraine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Michel, B. C.; Rutten, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive overview of the societal burden of migraine in The Netherlands. We assessed the direct and indirect costs of this disease, and the health status of patients with migraine. We developed the 'illness and labour' (I&L) questionnaire to collect data on the effect of

  1. Societal development and the impact of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several theories on societal development, especially concerning issues that are affecting globalization. Those issues include the impact of information technology on developing countries of Africa, the social and cultural schools of thought on globalization of information technology, the defining issues that are ...

  2. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Career Investigation. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Mary; Cegiel, Linda

    This instructional guide on the economic and societal factors of career investigation contains nine units dealing with: job acquisition, on-the-job relations, communications, understanding the paycheck, personal money management, completing government-regulated work requirements, laws affecting workers, changing jobs, and free enterprise. Each…

  3. Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La nostra collana Methexis ha pubblicato ad accesso aperto il volume di Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale, Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2012. La versione digitale del testo, in formato PDF, è a disposizione di tutti presso l’archivio elettronico dell'editore.

  4. Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  5. Societal constraints related to environmental remediation and decommissioning programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; Martell, Meritxell; Zeleznik, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-06-20

    The decisions related to decommissioning or environmental remediation projects (D/ER) cannot be isolated from the socio-political and cultural environment. Experiences of the IAEA Member States point out the importance of giving due attention to the societal aspects in project planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: i) to systematically review societal constraints that some organisations in different IAEA Member States encounter when implementing D/ER programmes, ii) to identify different approaches to overcome these constraints and iii) to collect examples of existing practices related to the integration of societal aspects in D/ER programmes worldwide. The research was conducted in the context of the IAEA project Constraints to Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation (CIDER). The research results show that societal constraints arise mostly as a result of the different perceptions, attitudes, opinions and concerns of stakeholders towards the risks and benefits of D/ER programmes and due to the lack of stakeholder involvement in planning. There are different approaches to address these constraints, however all approaches have common points: early involvement, respect for different views, mutual understanding and learning. These results are relevant for all on-going and planned D/ER programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  7. White University Students' Responses to Societal Racism: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanierman, Lisa A.; Oh, Euna; Poteat, V. Paul; Hund, Anita R.; McClair, Vetisha L.; Beer, Amanda M.; Clarke, Alexis M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to extend earlier conceptual and empirical literature on the ways in which White individuals respond to societal racism. To this end, the authors conducted in-depth interviews to examine 11 midwestern, non-Hispanic, White university students' reactions and experiences related to individual and institutional…

  8. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  9. Learning in Life History - psycho-societal interpretation of biographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2008-01-01

    Taking its point of departure from some critical remarks about some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based on life history research. The key concepts...

  10. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  11. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  12. Genomic multiple sequence alignments: refinement using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefkowitz Elliot J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic sequence data cannot be fully appreciated in isolation. Comparative genomics – the practice of comparing genomic sequences from different species – plays an increasingly important role in understanding the genotypic differences between species that result in phenotypic differences as well as in revealing patterns of evolutionary relationships. One of the major challenges in comparative genomics is producing a high-quality alignment between two or more related genomic sequences. In recent years, a number of tools have been developed for aligning large genomic sequences. Most utilize heuristic strategies to identify a series of strong sequence similarities, which are then used as anchors to align the regions between the anchor points. The resulting alignment is globally correct, but in many cases is suboptimal locally. We describe a new program, GenAlignRefine, which improves the overall quality of global multiple alignments by using a genetic algorithm to improve local regions of alignment. Regions of low quality are identified, realigned using the program T-Coffee, and then refined using a genetic algorithm. Because a better COFFEE (Consistency based Objective Function For alignmEnt Evaluation score generally reflects greater alignment quality, the algorithm searches for an alignment that yields a better COFFEE score. To improve the intrinsic slowness of the genetic algorithm, GenAlignRefine was implemented as a parallel, cluster-based program. Results We tested the GenAlignRefine algorithm by running it on a Linux cluster to refine sequences from a simulation, as well as refine a multiple alignment of 15 Orthopoxvirus genomic sequences approximately 260,000 nucleotides in length that initially had been aligned by Multi-LAGAN. It took approximately 150 minutes for a 40-processor Linux cluster to optimize some 200 fuzzy (poorly aligned regions of the orthopoxvirus alignment. Overall sequence identity increased only

  13. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    The misalignment causes the greatest damage to the conveyor belt. As a result of the interaction of the moving belt with the stationary parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  14. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, Jill S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  15. Abordagem societal das representações sociais The societal approach of social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Oliveira Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é apresentar as principais contribuições de Willem Doise para o desenvolvimento da teoria das representações sociais. Nesta direção, foram examinados: a Teoria das Representações Sociais como a grande teoria; a criação do Laboratório de Psicologia Social Experimental na Universidade de Genebra; os estudos experimentais sobre o desenvolvimento social da inteligência; os estudos experimentais das representações sociais; os quatro níveis de análise em Psicologia Social; as relações grupais; o paradigma das três fases; a pesquisa sobre os direitos humanos. Ainda que se considere que a adesão à Teoria das Representações Sociais pressupõe o estudo de indicadores que organizam o campo representacional, a análise dos posicionamentos individuais neste campo e a ancoragem destes posicionamentos nas dinâmicas societais, é preciso reconhecer que esta forma de fazê-lo ainda é pouco difundida nos meios científicos da América Latina.The aim of this paper is to present the main contributions of Willem Doise to the development of the Social Representations Theory. The following topics were examined: the Social Representations Theory as the grand theory; the foundation of Experimental Social Psychology Laboratory in University of Geneva; the experimental studies in social development of intelligence; the experimental studies in Social Representations; the four levels of analysis in Social Psychology; group relationships; the paradigm of three level and the human rights research. The adherence to the Social Representation Theory assumes the study of indicators that organize the representational field, the analysis of the individual positioning in this field and the anchoring of these positioning in the societal dynamics. Nevertheless, it is necessary to admit that this way of analysing is still little diffused in the scientific area of Latin America.

  16. Automatic Word Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Cited OTHER PUBLICATIONS Wu, Hua, etal., “Boosting Statistical Word Alignment Using Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba (China) research and...Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba {China) Research and Development Center (Jul. 1, 2006) pp. 913-920. * cited by examiner U .S. Patent F eb.18, 2014

  17. Advanced aligner orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojima Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invisalign initially had limitations which have now been overcome.Advances in the quality of aligner materials, attachments and the introduction of a new force system, have expanded the range of treatment possibilities from severe crowding to more difficult extraction cases, open bite cases, and lower molar distalization cases.

  18. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized....

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  20. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  1. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Multi-stakeholder initiatives in Vietnam to meet the societal challenges of horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Saha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at enlightening the emergence of multi-stakeholder initiatives in Vietnam that enable individuals, businesses, and civic societies to undertake the complex sustainability issues in the international business environment. Currently, the philosophy of involving multi-stakeholder initiatives groups in Vietnam for resource management seems overwhelming. Equally, the motive for studying a phenomenon like multi-stakeholder dialogue is a novel outlook that did not catch various researchers’ eye earlier. Nowadays, the European multi-stakeholder innovation platform tries to address the European societal challenges and policies due to their roles in the upcoming new program of Horizon 2020. National policy makers using them as building blocks for implementing different strategies such as research and development and regional policies. The approach of multi-stakeholder initiatives in Vietnam is to respond to the limited capacity and resources of individuals, societal sectors, governments, businesses, and civic societies. Thus, this study was conducted to demonstrate the significance of multi-stakeholder initiatives in Vietnam that create a broad multi-stakeholder (science, policy, business, society, including SMEs, public and private investors and multi-level (local, regional, national, and Europe innovation platforms to meet a range of societal challenges through Horizon 2020 in order to facilitate the development of committed innovation partnerships and identify how different types of firms, people, and knowledge at national and international levels making civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations, and individuals and institutions more innovative and competitive. Finally, this paper proposed some recommendations based on assumptions underlying research questions that added value to promote dialogue and collaboration across levels and with key international partners.

  4. Advances in understanding societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of life and property damage from future tsunamis can be reduced if officials develop risk-reduction strategies and education programs that address how at-risk populations and communities are specifically vulnerable to tsunamis. Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, information concerning societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the U.S. was largely limited to state-level summaries of the number of residents within one kilometer of the coast. Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey has furthered the Nation’s understanding of societal vulnerability to tsunamis with several studies that describe the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of at-risk populations in tsunami-hazard zones. Community-level assessments have been completed in Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington to document variations in the number and types of people, businesses, and critical facilities in tsunami-prone areas. A method using midresolution satellite imagery was developed to identify community variations in the amount of developed land in tsunami-prone areas. Factor analysis and geospatial analysis were integrated to model variations in demographic sensitivity to tsunamis. Public workshops have been held to examine community sensitivity, adaptive capacity and post-tsunami recovery. Results demonstrate that social vulnerability to tsunamis varies throughout a community or region and that certain areas are likely to suffer disproportionately due to differences in pre-tsunami socioeconomic conditions and other demographic attributes. This presentation will summarize advances in understanding societal vulnerability in the U.S. to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as discuss opportunities and needs for further work.

  5. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education

    CERN Document Server

    vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.

  6. Societal impact metrics for non-patentable research in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.; Isett, K.; Melkers, J.; Song, L.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-07-01

    Indicators of research impact tend to revolve around patents, licenses and startups. However, much university research is non-patentable and therefore doesn’t register in those metrics. That does not mean such research lacks impact, just that it follows different pathways to use in society. Without the visibility of patents, license income and jobs created in startups, society risks ignoring or discounting the societal impact of such research and therefore of undervaluing the research itself. In order to make visible the importance of research advances underpinning broader societal advance, in this project we explore the possibility of developing metrics of research impact for research whose results are relevant to professional practice. (Author)

  7. Advances in complex societal, environmental and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses recent technological progress that has led to an increased complexity in many natural and artificial systems. The resulting complexity research due to the emergence of new properties and spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of system elements - and between the system and its environment - is the primary focus of this text. This volume is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on societal and ecological systems, Part two deals with approaches for understanding, modeling, predicting and mastering socio-technical systems, and Part three includes real-life examples. Each chapter has its own special features; it is a self-contained contribution of distinguished experts working on different fields of science and technology relevant to the study of complex systems. Advances in Complex Systems of Contemporary Reality: Societal, Environmental and Engineered Systems will provide postgraduate students, researchers and managers with qualitative and quantitative methods for handling th...

  8. Estratégia e estrutura: em busca do alinhamento organizacional em um clube social esportivo Strategy and structure: the quest for organizational alignment in a social sports club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto de Toledo Cruz Junior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura descreve tipologias de formas organizações, que podem ser divididas em organização baseada em trabalho e organização baseada em conhecimento. A forma de representação mais utilizada é o organograma. Contudo, esta forma de representação não consegue ilustrar adequadamente a dinâmica de funcionamento da organização, sobretudo em organizações em que o conhecimento e a experiência são os ativos-chave. Com o objetivo de investigar o processo de alinhamento entre estratégia e estrutura, a abordagem metodológica adotada foi a pesquisa-ação. A pesquisa foi realizada ao longo de 6 meses, no período dos anos 2003 e 2004, em um clube situado na cidade de São Paulo. Participaram da pesquisa um grupo de 12 gerentes, 10 supervisores, 9 coordenadores e 5 dos principais diretores. Este artigo mostra como um clube de atividades sociais, culturais e esportivas projetou sua estrutura organizacional alinhada à formação de competências e às suas dinâmicas de funcionamento, para operar com características de uma organização baseada em conhecimento. A nova forma de representação da estrutura organizacional, denominada organigraph, ajudou o clube a explicitar a estratégia emergente, para operar em um mercado competitivo turbulento e implementá-la como regra simples a ser seguida por todos. Além disto, é apresentado um modelo de avaliação do desempenho derivado de um organigraph.The academic and practical literature describes organizational typologies that can be classified according to two main categories: job-based and knowledge-based organizations. The organizational structure is most commonly represented or described by the organizational chart. However, this form of representation fails to adequately depict the organization's work dynamics, above all in companies whose key assets are knowledge and experience. To investigate the alignment between strategy and structure, the methodological approach adopted here

  9. Profili penali della disciplina dei gruppi di società

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorella, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Mediante l’inserimento, all’interno della fattispecie di infedeltà patrimoniale, della previsione normativa dei vantaggi compensativi la tematica dei gruppi di società ha ricevuto una dignità espressa anche nel settore del diritto penale dell’economia. La scelta di politica legislativa, che si inserisce più genericamente nell’obiettivo politico criminale del legislatore novellante di costruire un diritto penale societario minimo, permeato dal necessario rispetto dei canoni di concreta offe...

  10. Societal Metabolism of Societies: The bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Fander Falconí; Jesús Ramos Martín

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  11. Societal metabolism of societies : the bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Falconí Benítez, Fander

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  12. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...

  13. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  14. Knowledge as a common good: the societal relevance of scientific research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institutional Management in Higher Education

    2010-01-01

    .... This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and report on them widely...

  15. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved...... time and in combination with other social processes establish more aligned and standardized environmental performance between countries. However, examples of the introduction of environmental management suggests that EMS’ only plays a minor role in developing the actual environmental objectives...

  16. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  17. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  18. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  19. A word-oriented approach to alignment validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiko, Robert G; Chan, Cheong Xin; Ragan, Mark A

    2005-05-15

    Multiple sequence alignment at the level of whole proteomes requires a high degree of automation, precluding the use of traditional validation methods such as manual curation. Since evolutionary models are too general to describe the history of each residue in a protein family, there is no single algorithm/model combination that can yield a biologically or evolutionarily optimal alignment. We propose a 'shotgun' strategy where many different algorithms are used to align the same family, and the best of these alignments is then chosen with a reliable objective function. We present WOOF, a novel 'word-oriented' objective function that relies on the identification and scoring of conserved amino acid patterns (words) between pairs of sequences. Tests on a subset of reference protein alignments from BAliBASE showed that WOOF tended to rank the (manually curated) reference alignment highest among 1060 alternative (automatically generated) alignments for a majority of protein families. Among the automated alignments, there was a strong positive relationship between the WOOF score and similarity to the reference alignment. The speed of WOOF and its independence from explicit considerations of three-dimensional structure make it an excellent tool for analyzing large numbers of protein families. On request from the authors.

  20. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  1. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a semiautomated RNA sequence editor (SARSE) that integrates tools for analyzing RNA alignments. The editor highlights different properties of the alignment by color, and its integrated analysis tools prevent the introduction of errors when doing alignment editing. SARSE readily...

  2. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  3. How do we Take Care of Strategic Alignment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the concept of ‘strategic alignment’ and presents the critique by Ciborra in SJIS (Vol. 9, No. 1) entitled “De profundis? Deconstructing the concept of strategic alignment”. We present a design approach that suggests how designers, conducting design projects in a specific orga...... environmental conditions, business strategies, and plans for IT are changing and hence challenge traditional approaches to strategic alignment. The results from the design project are described and related to IS literature and to Ciborra’s article.......The article reviews the concept of ‘strategic alignment’ and presents the critique by Ciborra in SJIS (Vol. 9, No. 1) entitled “De profundis? Deconstructing the concept of strategic alignment”. We present a design approach that suggests how designers, conducting design projects in a specific...

  4. LHCb's Time-Real Alignment in RunII

    CERN Multimedia

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configur...

  5. Patient and Societal Value Functions for the Testing Morbidities Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, John Shannon; Kong, Chung Yin; Lee, Janie M.; Akinyemi, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Lee, Pablo; Vavinskiy, Sergey; Williams, Olubunmi; Zoltick, Emilie S.; Donelan, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed preference-based and summated scale scoring for the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI) classification, which addresses short-term effects on quality of life from diagnostic testing before, during and after a testing procedure. Methods The two TMI value functions utilize multiattribute value techniques; one is patient-based and the other has a societal perspective. 206 breast biopsy patients and 466 (societal) subjects informed the models. Due to a lack of standard short-term methods for this application, we utilized the visual analog scale (VAS). Waiting trade-off (WTO) tolls provided an additional option for linear transformation of the TMI. We randomized participants to one of three surveys: the first derived weights for generic testing morbidity attributes and levels of severity with the VAS; a second developed VAS values and WTO tolls for linear transformation of the TMI to a death-healthy scale; the third addressed initial validation in a specific test (breast biopsy). 188 patients and 425 community subjects participated in initial validation, comparing direct VAS and WTO values to the TMI. Alternative TMI scoring as a non-preference summated scale was included, given evidence of construct and content validity. Results The patient model can use an additive function, while the societal model is multiplicative. Direct VAS and the VAS-scaled TMI were correlated across modeling groups (r=0.45 to 0.62) and agreement was comparable to the value function validation of the Health Utilities Index 2. Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) calculations showed a range of 0.07–0.10 in patients and 0.11–0.17 in subjects. MAD for direct WTO tolls compared to the WTO-scaled TMI varied closely around one quality-adjusted life day. Conclusions The TMI shows initial promise in measuring short-term testing-related health states. PMID:23689044

  6. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  7. Screaming at a Wall. Societal accountability from below in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L.P. Pirro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates engagement in anti-corruption activism in Bulgaria and Hungary. Since the late 2000s, protest events occurred in greater numbers in the two post-communist countries, addressing questions either directly or indirectly related to high-level or political corruption. Bulgarian and Hungarian collective anti-corruption actors share a common framing of the issue ('state corruption' or 'state capture', though their struggles vary in their modes and strategies ('civic self-organisation' versus the dominant role of 'transactional activism'. The article crucially reconstructs the context within which anticorruption activism took place, the different forms of mobilisation, and the specific framing of the issue by means of original interviews with prominent Bulgarian and Hungarian activists. Finally, attention is devoted to the subaltern fortunes of these struggles in attaining the aspired goal of societal accountability.

  8. Societal Statistics by virtue of the Statistical Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    The Drake equation, first proposed by Frank D. Drake in 1961, is the foundational equation of SETI. It yields an estimate of the number N of extraterrestrial communicating civilizations in the Galaxy given by the product N=Ns×fp×ne×fl×fi×fc×fL, where: Ns is the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; fp is the fraction of stars that have planetary systems; ne is the number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life; fl is the fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises; fi is the fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves; fc is the fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops; and fL is the fraction of planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization. The first three terms may be called "the astrophysical terms" in the Drake equation since their numerical value is provided by astrophysical considerations. The fourth term, fl, may be called "the origin-of-life term" and entails biology. The last three terms may be called "the societal terms" inasmuch as their respective numerical values are provided by anthropology, telecommunication science and "futuristic science", respectively. In this paper, we seek to provide a statistical estimate of the three societal terms in the Drake equation basing our calculations on the Statistical Drake Equation first proposed by this author at the 2008 IAC. In that paper the author extended the simple 7-factor product so as to embody Statistics. He proved that, no matter which probability distribution may be assigned to each factor, if the number of factors tends to infinity, then the random variable N follows the lognormal distribution (central limit theorem of Statistics). This author also proved at the 2009 IAC that the Dole (1964) [7] equation, yielding the number of Habitable Planets for Man in the Galaxy, has the same mathematical structure as the Drake equation. So the

  9. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Alignment Challenges for a Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, H; Stern, G

    2013-01-01

    The preservation of ultra-low emittances in the main linac and Beam Delivery System area is one of the main challenges for linear colliders. This requires alignment tolerances never achieved before at that scale, down to the micrometre level. As a matter of fact, in the LHC, the goal for the smoothing of the components was to obtain a 1σ deviation with respect to a smooth curve of 0.15 mm over a 150 m long sliding window, while for the CLIC project for example, it corresponds to 10 μm over a sliding window of 200 m in the Beam Delivery System area. Two complementary strategies are being studied to fulfil these requirements: the development and validation of long range alignment systems over a few hundreds of metres and short range alignment systems over a few metres. The studies undertaken, with associated tests setups and the latest results will be detailed, as well as their application for the alignment of both CLIC and ILC colliders.

  11. Societal costs and effects of implementing population-based mammography screening in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Maria Klitgaard; Niclasen, Birgit V; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    With a low breast cancer incidence and low population density, Greenland is geographically and organisationally challenged in implementing a cost effective breast cancer screening programme where a large proportion of the Greenlandic women will have to travel far to attend. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost utility of different strategies for implementing population-based breast cancer screening in Greenland. Two strategies were evaluated: Centralised screening in the capital Nuuk and decentralised screening in the five municipal regions of Greenland. A cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis were performed from a societal perspective to estimate the costs per years of life saved and per QALY gained. Two accommodation models for the women's attendance were examined; accommodation in ordinary hotels or in patient hotels. The least costly accommodation model was the hotel model compared with the patient hotel model, regardless of screening strategy. The decentralised strategy was more cost effective compared with the centralised strategy, resulting in 0.5 million DKK per years of life saved (YLS) and 4.1 million DKK per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained within the hotel model. These ratios are significantly higher compared with findings from other countries. The sensitivity analysis showed a substantial gap between the most and least favourable model assumptions. The investigated strategies were all estimated to be extremely costly, mostly due to high transportation and accommodation costs and loss of productivity, and none would be accepted as cost-effective per YLS/QALY gained within a conventional threshold level. The least expensive strategy was regional screening with hotel accommodation.

  12. Traditional acupuncturists and higher education in Britain: the dual, paradoxical impact of biomedical alignment on the holistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf; Hatton, Kieron

    2015-04-01

    Traditional acupuncturists' quest for external legitimacy in Britain involves the standardization of their knowledge bases through the development of training schools and syllabi, formal educational structures, and, since the 1990s, the teaching of undergraduate courses within (or validated by) Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a process which entails biomedical alignment of the curriculum. However, as holistic discourses were commonly used as a rhetorical strategy by CAM practitioners to distance themselves from biomedicine and as a source of public appeal, this 'mainstreaming' process evoked practitioners' concerns that their holistic claims are being compromised. An additional challenge is being posed by a group of academics and scientists in Britain who launched an attack on CAM courses taught in HEIs, accusing them of being 'unscientific' and 'non-academic' in nature. This paper explores the negotiation of all these challenges during the formalization of traditional acupuncture education in Britain, with a particular focus on the role of HEIs. The in-depth qualitative investigation draws on several data sets: participant observation in a university validated acupuncture course; in-depth interviews; and documentary analysis. The findings show how, as part of the formalization process, acupuncturists in Britain (re)negotiate their holistic, anti-reductionist discourses and claims in relation to contemporary societal, political and cultural forces. Moreover, the teaching and validation of acupuncture courses by HEIs may contribute to broadening acupuncturists' 'holistic awareness' of societal and cultural influences on individuals' and communities' ill-health. This investigation emphasises the dynamic and context-specific (rather than fixed and essentialized) nature of acupuncture practice and knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  14. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  15. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alphen, Klaas; Van Voorst tot Voorst, Quirine; Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Innovation Studies

    2007-08-15

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The stakeholder analysis shows that there is a positive attitude towards CCS by industry, government, and environmental NGOs, provided that the conditions they pose on the deployment of CCS are met. The content analysis of Dutch news articles conveys that the media portrayal of CCS is - to a certain extent - a balanced reflection of the way CCS is perceived by the stakeholders. Both analyses show that the concerns about CCS have not overshadowed the main promise that CCS is part of the solution to climate change. However, the current negative aspects of CCS as raised by different stakeholders and the media will remain if no action is taken. Therefore, the conditions posed on the use of CCS, as well as the actions required to meet these conditions, could function as a proxy for the 'societal voice', articulating the most important issues concerning the future acceptance of CCS technology. (author)

  16. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphen, Klaas van [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: k.vanalphen@geo.uu.nl; Voorst tot Voorst, Quirine van [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The stakeholder analysis shows that there is a positive attitude towards CCS by industry, government, and environmental NGOs, provided that the conditions they pose on the deployment of CCS are met. The content analysis of Dutch news articles conveys that the media portrayal of CCS is-to a certain extent-a balanced reflection of the way CCS is perceived by the stakeholders. Both analyses show that the concerns about CCS have not overshadowed the main promise that CCS is part of the solution to climate change. However, the current negative aspects of CCS as raised by different stakeholders and the media will remain if no action is taken. Therefore, the conditions posed on the use of CCS, as well as the actions required to meet these conditions, could function as a proxy for the 'societal voice', articulating the most important issues concerning the future acceptance of CCS technology.

  17. Communication Regarding Sustainability: Conceptual Perspectives and Exploration of Societal Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rieckmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues are typically characterized by high complexity and uncertainty. In light of this, communication plays a crucial role in coping with these challenges. The previous debate on sustainability communication has largely focused on how to communicate sustainability issues to others. Sustainability communication, however, involves more than sender oriented communication to persuade others (“communication of sustainability”; it also embraces processes of dialogue and discourse (“communication about sustainability”. Based on this distinction, we develop a typology of communication modes, including communication for sustainability. Inspired by the notion of functional communication systems, we explore sustainability communication in six societal subsystems, applying the typology of communication modes. Drawing mostly on examples from Germany, we find a shift from “communication of” towards “communication about” sustainability in most subsystems. While communication subsystems have a tendency towards operational closure, a variety of interlinkages exist. We discuss three key areas of “opening up” communication subsystems, leading to transdisciplinarity, societal deliberation and governance, each meeting one of sustainability’s core challenges.

  18. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  19. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Catterall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.

  20. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  1. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  3. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  4. Robust temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Andrea; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Baptista, Maria J.; Monaghan, Mark; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; D'hooge, Jan; Vilaça, João. L.; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Given the dynamic nature of cardiac function, correct temporal alignment of pre-operative models and intraoperative images is crucial for augmented reality in cardiac image-guided interventions. As such, the current study focuses on the development of an image-based strategy for temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac imaging sequences, such as cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or 3D Ultrasound (US). First, we derive a robust, modality-independent signal from the image sequences, estimated by computing the normalized cross-correlation between each frame in the temporal sequence and the end-diastolic frame. This signal is a resembler for the left-ventricle (LV) volume curve over time, whose variation indicates different temporal landmarks of the cardiac cycle. We then perform the temporal alignment of these surrogate signals derived from MRI and US sequences of the same patient through Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), allowing to synchronize both sequences. The proposed framework was evaluated in 98 patients, which have undergone both 3D+t MRI and US scans. The end-systolic frame could be accurately estimated as the minimum of the image-derived surrogate signal, presenting a relative error of 1.6 +/- 1.9% and 4.0 +/- 4.2% for the MRI and US sequences, respectively, thus supporting its association with key temporal instants of the cardiac cycle. The use of DTW reduces the desynchronization of the cardiac events in MRI and US sequences, allowing to temporally align multimodal cardiac imaging sequences. Overall, a generic, fast and accurate method for temporal synchronization of MRI and US sequences of the same patient was introduced. This approach could be straightforwardly used for the correct temporal alignment of pre-operative MRI information and intra-operative US images.

  5. Sensor Alignment by Tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Karimäki, V; Lampen, T; Lindén, T

    2003-01-01

    Good geometrical calibration is essential in the use of high resolution detectors. The individual sensors in the detector have to be calibrated with an accuracy better than the intrinsic resolution, which typically is of the order of 10 um. We present an effective method to perform fine calibration of sensor positions in a detector assembly consisting of a large number of pixel and strip sensors. Up to six geometric parameters, three for location and three for orientation, can be computed for each sensor on a basis of particle trajectories traversing the detector system. The performance of the method is demonstrated with both simulated tracks and tracks reconstructed from experimental data. We also present a brief review of other alignment methods reported in the literature.

  6. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.; Petersen, M.; Girard, F.C.; Tessari, M.; Wijmenga, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor

  7. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  8. Fatores Promotores e Inibidores do Alinhamento Estratégico da Tecnologia da Informação em uma Situação de Fusão: o Caso de uma Rede Varejista/Enabling and Inhibiting Factors of the Strategic Alignment between Information Technology Strategy and Entrepreneurial Strategy in a Situation of Fusion of Companies in a Retail Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Maria Leite Pereira; Jairo Simião Dornelas

    2010-01-01

    ...., the merger of two companies within a retail environment. The characteristics of the enabler and inhibitor factors for alignment were identified by means of an analysis of managerial team perceptions...

  9. MolAlign: an algorithm for aligning multiple small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shek Ling

    2017-06-01

    In small molecule drug discovery projects, the receptor structure is not always available. In such cases it is enormously useful to be able to align known ligands in the way they bind in the receptor. Here we shall present an algorithm for the alignment of multiple small molecule ligands. This algorithm takes pre-generated conformers as input, and proposes aligned assemblies of the ligands. The algorithm consists of two stages: the first stage is to perform alignments for each pair of ligands, the second stage makes use of the results from the first stage to build up multiple ligand alignment assemblies using a novel iterative procedure. The scoring functions are improved versions of the one mentioned in our previous work. We have compared our results with some recent publications. While an exact comparison is impossible, it is clear that our algorithm is fast and produces very competitive results.

  10. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...... not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty...

  11. Il XLIV Congresso della Società Italiana di Reumatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oliviero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Il 17-20 Ottobre 2007 al Lido di Venezia presso il Palazzo del Casinò e il Palazzo del Cinema si è svolto il XLIV Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Reumatologia (SIR. Numerosi esperti nazionali e internazionali hanno esposto le più importanti acquisizioni nel campo della ricerca clinica e di base reumatologiche. I tre giorni del congresso sono stati caratterizzati da letture, sessioni scientifiche, corsi educazionali, incontri con gli esperti, sezioni poster, corsi di aggiornamento su temi speciali, e diversi simposi. Tra i temi affrontati, particolare rilievo è stato dedicato ai singoli fattori implicati nella patogenesi delle malattie reumatiche, quali le citochine, i fagociti, le cellule endoteliali, i linfociti, i fibroblasti e gli autoanticorpi. In questo ambito un contributo di rilievo è stato offerto dai numerosi relatori stranieri ospiti del convegno. Dal punto di vista clinico, sono...

  12. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  13. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements. PMID:28271059

  14. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  15. Silver nanoparticles: technological advances, societal impacts, and metrological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  16. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Murphy, Karen E; Winchester, Michael R; Vega Baudrit, José R

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  17. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

    to the understanding of knowledge, based on examples from the author's research into professional learning (general practitioners). The pivotal role of language use and language socialisation is explained in brief, developing a psychodynamic complement to a language game concept of language use.......  Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...... derived from European critical theory, subjectivity and experience, are briefly introduced with a view to their intellectual background. The chapter elaborates the implication of these concepts in relation to the understanding of emotional aspects of learning in everyday life and in relation...

  18. Estimating sign-dependent societal preferences for quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; l'Haridon, Olivier; Pinto, Jose Luis

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the first to apply prospect theory to societal health-related decision making. In particular, we allow for utility curvature, equity weighting, sign-dependence, and loss aversion in choices concerning quality of life of other people. We find substantial inequity aversion, both for gains and losses, which can be attributed to both diminishing marginal utility and differential weighting of better-off and worse-off. There are also clear framing effects, which violate expected utility. Moreover, we observe loss aversion, indicating that subjects give more weight to one group's loss than another group's gain of the same absolute magnitude. We also elicited some information on the effect of the age of the studied group. The amount of inequity aversion is to some extent influenced by the age of the considered patients. In particular, more inequity aversion is observed for gains of older people than gains of younger people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Creating value from societal challenges; Waarde creeren uit maatschappelijke uitdagingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    The Dutch government requested the Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy (AWT) to report on how to contribute to addressing societal challenges through (1) the top sector policy, (2) the profiling policy, and (3) the European framework program Horizon 2020, or a combination of these policies. The AWT bases his opinion on the nature of the societal challenges, the commitment of the business community and the commitment of the knowledge institutes (Chapter 2). Next, follow the reasons why the market insufficiently picks up the challenges, the tools that the government can deploy to do something about it, and the constraints that the government runs into (Chapter 3). Subsequently four cases are discussed (energy, healthcare, mobility and security), followed by experiences in other countries (Chapter 4). Finally, conclusions and recommendations are given (chapter 5 and 6) [Dutch] Het kabinet vraagt de AWT om advies uit te brengen over de vraag hoe in Nederland optimaal kan worden bijgedragen aan de aanpak van maatschappelijke uitdagingen via (1) het topsectorenbeleid, (2) het profileringsbeleid, en (3) het Europese kaderprogramma Horizon 2020, dan wel een combinatie van deze beleidsprogramma's. De AWT baseert zijn advies op de aard van de maatschappelijke uitdagingen, de inzet van het bedrijfsleven en de inzet van de kennisinstellingen (hoofdstuk 2). Dan volgen de redenen waarom de markt deze uitdagingen onvoldoende oppakt, de instrumenten die de overheid kan inzetten om hier iets aan te doen en de beperkingen waar de overheid tegenaan loopt (hoofdstuk 3). Daarna komen vier casussen aan bod (energie, zorg, mobiliteit en veiligheid), gevolgd door ervaring in enkele andere landen (hoofdstuk 4). Het advies besluit met conclusies en aanbevelingen (hoofdstuk 5 en 6)

  20. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne eMoser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing a challenging transition towards more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviours (i.e. sufficiency. While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behaviour.This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviours in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N=150 to examine preferences for behaviours with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviours, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behaviour. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet. Thus, it seems

  1. Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals’ clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quénec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michaël; Lacasse, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a

  2. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  3. Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraeus, L; Lissner, L; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Al-Ansari, U; Sjöberg, A

    2012-07-01

    Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.

  4. The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    AUG 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Semantics of Ontology Alignment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

  5. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouschka eFoltz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment.

  6. Rotational alignment in soft nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Yadrena Fizika i Yadrena Energetika)

    1983-12-08

    It is shown that in transitional odd-A nuclei, where the rotation-aligned coupling scheme usually takes place, the low collective angular momentum states of the decoupled band are not completely aligned due to core softness. This is illustrated on the example of La-nuclei.

  7. Societal power shifts and changing social identities in South Africa: workplace implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lize Booysen

    2013-01-01

    The enormous social, economic and political transformation South Africans have experienced especially over the past 12 years, since the systematic dismantling of apartheid in the era of social and economic reconstruction, has brought about numerous societal and social identity changes. Due to these changes in social identity, societal norms and power shifts, major changes are occurring in the workplace, and societal level identity crises and conflicts are increasingly spilling over into the w...

  8. HOW FUTURE MANAGERS VIEW SOCIETAL CULTURE: A CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    CATANA DOINA; CATANA GHEORGHE ALEXANDRU

    2011-01-01

    Our study aims at enriching the existing literature about the prospective managers view of an ideal societal value system and the existing cultural practices in their society. The findings about the students' perception on cultural practices and their expectations about societal culture are helpful in imagining the societal culture in its dynamics. The research sample consists of 727 students in business and engineering on undergraduate and graduate levels from Romania and Slovenia. The reaso...

  9. The Alignment Of Skills And Practice Via Active Reading Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the literacy teacher negotiate the tensions between skills and social practice? Negotiation requires engaging with the debate in which literacy is seen as a set of discrete, transferable skills, dependent upon cognitive development, to the notion of literacies which are bound to social practice, and adapting teaching practices which align these two perspectives. Literacy teacher training can facilitate this via modelling literacy pedagogy such as active reading strategies based upon authentic texts. This paper will discuss the skills and practice debate, and then illustrate the alignment of the two perspectives by reference to some specific active reading strategies devised around a restaurant menu.

  10. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel {chi}{sup 2} minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  12. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Who watches the watchmen? An appraisal of benchmarks for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantorno, Stefano; Gori, Kevin; Goldman, Nick; Gil, Manuel; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental and ubiquitous technique in bioinformatics used to infer related residues among biological sequences. Thus alignment accuracy is crucial to a vast range of analyses, often in ways difficult to assess in those analyses. To compare the performance of different aligners and help detect systematic errors in alignments, a number of benchmarking strategies have been pursued. Here we present an overview of the main strategies-based on simulation, consistency, protein structure, and phylogeny-and discuss their different advantages and associated risks. We outline a set of desirable characteristics for effective benchmarking, and evaluate each strategy in light of them. We conclude that there is currently no universally applicable means of benchmarking MSA, and that developers and users of alignment tools should base their choice of benchmark depending on the context of application-with a keen awareness of the assumptions underlying each benchmarking strategy.

  14. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McQuinn, Matthew, E-mail: blazek@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  15. Pediatric sagittal alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Hubert; Roussouly, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variation in the regional parameters used to describe the spine and sacro-pelvis in children and adolescents. There is a slight tendency for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis to increase with age. Pelvic incidence and pelvic tilt also tend to increase during growth, while sacral slope remains relatively stable. Strong knowledge of the close relationships between adjacent anatomical regions of the spine and sacro-pelvis is the key when evaluating and interpreting sagittal spino-pelvic alignment. The scheme of correlations between adjacent regional parameters needs to be preserved in order to maintain a balanced posture. The net resultant from these relationships between adjacent anatomical regions is best represented by parameters of sagittal global balance. C7 plumbline tends to move backwards from childhood to adulthood, where it stabilizes or slightly moves forward secondary to degenerative changes. C7 plumbline in front of both hip axis and center of the upper sacral endplate occurs in 29% of subjects aged 3-10 years, 12% of subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, and 14% of subjects aged 18 years or older. Therefore, although most normal subjects stand with a C7 plumbline behind the hip axis, a C7 plumbline in front of both hip axis and sacrum can be seen in normal individuals. However, progressive forward displacement of C7 plumbline should raise a suspicion for the risk of developing spinal pathology.

  16. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δ χ , that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δ χ ≈2 ×1 0-8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μ m are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  17. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  18. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers).

  19. Coping with Complex Environmental and Societal Flood Risk Management Decisions: An Integrated Multi-criteria Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Ekenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, a great deal of attention has been focused on the financial risk management of natural disasters. One reason behind is that the economic losses from floods, windstorms, earthquakes and other disasters in both the developing and developed countries are escalating dramatically. It has become apparent that an integrated water resource management approach would be beneficial in order to take both the best interests of society and of the environment into consideration. One improvement consists of models capable of handling multiple criteria (conflicting objectives as well as multiple stakeholders (conflicting interests. A systems approach is applied for coping with complex environmental and societal risk management decisions with respect to flood catastrophe policy formation, wherein the emphasis is on computer-based modeling and simulation techniques combined with methods for evaluating strategies where numerous stakeholders are incorporated in the process. The resulting framework consists of a simulation model, a decision analytical tool, and a set of suggested policy strategies for policy formulation. The framework will aid decision makers with high risk complex environmental decisions subject to significant uncertainties.

  20. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  1. Alignment robustness for 90 nm and 65 nm node through copper alignment mark integration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Scott; Hinnen, Paul; Morton, Rob; Cooper, Kevin; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Depre, Jerome; Navarro, Ramon; van Haren, Richard; Browning, Clyde; Reber, Doug; Megens, Henry

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, methods for stacking ASML scribe lane alignment marks (SPM) and improving the mark performance at initial copper metal levels are discussed. The new mark designs and the theoretical reasons for mark design and/or integration change are presented. In previous joint publications between ASML and Freescale Semiconductor [1], improved overlay performance and alignment robustness for Back End Of Line (BEOL) layers by the application of stacked scribe lane marks (SPM) was presented. In this paper, further improvements are demonstrated through the use of optimized Versatile Scribe Lane Mark design (VSPM). With the application of stacked optimized VSPM-marks, the alignment signal strength of marks in the copper metal layer is increased compared to stacked SPM marks. The gains in signal strength stability, which is typical for stacked marks, as well as significantly reduced scribe lane usage, are also maintained. Through the placement of specially designed orthogonal scatter-bars in selected layers under the VSPM-marks, the alignment performance of initial inlaid metal layers is improved as well. The integration of these marks has been evaluated for the 90 nm and 65 nm technology nodes as part of a joint development program between the Crolles2 Alliance and ASML. A measured overlay improvement of ~10-15% was obtained by a strategy change from floating copper marks to stacked optimized VSPM marks.

  2. A rank-based sequence aligner with applications in phylogenetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu P Dinu

    Full Text Available Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD. The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing [Formula: see text]-mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at http://lrd.herokuapp.com/aligners. The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows.

  3. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  4. Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-01-19

    Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of 'contexts', including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences. The goal of this special issue, and this introductory paper, is to promote and expand this nascent integration. We first develop predictions as to which human contexts might cause the strongest and most consistent directional selection, the greatest changes in evolutionary potential, the greatest genetic (as opposed to plastic) changes and the greatest effects on evolutionary diversification We then develop predictions as to the contexts where human-induced evolutionary changes might have the strongest effects on the population dynamics of the focal evolving species, the structure of their communities, the functions of their ecosystems and the benefits and costs for human societies. These qualitative predictions are intended as a rallying point for broader and more detailed future discussions of how human influences shape evolution, and how that evolution then influences species traits, biodiversity, ecosystems and humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  6. Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2017-01-01

    Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of ‘contexts’, including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences. The goal of this special issue, and this introductory paper, is to promote and expand this nascent integration. We first develop predictions as to which human contexts might cause the strongest and most consistent directional selection, the greatest changes in evolutionary potential, the greatest genetic (as opposed to plastic) changes and the greatest effects on evolutionary diversification. We then develop predictions as to the contexts where human-induced evolutionary changes might have the strongest effects on the population dynamics of the focal evolving species, the structure of their communities, the functions of their ecosystems and the benefits and costs for human societies. These qualitative predictions are intended as a rallying point for broader and more detailed future discussions of how human influences shape evolution, and how that evolution then influences species traits, biodiversity, ecosystems and humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences’. PMID:27920373

  7. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  8. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  9. The cost of borderline personality disorder : societal cost of illness in BPD-patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, A D I; Dirksen, C D; Arntz, A; Severens, J L

    BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent, chronic condition. Because of its very problematic nature BPD is expected to be associated with substantial societal costs, although this has never been comprehensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the societal cost of BPD in

  10. Perceived societal expectations of boys and girls on the learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed more societal expectations on girls than on boys; and when all the pupils are put together, more societal pressure lead to worse performance in English language. It is therefore suggested that inspiration can be drawn from the findings in policy formulation regarding unisex versus single-sex schools, ...

  11. Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong-biao

    2013-01-01

    Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

  12. La Società Umanitaria e la diffusione del Metodo Montessori (1908-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Società Umanitaria ofMilan, between 1918 and 1923, played an essential role in spreading and developing the Montessori Method. Studying in the Historical Archive of Società Umanitaria the numerous documents there collected, the author reconstructed the crucial moments of the extremely significant collaboration between Maria Montessori and Augusto Osimo, General Secretary of the Società Umanitaria.This complex and in-depth investigation was guided by the analysis, in specific, of the training courses for Montessori teachers organised by Società Umanitaria, essentially unexamined before this study, that allowed the researcher to have a deep insight into the action of Società Umanitaria aimed to promote and implement the Montessori Method in Italy and all around the world.

  13. IS ENVIRONMENTAL ALIGNMENT AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a conceptual model termed "IS environmental alignment" that focuses on the support provided by IS strategy to minimize the gap between perceived environmental uncertainty and realized/objective environmental conditions. The model uses the Chan et al [9] alignment measurement method to measure IS strategic alignment as it provides a quantitative measure. In due course the proposed model would be tested in industry and would examine the affect of IS environmental alignment on business performance. The implication of the model lies in the effective use of deployed IS systems by organizations.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Konsepmodel word voorgelê wat handel oor "IS-omgewingsaanpassing". IS-strategie-ondersteuning by die minimisering van die gaping tussen waargenome omgewingsonsekerheid en gerealiseerde/objektiewe omgewingstoestande. Die model maak gebruik van die Chan et al [9] aanpassingsmeetmetode om IS-strategie-aanpassing op 'n kwantitatiewe basis te bepaal. Met die verloop van tyd sal die konsepmodel in die praktyk getoets word om te toon hoe IS-strategie-aanpassing sakevertoning affekteer. Die effektiewe ontplooiing van IS-stelsels by ondernemings word voorgehou.

  14. Aligning records management and risk management with business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a synopsis of the preliminary findings of a Master of Philosophy Degree in In-formation Sciences which sought to investigate the alignment of risk management and re-cords management with business processes in Moi University with a view to proposing a strategy to enhance business performance. The study ...

  15. Long Read Alignment with Parallel MapReduce Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Absi, Ahmed Abdulhakim; Kang, Dae-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequence alignment is an important technique to decode genome sequences in bioinformatics. Next-Generation Sequencing technologies produce genomic data of longer reads. Cloud platforms are adopted to address the problems arising from storage and analysis of large genomic data. Existing genes sequencing tools for cloud platforms predominantly consider short read gene sequences and adopt the Hadoop MapReduce framework for computation. However, serial execution of map and reduce phases is a problem in such systems. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce Burrows-Wheeler Aligner's Smith-Waterman Alignment on Parallel MapReduce (BWASW-PMR) cloud platform for long sequence alignment. The proposed cloud platform adopts a widely accepted and accurate BWA-SW algorithm for long sequence alignment. A custom MapReduce platform is developed to overcome the drawbacks of the Hadoop framework. A parallel execution strategy of the MapReduce phases and optimization of Smith-Waterman algorithm are considered. Performance evaluation results exhibit an average speed-up of 6.7 considering BWASW-PMR compared with the state-of-the-art Bwasw-Cloud. An average reduction of 30% in the map phase makespan is reported across all experiments comparing BWASW-PMR with Bwasw-Cloud. Optimization of Smith-Waterman results in reducing the execution time by 91.8%. The experimental study proves the efficiency of BWASW-PMR for aligning long genomic sequences on cloud platforms.

  16. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  17. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  18. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level.

  19. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  20. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  1. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    . Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating the economic costs and benefits

  2. Gapped alignment of protein sequence motifs through Monte Carlo optimization of a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain protein families are highly conserved across distantly related organisms and belong to large and functionally diverse superfamilies. The patterns of conservation present in these protein sequences presumably are due to selective constraints maintaining important but unknown structural mechanisms with some constraints specific to each family and others shared by a larger subset or by the entire superfamily. To exploit these patterns as a source of functional information, we recently devised a statistically based approach called contrast hierarchical alignment and interaction network (CHAIN analysis, which infers the strengths of various categories of selective constraints from co-conserved patterns in a multiple alignment. The power of this approach strongly depends on the quality of the multiple alignments, which thus motivated development of theoretical concepts and strategies to improve alignment of conserved motifs within large sets of distantly related sequences. Results Here we describe a hidden Markov model (HMM, an algebraic system, and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling strategies for alignment of multiple sequence motifs. The MCMC sampling strategies are useful both for alignment optimization and for adjusting position specific background amino acid frequencies for alignment uncertainties. Associated statistical formulations provide an objective measure of alignment quality as well as automatic gap penalty optimization. Improved alignments obtained in this way are compared with PSI-BLAST based alignments within the context of CHAIN analysis of three protein families: Giα subunits, prolyl oligopeptidases, and transitional endoplasmic reticulum (p97 AAA+ ATPases. Conclusion While not entirely replacing PSI-BLAST based alignments, which likewise may be optimized for CHAIN analysis using this approach, these motif-based methods often more accurately align very distantly related sequences and thus can

  3. How does Modernity Taste? Tomatoes in the Societal Change from Modernity to Late Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ekelund

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss how changes in tomato food regulation, production and consumption, can be seen as part of a broader societal change from Modernity to Late Modernity. Based on evidence from the Swedish and European food systems we demonstrate how a system, which has been successfully managing development in food production for several decades by stressing rationality, homogeneity and standardization, is being challenged by a system that has adapted to, and also exploited, consumer preferences such as heterogeneity, diversity and authenticity. The article shows how tomato growers develop differentiation strategies, adapting to and cultivating this new consumer interest, and how authorities responsible for regulations of trade and quality struggle to adapt to the new situation. As the products become more diversified, taste becomes an important issue and is associated with a view that traditional and natural are superior to standardized and homogeneous products. The analytical approaches for the discussion come from two study areas: ethnological, and marketing and policy perspective, thus showing a multidimensional picture of a changing food system.

  4. Promoting Societal-Oriented Communication and Decision Making Skills by Learning about Advertising in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Belova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives we are surrounded by advertising in its various forms. Thus in the school context it is not surprising that the issue of advertising is addressed by different subjects, with the main foci being advertising-specific language, images and illustrations, use of stereotypes, strategies of persuasion etc. But advertising also contains factual information, being explicit or implicit, to make a campaign more credible and underline the effectiveness of a certain product. Dealing with the use of factual information in advertising critically is important for the consumer. For many products this information is derived from science and technology. Understanding the science in and behind advertising is necessary to become a critical consumer. Learning about the use of science in advertising also allows promoting societal-oriented communication and decision making skills in the science classroom. Unfortunately, only a few examples on the use of advertising in the science classroom exist. This paper provides a justification for the use of advertising in science education. Examples from the classroom developed in the framework of the PROFILES-project are provided by way of illustration.

  5. The societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixuan Jiang

    Full Text Available Heroin use in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. The objective of this paper is to estimate the annual societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States in 2015 US dollars.An analytic model was created that included incarceration and crime; treatment for heroin use disorder; chronic infectious diseases (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Tuberculosis and their treatments; treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome; lost productivity; and death by heroin overdose.Using literature-based estimates to populate the model, the cost of heroin use disorder was estimated to be $51.2 billion in 2015 US dollars ($50,799 per heroin user. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that overall cost estimates were sensitive to the number of heroin users, cost of HCV treatment, and cost of incarcerating heroin users.The annual cost of heroin use disorder to society in the United States emphasizes the need for sustained investment in healthcare and non-healthcare related strategies that reduce the likelihood of abuse and provide care and support for users to overcome the disorder.

  6. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  7. Theoretical and practical feasibility demonstration of a micrometric remotely controlled pre-alignment system for the CLIC linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Chritin, N; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Sosin, M; Touze, T

    2011-01-01

    The active pre-alignment of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is one of the key points of the project: the components must be pre-aligned w.r.t. a straight line within a few microns over a sliding window of 200 m, along the two linacs of 20 km each. The proposed solution consists of stretched wires of more than 200 m, overlapping over half of their length, which will be the reference of alignment. Wire Positioning Sensors (WPS), coupled to the supports to be pre-aligned, will perform precise and accurate measurements within a few microns w.r.t. these wires. A micrometric fiducialisation of the components and a micrometric alignment of the components on common supports will make the strategy of pre-alignment complete. In this paper, the global strategy of active pre-alignment is detailed and illustrated by the latest results demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  8. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment...... of NPD performance indicators. Strategic planning and innovativeness appear to affect technological, market, and NPD-marketing alignment positively. Environmental munificence is negatively associated with NPD-marketing alignment, but has no effect on the two other forms of alignment. Technological change...... has a positive effect on technological alignment, a negative effect on NPD-marketing alignment, but no effect on market alignment. These findings suggest that internal capabilities are more likely to be associated with the development of strategic alignment than environmental factors are. Furthermore...

  9. Business and IS/IT Strategic Alignment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Llanos; Ortiz, Angel; Boza, Andres

    Incorporating information systems and information technology (IS/IT) in the organizations have considerable risks, and these risks are increased when a strategic plan for its incorporation is not done. The objective of this research is to contribute in the alignment between business and IS/IT strategies using concepts and techniques from engineering and enterprise architecture. To achieve this objective, this research proposes to define a modeling framework for business and IS/IT strategic alignment. The implementation of this proposal in a ceramic tile company has helped to validate its usefulness.

  10. Strategic alignment of the South African retail sector with the national development plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of the strategy alignment of the South African retail sector with the National Development Plan (NDP governance values and objectives. The paper considers the commercial realities which form the framework for retail decision-makers when they address the challenges in aligning their business growth strategies with the regulatory framework of a capable, developmental state. Within that context, the outcomes of a retail stakeholder alignment study of the NDP strategy themes are analysed. The method involved a policy survey of a purposive sample of retail business and governance stakeholders. The survey findings reflect retailer alignment with many NDP regulatory and ‘active citizenry’ strategies, but with strong beliefs that others are not the retail business sector’s governance responsibility.

  11. EURRECA: development of tools to improve the alignment of micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, C.; Bucchini, L.; Busstra, M.C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Eleftheriou, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Gurinovic, M.; Ommen, van B.; Contor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Approaches through which reference values for micronutrients are derived, as well as the reference values themselves, vary considerably across countries. Harmonisation is needed to improve nutrition policy and public health strategies. The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned,

  12. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  13. Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M

    2008-02-01

    Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and

  14. Public opinion, risk to reputation: The essentials of societal corporate governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Malecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question/Issue: This paper will examine the role of reputation regarding corporate governance in terms of performance, risk control and the possible role of legislature or behaviors in this field (in particular with regards to the recent Green Paper “Companies in the EU: a management of governance”, COM (2011 164 final, of the 5th April 2011, of the European Commission. Research Findings/Insights: Image, reputation, positive or negative opinion, notoriety of the companies and their managers are regarded as an element of their performance. It is accepted that public opinion, inherently linked to the reputation risk is an essential element of corporate governance. Regarding the need of a long term matter, particularly after the financial crisis, a short period of time is enough to transform a positive public opinion into a negative one. In addition, the assessment of public opinion is complex. Everyone can freely form an “opinion”. The opinion may be private and public. Public opinion refers to society, to citizens and to the people. Its classic means of expression are freedom of the press and freedom of speech. This question is particularly crucial regarding the role of the companies to the “society” as recently defined by the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the committee of the Regions, A renewed EU strategy 2011-14 for Corporate Social Responsibility, the European Commission and the European Parliament (Brussels, 25.10.2011 COM (2011 681 final. Theoretical/Academic Implications: How to manage good corporate governance reputation ?As from 1979, the Anglo-Saxon doctrine has acutely highlighted the role of reputation risk regarding corporate governance but what is the situation within the EU? Has legislature, in Europe (and for example, in France, sufficiently acknowledged the concept of reputation risk control? – A long term period

  15. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grundmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping – above the natural rate of replenishment – strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  16. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  17. INDEX: Incremental depth extension approach for protein-protein interaction networks alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Abolfazl; Naghibzadeh, Mahmoud; Saadati, Nayyereh

    2017-12-01

    High-throughput methods have provided us with a large amount of data pertaining to protein-protein interaction networks. The alignment of these networks enables us to better understand biological systems. Given the fact that the alignment of networks is computationally intractable, it is important to introduce a more efficient and accurate algorithm which finds as large as possible similar areas among networks. This paper proposes a new algorithm named INDEX for the global alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. INDEX has multiple phases. First, it computes topological and biological scores of proteins and creates the initial alignment based on the proposed matching score strategy. Using networks topologies and aligned proteins, it then selects a set of high scoring proteins in each phase and extends new alignments around them until final alignment is obtained. Proposing a new alignment strategy, detailed consideration of matching scores, and growth of the alignment core has led INDEX to obtain a larger common connected subgraph with a much greater number of edges compared with previous methods. Regarding other measures such as edge correctness, symmetric substructure score, and runtime, the proposed algorithm performed considerably better than existing popular methods. Our results show that INDEX can be a promising method for identifying functionally conserved interactions. The INDEX executable file is available at https://github.com/a-mir/index/. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  19. Novel Real-time Calibration and Alignment Procedure for LHCb Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Prouve, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve optimal detector performance the LHCb experiment has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II of the LHC. For the alignment tasks, data is collected and processed at the beginning of each fill while the calibrations are performed for each run. This real time alignment and calibration allows the same constants being used in both the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. Additionally the newly computed alignment and calibration constants can be instantly used in the trigger, making it more efficient. The online alignment and calibration of the RICH detectors also enable the use of hadronic particle identification in the trigger. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the LHCb trigger. An overview of all alignment and calibration tasks is presented and their performance is shown.

  20. Differential evolution-simulated annealing for multiple sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addawe, R. C.; Addawe, J. M.; Sueño, M. R. K.; Magadia, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSA) are used in the analysis of molecular evolution and sequence structure relationships. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm, Differential Evolution - Simulated Annealing (DESA) is applied in optimizing multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) based on structural information, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns. DESA is a robust algorithm characterized by self-organization, mutation, crossover, and SA-like selection scheme of the strategy parameters. Here, the MSA problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem of the hybrid evolutionary algorithm, DESA. Thus, we name the algorithm as DESA-MSA. Simulated sequences and alignments were generated to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of DESA-MSA using different indel sizes, sequence lengths, deletion rates and insertion rates. The proposed hybrid algorithm obtained acceptable solutions particularly for the MSA problem evaluated based on the three objectives.

  1. The appeal of nostalgia: the influence of societal pessimism on support for populist radical right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorden, E. (Eefje); Harteveld, E. (Eelco)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, explanations of support for populist radical right (PRR) parties usually focus on voters’ socio-structural grievances, political discontent or policy positions. This article suggests an additional and possibly overarching explanation: societal pessimism. The central

  2. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  3. Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

  4. Global alignment algorithms implementations | Fatumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we implemented the two routes for sequence comparison, that is; the dotplot and Needleman-wunsch algorithm for global sequence alignment. Our algorithms were implemented in python programming language and were tested on Linux platform 1.60GHz, 512 MB of RAM SUSE 9.2 and 10.1 versions.

  5. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  6. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  7. Alignment of diabetic feet images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Slump, Cornelis H.; Uyl, M.J.; Philips, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of aligning the images of feet taken at different instances in time. We propose to use SIFT keypoints to find the geometric deformation between two photo’s. We then have a set of landmarks for each image. By finding the corresponding landmarks (i.e. matching the

  8. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mismatch scores.

  9. Long Read Alignment with Parallel MapReduce Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhakim Al-Absi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic sequence alignment is an important technique to decode genome sequences in bioinformatics. Next-Generation Sequencing technologies produce genomic data of longer reads. Cloud platforms are adopted to address the problems arising from storage and analysis of large genomic data. Existing genes sequencing tools for cloud platforms predominantly consider short read gene sequences and adopt the Hadoop MapReduce framework for computation. However, serial execution of map and reduce phases is a problem in such systems. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce Burrows-Wheeler Aligner’s Smith-Waterman Alignment on Parallel MapReduce (BWASW-PMR cloud platform for long sequence alignment. The proposed cloud platform adopts a widely accepted and accurate BWA-SW algorithm for long sequence alignment. A custom MapReduce platform is developed to overcome the drawbacks of the Hadoop framework. A parallel execution strategy of the MapReduce phases and optimization of Smith-Waterman algorithm are considered. Performance evaluation results exhibit an average speed-up of 6.7 considering BWASW-PMR compared with the state-of-the-art Bwasw-Cloud. An average reduction of 30% in the map phase makespan is reported across all experiments comparing BWASW-PMR with Bwasw-Cloud. Optimization of Smith-Waterman results in reducing the execution time by 91.8%. The experimental study proves the efficiency of BWASW-PMR for aligning long genomic sequences on cloud platforms.

  10. LHCb’s Real-Time Alignment in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run II. The data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and oine reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and oine selected events. This oers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configu...

  11. The voice of the visual : visual learning strategies for problem analysis, social dialogue and mediated participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The changing needs for innovative learning strategies in the life sciences results from the growing complexity of societal issues. Nowadays, complex societal issues are also called ‘wicked problems.’ Wicked problems are problems that do not have one single solution that is right or wrong, good or

  12. Análise do alinhamento da estratégia de produção com a estratégia competitiva na indústria moveleira Analysis of the alignment of manufacturing and competitive strategies in the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliciane Maria da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o alinhamento das estratégias de produção com as estratégias competitivas adotadas por onze empresas moveleiras situadas no pólo industrial da região de Votuporanga - SP. Os questionários aplicados durante as entrevistas e as observações diretas no chão-de-fábrica foram as principais ferramentas escolhidas para coleta de dados. Os resultados da pesquisa de campo revelaram que a maioria das empresas produzia linhas variadas de móveis retilíneos com estilo tradicional. A comercialização ocorria em um mercado amplo com pouca ou nenhuma diferenciação, caracterizando a estratégia competitiva de menor custo. As prioridades competitivas da estratégia de produção eram predominantemente qualidade e custo. Observou-se a ausência de sistemas de medidas e de programas voltados para a gerência da qualidade, como de sistemas que objetivassem a redução do custo de produção. As preocupações com a competitividade ocorriam em curto prazo e não eram formalizadas em estratégias empresariais.This paper investigates the alignment of manufacturing strategies with the competitive strategies of eleven companies located in the furniture cluster of Votuporanga - SP. The administration of questionnaires during interviews and direct observation in the shop floor were the main tools chosen for data collection. This research has revealed that the majority of the companies produced a varied number of straight line-like furniture of traditional style. The trading occurs in a broad market with little or null differentiation which is a clear indication of lower cost competitive strategy. The competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy were predominantly quality and cost. It has been noticed the lack of measurement systems and employment of training programmes towards quality management, as well as systems which aimed at the reduction of manufacturing costs. The concerns with competitiveness were only envisaged for the

  13. The Humanistic, Societal, and Pharmaco-economic Burden of Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Hilary; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    is sought. This has lead to reduced health-seeking behavior and alternative coping strategies, sometimes even denial, in many families, while a minority of HAE-affected patients have become serial emergency room attenders with chronic pain and ongoing requirement for opiate-based painkillers. Both...... on the psychological outcomes is scarce, but the limited information available suggests that access to specialist advice and treatment leads to psychological as well as physical improvement.HAE also has profound effects on individual and family economic output, directly via absenteeism from school or work...

  14. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  15. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  16. Sequence alignment with tandem duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, G. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Algorithm development for comparing and aligning biological sequences has, until recently, been based on the SI model of mutational events which assumes that modification of sequences proceeds through any of the operations of substitution, insertion or deletion (the latter two collectively termed indels). While this model has worked farily well, it has long been apparent that other mutational events occur. In this paper, we introduce a new model, the DSI model which includes another common mutational event, tandem duplication. Tandem duplication produces tandem repeats which are common in DNA, making up perhaps 10% of the human genome. They are responsible for some human diseases and may serve a multitude of functions in DNA regulation and evolution. Using the DSI model, we develop new exact and heuristic algorithms for comparing and aligning DNA sequences when they contain tandem repeats. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  18. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here......We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  19. Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

  20. An SXF Extension for Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pilat, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-11-13

    The accelerator description in the standard exchange format SXF is now used for RHIC and the LHC. Parsers exist to a growing number of simulation programs. SXF, however, is a fiat ordered list of elements and does not support the simultaneous misalignment of adjacent elements. The introduction of an element hierarchy is needed to align several elements by the same amount. This is of interest for two reasons: First, magnets are often modeled by more than one element and all these elements should be misaligned by the same amount. For example, a magnet model may consist of a body and two end kicks; and the body itself may be modeled by several kicks. Second, sometimes there are several magnets assembled in one cryostat. It is then desirable to misalign the whole cryostat while the individual magnets within are misaligned relative to the cryostat. The proper description of alignment errors is of great importance to the US-LHC col­laboration in which the US will deliver assembled cryostat-s of interaction region magnets to CERN. In the design phase an estimate of tolerable alignment errors is needed. Once magnets are assembled in a cryostat, the best position of the cryostat must be found in order to minimize the harmful effects of field errors. We developed a description that allows the simultaneous misalignment of adjacent magnets. The description is closely related to the SXF format. A filter program can be used to process and merge the misalignment information into a flat SXF file.

  1. Georgia science curriculum alignment and accountability: A blueprint for student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining-Gray, Kimberly M.

    Current trends and legislation in education indicate an increased dependency on standardized test results as a measure for learner success. This study analyzed test data in an effort to assess the impact of curriculum alignment on learner success as well as teacher perceptions of the changes in classroom instruction due to curriculum alignment. Qualitative and quantitative design methods were used to determine the impact of science curriculum alignment in grades 9-12. To determine the impact of science curriculum alignment from the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) to the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) test data and teacher opinion surveys from one Georgia School system were examined. Standardized test scores before and after curriculum alignment were analyzed as well as teacher perception survey data regarding the impact of curriculum change. A quantitative teacher perception survey was administered to science teachers in the school system to identify significant changes in teacher perceptions or teaching strategies following curriculum realignment. Responses to the survey were assigned Likert scale values for analysis purposes. Selected teachers were also interviewed using panel-approved questions to further determine teacher opinions of curriculum realignment and the impact on student success and teaching strategies. Results of this study indicate significant changes related to curriculum alignment. Teachers reported a positive change in teaching strategies and instructional delivery as a result of curriculum alignment and implementation. Student scores also showed improvement, but more research is recommended in this area.

  2. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centurion, Martin [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  3. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. REALITY OF ALIGNING IT WITH BUSINESS IN CZECH ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Kunstova

    2012-01-01

    Information technologies (IT) supporting business strategies and business processes are often the most important factor for successful organizations. Aligning IT with the business depends on many factors, including communication and cooperation between the top management of organizations and the top management of IT departments in strategic decision making and planning. This paper discusses the outcomes of a survey conducted in six hundred organizations operating on the Czech market. The aim ...

  5. Interference Alignment with Partial CSI Feedback in MIMO Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) is a linear precoding strategy that can achieve optimal capacity scaling at high SNR in interference networks. However, most existing IA designs require full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters, which would lead to significant CSI signaling overhead. There are two techniques, namely CSI quantization and CSI feedback filtering, to reduce the CSI feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider IA processing with CSI feedback filtering in MIMO cellular n...

  6. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  7. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  8. Influence of new societal factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Chbat, Elige; Darugar, Adil; Morel, Christophe; Morin, Bruno; Conrath, John; Devin, François

    2018-02-01

    To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD. Between baseline and month 24 (M24), 42.4% of the variability in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was explained by the cumulative effect of the following societal factors: intermittent out-patient follow-up, marital status, daily reading, transportation type, commuting time. No isolated societal factor significantly correlated with ETDRS BCVA severity at M24. A trend to correlation was observed between the EDTRS score at M24 and the SSS (P = 0.076), economic burden (P = 0.075), time between diagnosis and treatment initiation (P = 0.070). A significant correlation was found for the disease burdensome on the patient (P = 0.034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression.

  9. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  10. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evaluating the Value of a Life Year (VOLY). Air quality policies depend on realistic values for societal costs and societal benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-01

    This article looks at how the Value of a Life Year (VOLY) is used in cost-benefit analyses and proposes an alternative approach for selecting a single VOLY from 'willingness to pay' survey assessments. This approach maximises the revenue to society that could be expected if actual financial payments were made to achieve air quality improvements. The resulting societal benefit is significantly less than the mean or median VOLY that is used today in European cost-benefit analyses.

  12. Beam-Based Collimator Alignment MD

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Muller, GJ; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G

    2012-01-01

    The MD was performed on 21st April 2012, and was split into two parts. First, the alignment of a horizontal IR3 collimator was performed at different Dp/p cuts of the IR3 TCP to observe any improvements in the BLM spike quality. Secondly, new additions to the beam-based collimator alignment software aimed at speeding up the alignment were tested. The new features include coarse alignment of the collimator jaws around the BPM-interpolated orbit and new sequences in the parallel alignment algorithm to ensure that both jaws touch the beam before fine sequential alignment can proceed. The new software allowed 27 collimators to be aligned in 1 hour 45 minutes, which translates to a total of 5.5 hours for all collimators, an improvement of 2 hours over the previous best time achieved in the March 2012 setups.

  13. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  14. Fuzzy adaptive strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter for initial alignment of large misalignment angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF.

  15. Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2016-01-01

    Selected Lectures of the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN); Naples (Italy); October 12-15, 2016 LECT 1. LUNG RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND EARLY SURFACTANT IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. PRESENTATION OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL: EFFICACY OF A NEW TECHNIQUE (IN-REC-SUR-E) IN PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROMEG. Vento, R. Pastorino, L. Boni, F. Cota, V. Carnielli, F. Cools, C. Dani, F. Mosca, J. Pillow, G. P...

  16. Using Correlation Adaptometry Method in Assessing Societal Stress: a Ukrainian Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rybnikov, Svyatoslav

    2012-01-01

    Societal stress may cause far reaching political, economic and even geological effects. Nevertheless, it is still scarcely investigated, contrary to social stress, which an individual faces in their interactions within a society. It is natural to suppose that in its adaptation, society demonstrates the same objective laws that biological population does, since they are, in fact, the closest systems. In the survey, the hypothesis is tested that the collective stress effect holds true in society, which must appear (as it happens according to correlation adaptometry method in biological systems) in escalation of both correlations between societal characteristics and their dispersion. Both tends are observed in Ukrainian society during 2009-2012, as a result of political elections that affect societal anxiety.

  17. Vibration Suppression Strategies for Large Tension-Aligned Array Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    efficacy of the modified control design was investigated by simulation. Meshing, material properties, geometric and control parameters, plus initial...IEEE Aerospace Conference, Aspen , CO. 38 [4] Winslow, C., 1993 “Space Station Freedom Solar Array Design Development”, IEEE Aerospace and Electronic

  18. Developing knowledge cities : Aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; De Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their

  19. Success in COIN: Aligning Organizational Structure With Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    theorists, such as Henry Mintzberg, Richard Daft , and David Hanna in a comprehensive and step-by-step analysis formatted for diagnosing and...recommended that he review works from Richard L. Daft , David P. Hannah, Henry Mintzberg, and Richard M. Burton and Børge Obel. 61 Burton and Obel...L. Daft synthesized the definition of a learning organization as “one in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the

  20. A Method for Aligning Acquisition Strategies and Software Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    chaired the Board of Visitors of the Defense Acquisition University, was trustee of the Logistics Management Institute and the Aerospace Corporation...Manager • Wants the satisfaction of delivering a quality product that does some- thing important for the department • Wants to showcase the...reputation in the face of many horror stories of failed deployments System Integrator Program Manager • Wants the satisfaction of delivering a

  1. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  2. Differences between individual and societal health state valuations: any link with personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The concept of "adaptation" has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies.

  3. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  4. Strategic Alignment Impacts on Organizational Performance in Indonesian Banking IndustrY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofie Iman

    2007-06-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is utilized to apprehend the strategic alignment concept as an emergent variable derived from the co-variation of  level of business strategy and level of IS/IT strategy. Hence, we explore the role of this emergent concept as a determinant of organizational performance. Analysis of the data reveals a generally positive impact towards the organizational performance.

  5. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  6. A psycho-societal perspective on neoliberal welfare services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a psycho-societal approach to the micro-processes of Danish neoliberal welfare services, elaborating a learning and identity perspective. My many years of encounters with professionals in welfare services have illuminated how they display a strong identification with...... of neoliberal policies and practices has dominated the Danish welfare sector. By applying a psycho-societal conceptual approach - illustrated by an empirical example - I sketch out how identification, ambivalence and defence are significant features of welfare service professionals’ learning and practices...

  7. Frabboni F. (2005, Società della conoscenza e scuola, Trento, Erickson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella D'Ugo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Guardandoci intorno appare ormai lampante anche ad un occhio poco attento che siamo immersi in una società complessa e in transizione. Una società in cui le superpotenze economiche dominano grazie ad un monopolio colonialistico che si fa strada noncurante di quella metà della terra relegata a vivere con pochi euro al giorno: siamo all’orrore economico, all’orrore di paesi sempre più ricchi a scapito di paesi sempre più poveri. In questo quadro i compiti della pedagogia risultano di notevole importanza.

  8. Inferring Directed Road Networks from GPS Traces by Track Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhe Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to infer road networks from GPS traces. These networks include intersections between roads, the connectivity between the intersections and the possible traffic directions between directly-connected intersections. These intersections are localized by detecting and clustering turning points, which are locations where the moving direction changes on GPS traces. We infer the structure of road networks by segmenting all of the GPS traces to identify these intersections. We can then form both a connectivity matrix of the intersections and a small representative GPS track for each road segment. The road segment between each pair of directly-connected intersections is represented using a series of geographical locations, which are averaged from all of the tracks on this road segment by aligning them using the dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we detect potential intersections by clustering the turning points on the GPS traces. Second, we infer the geometry of the road segments between intersections by aligning GPS tracks point by point using a “stretch and then compress” strategy based on the DTW algorithm. This approach not only allows road estimation by averaging the aligned tracks, but also a deeper statistical analysis based on the individual track’s time alignment, for example the variance of speed along a road segment.

  9. Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Moens

    Full Text Available In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

  10. Encouraging Spontaneous Synchronisation with D-Jogger, an Adaptive Music Player That Aligns Movement and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Bart; Muller, Chris; van Noorden, Leon; Franěk, Marek; Celie, Bert; Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance. PMID:25489742

  11. Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Bart; Muller, Chris; van Noorden, Leon; Franěk, Marek; Celie, Bert; Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

  12. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    and regional policy and this should be achieved through a participatory process that engages policy makers and relevant stakeholders. This paper has analyzed the vulnerability to floods, impacts and the coping strategies in Bangladesh and Nepal and focused on recommending a long-term mitigation policy.

  13. FACT. Reflector alignment results based on solar concentrator characterization at night (SCCAN) and Bokeh alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian [Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Noethe, Max; Buss, Jens [Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes, including the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT), use multiple mirror reflectors. These reflectors offer a great performance for very little resources. However one challange of multiple mirror reflectors is the alignment of the single mirrors to gain a good image. To align the FACT reflector a method developed by the VERITAS group was adopted and enhanced. Using a 1/10th scale model of FACT, the alignment system was developed off site in the lab which results in a highly telescope independent procedure. Finally FACT's reflector was aligned using all new Bokeh alignment and fine adjusted using enhanced SCCAN in May 2014. The basic alignment system and the alignment procedure on the telescope are presented. Alignment results are presented by comparison of star images using visible light and actual muon detection rates to compare the overall telescope performance before and after the reflector alignment.

  14. mTM-align: an algorithm for fast and accurate multiple protein structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Runze; Peng, Zhenling; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2017-12-21

    As protein structure is more conserved than sequence during evolution, multiple structure alignment can be more informative than multiple sequence alignment, especially for distantly related proteins. With the rapid increase of the number of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank, it becomes urgent to develop efficient algorithms for multiple structure alignment. A new multiple structure alignment algorithm (mTM-align) was proposed, which is an extension of the highly efficient pairwise structure alignment program TM-align. The algorithm was benchmarked on four widely used datasets, HOMSTRAD, SABmark_sup, SABmark_twi and SISY-multiple, showing that mTM-align consistently outperforms other algorithms. In addition, the comparison with the manually curated alignments in the HOMSTRAD database shows that the automated alignments built by mTM-align is in general more accurate. Therefore mTM-align may be used as a reliable complement to construct multiple structure alignments for real-world applications. http://yanglab.nankai.edu.cn/mTM-align. zhng@umich.edu, yangjy@nankai.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Fuse: multiple network alignment via data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-04-15

    Discovering patterns in networks of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a central problem in systems biology. Alignments between these networks aid functional understanding as they uncover important information, such as evolutionary conserved pathways, protein complexes and functional orthologs. However, the complexity of the multiple network alignment problem grows exponentially with the number of networks being aligned and designing a multiple network aligner that is both scalable and that produces biologically relevant alignments is a challenging task that has not been fully addressed. The objective of multiple network alignment is to create clusters of nodes that are evolutionarily and functionally conserved across all networks. Unfortunately, the alignment methods proposed thus far do not meet this objective as they are guided by pairwise scores that do not utilize the entire functional and evolutionary information across all networks. To overcome this weakness, we propose Fuse, a new multiple network alignment algorithm that works in two steps. First, it computes our novel protein functional similarity scores by fusing information from wiring patterns of all aligned PPI networks and sequence similarities between their proteins. This is in contrast with the previous tools that are all based on protein similarities in pairs of networks being aligned. Our comprehensive new protein similarity scores are computed by Non-negative Matrix Tri-Factorization (NMTF) method that predicts associations between proteins whose homology (from sequences) and functioning similarity (from wiring patterns) are supported by all networks. Using the five largest and most complete PPI networks from BioGRID, we show that NMTF predicts a large number protein pairs that are biologically consistent. Second, to identify clusters of aligned proteins over all networks, Fuse uses our novel maximum weight k-partite matching approximation algorithm. We compare Fuse with the state of the art

  16. Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Mohamed Tahar; Abdel-Azim, Gamil

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic.

  17. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  18. Fast Multisegment Alignments for Temporal Expression Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam. A.; Craven, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present two heuristics for speeding up a time series alignment algorithm that is related to dynamic time warping (DTW). In previous work, we developed our multisegment alignment algorithm to answer similarity queries for toxicogenomic time-series data. Our multisegment algorithm returns more accurate alignments than DTW at the cost of time complexity; the multisegment algorithm is O(n5) whereas DTW is O(n2). The first heuristic we present speeds up our algorithm by a constant factor by restricting alignments to a cone shape in alignment space. The second heuristic restricts the alignments considered to those near one returned by a DTW-like method. This heuristic adjusts the time complexity to O(n3). Importantly, neither heuristic results in a loss in accuracy. PMID:19642291

  19. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach the track parameter accuracy motivated by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system needs to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 μm. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software relies on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam-spot and primary vertex as well as the momentum measured by the Muon System or the E/p using the calorimetry information. The alignment result of the ATLAS tracker using the 2011 collision data will also be presented.

  20. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  1. Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles : A Societal Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.F.; Van de Poel, I.; Osseweijer, P.

    2010-01-01

    The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach

  2. NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  3. From Burdens to Benefits: The Societal Impact of PDL-Enriched, Efficacy-Enhanced Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Rosenlund, David; Copas, Aimee; Huddleston, T. Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Societies continue to absorb increased burdens in cost for helping citizens unable to achieve at optimal levels. Building on past research, we project educational benefits to offset current societal burdens through enhanced educator capabilities. Studies reviewed show participation in a high-impact professional development and learning solution…

  4. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  5. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  6. Adaptation to extreme weather: Identifying different societal perspectives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Hisschemoller, M.; Petersen, A.C.; Hazeleger, W.; Betgen, C.; de Hoog, I.; Min, E.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity and occurrence of extreme weather events are expected to change with climate change. This change necessitates adaptive responses to extreme events, which need to take into account different societal perspectives, in order to be robust. In this paper, we explore the perspectives of

  7. Adaptation to extreme weather: identifying different societal perspectives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Hisschemoller, M.; Petersen, A.C.; Hazeleger, W.; Betgen, C.; Hoog, de I.; Min, E.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity and occurrence of extreme weather events are expected to change with climate change. This change necessitates adaptive responses to extreme events, which need to take into account different societal perspectives, in order to be robust. In this paper, we explore the perspectives of

  8. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

    2014-04-01

    The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Structural Determinants of the Divorce Rate: A Cross-Societal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from a sample of 66 countries were analyzed to investigate 4 hypothesized societal-level correlates of the divorce rate: socioeconomic development, female labor participation, the sex ratio, and dominant religion. Regression analyses revealed that all factors except religion had a significant effect on the crude divorce rate. Theoretical…

  10. Measuring societal effects of transdisciplinary research projects: design and application of an evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alexander I; Helgenberger, Sebastian; Wiek, Arnim; Scholz, Roland W

    2007-11-01

    Most Transdisciplinary Research (TdR) projects combine scientific research with the building of decision making capacity for the involved stakeholders. These projects usually deal with complex, societally relevant, real-world problems. This paper focuses on TdR projects, which integrate the knowledge of researchers and stakeholders in a collaborative transdisciplinary process through structured methods of mutual learning. Previous research on the evaluation of TdR has insufficiently explored the intended effects of transdisciplinary processes on the real world (societal effects). We developed an evaluation framework for assessing the societal effects of transdisciplinary processes. Outputs (measured as procedural and product-related involvement of the stakeholders), impacts (intermediate effects connecting outputs and outcomes) and outcomes (enhanced decision making capacity) are distinguished as three types of societal effects. Our model links outputs and outcomes of transdisciplinary processes via the impacts using a mediating variables approach. We applied this model in an ex post evaluation of a transdisciplinary process. 84 out of 188 agents participated in a survey. The results show significant mediation effects of the two impacts "network building" and "transformation knowledge". These results indicate an influence of a transdisciplinary process on the decision making capacity of stakeholders, especially through social network building and the generation of knowledge relevant for action.

  11. Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

  12. Evaluation of societal quality of public sector research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend; Rip, Arie

    2000-01-01

    Dutch thinking about the issues, tools and practices of evaluation is explored, with special reference to societal quality. Indicators are identified and positioned through the review of 17 evaluation processes in the Netherlands. The context for the review process is examined.

  13. 76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice... examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the methods of receipt, response, and the... Following a particularly deadly year of tornadoes in the United States despite the existence of adequate...

  14. Political feasibility of 1.5°C societal transformations: the role of social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, J.J.; Thaler, Thomas; Hoffman, Matthew; Hughes, Sara; Chu, Eric; Mert, A.; Huitema, D.; Burch, Sarah; Jordan, Andrew

    Constraining global climate change to 1.5°C is commonly understood to require urgent and deep societal transformations. Yet such transformations are not always viewed as politically feasible; finding ways to enhance the political feasibility of ambitious decarbonization trajectories is needed. This

  15. Adolescents' Conceptions of National Wealth Distribution: Connections with Perceived Societal Fairness and Academic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenio, William F.; Willems, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study examined mostly lower-middle-income Latino (37%) and African American (33%) adolescents' (N = 90, M[subscript age] = 15.90) conceptions of how U.S. wealth is and ought to be distributed, and whether these judgments are related to adolescents' views about societal and legal fairness and their immediate academic plans. Individually…

  16. Elements of societal perception of farm animal welfare: A quantitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    To study societal perception of animal welfare in The Netherlands and to search for intervention possibilities to influence this perception, 1074 randomly selected Dutch respondents completed a questionnaire on animal welfare. We analysed 15 propositions (4-point Likert scale) and through factor

  17. Transition management: reflexive governance of societal complexity through searching, learning and experimenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOur society faces a number of persistent problems whose symptoms are becoming more and more apparent. Persistent problems are complex because they are: deeply embedded in our societal structures; uncertain because of the hardly reducible structural uncertainty they include; difficult to

  18. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  19. Citizens of the Academic Community? A Societal Perspective on Leadership in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Richard; Gosling, Jonathan; O'Brien, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a societal perspective on academic leadership by exploring the preoccupations of academics as citizens rather than as employees, managers or individuals. It uses a listening post methodology to ask "what is it like to be a citizen of an academic institution in contemporary Britain?" Three listening posts, comprising…

  20. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. McHugh (Neil); van Exel, J. (Job); H. Mason (Helen); Godwin, J. (Jon); M. Collins (Marissa); Donaldson, C. (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractCriteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values,

  1. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  2. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Postmes, T.

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic

  3. The views of experts and the public regarding societal preferences for innovation in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an emerging technology with varied application areas. It has been identified as the next scientific breakthrough with potential for positive impacts for society. The development and application of emerging technologies has been shown to be contingent upon societal responses

  4. 9 /40th iversity QJ{: A SOCIETAL BOND FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    It is more celebrated than eaten among the Igbo people. The traditions accorded to it have been from generation to generation. It is no doubt that kolanut has been and together. It is indeed a societal bond from birth to death. References. Ejiofor, P. N.. Cultural Revival in Igbo Land. Ontisha: University. Publishing Company.

  5. Societal concerns about pork and pork production and their relationships on the production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, E.; Groen, A.F.; Greef, de K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pork producers in Western Europe more and more encounter a variety of societal concerns about pork and pork production. So far, however, producers predominantly focused on low consumer prices, therewith addressing just one concern. This resulted in an intensive and large-scale production system,

  6. APPLICATION OF BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE TO SOCIETAL DECISIONS: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BASED ON BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-06-30

    This grant covered several areas of significant societal interest. It included an evaluation of the validity of scientific claims; developed an approach for stakeholder participation; and demonstrated the validity of the developed methods through the performance of a number of independent peer reviews.

  7. How firms talk about sustainability and the societal role of business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the language of sustainability in a business context. Based on information excerpted from two Scandinavian firm web sites a closer examination of reasoning and arguing concerning sustainability and the societal role of business is performed. The interpretation...

  8. Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in

  9. Societal impact of dengue outbreaks: Stakeholder perceptions and related implications. A qualitative study in Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joël; Rodrigues, Mariana; Davis, Ben; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Audureau, Etienne; Saba, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The growing burden of dengue in many countries worldwide and the difficulty of preventing outbreaks have increased the urgency to identify alternative public health management strategies and effective approaches to control and prevent dengue outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to understand the impact of dengue outbreak on different stakeholders in Brazil, to explore their perceptions of approaches used by governmental authorities to control and prevent dengue outbreaks and to define the challenges and implications of preventing future outbreaks. In 2015, a qualitative study was conducted in two urban states in Brazil: São Paulo, which was experiencing an outbreak in 2015, and Rio de Janeiro, which experienced outbreaks in 2011 and 2012. Face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with nine different categories of stakeholders: health workers (physicians, nurses), hospital administrators, municipal government representatives, community members and leaders, school administrators, business leaders and vector control managers. Interviews were focused on the following areas: impact of the dengue outbreak, perceptions of control measures implemented by governmental authorities during outbreaks and challenges in preventing future dengue outbreaks. A total of 40 stakeholders were included in the study. Health workers and community members reported longer waiting times at hospitals due to the increased number of patients receiving care for dengue-related symptoms. Health workers and hospital administrators reported that there were no major interruptions in access to care. Overall financial impact of dengue outbreaks on households was greatest for low-income families. Despite prevention and control campaigns implemented between outbreak periods, various stakeholders reported that dengue prevention and control efforts performed by municipal authorities remained insufficient, suggesting that efforts should be reinforced and better

  10. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density

  11. Distributed Interference Alignment with Low Overhead

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Based on closed-form interference alignment (IA) solutions, a low overhead distributed interference alignment (LOIA) scheme is proposed in this paper for the $K$-user SISO interference channel, and extension to multiple antenna scenario is also considered. Compared with the iterative interference alignment (IIA) algorithm proposed by Gomadam et al., the overhead is greatly reduced. Simulation results show that the IIA algorithm is strictly suboptimal compared with our LOIA algorithm in the overhead-limited scenario.

  12. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  13. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  14. Methods to temporally align gait cycle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Nathaniel E; Hong, Sungjin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Polk, John D

    2011-02-03

    The need for the temporal alignment of gait cycle data is well known; however, there is little consensus concerning which alignment method to use. In this paper, we discuss the pros and cons of some methods commonly applied to temporally align gait cycle data (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, derivative dynamic time warping, and piecewise alignment methods). In addition, we empirically evaluate these different methods' abilities to produce successful temporal alignment when mapping a test gait cycle trajectory to a target trajectory. We demonstrate that piecewise temporal alignment techniques outperform other commonly used alignment methods (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, and derivative dynamic time warping) in typical biomechanical and clinical alignment tasks. Lastly, we present an example of how these piecewise alignment techniques make it possible to separately examine intensity and temporal differences between gait cycle data throughout the entire gait cycle, which can provide greater insight into the complexities of movement patterns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponov, Yu.A., E-mail: Yury.Gaponov@maxlab.lu.se [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cerenius, Y. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nygaard, J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Ursby, T.; Larsson, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  16. Fiscal State-citizen Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    2016-01-01

    , this article maps out four episodes of sovereign fiscalism, namely, debt-taking in the Italian city-states, the making of the absolutist tax/fiscal state, the eighteenth/nineteenth century elaboration of the economic citizen, and the postwar era of managed capitalism. Finally, it applies this framework...... to the 2008 crisis and the larger post-1970s politico-economic constellation. The crisis can be perceived as a particular articulation of an age-old state-household dynamic—a dialectical alignment of the mode of fiscal state-crafting with the ethos of the state-citizen nexus—characterized by a heightened...... fiscal attentiveness to ordinary consumer-citizens. By uncovering the sociohistorical conditions governing the dominant precrisis regime, it not only nuances our understanding of the crisis but also of neoliberalism and suggests the implausibility of returning to “Golden Age” democratic capitalism....

  17. Recursions for Statistical Multiple Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jotun; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2002-01-01

    Algorithms are presented that allow the calculation of the probability of a set of sequences related by a binary tree that have evolved according to the Thorne–Kishino–Felsenstein model for a fixed set of parameters. The algorithms are based on a Markov chain generating sequences...... and their alignment at nodes in a tree. Depending on whether the complete realization of this Markov chain is decomposed into the first transition and the rest of the realization or the last transition and the first part of the realization, two kinds of recursions are obtained that are computationally similar...... but probabilistically different. The running time of the algorithms is , where Li is the length of the ith observed sequences and d is the number of sequences. An alternative recursion is also formulated that uses only a Markov chain involving the inner nodes of a tree....

  18. Magnetic Control of MOF Crystal Orientation and Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Marshall, Ellis S; Young, Adam J; Robinson, Peter J; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien G; Adawi, Ali M; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Farha, Omar K; Reithofer, Michael R; Chin, Jia Min

    2017-11-07

    Most metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess anisotropic properties, the full exploitation of which necessitates a general strategy for the controllable orientation of such MOF crystals. Current methods largely rely upon layer-by-layer MOF epitaxy or tuning of MOF crystal growth on appropriate substrates, yielding MOFs with fixed crystal orientations. Here, the dynamic magnetic alignment of different MOF crystals (NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) and NU-1000) is shown. The MOFs were magnetized by electrostatic adsorption of iron oxide nanoparticles, dispersed in curable polymer resins (Formlabs 1+ clear resin/ Sylgard 184), magnetically oriented, and fixed by resin curing. The importance of crystal orientation on MOF functionality was demonstrated whereby magnetically aligned NU-1000/Sylgard 184 composite was excited with linearly polarized 405 nm light, affording an anisotropic fluorescence response dependent on the polarization angle of the excitation beam relative to NU-1000 crystal orientation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Joint Face Detection and Alignment Using Multitask Cascaded Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaipeng; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Li, Zhifeng; Qiao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Face detection and alignment in unconstrained environment are challenging due to various poses, illuminations and occlusions. Recent studies show that deep learning approaches can achieve impressive performance on these two tasks. In this paper, we propose a deep cascaded multi-task framework which exploits the inherent correlation between them to boost up their performance. In particular, our framework adopts a cascaded structure with three stages of carefully designed deep convolutional networks that predict face and landmark location in a coarse-to-fine manner. In addition, in the learning process, we propose a new online hard sample mining strategy that can improve the performance automatically without manual sample selection. Our method achieves superior accuracy over the state-of-the-art techniques on the challenging FDDB and WIDER FACE benchmark for face detection, and AFLW benchmark for face alignment, while keeps real time performance.

  20. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  1. Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Agent-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and providing measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. Agent-based modeling has been shown to provide a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these agent based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' agent-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from extreme weather across these and other cases provides evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.

  2. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  3. e-Leadership through strategic alignment: an empirical study of small and medium sized enterprises in the digital age

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weizi; Liu, Kecheng; Belitski, Maksim; Ghobadian, Abby; O'Regan, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the European economy. A critical challenge faced by SME leaders, as a consequence of the continuing digital technology revolution, is how to optimally align business strategy with digital technology to fully leverage the potential offered by these technologies in pursuit of longevity and growth. There is a paucity of empirical research examining how e-leadership in SMEs drives successful alignment between business strategy an...

  4. CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    2005-07-26

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

  5. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev

  6. Efficient protein alignment algorithm for protein search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zaixin; Zhao, Zhiyu; Fu, Bin

    2010-01-18

    Proteins show a great variety of 3D conformations, which can be used to infer their evolutionary relationship and to classify them into more general groups; therefore protein structure alignment algorithms are very helpful for protein biologists. However, an accurate alignment algorithm itself may be insufficient for effective discovering of structural relationships among tens of thousands of proteins. Due to the exponentially increasing amount of protein structural data, a fast and accurate structure alignment tool is necessary to access protein classification and protein similarity search; however, the complexity of current alignment algorithms are usually too high to make a fully alignment-based classification and search practical. We have developed an efficient protein pairwise alignment algorithm and applied it to our protein search tool, which aligns a query protein structure in the pairwise manner with all protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to output similar protein structures. The algorithm can align hundreds of pairs of protein structures in one second. Given a protein structure, the tool efficiently discovers similar structures from tens of thousands of structures stored in the PDB always in 2 minutes in a single machine and 20 seconds in our cluster of 6 machines. The algorithm has been fully implemented and is accessible online at our webserver, which is supported by a cluster of computers. Our algorithm can work out hundreds of pairs of protein alignments in one second. Therefore, it is very suitable for protein search. Our experimental results show that it is more accurate than other well known protein search systems in finding proteins which are structurally similar at SCOP family and superfamily levels, and its speed is also competitive with those systems. In terms of the pairwise alignment performance, it is as good as some well known alignment algorithms.

  7. GASSST: global alignment short sequence search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Guillaume; Lavenier, Dominique

    2010-10-15

    The rapid development of next-generation sequencing technologies able to produce huge amounts of sequence data is leading to a wide range of new applications. This triggers the need for fast and accurate alignment software. Common techniques often restrict indels in the alignment to improve speed, whereas more flexible aligners are too slow for large-scale applications. Moreover, many current aligners are becoming inefficient as generated reads grow ever larger. Our goal with our new aligner GASSST (Global Alignment Short Sequence Search Tool) is thus 2-fold-achieving high performance with no restrictions on the number of indels with a design that is still effective on long reads. We propose a new efficient filtering step that discards most alignments coming from the seed phase before they are checked by the costly dynamic programming algorithm. We use a carefully designed series of filters of increasing complexity and efficiency to quickly eliminate most candidate alignments in a wide range of configurations. The main filter uses a precomputed table containing the alignment score of short four base words aligned against each other. This table is reused several times by a new algorithm designed to approximate the score of the full dynamic programming algorithm. We compare the performance of GASSST against BWA, BFAST, SSAHA2 and PASS. We found that GASSST achieves high sensitivity in a wide range of configurations and faster overall execution time than other state-of-the-art aligners. GASSST is distributed under the CeCILL software license at http://www.irisa.fr/symbiose/projects/gassst/ guillaume.rizk@irisa.fr; dominique.lavenier@irisa.fr Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Heuristics for multiobjective multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Paquete, Luís; Pereira, Francisco B

    2016-07-15

    Aligning multiple sequences arises in many tasks in Bioinformatics. However, the alignments produced by the current software packages are highly dependent on the parameters setting, such as the relative importance of opening gaps with respect to the increase of similarity. Choosing only one parameter setting may provide an undesirable bias in further steps of the analysis and give too simplistic interpretations. In this work, we reformulate multiple sequence alignment from a multiobjective point of view. The goal is to generate several sequence alignments that represent a trade-off between maximizing the substitution score and minimizing the number of indels/gaps in the sum-of-pairs score function. This trade-off gives to the practitioner further information about the similarity of the sequences, from which she could analyse and choose the most plausible alignment. We introduce several heuristic approaches, based on local search procedures, that compute a set of sequence alignments, which are representative of the trade-off between the two objectives (substitution score and indels). Several algorithm design options are discussed and analysed, with particular emphasis on the influence of the starting alignment and neighborhood search definitions on the overall performance. A perturbation technique is proposed to improve the local search, which provides a wide range of high-quality alignments. The proposed approach is tested experimentally on a wide range of instances. We performed several experiments with sequences obtained from the benchmark database BAliBASE 3.0. To evaluate the quality of the results, we calculate the hypervolume indicator of the set of score vectors returned by the algorithms. The results obtained allow us to identify reasonably good choices of parameters for our approach. Further, we compared our method in terms of correctly aligned pairs ratio and columns correctly aligned ratio with respect to reference alignments. Experimental results show

  9. Aligning Business Motivations in a Services Computing Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, T.; Low, G.; D'Ambra, J.

    The difficulty in aligning business strategies with the design of enterprise systems has been recognised as a major inhibitor of successful IT initiatives. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) initiatives imply an entirely new approach to enterprise process enablement and require significant architectural redesign. Successful SOA deployments are highly dependent on the degree to which flexible support for evolving business strategies is embedded into their designs. This chapter addresses the challenge of modelling business strategies in support of SOA designs. The proposed framework is derived from conceptual elements introduced in the OMG business motivation model and delivers an architectural view for business stakeholders in a computational-independent model (CIM). This model represents the first of three layers that will define a complete reference architecture for a service-based computing model.

  10. Improving the alignment quality of consistency based aligners with an evaluation function using synonymous protein words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Nan Lin

    Full Text Available Most sequence alignment tools can successfully align protein sequences with higher levels of sequence identity. The accuracy of corresponding structure alignment, however, decreases rapidly when considering distantly related sequences (<20% identity. In this range of identity, alignments optimized so as to maximize sequence similarity are often inaccurate from a structural point of view. Over the last two decades, most multiple protein aligners have been optimized for their capacity to reproduce structure-based alignments while using sequence information. Methods currently available differ essentially in the similarity measurement between aligned residues using substitution matrices, Fourier transform, sophisticated profile-profile functions, or consistency-based approaches, more recently.In this paper, we present a flexible similarity measure for residue pairs to improve the quality of protein sequence alignment. Our approach, called SymAlign, relies on the identification of conserved words found across a sizeable fraction of the considered dataset, and supported by evolutionary analysis. These words are then used to define a position specific substitution matrix that better reflects the biological significance of local similarity. The experiment results show that the SymAlign scoring scheme can be incorporated within T-Coffee to improve sequence alignment accuracy. We also demonstrate that SymAlign is less sensitive to the presence of structurally non-similar proteins. In the analysis of the relationship between sequence identity and structure similarity, SymAlign can better differentiate structurally similar proteins from non- similar proteins. We show that protein sequence alignments can be significantly improved using a similarity estimation based on weighted n-grams. In our analysis of the alignments thus produced, sequence conservation becomes a better indicator of structural similarity. SymAlign also provides alignment visualization that

  11. Aligning Application Architecture to the Business Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Blanken, Henk; Fokkinga, M.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Eder, J.; Missikoff, M.

    Alignment of application architecture to business architecture is a central problem in the design, acquisition and implementation of information systems in current large-scale information-processing organizations. Current research in architecture alignment is either too strategic or too software

  12. SOA-Driven Business-Software Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick; Tsai, W.; Chung, J.; Younas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of business processes and their supporting application software is a major concern during the initial software design phases. This paper proposes a design approach addressing this problem of business-software alignment. The approach takes an initial business model as a basis in

  13. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  14. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  15. Sambamba : Fast processing of NGS alignment formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, Artem; Vilella, Albert J.; Cuppen, Edwin; Nijman, Isaac J.; Prins, Pjotr

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Sambamba is a high-performance robust tool and library for working with SAM, BAM and CRAM sequence alignment files; the most common file formats for aligned next generation sequencing data. Sambamba is a faster alternative to samtools that exploits multi-core processing and dramatically

  16. Sambamba : fast processing of NGS alignment formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, Artem; Vilella, Albert J; Cuppen, Edwin; Nijman, Isaac J; Prins, Pjotr

    2015-01-01

    Sambamba is a high-performance robust tool and library for working with SAM, BAM and CRAM sequence alignment files; the most common file formats for aligned next generation sequencing data. Sambamba is a faster alternative to samtools that exploits multi-core processing and dramatically reduces

  17. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  18. Comparative genomics beyond sequence-based alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Wiklund, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational scans for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in multiple organisms have relied on existing multiple sequence alignments. However, as sequence similarity drops, a key signal of RNA structure--frequent compensating base changes--is increasingly likely to cause sequence-based alignment me...

  19. Business and IT alignment in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Already for more than two decades, the necessity and desirability of aligning business needs and information technology (IT) capabilities is considered to be one of the key issues in IT management. However, several studies report quite low scores on business and IT alignment (BIA). The question “Why

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines from a societal perspective in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aponte-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC and genital warts: (i Screening for CC; (ii Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. METHODS: A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS. RESULTS: At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be 'cost-effective' vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.

  1. Societal Pessimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eefje Steenvoorden

    2016-01-01

    What explains the concern about the state of society among citizens? In recent years, the public debate in many Western countries has discussed the sentiment that society is heading in the wrong direction. Yet little is really known about this attitude. This dissertation aims to further our

  2. The automatic alignment system of GEO 600

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Willke, B; Lück, H B; Ward, H; Casey, M; Strain, K A; Robertson, D; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the automatic mirror alignment system of the modecleaner and main interferometer of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector. In order to achieve the required sensitivity of the detector, the eigenmodes of all optical cavities have to be aligned with respect to the incoming beams (or vice versa) and kept aligned for long measuring periods. Moreover the beam spots have to be centred on the mirrors to minimize coupling of residual angular mirror motion into changes of the optical path length. An overview of the principles and setup for the automatic alignment is given, and first results of the modecleaner and 1200 m cavity alignment system are presented, including the error-point spectra of mirror angular motions, which are smaller than 10 sup - sup 8 rad Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 below 10 Hz.

  3. Semiautomatic beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valentino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Full beam-based alignment of the LHC collimation system was a time-consuming procedure (up to 28 hours as the collimators were set up manually. A yearly alignment campaign has been sufficient for now, although in the future due to tighter tolerances this may lead to a decrease in the cleaning efficiency if machine parameters such as the beam orbit drift over time. Automating the collimator setup procedure can reduce the beam time for collimator setup and allow for more frequent alignments, therefore reducing the risk of performance degradation. This article describes the design and testing of a semiautomatic algorithm as a first step towards a fully automatic setup procedure. The parameters used to measure the accuracy and performance of the alignment are defined and determined from experimental data. A comparison of these measured parameters at 450 GeV and 3.5 TeV with manual and semiautomatic alignment is provided.

  4. Semiautomatic beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Aßmann, Ralph; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Sammut, Nicholas; Wollmann, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full beam-based alignment of the LHC collimation system was a time-consuming procedure (up to 28 hours) as the collimators were set up manually. A yearly alignment campaign has been sufficient for now, although in the future due to tighter tolerances this may lead to a decrease in the cleaning efficiency if machine parameters such as the beam orbit drift over time. Automating the collimator setup procedure can reduce the beam time for collimator setup and allow for more frequent alignments, therefore reducing the risk of performance degradation. This article describes the design and testing of a semiautomatic algorithm as a first step towards a fully automatic setup procedure. The parameters used to measure the accuracy and performance of the alignment are defined and determined from experimental data. A comparison of these measured parameters at 450 GeV and 3.5 TeV with manual and semiautomatic alignment is provided.

  5. Vane segment support and alignment device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Sizemore, John Derek (Orlando, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

  6. Vane segment support and alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  7. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious......, it is rewarded by great insight into the evolution of structure and function of your favorite RNA molecule. In this chapter I will review the methods and considerations that go into constructing RNA structural alignments at the secondary and tertiary structure level; introduce software, databases, and algorithms...

  8. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atlas is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using distinct technologies: silicon planar sensors (both pixel and microstrips) and drift-tubes. The tracking system is embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field. In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global positioning, plus constrain...

  9. Derivative-free neural network for optimizing the scoring functions associated with dynamic programming of pairwise-profile alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori D

    2018-01-01

    A profile-comparison method with position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) is among the most accurate alignment methods. Currently, cosine similarity and correlation coefficients are used as scoring functions of dynamic programming to calculate similarity between PSSMs. However, it is unclear whether these functions are optimal for profile alignment methods. By definition, these functions cannot capture nonlinear relationships between profiles. Therefore, we attempted to discover a novel scoring function, which was more suitable for the profile-comparison method than existing functions, using neural networks. Although neural networks required derivative-of-cost functions, the problem being addressed in this study lacked them. Therefore, we implemented a novel derivative-free neural network by combining a conventional neural network with an evolutionary strategy optimization method used as a solver. Using this novel neural network system, we optimized the scoring function to align remote sequence pairs. Our results showed that the pairwise-profile aligner using the novel scoring function significantly improved both alignment sensitivity and precision relative to aligners using existing functions. We developed and implemented a novel derivative-free neural network and aligner (Nepal) for optimizing sequence alignments. Nepal improved alignment quality by adapting to remote sequence alignments and increasing the expressiveness of similarity scores. Additionally, this novel scoring function can be realized using a simple matrix operation and easily incorporated into other aligners. Moreover our scoring function could potentially improve the performance of homology detection and/or multiple-sequence alignment of remote homologous sequences. The goal of the study was to provide a novel scoring function for profile alignment method and develop a novel learning system capable of addressing derivative-free problems. Our system is capable of optimizing the performance of other

  10. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  11. RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2003-01-01

    The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit...... analysis. RevTrans also accepts user-provided protein alignments for greater control of the alignment process. The RevTrans web server is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/RevTrans/....

  12. From workers education to societal competencies:Approaches to a critical, emancipatory education fordemocracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Zeuner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two conceptions concerning critical political education forworkers, developed in Germany in the 1960s and the 1990s respectively. First, theconception of “Sociological Imagination and Exemplary Learning” ublished in 1968by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt (1975. Further the elaborationof this conception, which since the 1980s is known as “Societal Competencies“ (Negt,1986. These competencies concern fundamental knowledge, which enables people tomake political judgments, and act politically in democratic societies in an enlightenedand reflected way. This conception deliberately distinguishes itself from the economic,instrumentalist notions of key qualifications and key competencies, which at least sincethe 1970s have been discussed with the aim of maintaining individual employability andcompetitiveness. ‘Societal competencies’ aim for individual and collectiveemancipation, the development of the capability to make judgments, and autonomy inthe sense of the enlightened political agency and participation in democratizationprocesses.

  13. Health disparities and violence against women: why and how cultural and societal influences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B

    2007-04-01

    This article encourages readers to consider the cultural and societal influences that impact health and health disparities among women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). Health consequences caused by IPV are widely documented and broadly discussed. Connections between health disparities and IPV are also discussed as related to women of color. Cultural factors and societal influences are identified to provide the reader with greater awareness of how these issues intersect with and impact IPV. Finally, the implications for scientific research and practice are discussed to include considerations for stronger assessment tools, greater collaboration and community participation, determination of best practices, requirement of cultural competence, mandated accountability, encouragement of mentorship, increased funding for research, increased advocacy, and increased culturally competent media and health promotion campaigns.

  14. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andy; Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-12-01

    Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years.

  15. How Multilevel Societal Learning Processes Facilitate Transformative Change: A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Flood Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable resources management requires a major transformation of existing resource governance and management systems. These have evolved over a long time under an unsustainable management paradigm, e.g., the transformation from the traditionally prevailing technocratic flood protection toward the holistic integrated flood management approach. We analyzed such transformative changes using three case studies in Europe with a long history of severe flooding: the Hungarian Tisza and the German and Dutch Rhine. A framework based on societal learning and on an evolutionary understanding of societal change was applied to identify drivers and barriers for change. Results confirmed the importance of informal learning and actor networks and their connection to formal policy processes. Enhancing a society's capacity to adapt is a long-term process that evolves over decades, and in this case, was punctuated by disastrous flood events that promoted windows of opportunity for change.

  16. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite. [antenna coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a cooperative experimental program of the United States and Canadian governments. The CTS uses a high-power transponder at the frequencies of 14/12 GHz for two-way television and voice communication. The United States and Canada have agreed to share equally in the use of CTS. The U.S. program includes a variety of societal experiments. The ground stations for these experiments are located from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The satellite communications capabilities and the antenna coverage for the U.S. are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the U.S. societal experiments in the areas of education, health care, and community and special services; nine separate experiments are discussed.

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS physics goals require excellent resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and on the quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the Run II of the LHC, the system was upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). An outline of the track based alignment approach and its implementation within the ATLAS software will be presented. Special attention will be paid to integration of the IBL into the alignment framework, techniques allowing to identify and eliminate tracking systematics as well as strategies to deal with time-dependent alignment. Performance from the commissioning of Cosmic data and potentially early LHC Run II proton-proton collisions will be discussed.

  18. LHCb : Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb Detector in Run2

    CERN Multimedia

    Tobin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam collisions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new realtime alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the RICH detectors at the trigger level. T...

  19. LHCb First Running Scenarios, Including Alignment and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    The running scenarios of the LHCb experiment in the early operation period of the LHC are discussed in view of the foreseen machine evolution. Alignment of the overall detector and its calibration will be the primary concern of the first runs; the strategy to perform them is described. The experiment aims to be in a stable running condition as soon as possible. Some of the measurements with the data collected in the first months of operation at a 14 TeV collision energy are outlined.

  20. Remote alignment of Low beta quadrupoles with micrometric resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, M; Herty, A; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Quesnel, J P

    2008-01-01

    Considering their location in a high radiation environment and the alignment tolerancesrequested, the low beta quadrupoles of LHC will be positioned remotely (controlling 5 degrees of freedom), with a displacement resolution of few microns in horizontal and vertical. Stepping motor gearbox assemblies are plugged into the jacks which support the cryomagnets in order to move them to the desired position regarding the quality of the beam collisions in the detectors. This displacement will be monitored in real time by the sensors located on the magnets. This paper describes the positioning strategy implemented as well as the software tools used to manage it.

  1. Effect of allergist intervention on patient-centered and societal outcomes: allergists as leaders, innovators, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, R S; Schatz, M

    2000-12-01

    Atopic disorders, which afflict millions of Americans and hundreds of millions worldwide, are at epidemic levels with concomitant increases in morbidity and mortality. Environmental and lifestyle changes over the past three to five decades are proposed causes for this pandemic and as such present major burdens to reverse. The scope of allergy practice bridges directly on this challenge. Allergy as a specialty is a major leader in developing effective strategies to confront this epidemic. Allergists have made major contributions to the understanding of the risk factors, immunology, pathophysiology, immunomodulation, and prevention of atopic and immunologic disorders. Allergist epidemiologists and clinicians have helped develop and implement national and international guidelines in the recognition, management, and prevention of asthma and rhinitis. Allergist clinical researchers are active in (1) outcomes research that demonstrates convincingly the value of allergy as a specialty in asthma, allergic rhinitis, anaphylaxis, drug and food allergy, and other atopic disorders, (2) National Institutes of Health clinical trials that will form the basis for the future treatment of asthma and allergic disease, and (3) pharmaceutical trials that evaluate new, effective, and safe medication to treat atopic disease. Allergist educators, comprising academic and practicing allergists, supported by allied health professionals, national associations, and affiliated lay organizations, provide comprehensive education to fellows, residents, colleague physicians, media, the public, and patients. Documentation of the value of allergists in improving patient-centered and societal outcomes in their core domain, allergy, is the appropriate final topic contribution in the important series "New millennium: The conquest of allergy."

  2. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  3. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  4. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Scyphers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide coastal societies with a vast array of ecosystem services, but are also destructively harvested as an economically and culturally important fishery resource, exemplifying a complex social-ecological system (SES. Historically, societal demand for oysters has led to destructive and unsustainable levels of harvest, which coupled with multiple other stressors has placed oyster reefs among the most globally imperiled coastal habitats. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that large-scale restoration is possible and that healthy oyster populations can be sustained with effective governance and stewardship. However, both of these require significant societal support or financial investment. In our study, we explored relationships among how coastal societies (1 perceive and value oyster ecosystem services, (2 recognize and define problems associated with oyster decline, and (3 perceive or support stewardship initiatives. We specifically focused on the SES of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and coastal societies in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region identified as offering among the last and best opportunities to sustainably balance conservation objectives with a wild fishery. We found that, in addition to harvest-related benefits, oysters were highly valued for providing habitat, mitigating shoreline erosion, and improving water quality or clarity. Our results also showed that although most respondents recognized that oyster populations have declined, many respondents characterized the problem differently than most scientific literature does. Among a variety of initiatives for enhancing sustainability, spawning sanctuaries and reef restoration were well supported in all states, but support for harvest reductions was less consistent. Our study suggests that public support for maintaining both harvest and ecosystem services exists at societal levels and that enhancing public awareness regarding the extent and causes

  5. Of Fish and Fishermen: Shifting Societal Baselines to Reduce Environmental Harm in Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi E. Lam

    2012-01-01

    If reasonable fishery harvests and environmental harms are specified in new regulations, policies, and laws governing the exploitation of fish for food and livelihoods, then societal baselines can shift to achieve sustainable fisheries and marine conservation. Fisheries regulations can limit the environmental and social costs or harms caused by fishing by requiring the fishing industry to pay for the privilege to fish, via access fees for the opportunity to catch fish and extraction fees for ...

  6. El pluralismo radical del constitucionalismo societal: La fragmentación constitucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se parte del presupuesto de que el pluralismo jurídico es un reto para el constitucionalismo y se defiende que es posible armonizar el pluralismo jurídico, político y social existente en la comunidad internacional con el enfoque metodológico del constitucionalismo internacional, como demuestran las obras de algunos autores de diferentes ciencias sociales. Aún más, se destaca que dicha armonización es una exigencia para la viabilidad del propio constitucionalismo internacional. El pluralismo radical del constitucionalismo societal de G. Teubner es una concepción del constitucionalismo internacional que está basada en una teoría sociológica del constitucionalismo que tiene presupuestos epistemológicos diferentes a los tradicionales y que produce nuevos resultados: la constitucionalización societal no es sino un conjunto de fragmentos constitucionales que regulan las actividades de los sujetos constitucionales (públicos y privados mediante normas constitucionales entre las cuales, dada su enorme variedad, pueden surgir frecuentes conflictos interconstitucionales. Asimismo, se afirma que el constitucionalismo societal de G. Teubner tiene importantes limitaciones para poder ser reconciliado con el constitucionalismo internacional porque cada uno de los fragmentos constitucionales tienen su propia racionalidad, en algunos casos difícilmente compatible con el interés público internacional. Esta pluralidad de fragmentos constitucionales no siempre supone un refuerzo del constitucionalismo internacional ya sea en su dimensión sustantiva o sea en la formal. Al revés, supone una devaluación del mismo que lo conduce a la irrelevancia. En conclusión, se defiende que el constitucionalismo societal no es siempre más constitucionalismo internacional sino que puede ser mucho menos

  7. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested.

  8. Corporate social responsibility and societal governance: lessons from transparency in the oil and gas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Frynas, Jedrzej George

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates the potential of the current Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda for addressing issues related to societal governance. The investigation focuses on the experience of the oil and gas sector, which has been among the leading industry sectors in championing CSR. In particular, the article analyses the issue of revenue transparency, which has been the principal governance challenge addressed by multinational oil and gas companies. The article suggests that (1) tack...

  9. HOW FUTURE MANAGERS VIEW SOCIETAL CULTURE: A CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims at enriching the existing literature about the prospective managers view of an ideal societal value system and the existing cultural practices in their society. The findings about the students' perception on cultural practices and their expectations about societal culture are helpful in imagining the societal culture in its dynamics. The research sample consists of 727 students in business and engineering on undergraduate and graduate levels from Romania and Slovenia. The reason we have chosen to compare Romanian sample with the cultural profile of the "average" future manager from Slovenia is the scientific curiosity of finding out if there are signs of cultural convergence of Romania with a previous communist country, and an older member of European Union. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural convergence (or divergence? between the former socialist countries joining European Union. The theoretical and methodological foundation is rooted in GLOBE international research project. Our findings revealed that at practices level,Romanians perceive significant higher Power Distance and significant lower mean value for Uncertainty Avoidance. At the expectations level, the Romanians and Slovenians are very similar in the desire concerning their societies orientation toward In group/Family Collectivism, Assertiveness and Performance Orientation, and record significant differenced in all the other societal values. The fact that for all the cultural expectations the future managers assign different mean values than for the correspondent practices make us expect that they will act to change their cultural environments. Still, the cultural orientation of Romanian future middle managers will differ in many regards from the Slovenian sample averages.

  10. Suicide in Addis Ababa : A Mixed Method Study of Incidence and Societal Views

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, Kidane Ayele

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is a global public health and social problem affecting the most productive age group, and the elderly. In Addis Ababa, despite high suicide rates there is no proper registration and certification that is meant for public health purpose. This study is conducted to look into the incidence and explore societal views towards suicide in Addis Ababa. Methods: Secondary data was collected from registers of Forensic Pathology Department at Menilik II Hospital and Homicide Crimes...

  11. Orthodox, Social and Societal Marketing: the exchange of different relations with the society

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Edson Coutinho da [UNIFESP; MINCIOTTI, Silvio Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The present article has the objective of emphasizing differences among the concepts of orthodox marketing, societal marketing and social marketing in order to clarify possible misunderstandings and indiscriminate use of them. We present here a historical approach to these different concepts, their practice and evolution within organizations.  Although the practice of marketing refers to the use of defined tools and objective that is the management of exchange, the marketing concept adopted in...

  12. Towards a Theory of Societal Co-Evolution: Individualism versus Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Kartik; Zhang, Simpson; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Substantial empirical research has shown that the level of individualism vs. collectivism is one of the most critical and important determinants of societal traits, such as economic growth, economic institutions and health conditions. But the exact nature of this impact has thus far not been well understood in an analytical setting. In this work, we develop one of the first theoretical models that analytically studies the impact of individualism-collectivism on the society. We model the growt...

  13. Does Income and education of working-women transform societal values: An evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz, Rida

    2017-01-01

    Women’s socio-economic empowerment is instrumental in transforming the societal values particularly in developing countries. However, this transition from traditional to modern social values is linked to women’s income and education levels. This paper investigates this phenomenon in the context of working women in Pakistan. To this extent, three hundred and six working-women were interviewed in urban vicinity of Lahore city. By employing Multinomial logit model our study confirms that socio-e...

  14. A grounded patient-centered approach generated the personal and societal burden of osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2013-09-01

    To develop a conceptual model to describe the burden of osteoarthritis in individuals with this condition and on the broader community. Six concept mapping workshops were undertaken: three with patients (n = 26) and three with health professionals (n = 27) in Australia and Sweden. The participants were asked to generate statements describing how osteoarthritis affects individuals with this condition and those around them. The results were used to construct an integrated theoretical model of the personal burden of osteoarthritis (PBO) and its extended version, the personal and societal burden of osteoarthritis (PSBO) model. We identified eight potentially independent aspects of PBO, including physical distress, fatigue, physical limitations, psychosocial distress, physical deconditioning, financial hardship, sleep disturbances, and lost productivity. Physical distress and impaired physical function combined to produce psychosocial problems, reduced work productivity, financial difficulties, and loss of physical fitness at the individual level, and increased health and welfare cost at the societal level. The PBO and PSBO models were developed directly from the views of patients and clinicians and provide new insights for managing the individual and societal burden of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  16. Introducing systems oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo da Costa Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As our society faces large-scale wicked problems like global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, problem solvers are required to apply new reasoning models more appropriate to deal with these complex societal problems. Dealing with these problems poses unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural resources. Systems Oriented Design (SOD has been recognized in the literature as a promising approach, capable to support design engineers to deal with these complex societal problems. This paper explores the application of SOD in the development of Product-Service System (PSS concepts by student teams in a multidisciplinary master course. The course resulted in twelve concepts that were analysed using a case study approach with the support of protocol analysis. The analysis results in a description of advantages, context- and process-related challenges of using SOD. From an education point-of-view, the results demonstrate that even though SOD provides students with a broad knowledge base and skills to deal with problems in complex societal contexts, there is still the need to introduce the appropriate scope and depth in the design engineering curricula, making the transition from traditional product design, a challenging one.

  17. Clan in Transition: Societal Changes of Villages in China from the Perspective of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidong Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Societal relations in rural areas have entered into a new stage of adjustment over the past decade. However, the adjustment, which might bring about profound societal changes in countryside as well as in China as a whole, have not been paid much attention and very few studies have been conducted from the perspective of ecological resource crises. We use the case of a village as an example to show how water pollution, as one of the contributory factors, possibly affect the transition of clans and societal changes in Chinese villages. Through observation and interviews, we find that there is an apparent rise of “New Clanism” within clans, which gradually abandons the tradition of supremacy of clan interests and places family or individual interests at top priority. We also find that clan boundaries get increasingly obscure since the integrity of clans is undermined by the rise of new interest groups across clans, but the boundaries remain relatively clear due to the consistency (albeit incomplete of clan interests. Some new clan élites and representatives of new interest groups get involved in village governance, which indicates that their goals have shifted from natural resources to social or political capital. The significance of our findings is that they provide not only a unique perspective for the interaction between society and resources, but also some new ideas for the future study of rural China at the environment-social interface.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Gifted Students' Scientific, Societal, and Moral Questions Concerning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Tirri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.

  19. Perceptions of addictions as societal problems in Canada, sweden, Finland and st. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Kari; Koski-Jännes, Anja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Blomqvist, Jan; Pervova, Irina; Cunningham, John A

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the relative gravity people attribute to various addictive behaviors with respect to other societal concerns in four northern populations with different history, social policy and treatment alternatives for addicted individuals. Random population surveys were conducted in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia. In Finland and Sweden, the survey was conducted by mail, in Canada and St. Petersburg by phone. As a part of this survey, the respondents were asked to assess the gravity of various societal problems, some of which involved various addictive behaviors. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods, factor analysis, contextual analysis and multiple regression analysis. Hard drugs, criminality and environmental issues belonged to the topmost problems in all data samples. Overall, Finns and Canadians appeared the least worried about various societal problems, Swedes seemed the most worried and St. Petersburgian views were the most polarized. Two factors were extracted from the combined data. Factor 1 covered criminal behavior and various addictions; it was named Threats to Safety factor. Factor 2 comprised social equality issues. The country context explained 12.5% of the variance of the safety factor and 7.9% of the equality factor. Despite some cultural variation in the gravity assessments, the central core of the social representation of addictive behaviors tends still to be linked with 'badness' since they were mainly grouped with various forms of criminal behavior in all these countries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Progress toward developing a practical societal response to severe convection (2005 EGU Sergei Soloviev Medal Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Doswell III

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of severe convection in the context of geophysical hazards is given. Societal responses to geophysical hazards depend, in part, on the ability to forecast the events and the degree of certainty with which forecasts can be made. In particular, the spatio-temporal specificity and lead time of those forecasts are critical issues. However, societal responses to geophysical hazards are not only dependent on forecasting. Even perfect forecasts might not be sufficient for a meaningful societal response without the development of considerable infrastructure to allow a society to respond properly and in time to mitigate the hazard. Geophysical hazards of extreme magnitude are rare events, a fact that tends to make funding support for appropriate preparations difficult to obtain. Focusing on tornadoes as a prototypical hazard from severe convective storms, the infrastructure for dealing with them in the USA is reviewed. Worldwide implications of the experience with severe convective storms in the USA are discussed, with an emphasis on its relevance to the situation in Europe.