Song, Tae Min; Song, Juyoung; An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jong-Min
The average mortality rate for death by suicide among OECD countries is 12.8 per 100000, and 33.5 for Korea. The present study analyzed big data extracted from Google to identify factors related to searches on suicide in Korea. Google search trends for the search words of suicide, stress, exercise, and drinking were obtained for 2004-2010. Analyzing data by month, the relationship between the actual number of suicides and search words per year was examined using multi-level models. Both suicide rates and Google searches on suicide in Korea increased since 2007. An unconditional slope model indicated stress and suicide-related searches were positively related. A conditional model showed that factors associated with suicide by year directly affected suicide-related searches. The interaction between stress-related searches and the actual number of suicides was significant. A positive relationship between stress- and suicide-related searches further confirmed that stress affects suicide. Taken together and viewed in context of the big data analysis, our results point to the need for a tailored prevention program. Real-time big data can be of use in indicating increases in suicidality when search words such as stress and suicide generate greater numbers of hits on portals and social network sites.
Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to determine how long the social network game Scratch-Offs, created by game development company Spice Rack Media, will remain financially viable. The game Scratch-Offs is a freeware game (users pay nothing for the actual software and is funded through micro transactions (users must pay small amounts of money to play actual games. This implies a relationship between total games played and revenue earned. Using data provided by Spice Rack, we were able to develop an exponential equation that accurately depicts usage trends over time. This equation was used to determine the date Scratch-Offs will no longer be profitable.
Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn
Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be
BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile. The results do not provide support for a uniformly extension of pension age for all....
Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Zhen; Bai, Shuotian; Zhu, Tingshao
Growing interest in social events on social media came along with the rapid development of the Internet. Social events that occur in the "real" world can spread on social media (e.g., Sina Weibo) rapidly, which may trigger severe consequences and thus require the government's timely attention and responses. This article proposes to predict the trends of social events on Sina Weibo, which is currently the most popular social media in China. Based on the theories of social psychology and communication sciences, we extract an unprecedented amount of comprehensive and effective features that relate to the trends of social events on Chinese social media, and we construct the trends of prediction models by using three classical regression algorithms. We found that lasso regression performed better with the precision 0.78 and the recall 0.88. The results of our experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Corneliu Mihai PREDA
Full Text Available This paper tries to show that the need to implement BI solutions that integrate social networks data is increasingly more acute. Companies need to understand that efficient decision making has to take into account the importance that social medial has nowadays. In addition, the software developing companies have to keep up to date with new trends generated within these communication channels and adapt their solutions to this dynamic environment.
Full Text Available In the research presented we investigated the features of Korean adolescents’ social purpose as compared with other life goals in terms of different aspects of psychological well-being (study 1. We also examine the perceptions of high achieving Korean adolescents on social purpose and factors affecting it (study 2.The results of study 1 showed that the pursuit of social purpose significantly predicted psychological well-being compared to the other two life goals. Results of study 2 showed Korean adolescents value and pursue social purpose as a life goal. They explicitly accepted their social responsibility to serve their country in line with idyllic Confucianism values and Collectivistic roles. However, further analysis revealed that they had implicitly pursued individualistic desires of materialistic wealth and fame in parallel with their explicit social purpose. Implications of the results are discussed from the socio-cultural perspective on social purpose in regards to how to understand the features of social purpose that Korean adolescents have and how to foster its development.
Full Text Available This paper deals with demographic trends in Romania and their influence on the labour market. In this context, unemployment and emigration are factors that play a significant role in the economy. The decline in employment weakens the social security system as employers and employees have to pay greater contributions. Also, the diminution in workforce and in the number of people in paid employment and the shortage of professionals working in specialized fields of health and education are issues requiring urgent clarification.
Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Roth, David L; Szanton, Sarah L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Thorpe, Roland J
Social isolation among older adults is an important but under-recognized risk for poor health outcomes. Methods are needed to identify subgroups of older adults at risk for social isolation. We constructed a typology of social isolation using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and estimated the prevalence and correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults. The typology was formed from four domains: living arrangement, core discussion network size, religious attendance, and social participation. In 2011, 24% of self-responding, community-dwelling older adults (65+ years), approximately 7.7 million people, were characterized as socially isolated, including 1.3 million (4%) who were characterized as severely socially isolated. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression indicated that being unmarried, male, having low education, and low income were all independently associated with social isolation. Black and Hispanic older adults had lower odds of social isolation compared to White older adults, after adjusting for covariates. Social isolation is an important and potentially modifiable risk that affects a significant proportion of the older adult population.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Mchangama, Jacob
While the United Nations and NGOs are pushing for global judicialization of economic, social and cultural rights (ESCRs), little is known of their consequences. We provide evidence of the effects of introducing three types of ESCRs into the constitution: the rights to education, health and social...
Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina
A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the
Cunningham, Chris, Comp.
This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…
Ronald D. Kneebone
Full Text Available Women are playing a larger role in the workforce than ever before, but not in the U.S. The employment rate measures the percentage of the adult population of working age (15-64 years that is an active participant in the labour force (full-time or part-time. A high employment rate enables countries to finance government programs with moderate rates of taxation, and in high employment countries there tends to be less pressure on social programs. Countries with low employment rates are less able to fund services and face greater social pressures.The employment rate provides a better measure of economic performance than the unemployment rate because it considers not only individuals who are unemployed but also those who have been discouraged to look for work.
Bachelor work deals with trends in marketing communication and their focus on solving social problems. Theoretical part generally focuses on the action of the communication and communicating mix in the marketing mix, it describes trend in marketing communication as guerilla marketing and viral marketing. It defines the terms of social marketing, cause related marketing and corporate social responsibility. The practical part describes a nonprofit organization Oxfam International and it also de...
Carl H. Reidel
I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...
This position paper outlines the first stages in an ongoing PhD project on mediated social touch, and the effects mediated touch can have on someone's affective state. It is argued that touch is a profound communication channel for humans, and that communication through touch can, to some extent,
Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse
The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…
Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew John
The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding...
Bryson, Stephanie A; Bosma, Harvey
Highlighting a strong human rights and social justice orientation underlying health social work in Canada, this paper describes recent contributions of Canadian health social work practitioners and scholars to five areas identified by Auslander (2001) in a delphi study of health social work in its first century. Five current 'trends' are discussed which correspond with Auslander's themes of professional legitimacy and scope, social causation, dissemination of knowledge, interventions, and cultural appropriateness. These trends are: 1) defining the scope of health social work practice; 2) addressing the social determinants of health; 3) promoting evidence-based practice in health social work; 4) delivering client and family-centered care; and 5) implementing cultural safety and trauma-informed practice. Suggestions are made to further strengthen the position of health social work in Canada.
Rao, Yanghui; Li, Qing; Wenyin, Liu; Wu, Qingyuan; Quan, Xiaojun
The rapid development of social media services has been a great boon for the communication of emotions through blogs, microblogs/tweets, instant-messaging tools, news portals, and so forth. This paper is concerned with the detection of emotions evoked in a reader by social media. Compared to classical sentiment analysis conducted from the writer's perspective, analysis from the reader's perspective can be more meaningful when applied to social media. We propose an affective topic model with the intention to bridge the gap between social media materials and a reader's emotions by introducing an intermediate layer. The proposed model can be used to classify the social emotions of unlabeled documents and to generate a social emotion lexicon. Extensive evaluations using real-world data validate the effectiveness of the proposed model for both these applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arts, Religion and the New Social Order: Emerging Trends in Mediation in an Age ... and religion as culturally interactive phenomena may not be strange, but the ... things upon the mastery of applied elements of visual, performing and media ...
In this dissertation, I set out to describe religiosity and religious trends among the Dutch Muslim population, and to assess the influence of the social integration of Muslims in co-ethnic minority and majority social networks. Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands migrated from countries in which
A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.
This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....
Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...
Croker, H; Whitaker, K L; Cooke, L; Wardle, J
To evaluate the effect of social norms on intended fruit and vegetable intake. A two-stage design to i) compare the perceived importance of normative influences vs cost and health on dietary choices, and ii) test the prediction that providing information on social norms will increase intended fruit and vegetable consumption in an experimental study. Home-based interviews (N=1083; 46% men, 54% women) were carried out as part of the Office for National Statistics Omnibus Survey in November 2008. The public's perception of the importance of social norms was lower (M=2.1) than the perceived importance of cost (M=2.7) or health (M=3.4) (all p'scost information; none of the interventions affected women's intentions. People have little awareness of the influence of social norms but normative information can have a demonstrable impact on dietary intentions. Health promotion might profit from emphasising how many people are attempting to adopt healthy lifestyles rather than how many have poor diets.
Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...
To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.
Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz
The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...
Friedman, N.; Overholt, W.; Thomas, J.; Wiener, A. J.
Variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century are studied. Estimates of relevant future developments are presented and their probable impact on the aviation industry in this country are identified. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis, a series of scenarios are developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand, to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A surprise free scenario is presented which represents the best judgment of the manner in which events will most probably develop and the effect on the aviation industry such developments will likely produce.
The results are presented of a study of variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological, and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis a series of scenarios is developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A scenario is presented which represents the manner in which events will most probably develop and their effect on the aviation industry.
Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.
Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535
Ambrasat, Jens; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus; Schauenburg, Gesche; Schröder, Tobias
We investigate intrasocietal consensus and variation in affective meanings of concepts related to authority and community, two elementary forms of human sociality. Survey participants (n = 2,849) from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in German society provided ratings of 909 social concepts along three basic dimensions of affective meaning. Results show widespread consensus on these meanings within society and demonstrate that a meaningful structure of socially shared knowledge emerges from organizing concepts according to their affective similarity. The consensus finding is further qualified by evidence for subtle systematic variation along SES differences. In relation to affectively neutral words, high-status individuals evaluate intimacy-related and socially desirable concepts as less positive and powerful than middle- or low-status individuals, while perceiving antisocial concepts as relatively more threatening. This systematic variation across SES groups suggests that the affective meaning of sociality is to some degree a function of social stratification.
Fox, Nick J
While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.
Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.
Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…
Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole
In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.
Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.
Yur'yev, Andriy; Leppik, Lauri; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wu, Jing; Värnik, Airi
National attitudes towards the elderly and their association with elderly suicide mortality in 26 European countries were assessed, and Eastern and Western European countries compared. For each country, mean age-adjusted, gender-specific elderly suicide rates in the last five years for which data had been available were obtained from the WHO European Mortality Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards the elderly were taken from the European Social Survey. Correlations between attitudes and suicide rates were analyzed using Pearson's test. Differences between mean scores for Western and Eastern European attitudes were calculated, and data on labor-market exit ages were obtained from the EUROSTAT database. Perception of the elderly as having higher status, recognition of their economic contribution and higher moral standards, and friendly feelings towards and admiration of them are inversely correlated with suicide mortality. Suicide rates are lower in countries where the elderly live with their families more often. Elderly suicide mortality and labor-market exit age are inversely correlated. In Eastern European countries, elderly people's status and economic contribution are seen as less important. Western Europeans regard the elderly with more admiration, consider them more friendly and more often have elderly relatives in the family. The data also show gender differences. Society's attitudes influence elderly suicide mortality; attitudes towards the elderly are more favorable among Western European citizens; and extended labor-market inclusion of the elderly is a suicide-protective factor.
[Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.
van Winden, F.A.A.M.
Although governance is about interpersonal relationships, it appears that the antecedents and consequences of affective bonds (social ties) in social groups dealing with common-pool resources and public goods have been neglected. The welfare costs of the neglect of such bonds and their dynamic
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley
Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee
Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057
Schwartz, Stephan A
The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwartz, Stephan A
The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.
Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506
Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences –plural rationality theory– shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.
Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.
In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and
Buunk, Bram P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; VanYperen, Nico W.
In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and
Okruszek, Ł; Wichniak, A; Jarkiewicz, M; Schudy, A; Gola, M; Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Łojek, E
Despite social cognitive dysfunction that may be observed in patients with schizophrenia, the knowledge about social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia is scant. The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioural responses to neutral and negative stimuli with (faces, people) and without (animals, objects) social content in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a visual oddball paradigm with either negative or neutral pictures from the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) as targets while EEG was recorded. Half of the stimuli within each category presented social content (faces, people). Negative stimuli with social content produced lower N2 amplitude and higher mean LPP than any other type of stimuli in both groups. Despite differences in behavioural ratings and alterations in ERP processing of affective stimuli (lack of EPN differentiation, decreased P3 to neutral stimuli) SCZ were still able to respond to specific categories of stimuli similarly to HC. The pattern of results suggests that with no additional emotion-related task demands patients with schizophrenia may present similar attentional engagement with negative social stimuli as healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article describes the main trends of formation and development of insurance against accidents. Defined position of the social insurance against accidents and professional diseases in the social protection system in Ukraine. Investigated the essence and content of social insurance against accidents.
Shen, Chien-wen; Kuo, Chin-Jin; Ly, Pham Thi Minh
Although educational practitioners have adopted social media to their online or mobile communities, little attention has been paid to investigate the social media messages related to online or mobile learning. The purpose of this research is to identify social media influencers and trends by mining Twitter posts related to online learning and…
Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process］This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion］The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.
Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.
Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wilson, Ken
1. Habitat selection can affect individual fitness, and therefore, individuals are expected to assess habitat quality of potential breeding sites before settlement. 2. We investigated the role of social environment on juvenile dispersal behaviour in the great tit (Parus major). Two main
Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Juieed, Noof M. Bni
We examined the correlation between social isolation and affective isolation among 457 undergraduate students using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Participants comprised 221 men and 236 women, all of whom were either first- or fourth-year students enrolled in various majors at King Saud University. Means, standard deviations, Pearson…
Britton, R. Jason
The process of strategically planning enrollment in higher education, particularly at private institutions has seen tremendous changes in a short period of time. Changes in perspectives toward the value of a college degree, along with economic and social factors, have contributed to the difficulty of discovering relationships affecting enrollment.…
Brown, Christina M; Olkhov, Yevgeniy M; Bailey, Veronika S; Daniels, Emily R
The current study tested whether men and women receive different degrees of social punishment for violating norms of emotional expression. Participants watched videos of male and female targets (whose reactions were pre-tested to be equivalent in expressivity and valence) viewing either a positive or negative slideshow, with their emotional reaction to the slideshow manipulated to be affectively congruent, affectively incongruent, or flat. Participants then rated the target on a number of social evaluation measures. Displaying an incongruent emotional expression, relative to a congruent one, harmed judgments of women more than men. Women are expected to be more emotionally expressive than men, making an incongruent expression more deviant for women. These results highlight the importance of social norms in construing another person's emotion displays, which can subsequently determine acceptance or rejection of that person.
Shenggang Yang; Heng Ye; Qi Zhu
Peer-firm strategies are a critical factor for corporate finance, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the main trend for evaluating the behavior of firms. On the basis of the connection between peer strategy and CSR, this paper explores the CSR strategies employed by a sample of Chinese firms during the 2008–2015 period. Our two main empirical findings are as follows. First, the CSR strategies of firms have a positive effect on their CSR behavior. Second, when there is the CSR gap be...
Tang Mui Joo; Chan Eang Teng
The use of social media has become more defined. It has been widely used for the purpose of business. More marketers are now using social media as tools to enhance their businesses. Whereas on the other hand, there are more and more people spending their time through mobile apps to be engaged in the social media sites like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and others. Social media has even become common in Public Relations (PR). It has become number one platform for creating and sharing content. In ...
Schruijer, S.G.L.; Stephenson, G.S.
This paper looks back on the trends and developments in and of the Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology since its inception twenty years ago. We review to what extent the aims that were originally set for JCASP have been fulfilled. The trends in nationality of authors, themes of
The objective of this article is the examination of special aspects of youth socialization. This article is based on results of research of «Faculty habitus» and socialization of students in a classical university (a case study of the faculty of social sciences of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod).; official statistics; materials published in contemporary scientific literature. The author considers the main youth socialization trends, which depends on IT and mass media influenc...
Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter
Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Feb 1, 2018 ... Keywords: Social media, Class interaction, ODL system, Education, ... caused in both private and public working sectors ... The Role of Social Media in ODL Educational ... and others facilitate academic relationship .... who had also been yearning for education upgrading enrolled for their choice programs.
While the issue of plagiarism was not specifically addressed by this study, it is possible that the N-map trends portrayed by this research emerge in part because some students have used past memoirs as templates, possibly including indirect or direct copying. For this reason, the research concluded that while the majority ...
Mónica de Martino Bermúdez
Full Text Available This article synthesizes some reflections about the future of Social Work as a profession in Uruguay, based on the identification of certain problems that are of concern to the authors. Although they work in different professional activities and at different educational levels, the three share a certain perspective about tendencies observed in Social Work in Uruguay and believe they have some responses. Based on a dialog with the Sociology of Professions and theories of Pierre Bourdieu, the authors demonstrate that Social Work as a "field" as understood by this author, is clearly in an aging process that is expressed in a professional "habitus" that has little harmony with its social-historical time. In light of questions about the responsibility of the academic sector in the reproduction of this "habitus" and about the challenges to the profile of the students of Social Work, the authors map analyses and propose certain lines of interpretation.
Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord
The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure
Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond
The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.
Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.
Mangunsong, N. I.
The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.
Williamson, Timothy J; Thomas, KaMala S; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Stanton, Annette L
Socially disconnected individuals have worse health than those who feel socially connected. The mechanisms through which social disconnection influences physiological and psychological outcomes warrant study. The current study tested whether experimental manipulations of social exclusion, relative to inclusion, influenced subsequent cardiovascular (CV) and affective reactivity to socially evaluative stress. Young adults (N = 81) were assigned through block randomization to experience either social exclusion or inclusion, using a standardized computer-based task (Cyberball). Immediately after exposure to Cyberball, participants either underwent a socially evaluative stressor or an active control task, based on block randomization. Physiological activity (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR)) and state anxiety were assessed throughout the experiment. Excluded participants evidenced a significant increase in cardiovascular and affective responses to a socially evaluative stressor. Included participants who underwent the stressor evidenced similar increases in anxiety, but systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate did not change significantly in response to the stressor. Results contribute to the understanding of physiological consequences of social exclusion. Further investigation is needed to test whether social inclusion can buffer CV stress reactivity, which would carry implications for how positive social factors may protect against the harmful effects of stress.
Feb 1, 2018 ... The ideal mass education to improve literacy rate, which has been identified as ... Internet and social media, which today have a significant place both in ..... education: Real access or marketing ploy? The International Review ...
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gotlieb, Rebecca
Social-affective neuroscience is revealing that human brain development is inherently social--our very nature is organized by nurture. To explore the implications for human development and education, we present a series of interdisciplinary studies documenting individual and cultural variability in the neurobiological correlates of emotional…
The recent trend of democratization and the advancement in the information and communication technology have created a lot of awareness on the global development towards the social media. This situation has recently attracted a huge interest from researchers particularly in the field of social sciences. The emergence of ...
Information spreads fast, but even faster with the use of social media. For instance, if one goes to twitter and searches "Farm Bill" it can be seen that many people have tweeted about the recent passing of the Farm Bill and re-tweeted information about this. This increased the attention given to this bill as seen by the hundreds of tweets on this…
Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.
Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M
Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i.e. pig:feeder ratio) have been documented soundly. An agent-based model was developed to explore how interactions among social factors and behavioural strategies can affect various feeding and social interaction patterns differently under competitive situations. Model results show that pig and diet characteristics interact with group size and affect daily feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake and feeding time) and conflicts around the feeder. The level of competition can cause a turning point in feeding and social interaction patterns. Beyond a certain point of competition, meal-based (e.g. meal frequency) and social interaction patterns (e.g. displacements) are determined mainly by behavioural strategies. The average daily feeding time can be used to predict the group size at which this turning point occurs. Under the model's assumptions, social facilitation was relatively unimportant in the causation of behavioural patterns in pigs. To validate our model, simulated patterns were compared with empirical patterns in conventionally housed pigs. Similarities between empirical and model patterns support the model results. Our model can be used as a tool in further research for studying the effects of social factors and group dynamics on individual variation in feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs, as well as in other animal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hohmeyer, O.; Ottinger, R.L.
The social or external costs of energy have received a high degree of internatinal attention since the publication of the first empirical results in 1988. Possible global climate change and the call for a sustainable future of mankind have put the question of social costs onto the agenda of many national and international converences like the 'Earth Summit' in Rio 1992. A scientific discussion has been sparked off, searching for the best methodoligical approaches and reliable empirical data. An overview of this discussion was given by the report on the 1st international workshop published in 1991. This book reports on the 2nd international workshop on the subject and gives a broad overview of the discussion in the 25 papers presented. It is the most comprehensive picture of this subject matter avvailable. (orig.)
Wastell, David; White, Sue
Existing information technology systems in much of UK social care have been designed to serve the interests of the bureaucracy rather than supporting professional practice or improving services to the public. The ill-starred Integrated Children's System in statutory children's services is typical. The Integrated Children's System is a system for form-filling, micro-managing professional practice through an enforced regime of standard processes and time scales. In this article, we argue against this dominant design. We provide several examples where technology has enabled alternative modes of support for professional work, based on socio-technical principles. One such system is Patchwork, which describes itself as a 'Facebook for Social Work'; its aim is to support multi-professional teams working with vulnerable families. © The Author(s) 2013.
Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.; Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti
Research with a diverse array of organizations in the public and private sectors has documented a common set of trends affecting organizations and their human capital in the 21st century. Similar trends have been identified as important for Extension organizations and the Cooperative Extension System. It is important to determine if such trends…
Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for
Альфия Равилевна Вагапова
Full Text Available The article studies various socialization trends in the Russian society and the use of the diachronic approach in the study of socialization. It presents a description and the idea of the main socialization trends and studies the reason why they appeared. A number of methodologies and techniques was used to detect the most popular trends and values in teenage, youth and young adult social environment, which are: 1 - social success and self-presentation (the study of the teenagers’ ideas of social success (n=40 has shown that like adults teenagers search the information space for successful models of self-presentation, which could lead to good social standing in the future; 2 - professional success (the study of the views of psychology students on their future career (n=51 showed the demand for successful young professionals existing in the society and possible solutions to the controversial problems and difficulties of present-day Russian society; 3 - the choice of the sphere of self-fulfillment (the author presents comparative data on family values among the sampling of students and young workers (n=56, studies the trends of self-fulfillment among the youth in various aspects of life and discovers that family is only viewed as one of the numerous opportunities and is less important than successful career. The author concludes that socialization is inseparable from the person’s social activity, personal identity and self-fulfillment in the society. The results of the study can be of practical use for psychological consultants and for devising socialization programmes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-60
Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph
Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due
Easton, Stephanie; Morton, Katherine; Tappy, Zara; Francis, Daniella; Dennison, Laura
Social media use has become ubiquitous in the lives of many people, especially young adults. A popular recent trend emerging on social media is that of posting and following 'Fitspirational' content - material that purports to motivate and showcase healthy lifestyle habits, particularly relating to exercise and diet. There is very limited existing literature on how engaging with this type of content influences people's psychological and physical heath. Initial studies have focused on concerns over potential negative effects on psychological wellbeing including body image, self-esteem and eating disorders. We aimed to address a gap in the literature for exploratory research on this topic from the perspective of users. We used a qualitative approach to explore how people experience viewing Fitspiration on social media including why and how they engage with this material and how they perceive that it affects their thoughts, emotions, behaviour and health. We recruited 20 young adults (14 females, 6 males, aged 18-25) who self-declared themselves to be Fitspiration followers to participate in either focus groups or individual interviews. We asked detailed, open-ended questions about their motivations for following Fitspiration, experiences of viewing this content and its perceived impact. We used inductive thematic analysis to derive themes that represented common and salient features of the data set. Four main themes were developed: 1) A tool with the potential to support healthy living, 2) Unrealistic, untrustworthy content, 3) Negative effects on emotional wellbeing, and 4) Vulnerability and protective factors. Following Fitspirational posts on social media can provide young people with knowledge and motivation that may support healthy lifestyle behaviours. However, a range of harms also appeared to arise from Fitspiration viewing ranging from minor annoyances and frustrations to more meaningful negative effects on psychological & physical health. These negative
Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the size and trend of employment in the informal sector as affected during the recent years by the crisis and by showing the relation with informal economy. The paper is structured on three parts. The first part focuses on the concepts and methodology popular and recommended by the international organizations together with the ones applied for the estimations presented in the paper. It brings information on the conceptual framework endorsed by International Labour Office (ILO on the 15-th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (15th ICLS - on informal sector (which was subsequently included in the revised international System of National Accounts, SNA 1993 and employment in informal sector - and on 17th ICLS, on informal employment. Methods used for obtaining the estimates for Romania figures on informal economy and employment are treated. For the informal economy the method used by National Statistical Institute of Romania (INS for estimating the underground economy and own calculations were used. For estimating the employment in informal sector a method developed by the authors was applied which consists, on short, on reconciliation between demand and supply available from statistical sources. Second part is dedicated to the analysis on the estimates produced, with observations on the trends induced by the crisis on informal economy and employment. The second also deals with several characteristics and dimensions of the employment in informal sector by gender and economic activities as well as the relation with several macroeconomic and social indicators. Finally, the third and last part proposes the direction of action and policies aimed to combat and reduce the informal sector and to transfer it into the light, visible side, i.e. the formal sector.
Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.
Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.
Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W.
Background Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the m...
Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.
Rieder, Evan A; Mu, Euphemia W; Brauer, Jeremy A
Though still accounting for a small fraction of all cosmetic procedures in the United States, men are an emerging and rapidly expanding demographic in the field of aesthetic medicine. In this article we highlight the trends contributing to the rise of male aesthetic procedures in dermatology, touching on social influences, psychological motivations, and treatment outcomes.
Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…
Hesslinger, Vera M; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hecht, Heiko
The present study is a first attempt to experimentally test the impact of two specific social factors, namely social conformity pressure and a sense of being watched, on participants' judgments of the artistic quality of aesthetic objects. We manipulated conformity pressure with a test form in which a photograph of each stimulus was presented together with unanimously low (downward pressure) or high quality ratings (upward pressure) of three would-be previous raters. Participants' sense of being watched was manipulated by testing each of them in two settings, one of which contained an eyespots stimulus. Both social factors significantly affected the participants' judgments-unexpectedly, however, with conformity pressure only working in the downward direction and eyespots leading to an overall downward shift in participants' judgments. Our findings indicate the relevance of including explicit and implicit social factors in aesthetics research, thus also reminding us of the limitations of overly reductionist approaches to investigating aesthetic perception and experience.
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian...... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres......’ expression of negative affect. We found distinct patterns of coconstructing the interaction that point to different normative ori- entations and communicative genres that can be considered to be specific to the two sociocultural contexts. These communicative genres were found to be in line with broader...
Full Text Available This paper presents a learning environment where a mining algorithm is used to learn patterns of interaction with the user and to represent these patterns in a scheme called item descriptors. The learning environment keeps theoretical information about subjects, as well as tools and exercises where the student can put into practice the knowledge gained. One of the main purposes of the project is to stimulate collaborative learning through the interaction of students with different levels of knowledge. The students' actions, as well as their interactions, are monitored by the system and used to find patterns that can guide the search for students that may play the role of a tutor. Such patterns are found with a particular learning algorithm and represented in item descriptors. The paper presents the educational environment, the representation mechanism and learning algorithm used to mine social-affective data in order to create a recommendation model of tutors.
Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.
Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.
Firat, Mehmet; Altinpulluk, Hakan; Kilinç, Hakan; Büyük, Köksal
The aim of this study is to reveal Open Education related social media usage in Turkey through social network analyses. To this end, the most widely used social media network in Turkey, Facebook, was chosen. All the pages and groups created on Facebook related to Open Education were found. A total of 207 groups and 521 pages were accessed and…
Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Cascaes, Andreia Morales
to analyze the trends in the concession of social security sick pay for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, from 2006 to 2013, in Brazil. time series study using data of workers insured by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (INSS); Prais-Winsten generalized linear regressions were used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC). social security benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer presented significant increase (APC=9.0%; 95%CI 1.4; 17.4); benefits for other parts of the mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx, floor of mouth and palate have also shown significant increase; the areas of trade (5.5%) and manufacturing (5.2%) were the most prevalent activities; there was a high proportion of fields in blank in the information systems (average of 72.9%). trends in occupational benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer showed significant increase.
Daskalopoulou, E G; Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Souery, D; Blairy, S; Massat, I; Mendlewicz, J; Stefanis, C N
Self-esteem (SE) and social adjustment (SA) are often impaired during the course of affective disorders; this impairment is associated with suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate SE and SA in unipolar or bipolar patients in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, especially the presence of suicidality (ideation and/or attempt). Forty-four patients, 28 bipolar and 16 unipolar, in remission for at least 3 months, and 50 healthy individuals were examined through a structured clinical interview. SE and SA were assessed by the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the social adjustment scale, respectively. The results have shown that bipolar patients did not differ from controls in terms of SE, while unipolar patients had lower SE than bipolars and controls. No significant differences in the mean SA scores were found between the three groups. Suicidality during depression was associated only in bipolar patients with lower SE at remission; similar but not as pronounced was the association of suicidality with SA. It is concluded that low SE lasting into remission seems to be related to the expression of suicidality during depressive episodes of bipolar patients, while no similar pattern is evident in unipolar patients.
McInnis, Opal A; McQuaid, Robyn J; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on oxytocin-related genes, specifically the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs53576 and the CD38 rs3796863 variants, have been associated with alterations in prosocial behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 476) to examine associations between the OXTR and CD38 polymorphisms and unsupportive social interactions and mood states. Results revealed no association between perceived levels of unsupportive social interactions and the OXTR polymorphism. However, A carriers of the CD38 polymorphism, a variant previously associated with elevated oxytocin, reported greater perceived peer unsupportive interactions compared to CC carriers. As expected, perceived unsupportive interactions from peers was associated with greater negative affect, which was moderated by the CD38 polymorphism. Specifically, this relation was stronger among CC carriers of the CD38 polymorphism (a variant thought to be linked to lower oxytocin). When examining whether the OXTR polymorphism moderated the relation between unsupportive social interactions from peers and negative affect there was a trend toward significance, however, this did not withstand multiple testing corrections. These findings are consistent with the perspective that a variant on an oxytocin polymorphism that may be tied to lower oxytocin is related to poor mood outcomes in association with negative social interactions. At the same time, having a genetic constitution presumed to be associated with higher oxytocin was related to increased perceptions of unsupportive social interactions. These seemingly paradoxical findings could be related to previous reports in which variants associated with prosocial behaviors were also tied to relatively more effective coping styles to deal with challenges.
Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT, through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells. Silencing of the ESCRT factor, Vps36, compromised exosome secretion but not the secretion of vesicles derived from nanotubes. The exosomes enter recipient trypanosome cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that cells secreting exosomes or purified intact exosomes affect social motility (SoMo. This study demonstrates that exosomes are delivered to trypanosome cells and can change their migration. Exosomes are used to transmit stress signals for communication between parasites.
Full Text Available This essay describes the phenomenon of panic from both neurological and affective points of view. It draws on the work of Japp Panksepp, who argues for the importance of distinguishing between fear as a response to physical threat, and panic as a response to the loss of the attachment object. While fear flees, panic, perhaps contrary to appearances, seeks security. This view of panic throws a new light on classic analyses of crowd behaviour, among them those of Le Bon, Tarde and Canetti, but it also has implications for how panic takes hold via electronic media, and for how outbreaks may be calmed. Finally, the essay argues that mediatised panic is a distraction from fear—in which anything at all may represent physical danger, but which at least offers a range of possible responses for addressing the problem, and offers the opportunity for the transformative work performed by cognition on affect. Here the paper draws on the script theory of Silvan Tomkins to provoke questions of the social usefulness of fear in the face of some current arguments to the contrary.
Full Text Available This article critically interrogates the twin notions of social sustainability and activities grouped under the term social innovation in order to argue that sustainability and innovation are schizoid modes of representing what Deleuze calls “the cliché” (the authority of the same as “the new” (difference that short-circuit any real possibility of social transformation. I argue that the kinds of solutions presented by social innovation to the problems of social sustainability in the context of a neoliberal governmentality are sustainable only in the sense that they are a model for a more collective mode of existence in an individualized realm that reciprocally supports a realm in which collective responsibility is individualized. In other words, this neo-liberal diagram catches and captures creative energies in service to the status quo. To illustrate these ideas I turn to Dutch filmmaker Bregtje van der Haak’s 2010 documentary, California Dreaming, in which she compares the popular response to the 2008 financial crisis by focusing on several families across the transatlantic transcontinental divide. She interviews Europeans who blame the state as the source of the economic problem, and thus expect the state to fix it. And she interviews Americans who, reflecting on the “American dream,” reveal their faith in meritocracy, blame themselves, and thus look to their own families and communities for solutions. Their respective stories tell us how different neo-liberal diagrams structure and modulate subjectivity and its relation to the social, as well as the emerging ways in which this relation is being framed. If, as Deleuze writes, “there is no diagram that does not also include, besides the points which it connects up, certain relatively free points, points of creativity, change and resistance,” how can analysis of these shifty subjective-social structures point us to points of resistance" (Foucault? And why is it crucial that
Fernández Peña, Emilio
Table of contents : 1: Introduction. - 2 : Sociodemographic data of social networking sites. - 3 : The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games on Facebook, Twitter and Orkut. - 4 : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games communication strategies on Facebook and Twitter. - 5 : Sport organizations social networking strategies : case study analysis. - 6 : Olympic athletes and social media use during a non olympic-period. - 7. The Olympic Games, NBA and FC Barcelona on Facebook : content and fan participa...
Full Text Available The research is devoted to the study of the features and trends of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The main objective of the study of social responsibility issues is to systematize and study the prospects for the development and evaluation of corporate social responsibility in Ukraine, as well as to study the peculiarities of its accounting reflection in the accounting system. In the course of the study, the current state of social projects in Ukraine was studied, as well as the main obstacles and perspectives of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The research defines the features of socially responsible investment in order to identify the main areas of improvement of the information provision of formation of social reporting indicators. The article proposes the bookkeeping for directions of enterprise’s social activity in clearly defined accounts of accounting, regardless of the level of its regulation, followed by the development of analytical sections of accounting in the relevant areas of social policy.
Full Text Available The paper analyses several key features of the changing landscape of modern welfare states, the major the social forces driving this change, and how change is pertinent to the future of social work practice. The social forces driving change include structural factors such as the demographic transition and globalisation of the economy, as well as sociopolitical variables that involve an understanding of the unanticipated effects of social policies and the increased value attributed to the private sector. The central characteristics of change include a shift in policies away from the protection of labor and toward the promotion of work and the increasing use of the private sector for the production and delivery of social services. The privatisation of social welfare and its implications for social work practice are examined in the light of the challenges in negotiating service contracts.Este artículo analiza varios aspectos claves de la evolución del panorama de los estados de bienestar modernos, las principales fuerzas sociales que impulsan este cambio, y cómo el cambio es pertinente para el futuro de la práctica del Trabajo Social. Las fuerzas sociales que impulsan el cambio son factores estructurales tales como la transición demográfica y la globalización de la economía, así como variables socio-políticas que implican una comprensión de los efectos no previstos de las políticas sociales y el aumento del valor atribuido al sector privado. Las características centrales del cambio incluyen una modificación de las políticas, que se desplazan desde la protección del trabajo hacia la promoción del trabajo, y el uso cada vez mayor del sector privado en la producción y prestación de servicios sociales. La privatización de la seguridad social y sus implicaciones para la práctica del trabajo social se examinan a la luz de los retos en la negociación de la contratación de servicios.
Full Text Available Humans are substantially a social species. Effective mental treatment cannot be obtained without addressing social behavior. Social cognition refers to the mental processes underlying social interactions, which allow individuals to make sense of the other peoples' behavior, to decipher emotions on their faces, and to draw conclusions about their intentions. The core domains of this multifaceted concept are theory of mind, social cue perception, attributional style and emotion perception/ processing. The amygdala, orbital frontal cortex and temporal cortex areas are typically activated during the processing of information within social-emotional context. The aforementioned brain areas are recognized as the major components of the so-called 'social brain'- specialized for the social interactions in humans. Adequate perceiving and processing of the social information is essential for an effective social functioning, which becomes obvious when it goes awry. Various psychiatric disorders are characterized by social cognitive deficits, among which schizophrenias, depression-anxiety and autism spectrum disorders were most broadly studied to date. Growing evidence suggest that these deficits underlie poor functional outcomes in patients with mental health impairments and have an important role in the initiation and maintenance of the disorders' symptoms. One of the most important goals of social neuroscience research is to provide a treatment intervention that will improve patients' social cognitive skills and the functional outcome. All together, the present review aims to provide a contemporary overview of the concept of social cognition, to outline its relation to psychopathology, and to discuss the implications for clinical practice and treatment.
Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Choi, Hae-Yoon; Murray, Brendan D; Rajaram, Suparna
In daily life, emotional events are often discussed with others. The influence of these social interactions on the veracity of emotional memories has rarely been investigated. The authors (Choi, Kensinger, & Rajaram Memory and Cognition, 41, 403-415, 2013) previously demonstrated that when the categorical relatedness of information is controlled, emotional items are more accurately remembered than neutral items. The present study examined whether emotion would continue to improve the accuracy of memory when individuals discussed the emotional and neutral events with others. Two different paradigms involving social influences were used to investigate this question and compare evidence. In both paradigms, participants studied stimuli that were grouped into conceptual categories of positive (e.g., celebration), negative (e.g., funeral), or neutral (e.g., astronomy) valence. After a 48-hour delay, recognition memory was tested for studied items and categorically related lures. In the first paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when memory was tested individually or in a collaborative triad. In the second paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when a prior retrieval session had occurred individually or with a confederate who supplied categorically related lures. In both of these paradigms, emotional stimuli were remembered more accurately than were neutral stimuli, and this pattern was preserved when social interaction occurred. In fact, in the first paradigm, there was a trend for collaboration to increase the beneficial effect of emotion on memory accuracy, and in the second paradigm, emotional lures were significantly less susceptible to the "social contagion" effect. Together, these results demonstrate that emotional memories can be more accurate than nonemotional ones even when events are discussed with others (Experiment 1) and even when that discussion introduces misinformation (Experiment 2).
Mukkamalla, Shiva Kumar R; Naseri, Hussain M; Kim, Byung M; Katz, Steven C; Armenio, Vincent A
Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) includes cancers arising from the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. The etiology and pathogenesis of CCA remain poorly understood. This is the first study investigating both incidence patterns of CCA from 1973 through 2012 and demographic, clinical, and treatment variables affecting survival of patients with CCA. Patients and Methods: Using the SEER database, age-adjusted incidence rates were evaluated from 1973-2012 using SEER*Stat software. A retrospective cohort of 26,994 patients diagnosed with CCA from 1973-2008 was identified for survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to perform multivariate survival analysis. Results: Overall incidence of CCA increased by 65% from 1973-2012. Extrahepatic CCA (ECC) remained more common than intrahepatic CCA (ICC), whereas the incidence rates for ICC increased by 350% compared with a 20% increase seen with ECC. Men belonging to non-African American and non-Caucasian ethnicities had the highest incidence rates of CCA. This trend persisted throughout the study period, although African Americans and Caucasians saw 50% and 59% increases in incidence rates, respectively, compared with a 9% increase among other races. Median overall survival (OS) was 8 months in patients with ECC compared with 4 months in those with ICC. Our survival analysis found Hispanic women to have the best 5-year survival outcome ( P better survival outcomes compared with ICC ( P better survival outcomes compared with others ( P <.0001). Conclusions: This is the most up-to-date study of CCA from the SEER registry that shows temporal patterns of increasing incidence of CCA across different races, sexes, and ethnicities. We identified age, sex, race, marital status, income, smoking status, anatomic location of CCA, tumor grade, tumor stage, radiation, and surgery as independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with CCA. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient
Full Text Available In developing countries, the government which has limited budget for public infrastructure development should choose which infrastructure should be developed. Most countries decided to build more economic infrastructure than social infrastructure because former have direct economic impact for society. The involvement of private sector in public infrastructure financing has been accomplished for decades in the form of Public Private Partnership (PPP. However, the implementation is also more often for economic infrastructure, but some countries have started to implement PPP for social infrastructure (education, healthcare, care of the elderly, etc. when they think to add human capital and improve quality of life. This study attempts to review a set of public private partnership implementation models relevant for social infrastructure development in some countries. Moreover, this study also more explores to the challenges and issues in different areas of social infrastructure. The outcome is to show a trend public-private partnership for social infrastructure in some successful projects from different countries. The challenges and issues about implementation public-private partnership for social infrastructure also be a part of the results from this study. Finally, the study has a valuable input for implementation of PPP on social infrastructure in Indonesia.
Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo
Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.
Full Text Available As the first of the Boomers reach age 65 in 2011, it is of great interest to identify trends in disability to better predict future needs and resources within community care. This paper uses data from four national datasets to investigate trends in disability rates and examine socio-demographic characteristics associated with disability. Results show a decrease in the overall disability prevalence rate. However, no significant trend in levels of disability was identified for the period 1994/95–2000/01 when controlling for socio-demographic variables, suggesting stability in the probability of being disabled over time.
Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ferrara, Emilio; Uppu, Sree Priyanka; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B
As e-cigarette use rapidly increases in popularity, data from online social systems (Twitter, Instagram, Google Web Search) can be used to capture and describe the social and environmental context in which individuals use, perceive, and are marketed this tobacco product. Social media data may serve as a massive focus group where people organically discuss e-cigarettes unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias, captured in near real time and at low costs. This study documents e-cigarette-related discussions on Twitter, describing themes of conversations and locations where Twitter users often discuss e-cigarettes, to identify priority areas for e-cigarette education campaigns. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between social bots and human users when attempting to understand public health-related behaviors and attitudes. E-cigarette-related posts on Twitter (N=6,185,153) were collected from December 24, 2016, to April 21, 2017. Techniques drawn from network science were used to determine discussions of e-cigarettes by describing which hashtags co-occur (concept clusters) in a Twitter network. Posts and metadata were used to describe where geographically e-cigarette-related discussions in the United States occurred. Machine learning models were used to distinguish between Twitter posts reflecting attitudes and behaviors of genuine human users from those of social bots. Odds ratios were computed from 2x2 contingency tables to detect if hashtags varied by source (social bot vs human user) using the Fisher exact test to determine statistical significance. Clusters found in the corpus of hashtags from human users included behaviors (eg, #vaping), vaping identity (eg, #vapelife), and vaping community (eg, #vapenation). Additional clusters included products (eg, #eliquids), dual tobacco use (eg, #hookah), and polysubstance use (eg, #marijuana). Clusters found in the corpus of hashtags from social bots included health (eg
Ferrara, Emilio; Uppu, Sree Priyanka; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B
Background As e-cigarette use rapidly increases in popularity, data from online social systems (Twitter, Instagram, Google Web Search) can be used to capture and describe the social and environmental context in which individuals use, perceive, and are marketed this tobacco product. Social media data may serve as a massive focus group where people organically discuss e-cigarettes unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias, captured in near real time and at low costs. Objective This study documents e-cigarette–related discussions on Twitter, describing themes of conversations and locations where Twitter users often discuss e-cigarettes, to identify priority areas for e-cigarette education campaigns. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between social bots and human users when attempting to understand public health–related behaviors and attitudes. Methods E-cigarette–related posts on Twitter (N=6,185,153) were collected from December 24, 2016, to April 21, 2017. Techniques drawn from network science were used to determine discussions of e-cigarettes by describing which hashtags co-occur (concept clusters) in a Twitter network. Posts and metadata were used to describe where geographically e-cigarette–related discussions in the United States occurred. Machine learning models were used to distinguish between Twitter posts reflecting attitudes and behaviors of genuine human users from those of social bots. Odds ratios were computed from 2x2 contingency tables to detect if hashtags varied by source (social bot vs human user) using the Fisher exact test to determine statistical significance. Results Clusters found in the corpus of hashtags from human users included behaviors (eg, #vaping), vaping identity (eg, #vapelife), and vaping community (eg, #vapenation). Additional clusters included products (eg, #eliquids), dual tobacco use (eg, #hookah), and polysubstance use (eg, #marijuana). Clusters found in the corpus of hashtags
... Do Social Ties Affect Our Health? Exploring the Biology of Relationships En español Send us your comments ... neighbors, or others, social connections can influence our biology and well-being. Wide-ranging research suggests that ...
Ishii, Akira; Kawahata, Yasuko; Goto, Ujo
Proposal of market theory to put the effect of social media into account is presented in this paper. The standard market share model in economics is employed as a market theory and the effect of social media is considered quantitatively using the mathematical model for hit phenomena. Using this model, we can estimate the effect of social media in market share as a simple market model simulation using our proposed method.
Działek, J.; Biernacki, W.; Bokwa, A.
Various aspects of beliefs, behaviour and expectations of at-risk populations were analysed in four case study localities in southern Poland that were affected by flooding in 1997 and 2001. They represent localities of different sizes and are characterised by different paths of historical development. Two of them are deep-rooted communities with dense, strong family and neighbourhood ties, while the other two experienced an almost total replacement of their population due to decisions taken after World War II and still suffer from less developed social networks. Historical events also resulted in the disruption of local memories of flooding and transmission of knowledge about natural hazards. A questionnaire survey was conducted in late autumn 2006, followed by structured telephone interviews and focus group interviews in spring 2008. The results of the survey and interviews were analysed with reference to the social capacity framework and its five dimensions: knowledge, motivational, network, economic and governance capacities. Network capacities, that is resources of bonding and bridging social capital, were considered a key notion when analysing and interpreting the results. The differences in the local resources and abilities available in each of the localities to prepare a response to natural hazards were revealed. Consequently, challenges faced in the process of building and strengthening social capacity were identified as well as ways to address these challenges. It was concluded that there are general trends and tendencies that need to be considered in risk management strategies, however the different starting points of each case study community calls for different means and approaches, as well as producing somewhat different expected outcomes.
Tsai, Jeanne L
Over the last decade, researchers have increasingly demonstrated that ideal affect-the affective states that people value and ideally want to feel-shapes different aspects of daily life. Here I briefly review Affect Valuation Theory (AVT), which integrates ideal affect into existing models of affect and emotion by identifying the causes and consequences of variation in ideal affect. I then describe recent research that applies AVT to the valuation of negative states as well as more complex states, examines how ideal affect shapes momentary affective experience, suggests that ideal affect has both direct and indirect effects on health, and illustrates that people's ideal affect shapes how they judge and respond to others. Finally, I discuss the implications of cultural and individual differences in ideal affect for clinical, educational, work, and leisure settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew
The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals in realistic social interactions-an approach termed "hyperscanning." Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain's role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend from four aspects: hyperscanning apparatus, experimental task, quantification method, and theoretical interpretation. We also give four suggestions for future research: (a) electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy are useful tools by which to explore the interactive brain in more ecological settings; (b) games are an appropriate method to simulate daily life interactions; (c) transfer entropy may be an important method by which to quantify directed exchange of information between brains; and (d) more explanation is needed of the results of interbrain synchronization itself. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the "STEM" workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications.
Even though well-being in the domain of school is important for mental health, time trend research of this topic is limited. In particular, there is a lack of research investigating differences between ethnic minority and majority students, and there is a lack of literature empirically exploring possible explanations for the time trends in school well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate time trends in school well-being among adolescents in Oslo, explore moderations by gender and...
Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa
Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…
Calcutt, Sarah E.; Burke, Kimberly; de Waal, Frans B. M.
Oxytocin has been suggested as a treatment to promote positive social interactions in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, it is difficult to test this effect outside of the laboratory in realistic social situations. One way to resolve this issue is to study behavioral changes in closely related species with complex social relationships, such as chimpanzees. Here, we use captive, socially housed chimpanzees to evaluate the effects of oxytocin in a socially complex environment. After administering intranasal oxytocin or a placebo to an individual chimpanzee (total n = 8), she was returned to her social group. An experimenter blind to the condition measured the subject's social behavior. We failed to find a behavioral difference between conditions. As one of the goals for oxytocin administration as a treatment for ASD is increasing prosocial behaviors during ‘real world’ encounters, it is problematic that we failed to detect behavioral changes in our closest living relatives. However, our null findings may be related to methodological challenges such as determining an effective dose of oxytocin for chimpanzees and how long oxytocin takes to cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, more research on intranasal oxytocin dosing and uptake are needed to continue exploring whether oxytocin changes social behavior in naturalistic settings and as a treatment for ASD. PMID:28845444
Ybema, J.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Heesink, J.A.M.
This study examined the effects of social comparison among 172 individuals who had recently lost their jobs in a collective dismissal of employees. A part of a fictitious interview with another fired person was presented to the participants. This interview contained social comparison information on
Losiak, Wladyslaw; Blaut, Agata; Klosowska, Joanna; Slowik, Natalia
Social anxiety is characterized by increased emotional reactivity to social stimuli, but results of studies focusing on affective reactions of socially anxious subjects in the situation of social exposition are inconclusive, especially in the case of endocrinological measures of affect. This study was designed to examine individual differences in endocrinological and affective reactions to social exposure as well as in performance on a speech task in a group of students (n = 44) comprising subjects with either high or low levels of social anxiety. Measures of salivary cortisol and positive and negative affect were taken before and after an impromptu speech. Self-ratings and observer ratings of performance were also obtained. Cortisol levels and negative affect increased in both groups after the speech task, and positive affect decreased; however, group × affect interactions were not significant. Assessments conducted after the speech task revealed that highly socially anxious participants had lower observer ratings of performance while cortisol increase and changes in self-reported affect were not related to performance. Socially anxious individuals do not differ from nonanxious individuals in affective reactions to social exposition, but reveal worse performance at a speech task. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
sharing service Instagram in 2012 and the mobile messaging app WhatsApp in 2014 (Rushe, 2014). These acquisitions, and others like it, suggest that...networking/information/5-niche-social-networks.htm Rushe, D. (2014) WhatsApp : Facebook acquires messaging service in $19bn deal. Retrieved from http...www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/feb/19/facebook-buys- whatsapp -16bn-deal Shepard, M. (2013). Terror groups turn to Twitter, Facebook, YouTube
Zafarmand, A Hamid; Sabour, Siamak
Positive social behavior of student is an important factor in the integrity of educational quality. Unbalanced behavior can disrupt the progress of students in learning. The present study evaluates the effect of social factors on education quality of dental and medical students. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 227 randomly selected students (109 dental and 118 medical). The questionnaire contained three domains of cultural collectivism, self-concept, and social adjustment adapted from California Test of Personality. It also included demographic questions like; field of study, gender and home city of residence. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version#19) software. Pearsons' correlation coefficient and independent t-test were used at the P-value of 0.05. Generally, girl students showed higher cultural collectivism (P=0.028) and social adjustment (P=0.04). On the contrary, boys were better in self-concept behavior (P=0.34). Home city of residence evidenced with no significant effect on any aspects of social attitudes of subjects. Pearsons' correlation coefficient test showed a weak correlation between cultural collectivism and self-concept (r=0.134, P=0.04) and between cultural collectivism and social adjustment, as well. (r=0.252, P=0.001) Independent t-test showed a significant difference between male and female students concerning cultural collectivism and social adjustment. Reliability of cultural collectivism, self-concept and social adjustment scales ranged from very good to moderate, α=0.83, α=0.63, and α=0.54 respectively. The results of this study indicated that female students show better cultural collectivism and social adjustment skills. It also proved that home city of residence has no significant effect upon social behavior of either medical or dental students.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.
Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'anna, Marcia
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). SNN (pInternet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.
Full Text Available As the first of the Boomers reach age 65 in 2011, it is of great interest to identify trends in disability to better predict future needs and resources within community care. This paper uses data from four national datasets to investigate trends in disability rates and examine socio-demographic characteristics associated with disability. Results show a decrease in the overall disability prevalence rate. However, no significant trend in levels of disability was identified for the period 1994/95–2000/01 when controlling for socio-demographic variables, suggesting stability in the probability of being disabled over time.
Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa
Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate
Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W
Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication
Wu, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hwang, Jan-Pan
Affect can significantly influence education/learning. Thus, understanding a learner's affect throughout the learning process is crucial for understanding motivation. In conventional education/learning research, learner motivation can be known through postevent self-reported questionnaires. With the advance of affective computing technology,…
This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.
Jao, Ying-Ling; Loken, Eric; MacAndrew, Margaret; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Kolanowski, Ann
Social interactions that lead to positive affect are fundamental to human well-being. However, individuals with dementia are challenged to achieve positive social interaction. It is unclear how social interactions influence affect in people with dementia. This study examined the association between social interactions and affect in nursing home residents with dementia. This repeated measures study used baseline data from a clinical trial in which 126 residents from 12 nursing homes were enrolled. Participants were video recorded twice daily on five days. Ratings of social interaction and affect were taken from the videotapes using the Interacting with People subscale of the Passivity in Dementia and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Apparent Affect Rating Scale. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Social interaction was significantly related to higher interest and pleasure at within- and between-person levels. Social interaction significantly predicted anxiety and sadness at the between-person level only. Residents with higher cognitive function also displayed greater pleasure. Greater interest and anxiety was evident during the afternoon hours. This study supports the impact of social interactions on positive and negative affect. Findings can guide intervention development, aimed at promoting positive social interactions and improving affect for people with dementia.
Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected
Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.
This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The
Birditt, Kira S; Manalel, Jasmine A; Sommers, Heidi; Luong, Gloria; Fingerman, Karen L
Older adults are often considered at risk for social isolation. Little is known, however, about how often older adults lack social contact (in person, phone, electronic) throughout the day, the implications of lacking contact (i.e., solitude), and whether the effects of solitude vary by the broader social context. Participants were from the Daily Experiences and Well-being Study (DEWS) which included 313 older adults (aged 65+) who completed baseline interviews followed by 5-6 days of ecological momentary assessments approximately every 3 hr. Individuals reported having no social contact (i.e., solitude) on 11% of the occasions. Solitude predicted lower negative and positive affect on those occasions. The solitude-negative affect link varied by social network quality. Solitude predicted lower negative affect among individuals with more conflictual social networks but not among those with less conflictual networks. Overall, solitude may serve as an adaptive strategy for individuals embedded in demanding or irritating social contexts.
Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher
Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)
Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.
This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The agent-based model is illustrated for the interaction between two persons. Simulation experiments for different kinds of scenarios help to understand how decisions can be affected by regulating the ...
Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico
This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.
Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.
Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.
Akçayir, Gökçe; Akçayir, Murat
In the current study, 247 articles dealing with the use of SNSs (social network sites) in education and published in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals up to 2015 were analysed. The articles' demographic (year, learner type, used SNS, major contributing countries, and academic discipline) and topic trends were determined. As a result…
Barreto, Jose E; Whitehair, Curtis L
The use of social media has become very instinctive to many. It has become part of a daily routine. Enhanced communication, liberated expressions of self, becoming updated with all the trends and news, and marketing promotion are only some of the reasons why most people use social media. Health care providers including physicians should take advantage of these platforms for professional purposes. Social media extends far beyond the famous platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram, used mostly for social connections. There are sites dedicated to serve professionals, for example, LinkedIn, or even physician-specific forums such as Sermo. The physical medicine and rehabilitation community has a forum (Phyzforum) created by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation to share questions, comments, and ideas. Moreover, there are broadcast media (Podcast) and blogging sites (WordPress) used by many physiatrists. Surveys show that physicians actively use an average of 2-4 hours of professional-leaning networking sites per week; for example, 44% of physicians use Sermo and 42% use LinkedIn. The participation also extends to more popular sites, with 40%, 25%, and 20% physician participation in YouTube, Blogging, and Twitter, respectively. There are numerous guidelines available for medical practitioners pertaining to professional use of social media. Strategies such as timing of postings and posting content as well as methods to maintain your online reputation are discussed. Various benefits and potential pitfalls with regards to social media use are also analyzed, including how to engage followers and addressing negative comments and reviews. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J
Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabich, María Agustina; Steinberg, Lorena
En un escenario marcado por la expansión de las tecnologías digitales, la globalización de la cultura y la emergencia de múltiples pantallas, el siguiente artículo se propone analizar ciertas estrategias discursivas del medio YouTube en general y del fenómeno youtuber en particular. Para efectuar dicho análisis, se tomará como principal marco teórico-metodológico la Teoría de los Discursos Sociales de Eliseo Verón (1993 ) –cuya preocupación se inscribe en los procesos sociales de produc...
information to new forms of communication that prompt instantaneous participatory dialogue. Seth Kreimer argues that the presence of social movements has...conflict occurrence.6 The fight for freedom and democracy has been a consistent feature of African politics, in countries long ruled by tyrannical...leaders. The Afrobarometer public opinion survey shows that the majority of Africans want democracy instead of one-party rule.7 Contrastingly, over
Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.
The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect the use of social networking Web sites. In doing so, this investigation focuses on two dimensions of social networking site use frequency (i.e., how often people use social networking sites) and amount (i.e., how much time people spend on social networks). Integrating the technology acceptance model with uses and gratification and other consumer characteristics, this study found that interpersonal utility, perceived ease of use, ...
Mustafa Latif Emek
In this study two concepts, social capital and reciprocity principles, have been introduced and their reciprocal relationship and affects also been discussed. Social Capital, an indispensable notion for the development of society from all aspects has a close relationship with reciprocity principle which regulates and forms relationship webs. In this study we firstly examined both from emergence point and sources of social capital concept which can also be entitled as social webs. Afterward...
Taliya Kh. Usmanova
Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of the article is study the current prerequisites and trends of the economic development of the Perm Region to formulate proposals and recommendations within the framework of the program for the long-term development of regional social and economic systems. The main hypothesis of the article is that the social and economic development of the Perm Region requires the creation of innovative ways to develop promising areas of business based on relevant trends and assumptions.Methods: the methodology of solving the tasks is based on the use of the method of dialectical research, methods of economic analysis, forecasting, situational and system analysis, expert assessments and analysis of empirical data.Results: the results of the work are to study the economic processes in the region, including indicators and indicators of the region's social and economic development, and further develop recommendations and proposals for the development of priority areas in project management and selection of optimal project planning models to ensure sustainable development of the region and its competitiveness.Conclusions and Relevance: priority goals for solving the current economic problems of the Perm Region are to increase the income of the population and increase the revenue of the regional budget. To increase the pace and ensure the stability of economic growth, increase the real income of citizens, achieve technological leadership, a consistent solution to a number of specific tasks is necessary. It is important that the implementation of economic policy should be based on building partnerships between public authorities and entrepreneurship, aimed at increasing the efficiency of companies and the development of the economy of the region.
McSweeney, Frances K.; Parks, Craig D.
We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ce...
Sutherland, John W.; Richter, Justin S.; Hutchins, Margot J.
performance are framed for different stakeholder groups with associated social needs. Methodology development as well as various challenges for social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) are further examined. Efforts to integrate social and another dimension of sustainability are considered, with attention......Manufacturing affects all three dimensions of sustainability: economy, environment, and society. This paper addresses the last of these dimensions. It explores social impacts identified by national level social indicators, frameworks, and principles. The effects of manufacturing on social...... to globalization challenges, including offshoring and reshoring. The paper concludes with a summary of key takeaways and promising directions for future work....
Shams, Soaleha; Amlani, Shahid; Buske, Christine; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert
The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood. Long social isolation increased locomotion and decreased shoal cohesion and anxiety in the open-field in adult. Additionally, both short and long social isolation reduced dopamine metabolite levels in response to social stimuli. Thus, early social isolation has lasting effects in zebrafish, and may be employed to generate zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Malaney, Gary D.; Berger, Joseph B.
As the country's racial/ethnic minority representation increases, colleges and universities have increasingly sought to diversify their enrollments in order to better prepare all students to live and work in a diverse democracy. However, diversification may negatively affect campus climate and undergraduate peer relations leading to both increased…
Erk, S.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto
Erk, Stefanie M.; Toet, Alexander; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto
Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Jansson, Bjarne
We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980-1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor's pensions, and total spending. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending.
Hooker, Christine I.; Tully, Laura M.; Verosky, Sara C.; Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Vinogradov, Sophia
Successful social interactions rely on the ability to make accurate judgments based on social cues as well as the ability to control the influence of internal or external affective information on those judgments. Prior research suggests that individuals with schizophrenia misinterpret social stimuli and this misinterpretation contributes to impaired social functioning. We tested the hypothesis that for people with schizophrenia social judgments are abnormally influenced by affective information. 23 schizophrenia and 35 healthy control participants rated the trustworthiness of faces following the presentation of neutral, negative (threat-related), or positive affective primes. Results showed that all participants rated faces as less trustworthy following negative affective primes compared to faces that followed neutral or positive primes. Importantly, this effect was significantly more pronounced for schizophrenia participants, suggesting that schizophrenia may be characterised by an exaggerated influence of negative affective information on social judgment. Furthermore, the extent that the negative affective prime influenced trustworthiness judgments was significantly associated with patients’ severity of positive symptoms, particularly feelings of persecution. These findings suggest that for people with schizophrenia negative affective information contributes to an interpretive bias, consistent with paranoid ideation, when judging the trustworthiness of others. This bias may contribute to social impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:20919787
Full Text Available Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection. We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.
Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun
Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.
Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David
Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers.
Roger Keller Celeste
Full Text Available We analyze bibliometric trends of topics relevant to the epidemiologic research of social determinants of health. A search of the PubMed database, covering the period 1985-2007, was performed for the topics: socioeconomic factors, sex, race/ethnicity, discrimination/prejudice, social capital/support, lifecourse, income inequality, stress, behavioral research, contextual effects, residential segregation, multilevel modeling, regression based indices to measure inequalities, and structural equation modeling/causal diagrams/path analysis. The absolute, but not the relative, frequency of publications increased for all themes. Total publications in PubMed increased 2.3 times, while the subsets of epidemiology/public health and social epidemiologic themes/methods increased by factors of 5.3 and 5.2, respectively. Only multilevel and contextual analyses had a growth over and above that observed for epidemiology/public health. We conclude that there is clearly room for wider use of established techniques, and for new methods to emerge when they satisfy theoretical needs.
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.
Podobnik, Boris; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen; Stanley, H. Eugene
Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a "carrot and stick" approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., "radicals") openly renounce benevolence. Although more tolerant insiders maintain some level of benevolence, they may also tacitly support radicals out of fear for the future. If radicals and their tacit supporters achieve a critical majority, herd behavior ensues and the relation between the insider and outsider subpopulations turns antagonistic. To control the risk of unwanted social dynamics, we map the parameter space within which the tolerance of insiders is in balance with the assimilation of outsiders, the tolerant insiders maintain a sustainable majority, and any reduction in benevolence occurs smoothly. We also identify the circumstances that cause the relations between insiders and outsiders to collapse or that lead to the dominance of the outsiders.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to analyze the temporal trend of obesity among Inuit in Greenland during 1993-2010 according to sex and relative social position. METHODS: Data (N = 5,123) were collected in cross-sectional health surveys among the Inuit in Greenland in 1993-1994, 1999......-2001, and 2005-2010. Sociodemographic information was obtained by interview. Information on obesity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) was obtained by clinical examination and in 1993-1994 by interview. Statistics included multiple linear regression and Univariate General Linear Models. RESULTS......: Among men the prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9) decreased while general obesity (BMI ≥ 30) did not change. Central obesity increased from 16.0% in 1993-1994 to 25.4% in 2005-2010 (P obesity increased. Central obesity increased from 31.3% in 1993-1994 to 54...
Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL
In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.
Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Shin, Sein
This aim of this study is to examine trends in medical education research in the Korean Journal of Medical Education(KJME) and suggest improvements for medical education research. The main variables were keywords from research papers that were published in KJME. Abstracts of papers (n=499) that were published from 1991 through 2015 were analyzed by social network analysis (NetMiner 4.0) a common research methodfor trends in academic subjects. The most central keywords were "medical education," "clinical competence," "medical student," and "curriculum." After introduction into graduate medical school, newly appearing keywords were "professional behavior," "medical humanities," "communication,"and "physician-patient relation." Based on these results, we generated a schematic of the network, in which the five groups before introduction to graduate medical school expanded to nine groups after introduction. Medical education research has been improving qualitatively and quantitatively, and research subjects have been expanded, subdivided, and specific. While KJME has encompassed medical education studies comprehensively, studies on medical students have risen in number. Thus, the studies that are published in KJME were consistent with the direction of journal and a new study on the changes in medical education is being conducted.
Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact
Giazú Enciso Domínguez; Alí Lara
The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel ...
Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen
Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel
Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio
Protection, and also documents belonging to a research project (PS_119; Cotecchia et al. 2010). According to the landslide data collected, the landslide events resulted to be 175 in the study area. The trend analyses show that the landslide occurrence was increased with the time, despite of the rainfall and temperature data are not prone to landsliding. As a matter of fact, the trend of both the monthly rainfall and the rainfall intensity decreases, and the temperature and the wet days show a positive trend during the period of reference. The trend of the short-duration rainfall results generally to decrease. Not existing an evident relationship between climate variability and the increase of landslide occurrence, some other factors should be considered, as, for instance, the poor mechanical soil properties, the role of anthropogenic modifications and the mismanagement of risk-prone areas. In this regards, the preliminary results obtained from the data analyses of the land use and the populations could partly justify the increasing trend of landslide occurrence. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Cotecchia et al., 2010; Polemio and Lonigro, 2011 and 2013; Santaloia et al., 2012). References Cotecchia F., Santaloia F., Lollino P., C. Vitone, G. Mitaritonna (2010) "Deterministic landslide hazard assessment at regional scale". Geoflorida 2010, : 3130-3139. Santaloia F, Cotecchia F, Vitone C (2012) "Applicazione dei metodi avanzati al fronte appenninico apulo-lucano: analisi di I livello. In: Cascini L. (Ed) "Criteri di zonazione della suscettibilità e della pericolosità da frane innescate da eventi estremi (piogge e sisma)"; 130-140, Padova:Composervice srl. Polemio M., Lonigro T. (2011) "Variabilità climatica e ricorrenza delle calamità idrogeologiche in Puglia". In: "Le modificazioni climatiche e i rischi naturali", Polemio M. (Ed.), CNR IRPI, Bari, pp. 13-16. Polemio M., Lonigro T. (2013) "Climate variability and landslide
Stefanie M. Erk
Full Text Available This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video can (1 enhance recovery from sadness, (2 enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3 increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble, which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses and subjective (questionnaires data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was
Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for
Full Text Available Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation. The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention.
van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Chidester, Diana Lisensky
In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through parental investment. In this study, we investigated whether maternal presence enhances the socialization process in chimpanzees by comparing the social interactions of orphaned and mother-reared individuals at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia. As response variables, we selected social interactions during which an elaborate level of fine-tuning is assumed to be necessary for sustaining the interaction and preventing escalation: social play. Comparing orphaned (n = 8) to sex- and age-matched mother-reared juvenile chimpanzees (n = 9), we hypothesized that the orphaned juveniles would play less frequently than the mother-reared and would be less equipped for fine-tuning social play (which we assayed by rates of aggression) because of the lack of a safe and facilitating social environment provided by the mother. First, contrary to our hypothesis, results showed that the orphaned juveniles engaged in social play more frequently than the mother-reared juveniles, although for significantly shorter amounts of time. Second, in support of our hypothesis, results showed that social play of the orphaned juveniles more often resulted in aggression than social play of the mother-reared juveniles. In conjunction, these results may indicate that, just like in humans, chimpanzee mothers provide their offspring with adequate social skills that might be of pivotal importance for future challenges like successful group-living and securing competitive fitness advantages.
The study evaluated factors that affect use of social media for HIV and AIDS ... Structured questionnaire copies were administered to 355 undergraduate students. ... media sites for HIV and AIDS information communication was influenced by ...
This article offers a critique of social-emotional learning programs through the lens of psychoanalytic theory and with a particular focus on the theoretical contributions of Kleinian psychoanalysis. In particular, the article draws on concepts of affective positions to show that social-emotional learning is mired in a paranoid-schizoid mentality…
Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.
Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…
Wehrens, M.J.P.W.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Lubbers, M.J.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.
The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between affective responses to social comparison and test scores among high school students Our analyses showed that three types of responses to social comparison could be distinguished: an empathic, constructive, and destructive response.
This books describes and explains how a romantic partner and child(-ren) affect social relationships. Whereas many scholars have studied the importance of personal networks as a resource for the individual, comparatively little is known about how social networks emerge and how network composition
Van Goozen, Stephanie
Background: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction\\ud exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to\\ud empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective\\ud empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Methods: Participants were 8-12 year-old children\\ud at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N=114, 80.7% boys) and typically developin...
Giazú Enciso Domínguez
Full Text Available The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel through seven approaches: Socialconstructionism, Discursive Social Psychology, Cultural Studies of Emotions, Emocionologies, Interpretative Sociology, Sociolinguistic of Emotions and Feminist Studies of emotions. We review the interests of each approach, their schools, their past, and give hints about not only the present but the future(s of the Affective Turn, in social science and academy as well.
Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda
In a diary study of interpersonal affect transfer, 41 participants reported on decisions involving other people over 3 weeks. Reported anxiety and excitement were reliably related to the perceived anxiety and excitement of another person who was present during decision making. Risk and importance appraisals partially mediated effects of other's anxiety on own anxiety as predicted by social appraisal theory. However, other's emotion remained a significant independent predictor of own emotion after controlling for appraisals, supporting the additional impact of more direct forms of affect transfer such as emotion contagion. Significant affect-transfer effects remained even after controlling for participants' perceptions of the other's emotion in addition to all measured appraisals, confirming that affect transfer does not require explicit registration of someone else's feelings. This research provides some of the clearest evidence for the operation of both social appraisal and automatic affect transfer in everyday social life.
Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak
The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...
Dovick, Meghan A.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Arkle, Robert .; Pilliod, David S.
We compared As and Sb bioaccumulation and biomagnification when these metalloids co-occurred at varying environmental concentrations in a stream and wetlands near a contaminated mine site in Idaho (USA). We measured As and Sb concentrations in water and substrate samples, and in tissues of organisms representing several trophic levels. Bioaccumulation of both As and Sb was observed in stream organisms with the following trend of bio-diminution with increasing trophic level: primary producers > tadpoles > macroinvertebrates > trout. We also note reductions in metalloid concentrations in one of two stream remediation reaches engineered within the past 17 years to ameliorate metalloid contamination in the stream. Several wetlands contained thick microbial mats and were highly populated with boreal toad tadpoles that fed on them. The mats were extremely contaminated (up to 76 564 mg kg–1 As and 675 mg kg–1 Sb) with amorphous As- and Sb-bearing minerals that we interpret as biogenic precipitates from geomicrobiological As- and Sb-cycling. Ingested mat material provided a direct source of metalloids to tadpoles, and concentrations of 3867 mg kg–1 (As) and 375 mg kg–1 (Sb) reported here represent the highest whole body As and Sb levels ever reported in living tadpoles. The bulk of tadpole metalloid burden remained in the gut despite attempts to purge the tadpoles prior to analysis. This study adds to a number of recent investigations reporting bioaccumulation, but not biomagnification, of As and Sb in food webs. Moreover, our results suggest that tadpoles, in particular, may be more resistant to metalloid contamination than previously assumed.
Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.
Maguire, Sarah E; Schmidt, Marc F; White, David J
Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system.
Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Frommann, Nicole; Sharma, Psvn
Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gervais & Fessler's Attitude-Scenario-Emotion (ASE) model is a useful tool for the detection of affect in social media. In this commentary, an addition to the model is proposed - the audience - and its role in the manifestation of affect is discussed using a cyberbullying scenario. The presence of contempt in cyberbullying is also discussed.
McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.
Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…
MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.
In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.
Buckner, Julia D; Langdon, Kirsten J; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J
Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers.
Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D
Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.
Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; French, Jeffrey A
Pair-bonded relationships form during periods of close spatial proximity and high sociosexual contact. Like other monogamous species, marmosets form new social pairs after emigration or ejection from their natal group resulting in periods of social isolation. Thus, pair formation often occurs following a period of social instability and a concomitant elevation in stress physiology. Research is needed to assess the effects that prolonged social isolation has on the behavioral and cortisol response to the formation of a new social pair. We examined the sociosexual behavior and cortisol during the first 90-days of cohabitation in male and female Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) paired either directly from their natal group (Natal-P) or after a prolonged period of social isolation (ISO-P). Social isolation prior to pairing seemed to influence cortisol levels, social contact, and grooming behavior; however, sexual behavior was not affected. Cortisol levels were transiently elevated in all paired marmosets compared to natal-housed marmosets. However, ISO-P marmosets had higher cortisol levels throughout the observed pairing period compared to Natal-P marmoset. This suggests that the social instability of pair formation may lead to a transient increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity while isolation results in a prolonged HPA axis dysregulation. In addition, female social contact behavior was associated with higher cortisol levels at the onset of pairing; however, this was not observed in males. Thus, isolation-induced social contact with a new social partner may be enhanced by HPA axis activation, or a moderating factor. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Amft, Maren; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Schilbach, Leonhard; Eickhoff, Simon B
Recent evidence suggests considerable overlap between the default mode network (DMN) and regions involved in social, affective and introspective processes. We considered these overlapping regions as the social-affective part of the DMN. In this study, we established a robust mapping of the underlying brain network formed by these regions and those strongly connected to them (the extended social-affective default network). We first seeded meta-analytic connectivity modeling and resting-state analyses in the meta-analytically defined DMN regions that showed statistical overlap with regions associated with social and affective processing. Consensus connectivity of each seed was subsequently delineated by a conjunction across both connectivity analyses. We then functionally characterized the ensuing regions and performed several cluster analyses. Among the identified regions, the amygdala/hippocampus formed a cluster associated with emotional processes and memory functions. The ventral striatum, anterior cingulum, subgenual cingulum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex formed a heterogeneous subgroup associated with motivation, reward and cognitive modulation of affect. Posterior cingulum/precuneus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex were associated with mentalizing, self-reference and autobiographic information. The cluster formed by the temporo-parietal junction and anterior middle temporal sulcus/gyrus was associated with language and social cognition. Taken together, the current work highlights a robustly interconnected network that may be central to introspective, socio-affective, that is, self- and other-related mental processes.
Renato Santiago Quintal
Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.
Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H
Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.
van Poppel, F.W.A.; Jennissen, R.; Mandemakers, K.
The question whether socioeconomic status gradients in adult mortality have changed over a broad historical period has become an important political and theoretical issue but is hard to test. In this article we study long-term trends in social inequality in adult mortality by using data for 2 (of
Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio
Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.
Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.
. Findings are then applied to future global climate scenario runs to obtain a first estimate of trends for the frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and their impact on spatial and temporal characteristics of floods in the Greater Dhaka region. From this estimate, a prediction method for the spatial patterns of flooding within the Dhaka area will be developed. The social part of the project analyzes the vulnerability and resilience of economic and social systems within high-risk areas by utilizing methods such as e.g. quantitative household surveys in Dhaka and qualitative expert interviews. Geographers are hoping to identify adaptation and recovery strategies of slum dwellers and informal businesses (e.g. brickfields, tanneries), analyze the role of social capital as well as formal and informal institutions for building up resilience, and analyze possibilities and limits of adaptation strategies under conditions of further urban growth and climate change. By paying attention to the important behavioral patterns of the informal sector, a meteorological early warning system can then be developed to make better use of weather predictions to mitigate weather-related risks for Greater Dhaka. If successful, this project poses as an exemplary intersection of social science and natural hazards research.
Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke
Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the
Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R
This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
M. Meskoub (Mahmood)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state,
M. Messkoub (Mahmood)
textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.
Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin
Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kangethe, Anne; Franic, Duska M; Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally; Williams, Chakita
There is no consensus on the preferred approach to assess journal quality. Procedures previously used include journal acceptance or rejection policies, impact factors, number of subscribers, citation counts, whether the articles were refereed or not, and journals cited in books within the discipline. This study built on the work of previous authors by using a novel approach to assess journal quality in social and administrative pharmacy (SAdP). To determine U.S. SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals for their research, SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals by their promotion and tenure (P&T) committees, and current research trends in SAdP. A census of U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted using an e-mailed survey and an open-ended approach requiring respondents to list their preferred journals. Seventy-nine SAdP faculty reported that the 5 most prestigious journals were JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Health Affairs, Health Services Research, and Medical Care. These journals were selected because respondents wished to seek broad readership. Results of this study can be used as a guide by U.S. SAdP faculty and P&T committees to assess the quality of publications by pharmacy administration faculty with the caveat being that pharmacy versus nonpharmacy journals will be chosen based on the fit of the article with the audience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whyte, Martin King; Im, Dong-Kyun
Data from two China national surveys, in 2004 and 2009, focusing on popular attitudes toward current inequalities and mobility opportunities, are compared to examine two key questions: (1) Did the continued rise in income gaps and the impact within China of the global financial crisis lead to rising popular anger about the unfairness of current inequality patterns in 2009? and (2) Did the social contours of attitudes toward current inequalities shift over the five years between surveys? Through systematic comparisons of data from both surveys, we conclude that there is no general increase in anger about inequalities in the 2009 survey, and that the predictors of variations in these attitudes had changed relatively little, with the unexpectedly positive views of villagers still visible in 2009, although a bit muted. Trends in Chinese society between 2004 and 2009, and in the personal experience of survey respondents, are used to explain why popular acceptance of current inequalities remains widespread, despite continuing increases in China's income gaps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liedtke, J; Schneider, J M
There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.
Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Barnes, Laura E; Teachman, Bethany A
Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants' personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was associated with more time or greater
Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew
Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
McFrederick, Quinn S; Wcislo, William T; Hout, Michael C; Mueller, Ulrich G
Social transmission and host developmental stage are thought to profoundly affect the structure of bacterial communities associated with honey bees and bumble bees, but these ideas have not been explored in other bee species. The halictid bees Megalopta centralis and M. genalis exhibit intrapopulation social polymorphism, which we exploit to test whether bacterial communities differ by host social structure, developmental stage, or host species. We collected social and solitary Megalopta nests and sampled bees and nest contents from all stages of host development. To survey these bacterial communities, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. We found no effect of social structure, but found differences by host species and developmental stage. Wolbachia prevalence differed between the two host species. Bacterial communities associated with different developmental stages appeared to be driven by environmentally acquired bacteria. A Lactobacillus kunkeei clade bacterium that is consistently associated with other bee species was dominant in pollen provisions and larval samples, but less abundant in mature larvae and pupae. Foraging adults appeared to often reacquire L. kunkeei clade bacteria, likely while foraging at flowers. Environmental transmission appears to be more important than social transmission for Megalopta bees at the cusp between social and solitary behavior. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazzi, Fausto; Baccari, Flavia; Mungai, Francesco; Ciambellini, Manuela; Brescancin, Lisa; Starace, Fabrizio
People with psychotic illness suffer from reduced quality of life and often from an insufficient level of social inclusion. These variables are associated with several negative outcomes, such as higher neuro-cognitive deficits, negative symptoms, internalised stigma, increased cardiovascular risk and, most importantly, excess mortality. To date, only a minority of social interventions in psychosis have been investigated. Since 2011, the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Modena introduced the "Social Point" program, which provides social inclusion interventions to promote active social participation for patients suffering from severe mental illness. The aim of this study was to assess whether a social inclusion intervention is associated with better outcomes in terms of personal and social recovery, with particular reference to the areas of social functioning and activity, and subjective dimensions such as self-esteem, self-stigma and perceived quality of life. A cross-sectional design was adopted to compare 30 subjects, selected at the completion of "Social Point" program, with a group of subjects, matched for socio-demographic and clinical features, selected from a wait list for "Social Point". All subjects were evaluated by means of instruments assessing: level of disability, level of functioning, severity of psychopathology, self-esteem, internalised stigma and quality of life. Overall, the results of the study suggest that social inclusion interventions may be effective in people suffering from non-affective psychosis. A dose-effect relationship was also found between higher number of activities per patient and better outcomes within both social and psychopathological domains. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study no definitive causality can be inferred. Psychosocial interventions promoting social inclusion are likely to represent an effective approach to improve personal and social recovery.
Lackner, J M; Brasel, A M; Quigley, B M; Keefer, L; Krasner, S S; Powell, C; Katz, L A; Sitrin, M D
This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels.
Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal
. The article draws attention to the role of physician work culture in the development and management of physicians own substance use and SUD. It reports results from my Danish study analysing how professional socialisation and social technologies affect physicians disclosure of their own SUD and their help...... seeking at work. The work-related aspects that in some cases affect the development of substance use and SUD include hierarchical pressure, emotional strain from critical patient cases and work-related competition. In the analysis a disciplinary paradox concerning the social technologies intended...... to normalise and standardise physicians’ conduct and ensure the quality of treatment. Ironically, the social technologies seemed to have an unintended consequence: to conserve and maintain SUD rather than facilitating treatment and recovery. For instance, I show how the fear of social sanctions in the form...
Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R
Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Ramon Solves Pujol
Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of social psychological and philosophical foundations for designing affective technology that promotes the experience of love. The adopted theoretical basis is the concept of productive love, which is heavily based on Enrich Fromm but also includes theories and scientific findings of numerous psychoanalysts, social psychologists, and philosophers. We conducted a review of the theory about the nature of love and found that social psychological and philosophical approaches differ regarding peoples' understandings. The findings were used to elaborate eight principles of productive love. Based on these principles, we derived criteria for designing affective technology when the objective is to promote productive love. We reviewed the existent studies on affective technologies and implemented the criteria into a system design, the Pictures' Call. A prototype of the system was pretested to illustrate how productive love technology could be based on established criteria.
Full Text Available Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the ‘social brain’ that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what social means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what social means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the social. The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalise prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.
Morgan, JK; Lee, GE; Wright, AGC; Gilchrist, DE; Forbes, EE; McMakin, DL; Dahl, RE; Ladouceur, CD; Ryan, ND; Silk, JS
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Anxious youth may experience altered positive affect (PA) relative to healthy youth, perhaps because of greater sensitivity to social experiences. Altered PA may be especially evident during the transition to adolescence, a period in which positive social events increase in salience and value. The current study evaluated whether anxious youth show differences in baseline PA, rate of return to baseline, and variability around baseline PA and te...
The purpose of this research was to study customer relationship management on social media affecting brand loyalty of Siam Commercial Bank in Bangkok. The statistics used in data analysis were frequency, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's correlation coefficient based on social science statistic program. The result of the study found that the majority of the respondents were female, 37–47 years old of age, bachelor degree of education and monthly income between 10,001 and 15,000 Baht. In...
Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha
Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...
McIntosh, Lindsey G; Park, Sohee
Social impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, present from the pre-morbid stage and predictive of outcome, but the etiology of this deficit remains poorly understood. Successful and adaptive social interactions depend on one's ability to make rapid and accurate judgments about others in real time. Our surprising ability to form accurate first impressions from brief exposures, known as "thin slices" of behavior has been studied very extensively in healthy participants. We sought to examine affect and social trait judgment from thin slices of static or video stimuli in order to investigate the ability of schizophrenic individuals to form reliable social impressions of others. 21 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 matched healthy participants (HC) were asked to identify emotions and social traits for actors in standardized face stimuli as well as brief video clips. Sound was removed from videos to remove all verbal cues. Clinical symptoms in SZ and delusional ideation in both groups were measured. Results showed a general impairment in affect recognition for both types of stimuli in SZ. However, the two groups did not differ in the judgments of trustworthiness, approachability, attractiveness, and intelligence. Interestingly, in SZ, the severity of positive symptoms was correlated with higher ratings of attractiveness, trustworthiness, and approachability. Finally, increased delusional ideation in SZ was associated with a tendency to rate others as more trustworthy, while the opposite was true for HC. These findings suggest that complex social judgments in SZ are affected by symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Zonneveld, Lisette; Platje, Evelien; de Sonneville, Leo; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna
Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72.1% boys). The high-risk children were recruited through an ongoing early identification and intervention project of the city of Amsterdam, focusing on the underage siblings or children of delinquents and those failing primary school. Video clips with neutral and emotional content (fear, happiness and pain) were shown, while heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded to measure affective empathy. Answers to questions about emotions in the clips were coded to measure cognitive empathy. Eye-tracking was used to evaluate visual scanning patterns towards social relevant cues (eyes and face) in the clips. The high-risk group did not differ from the control group in social attention and cognitive empathy, but showed reduced HR to pain and fear, and reduced SCL and SCRs to pain. Children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour show impaired affective empathy but unimpaired social attention and cognitive empathy. The implications for early identification and intervention studies with antisocial children are discussed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula; Järvinen, Anna
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an unusual "hypersocial" personality juxtaposed by high anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that autonomic reactivity to affective face stimuli is disorganised in WS, which may contribute to emotion dysregulation and/or social disinhibition. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and mean interbeat interval (IBI) of 25 participants with WS (19 - 57 years old) and 16 typically developing (TD; 17-43 years old) adults were measured during a passive presentation of affective face and voice stimuli. The Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to examine associations between autonomic reactivity to social-affective stimuli and anxiety symptomatology. The WS group was characterized by higher overall anxiety symptomatology, and poorer anger recognition in social visual and aural stimuli relative to the TD group. No between-group differences emerged in autonomic response patterns. Notably, for participants with WS, increased anxiety was uniquely associated with diminished arousal to angry faces and voices. In contrast, for the TD group, no associations emerged between anxiety and physiological responsivity to social-emotional stimuli. The anxiety associated with WS appears to be intimately related to reduced autonomic arousal to angry social stimuli, which may also be linked to the characteristic social disinhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bias, prejudice, cultural insensitivity, and eroding levels of empathy all affect the health and well being of patients and families and manifest or accelerate social disparities of health. For caregivers, educational offerings and activities targeting the affective domain can positively influence the development of greater empathy and improved social cognition. As difficult as it is to develop effective teaching methods for this domain, new strides in virtual reality technology and new research on implicit bias can provide the professional development educator with options in designing educational offerings that can help. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(10):443-445. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi
Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.
Full Text Available In the contemporary converged media environment, agenda setting is being transformed by the dramatic growth of audiences that are simultaneously media users and producers. The study reported here addresses related gaps in the literature by first comparing the topical agendas of two leading traditional media outlets (New York Times and CNN with the most frequently shared stories and trending topics on two widely popular Social Networking Sites (Facebook and Twitter. Time-series analyses of the most prominent topics identify the extent to which traditional media sets the agenda for social media as well as reciprocal agenda-setting effects of social media topics entering traditional media agendas. In addition, this study examines social intermedia agenda setting topically and across time within social networking sites, and in so doing, adds a vital understanding of where traditional media, online uses, and social media content intersect around instances of focusing events, particularly elections. Findings identify core differences between certain traditional and social media agendas, but also within social media agendas that extend from uses examined here. Additional results further suggest important topical and event-oriented limitations upon the predictive capacit of social networking sites to shape traditional media agendas over time.
Swain, James E; Ho, S Shaun
Insensitive parental thoughts and affect, similar to contempt, may be mapped onto a network of basic emotions moderated by attitudinal representations of social-relational value. Brain mechanisms that reflect emotional valence of baby signals among parents vary according to individual differences and show plasticity over time. Furthermore, mental health problems and treatments for parents may affect these brain systems toward or away from contempt, respectively.
Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R
In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.
Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita
While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.
Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert
The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.
Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…
Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie W. K.; Ho, Shun Amaly
The aim of this study was to help universities promote graduate attributes by investigating mechanisms for promoting the development of cognitive, social and affective attributes which could impact upon all undergraduate students. Small group interviews were conducted with 90 final year students at a university in Hong Kong. Interview transcripts…
Fisher, Sebern F.
This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…
Uiterwijk-Luijk, L.; Krüger, M.; Zijlstra, B.; Volman, M.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader’s
Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.
We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…
Schouten, D.G.M.; Venneker, F.; Bosse, T.; Neerincx, M.; Cremer, A.H.M.
In this study, we investigate if a digital coach for low-literate learners that provides cognitive learning support based on scaffolding can be improved by adding affective learning support based on motivational interviewing, and social learning support based on small talk. Several knowledge gaps
Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.
This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…
Schouten, Dylan G. M.; Venneker, Fleur; Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark A.; Cremers, Anita H. M.
In this study, we investigate if a digital coach for low-literate learners that provides cognitive learning support based on scaffolding can be improved by adding affective learning support based on motivational interviewing, and social learning support based on small talk. Several knowledge gaps are identified: motivational interviewing and small…
Uiterwijk-Luijk, Lisette; Krüger, Meta; Zijlstra, Bonne; Volman, Monique
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader's inquiry habit of mind, data literacy, and the…
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Damasio, Antonio
Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely…
Gant, Camilla; Hadley, Patrick D.
This study shows that undergraduate students can gratify cognitive, affective, social integrative, and personal integrative needs microblogging via a learning management system discussion tool. Moreover, the researchers find that microblogging about news regarding mass media events and issues via Blackboard heightened engagement, expanded…
PEETERS, MCW; BUUNK, BP; SCHAUFELI, WB
In the present study a daily event-recording method, the DIRO (Daily Interaction Record in Organizations), was employed for assessing social interactions, stressful events and negative affect at work. Forty-one secretaries filled out the records during the course of a week. This made it possible to
Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc
This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…
Analysis Of The Social-Economic Factors Affecting Output Of Nihort Fruit Adoptors And ... A moderate family size of 6-7 family members are in adopters and ... Extension agents presence is necessary in the study area so as to organise training ...
Groshek, Jacob; Groshek, Megan Clough
In the contemporary converged media environment, agenda setting is being transformed by the dramatic growth of audiences that are simultaneously media users and producers. The study reported here addresses related gaps in the literature by first comparing the topical agendas of two leading traditional media outlets (New York Times and CNN) with the most frequently shared stories and trending topics on two widely popular Social Networking Sites (Facebook and Twitter). Time-series analyses of t...
Gilam, Gadi; Hendler, Talma
Human emotional experiences naturally occur while interacting in a spontaneous, dynamic and response contingent fashion with other humans. This resonates with both theoretical considerations as well as neuroimaging findings that illustrate the nexus between the "social" and "emotional" brain suggesting a domain-general organization of the brain. Nevertheless, most knowledge in affective neuroscience stems from studying the brain in isolation from its natural social environment. Whether social interactions are constitutive or not to the understanding of other people's intentions, incorporating such interactions is clearly required for ecological validity. Moreover, since interpersonal interactions may influence emotional experiences and expressions, interactive paradigms may advance the theoretical understanding of what emotions are and what about them is social, and will correspondingly characterize their underlying neural substrates. We highlight the recent conceptual and experimental advances of bringing realistic social interactions into the neuroimaging lab; review emotion-induction paradigms and consider their congruency with features of social interactions; and emphasize the importance of embedding such spontaneous and dynamic interactive paradigms in the field of affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Jianxin
Attachment is critical to each individual. It affects the cognitive-affective processing of social information. The present study examines how attachment affects the processing of social information, specifically maternal information. We assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to maternal information (compared to non-specific others) in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) with 22 participants. The results illustrated that attachment affected maternal information processing during three sequential stages of information processing. First, attachment affected visual perception, reflected by enhanced P100 and N170 elicited by maternal information as compared to others information. Second, compared to others, mother obtained more attentional resources, reflected by faster behavioral response to maternal information and larger P200 and P300. Finally, mother was evaluated positively, reflected by shorter P300 latency in a mother + good condition as compared to a mother + bad condition. These findings indicated that the processing of attachment-relevant information is neurologically differentiated from other types of social information from an early stage of perceptual processing to late high-level processing.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David
Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo
The impact of climate trends during the period 1901-2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas.
Full Text Available The impact of climate trends during the period 1901-2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate and biotic (host density factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas.
Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.
Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as
This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including ...
Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis
The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain.
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P
Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in
Song, In Han; Lee, Eun Jung
Since the introduction of evidence-based practice in South Korea, it has gained significant attention for its potential to promote the efficacy of social work services and to integrate knowledge and practice in mental health social work. In order to see how empirical research in South Korean mental health social work has changed, we examined…
Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.
Ayse Berivan Bakan
Full Text Available Background: When people face health problems, their life satisfaction levels and social relations could be ruined. When it comes to an eerie, deadly and chronic disease like cancer, the individual is much more likely to be affected by it. Objective: This descriptive study aims to identify quality of life and level of social support and the affecting factors in cancer patients. Methods: The sample included 170 patients who applied to Internal Diseases, Radiation Oncology, Thorax diseases clinics and Chemotherapy polyclinic in a university hospital in Turkey between March and August, 2005, who met the research criteria, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample represented 20 % of the target population. Data were collected through SF-36 Quality of Life Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: The patients’ Global Quality of Life mean score was found 38.67 ± 13.64, and mean score for the Perceived Social Support was found 59.19 ± 17.5. Global Quality of Life score was higher in those who underwent an operation and who received ambulatory health care. Although Global Quality of Life was not influenced by the gender variable, male patients’ level of well-being was found to be higher. Perceived Social Support total score was found to be higher in those who knew about their disease. Family support was found to be higher in those who were married and who lived in town; it was found to be low in those who had low socio-economic level and who received inpatient treatment. Friend support was found to be high in those who knew about their disease. Conclusion: There was a linear relationship between Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life. It is recommended that more studies with wider groups of participants would shed more light to the issue of identifying quality of life, social support level and the relationships between them in cancer patients.
Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.
This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate social media technology trends in Nielsen – a global information and measurement company – and to establish how these technologies can help the company to create a knowledge-sharing culture.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen.Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires.Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely.Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices.
Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A
Narcissism has significant interpersonal costs, yet little research has examined behavioral and affective patterns characteristic of narcissism in naturalistic settings. Here we studied the effect of narcissistic features on the dynamic processes of interpersonal behavior and affect in daily life. We used interpersonal theory to generate transactional models of social interaction (i.e., linkages among perceptions of others' behavior, affect, and one's own behavior) predicted to be characteristic of narcissism. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 102) completed clinical interviews and a 21-day ecological momentary assessment protocol using smartphones. After social interactions (N = 5,781), participants reported on perceptions of their interaction partner's behavior (scored along the dimensions of dominant-submissive and affiliative-quarrelsome), their own affect, and their own behavior. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to examine dynamic links among behavior and affect across interactions, and the role of narcissism in moderating these links. Results showed that perceptions of others' dominance did not predict dominant behavior, but did predict quarrelsome behavior, and this link was potentiated by narcissism. Furthermore, the link between others' dominance and one's own quarrelsome behavior was mediated by negative affect. Moderated mediation was also found: Narcissism amplified the link between ratings of others' dominance and one's own quarrelsomeness and negative affect. Narcissism did not moderate the link between other dominance and own dominance, nor the link between other affiliation and own affiliation. These results suggest that narcissism is associated with specific interpersonal and affective processes, such that sensitivity to others' dominance triggers antagonistic behavior in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert
Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan
Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.
Yap, Marie B H; Allen, Nicholas B; Leve, Craig; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
This study explored the associations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy (MEP) and maternal socialization of preadolescents' positive and negative affect. It also investigated whether adolescent temperament and gender moderated this association. MEP involves parental awareness and acceptance of their own and their child's emotions and their coaching of child emotions. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving (PSI) interactions were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and maternal behaviors were coded to provide indices of socialization responses to adolescent emotion. In addition, maternal MEP was assessed via interview, and preadolescents provided self-reports of temperament on 2 occasions. Maternal MEP that is higher in awareness and acceptance was associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization behaviors during the EPI. Moreover, preadolescents' temperamental negative emotionality (NEM) and effortful control (EC) moderated some of these MEP-socialization associations. During the positive EPI task, greater maternal awareness and acceptance is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization toward preadolescents with "easy" temperaments, that is, low NEM or high EC. However, during the conflict task, greater maternal awareness is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization among preadolescents with "difficult" temperaments. Some male-specific associations were also found. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W
Few studies have used social networking sites to track temporal trends in health-related posts, particularly around weight loss. To examine the temporal relationship of Twitter messages about weight loss over 1 year (2012). Temporal trends in #weightloss mentions and #fitness, #diet, and #health tweets which also had the word "weight" in them were examined using three a priori time periods: (1) holidays: pre-winter holidays, holidays, and post-holidays; (2) Season: winter and summer; and (3) New Year's: pre-New Year's and post-New Year's. Regarding #weightloss, there were 145 (95 % CI 79, 211) more posts/day during holidays and 143 (95 % CI 76, 209) more posts/day after holidays as compared to 480 pre-holiday posts/day; 232 (95 % CI 178, 286) more posts/day during the winter versus summer (441 posts/day); there was no difference in posts around New Year's. Examining social networks for trends in health-related posts may aid in timing interventions when individuals are more likely to be discussing weight loss.
Full Text Available Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74 were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball were recorded.Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure.Conclusions: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats.
Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor
Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor
Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick
This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia
The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors. The feeling of guilt linked to the fear of punishment, on the contrary, tends to positively affect aggressive and negatively affect prosocial conducts in children. These results highlight that the different feelings of guilt can represent a relevant risk or protective factor for the development of social competence in childhood. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Daniels, K; Guppy, A
Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.
Full Text Available Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.
Glonek Gary FV
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.
Joel S. Peterman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia.METHOD: Galvanic skin response (GSR and facial electromyography (fEMG were recorded in medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ and demograph-ically-matched healthy controls (CO while they viewed social and non-social im-ages from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symp-tom severity in the SZ, and schizotypy in CO were assessed.RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with schizophrenia were more positive in their va-lence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, GSR was greater in schizophrenia, suggesting differential awareness or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to nonsocial vs. social imag-es were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in SZ and disor-ganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced fEMG. Greater corruga-tor fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions.CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their GSR and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in schizophrenia and under-score the complexities of emotion processing in health and
Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie
Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.
Muir, K.; Brown, C.; Madill, A.
The intensity of negative emotions associated with event memories fades to a greater extent over time than positive emotions (Fading Affect Bias or FAB). In this study, we examine how the presence and behaviour of a listener during social disclosure influences the FAB and the linguistic characteristics of event narratives. Participants recalled pleasant and unpleasant events and rated each event for its emotional intensity. Recalled events were then allocated to one of three experimental cond...
Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter
Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murphy, M.; Allen, P.
During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)
Osechinski, I.V.; Ivanov, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Tsyb, A.F.
Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects
The uses of social media can be seen as driven by a search for affective intensity translating as moments of paying attention, no matter how brief these instances may be. In the framework of attention economy, attention has been discussed as a valuable commodity whereas distraction, involving both pleasurable entertainment and dissatisfactory disorientation, has been associated with cognitive overload and the erosive lack of focus. By discussing clickbait sites and Facebook in particular, thi...
Kate A. Woodcock
Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.
Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Fong, Geoffrey T; Dewhirst, Timothy; Kennedy, Ryan D; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Awang, Rahmat; Omar, Maizurah
Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society.
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...... did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data...
Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Have, M. ten; Meertens, V.; Scheepers, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vollebergh, W.; Grotenhuis, Manfred Te
Objective: We investigate 1) trends in use of community mental health care (CMHC) and community social work (CSW) by Dutch households in 1979–1995; 2) whether such trends can be explained by long-term relative changes in service use or in sizes of particular household categories. Method: Data was
Williams, Robert Warren
The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…
Wheeler, Chad K; Said, Hakim; Prucz, Roni; Rodrich, Rod J; Mathes, David W
Social media is a common term for web-based applications that offer a way to disseminate information to a targeted audience in real time. In the current market, many businesses are utilizing it to communicate with clients. Although the field of plastic surgery is constantly changing in response to innovative technologies introduced into the specialty, the utilization of social media in plastic surgery practices is currently unclear. The authors evaluate the current attitudes and practices of aesthetic surgeons to emerging social media technology and compare these to attitudes about more traditional modes of communication. A 19-question web-based survey was disseminated by e-mail to all board-certified or board-eligible American plastic surgeons (n = 4817). Respondents were asked to answer questions on three topics: (1) their use of social media in their personal and professional lives, (2) their various forms of practice marketing, and (3) their demographic information. There were 1000 responses (20.8%). Results showed that 28.2% of respondents used social media in their practice, while 46.7% used it in their personal life. Most plastic surgeons managed their social media themselves or through a staff member. The majority of respondents who used social media in their practice claimed that their efforts were directed toward patient referrals. The typical plastic surgery practice that used social media was a solo practice in a large city with a focus on cosmetic surgery. Local competition of plastic surgeons did not correlate with social media use. Most plastic surgeons (88%) advertised, but the form of marketing varied. The most common forms included websites, print, and search engine optimization, but other modalities, such as television, radio, and billboards, were still utilized. Social media represents a new avenue that many plastic surgeons are utilizing, although with trepidation. As social media becomes commonplace in society, its role in plastic surgery
Frolova, Elena V.; Vinichenko, Mikhail V.; Kirillov, Andrey V.; Rogach, Olga V.; Kabanova, Elena E.
The relevance of the article is conditioned by the exceptional importance of the social infrastructure for the development of the state, society and each individual. Social infrastructure ensures the development of the municipal unit, satisfaction of the basic needs and interests of the population, creation of the conditions for its subsistence…
Cnaan, Ram A.; Ghose, Toorjo
This article is intended to forecast major environmental changes that may impact social work doctoral education and assess what should be done in anticipation of these changes. We apply an open system and future studies perspective to guide our work. We present a set of predicted societal changes that will impact social work as a profession and…
Pride, Richard A.
Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…
Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A
Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen. Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires. Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely. Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices.
Muir, Kate; Brown, Charity; Madill, Anna
The intensity of negative emotions associated with event memories fades to a greater extent over time than positive emotions (fading affect bias or FAB). In this study, we examine how the presence and behaviour of a listener during social disclosure influences the FAB and the linguistic characteristics of event narratives. Participants recalled pleasant and unpleasant events and rated each event for its emotional intensity. Recalled events were then allocated to one of three experimental conditions: no disclosure, private verbal disclosure without a listener or social disclosure to another participant whose behaviour was experimentally manipulated. Participants again rated the emotional intensity of the events immediately after these manipulations and after a one-week delay. Verbal disclosure alone was not sufficient to enhance the FAB. However, social disclosure increased positive emotional intensity, regardless of the behaviour of the listener. Whilst talking to an interactive listener led unpleasant event memories to decrease in emotional intensity, talking to a non-responsive listener increased their negative emotional intensity. Further, listener behaviour influenced the extent of emotional expression in written event narratives. This study provides original evidence that listener behaviour during social disclosure is an important factor in the effects of social disclosure in the FAB.
Omodei, Elisa; Brashears, Matthew E; Arenas, Alex
The social brain hypothesis argues that the need to deal with social challenges was key to our evolution of high intelligence. Research with non-human primates as well as experimental and fMRI studies in humans produce results consistent with this claim, leading to an estimate that human primary groups should consist of roughly 150 individuals. Gaps between this prediction and empirical observations can be partially accounted for using "compression heuristics", or schemata that simplify the encoding and recall of social information. However, little is known about the specific algorithmic processes used by humans to store and recall social information. We describe a mechanistic model of human network recall and demonstrate its sufficiency for capturing human recall behavior observed in experimental contexts. We find that human recall is predicated on accurate recall of a small number of high degree network nodes and the application of heuristics for both structural and affective information. This provides new insight into human memory, social network evolution, and demonstrates a novel approach to uncovering human cognitive operations.
Woo, Taejung; Lee, Kyung-Hea
Despite the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of vegetables, daily vegetable intake among adolescents in Korea is lower than the current dietary recommendation. The objective of this study was to examine determinants affecting vegetable preference in order to suggest a stage-tailored education strategy that can promote vegetable consumption in adolescents. Adolescents (n = 400, aged 16-17 years) from two high schools participated in a cross-sectional study. Survey variables were vegetable preference, the social cognitive theory (SCT) and stages of change (SOC) constructs. Based on vegetable preference, subjects were classified into two groups: a low-preference group (LPG) and a high-preference group (HPG). SOC was subdivided into pre-action and action/maintenance stages. To compare SCT components and SOC related to vegetable preference, chi-squared and t-tests, along with stepwise multiple-regression analysis, were applied. In the LPG, a similar number of subjects were classified into each stage. Significant differences in self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at home and school were detected among the stages. Subjects in the HPG were mainly at the maintenance stage (81%), and there were significant differences among the stages regarding self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and parenting practice. In the predictions of vegetable preference, self-efficacy and parenting practice had a significant effect in the "pre-action" stage. In the action/maintenance stage, outcome expectation, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at school had significant predictive value. In predicting the vegetable preference for all subjects, 42.8% of the predictive variance was accounted for by affective attitudes, self-efficacy, and vegetable accessibility at school. The study revealed that different determinants affect adolescent vegetable preference in each stage. Self-efficacy and affective attitudes are important determinants affecting
Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui
From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Schaefer, Stacey M; Lapate, Regina C; Schoen, Andrew J; Gresham, Lauren K; Mumford, Jeanette A; Davidson, Richard J
Abstract Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral and positive pictures presented 2 s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs positive) pictures in the amygdala, dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral visual cortices, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Three days after the magnetic resonance imaging scan, participants rated their memory and liking of previously encountered neutral faces. Individuals higher in trait positive affect and emotional reappraisal rated faces as more likable when preceded by emotionally arousing (negative or positive) pictures. In addition, greater amygdala responses to neutral faces preceded by positively valenced pictures were associated with greater memory for these faces 3 days later. Collectively, these results reveal individual differences in how emotions spill over onto the processing of unrelated social stimuli, resulting in persistent and affectively biased evaluations of such stimuli. PMID:29447377
Palmer, Andrew D.; Newsom, Jason T.; Rook, Karen S.
Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n = 742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. PMID:27420152
Ramona O. NICOLESCU
Full Text Available This paper is trying to prove how social normality should start from a prescriptive, judicial reflection of democratic rationality in social-economic relations instead of starting from the generalization of exceptions under the form of normativity.From the point of view of realistic systemic knowledge, “real levels” and “necessary levels”, as well as the rational interaction between them can be determined sufficiently accurate for all social sub-systems, based on present knowledge. The necessary and sufficient condition is that self-regulatory decisions are independent of the speculative groups of the society (i.e. of politics and oligopolies. There are numberless approaches for separating governance from politics but the social power which supports these approaches is still incomparably smaller than the power of those who do not want social normality. Therefore, the study of economy (different economic methods proposed by economists is relevant for understanding social self-regulation and the role of “social power” in this self-regulation.
This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.
Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.
Full Text Available Nearly 20 years have elapsed since the heady days of South Africa’s first democratic elections and the publication of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, the document that was intended to chart the country’s future development (ANC, 1994:1. It was soon followed by the White Paper for Social Welfare, which would help “realise the relevant objectives” of the RDP through the use of developmental social welfare (MWPD, 1997:5,68. Developmental social work would constitute the profession’s specific contribution to the developmental approach and, ultimately, to practice (Patel, 2005:206-210.
Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W
Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.
Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg
This study examines whether social inequality in tooth brushing frequency among adolescents changed from 1991 to 2014. The data material was seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark with data about frequency of tooth brushing...... and occupation of parents. The total number of participants was 31,464, of whom 21.7% brushed their teeth less than the recommended 2 times a day. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class increased from 7.7% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2014. The relative social...... inequality assessed by odds ratios for infrequent tooth brushing also increased from 1991 to 2014....
Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn
This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...
Full Text Available The study analyses trends in life expectancy by level of education and by occupational social class in Finland from 1981 to 2000 to assess to what extent these trends have been in accordance with the target of reducing socioeconomic differences in life expectancy set in the Government public health programme. The study is based on the census records for the population aged 35 or over, which have been linked to the death records for the years 1981 to 2000. The results show that, contrary to the public health target, the difference in the life expectancy between persons with tertiary and basic education and that between upper non-manual and manual occupational classes increased during the 1990s. Differences in the trends in mortality from alcohol-related causes of death and from other cancers than lung cancer accounted for most the increase in the socioeconomic gap among men. Different from the 1980s changes in cardiovascular mortality did not contribute to the increase in the socioeconomic gap. Among women the increase in the socioeconomic gap was mainly due to the heterogeneous group of other diseases and cancers other than lung and breast cancer
Kholosha, V.; Kovalchuk, V.
The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens
Goto, Sharon G; Yee, Alicia; Lowenberg, Kelly; Lewis, Richard S
East Asians and Asian-Americans tend to allocate relatively greater attention to background context compared to European Americans across a variety of cognitive and neural measures. We sought to extend these findings of cultural differences to affective stimuli using the N400, which has been shown to be sensitive to deep processing of affective information. The degree to which Asian-Americans and European Americans responded to semantic incongruity between emotionally expressive faces (i.e., smiling or frowning) and background affective scenes was measured. As predicted, Asian-Americans showed a greater N400 to incongruent trials than to congruent trials. In contrast, European Americans showed no difference in amplitude across the two conditions. Furthermore, greater affective N400 incongruity was associated with higher interdependent self-construals. These data suggest that Asian-Americans and those with interdependent self-construals process the relationship between perceived facial emotion and affective background context to a greater degree than European Americans and those with independent self-construals. Implications for neural and cognitive differences in everyday social interactions, and cultural differences in analytic and holistic thinking are discussed.
Meier, Laurenz L; Cho, Eunae
With the mounting evidence that employees' work experiences spill over into the family domain and cross over to family members, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism through which work experiences affect the family domain and what factors may alleviate the adverse impact of work stress. Expanding previous research that mainly focused on the affect-based mechanism (negative affect), the present research investigated a resource-based mechanism (psychological detachment from work) in the relationship linking two work stressors (high workload and workplace incivility) with social undermining toward the partner at home. We also explored the relative strength of the mediating effects of the two mechanisms. In addition, we tested whether relationship satisfaction moderates the proposed effect of detachment on partner undermining. We tested these research questions using two studies with differing designs: a five-wave longitudinal study (N = 470) and a multisource study (N = 131). The results suggest that stressful work experiences affect the family domain via lack of detachment as well as negative affect, that the two pathways have comparable strength, and that high relationship satisfaction mitigates the negative effect of lack of detachment on partner undermining. In sum, this research extends the spillover-crossover model by establishing that poor psychological detachment from work during leisure time is an additional mechanism that links work and family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Barański, Juliusz; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Plewczynski, Dariusz
This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of information flow affect categorization by performing simulations with idealized network topologies optimizing certain network centrality measures. We measure dynamic social adaptation when either network topology or environment is subject to change during the experiment, and the system has to adapt to new conditions. We find that both decentralized network topology efficient in information propagation and the presence of central authority (information flow from the center to peripheries) are beneficial for the formation of global agreement between agents. Systems with central authority cope well with network topology change, but are less robust in the case of environment change. These findings help to understand which network properties affect processes of social adaptation. They are important to inform the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems.
Majcher, Emily H.; Woytowitz, Ellen L.; Reisinger, Alexander J.; Groffman, Peter M.
Factors affecting water-quality trends in urban streams are not well understood, despite current regulatory requirements and considerable ongoing investments in gray and green infrastructure. To address this gap, long-term water-quality trends and factors affecting these trends were examined in the Gwynns Falls, Maryland, watershed during 1998–2016 in cooperation with Blue Water Baltimore. Data on water-quality constituents and potential factors of influence were obtained from multiple sources and compiled for analysis, with a focus on data collected as part of the National Science Foundation funded Long-Term Ecological Research project, the Baltimore Ecosystem Study.Variability in climate (specifically, precipitation) and land cover can overwhelm actions taken to improve water quality and can present challenges for meeting regulatory goals. Analysis of land cover during 2001–11 in the Gwynns Falls watershed indicated minimal change during the study time frame; therefore, land-cover change is likely not a factor affecting trends in water quality. However, a modest increase in annual precipitation and a significant increase in winter precipitation were apparent in the region. A higher proportion of runoff producing storms was observed in the winter and a lower proportion in the summer, indicating that climate change may affect water quality in the watershed. The increase in precipitation was not reflected in annual or seasonal trends of streamflow in the watershed. Nonetheless, these precipitation changes may exacerbate the inflow and infiltration of water to gray infrastructure and reduce the effectiveness of green infrastructure. For streamflow and most water-quality constituents examined, no discernable trends were noted over the timeframe examined. Despite the increases in precipitation, no trends were observed for annual or seasonal discharge at the various sites within the study area. In some locations, nitrate, phosphate, and total nitrogen show downward
Abstract Shucksmith (2012) has recently suggested that rural research might be refreshed by incorporating theoretical insights that have emerged through a renewal of class analysis. This article seeks to advance this proposed research agenda by exploring the concept of asset‐based class analysis and its association with the concept of social capital. The article explores connections between social capital, class analysis and understandings of community, noting how all have been associated with long running and unresolved debates. Attention is drawn to the problems of modernist legislative approaches to these debates and the value of adopting more interpretive perspectives. A distinction between ‘infrastructural’ and ‘culturalist’ interpretations of social capital is explored in relation to ‘asset‐based’ theorisations of class and culture. It is argued that an infrastructural conception of social capital might usefully be employed in association with a disaggregated conception of cultural capital that includes consideration of emotion and affect, as well as institutional, objectified and technical assets. These arguments are explored using studies of rural communities, largely within Britain. PMID:27563158
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting awareness of mobile tagging on social media. The study assumes that the mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers are high. As a result of the literature review made in the scope of the purpose and assumption of the study, it was identified that the variables used in the measurement of brand awareness levels are recognition, remembering, being first in remembering, brand dominance, brand knowledge and brand opinion. A conceptual model showing the relation between these variables and mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers and hypotheses connected to this model were developed and a survey form, loyal to the relevant literature, was prepared in order to obtain the data necessary for the analyses. The universe of the study covers the consumers who are members of social media sites Facebook, Twitter and Linked In. For the analysis of the data obtained as a result of the survey conducted, descriptive statistics containing percentages and frequencies, factor analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used in the analysis of the hypotheses.
Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, M A
1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.
Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at
Brown, Jeffrey R.; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S.
This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a “breakeven analysis” encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others. PMID:28579641
Jairak, Rath; Sahakhunchai, Napath; Jairak, Kallaya; Praneetpolgrang, Prasong
This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.
Brown, Jeffrey R; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S
This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a "breakeven analysis" encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others.
Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter
The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.
M.A. Montagud Climent (Mario); F. Boronat (Fernando); M. García-Pineda (Miguel); O. Niamut (Omar)
htmlabstractThe mass adoption of Social Media together with the proliferation and widely usage of multi-connected companion devices have tremendously transformed the TV/video consumption paradigm, opening the door to a new range of possibilities. This Special Issue has aimed at analyzing, from
Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 81-89 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-06335S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Eastern European housing * social housing * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology
James. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books, 2005. Sun - tzu , Ralph D. Sawyer, and Mei-chiin Lee. Sun Tzu : The Art of War. Boulder, CO...71 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...Trump’s presidency so far.” CNN.com, March 2, 2017. 78 Bibliography Alario, Celia. “Fake Followers and Twitter Astroturf: It’s Sorta Social
Practices in the sports industry, sports management and the sociological study of sport are seldom integrated to provide an integrated theoretical framework for analysis and contextualization. The aim of this explorative academic enquiry was to develop a social conceptual framework for the analysis, explanation and ...
This thesis collects six empirical studies regarding the developments of social assistance benefits, their determinants and the impact of the benefit changes on income polarization. The first study suggests that the real minimum income benefit levels increased in many OECD countries whilst minimum
Montagud, M.; Boronat, F.; García-Pineda, M.; Niamut, O.A
The mass adoption of Social Media together with the proliferation and widely usage of multi-connected companion devices have tremendously transformed the TV/video consumption paradigm, opening the door to a new range of possibilities. This Special Issue has aimed at analyzing, from different point
The literature on social learning advances a critique to the command-and-control approach to resource management, and often, this critique is made by borrowing insights and ideas from disciplines other than resource management, which led to certain conceptual and methodological turns that now
Jacob M. Vigil
Full Text Available I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behaviors, respectively (Vigil, in press. Sex differences in affect behaviors (e.g., externalizing vs. internalizing displays may reflect developmental sensitivities to advertise capacity and trustworthiness cues somewhat differently, due to the unique social dynamics and relational constraints under which males and females evolved. In this study, I use a series of self-report questionnaires to examine two basic assumptions of the framework. The first assumption is that sex differences in nonverbal affect behaviors (aggression vs. crying reflect the desire for, and are effective for causing other people to either avoid or comfort the individual, respectively. I hypothesized that males would report a greater likelihood of responding to various distress moods with aggressive, rather than crying behaviors, and that males would desire, and believe male peers similarly desire distancing responses from others when feeling these moods. Instead, females were hypothesized to report more crying behaviors, and to desire, and believe female peers desire more comforting responses from others. The second assumption is that people are more accurate at inferring the desired social responses (i.e., to be left alone or comforted when experiencing distress of same-sex, rather than opposite-sex peers. I hypothesized that people's beliefs of same-sex peers are more similar to the self-reported desires of the male and female participants, themselves, than their beliefs of opposite
Palmer, Andrew D; Newsom, Jason T; Rook, Karen S
Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n=742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. As a result of this activity, the following learning outcomes will be realized: Readers will be able to (1) describe changes in the social relationships of older adults that occur as part of normal aging, (2) identify the aspects of social
Parsons, Thomas D.
An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869
Sylvia, Kristyn E; Demas, Gregory E
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis. We are now just beginning to understand the intricate relationships among the brain, microbiome, and immune system and how they work in concert to influence behavior. The effects of different forms of experience (e.g., changes in diet, immune challenge, and psychological stress) on the brain, gut microbiome, and the immune system have often been studied independently. Though because these systems do not work in isolation, it is essential to shift our focus to the connections among them as we move forward in our investigations of the gut-brain axis, the shaping of behavioral phenotypes, and the possible clinical implications of these interactions. This review summarizes the recent progress the field has made in understanding the important role the gut microbiome plays in the modulation of social and affective behaviors, as well as some of the intricate mechanisms by which the microbiome may be communicating with the brain and immune system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poradowska-Trzos, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Rogoz, Monika; Zieba, Andrzej
According to Aaron Beck, dysfunctional thinking patterns appear also in euthymic patients, after withdrawal of acute diseases symptoms. Patients have a disordered, negative image of themselves, of their future and the surrounding world. It has been shown that a way a man perceives possessed social support has a basic meaning for him. The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between perceived social support and the patient's cognitive style. The study group consisted of euthymic outpatients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (UID) or bipolar affective disorder (BID). Assessment of a cognitive style was made according to the Rosenberg Scale, Hopelessness Scale HS-20 and Automatique Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ 30, assessment of the amount of received support - according to Cohen's ISEL. The presented study revealed that, in both groups of patients, a thinking style is disturbed and that there is a link between a cognitive style and the perception of the level of received support. The link was stronger in the group of patients with unipolar affective disorder. In both groups, correlations concerning emotional support were the highest.
Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. English electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as two Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database and Iranmedex were searched for English and Persian-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. Of 281 retrieved articles, 37 articles were finally included for writing this review article. Factors affecting sexual self-concept were categorized to biological, psychological and social factors. In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. In the psychological category, the impact of body image, sexual abuse in childhood and mental health history are present. Lastly, in the social category, the roles of parents, peers and the media are discussed. As the development of sexual self-concept is influenced by multiple events in individuals' lives, to promotion of sexual self-concept, an integrated implementation of health policies is recommended.
Brad R. Fulton
Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.
McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D
We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.
Full Text Available Against the background of raising the retirement age to 67 years and the associated lengthening of working lifetimes in higher age groups, this article examines the question of the extent to which this political objective is covered by the health assets of the population. Here, we will first trace trends in “healthy” life expectancy among the total population for different points in time 1989, 1999 and 2009 on the basis of the data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP and analyse these against the background of social strata indicators such as income and educational levels. Among others, one significant result is the fact that social differences have a far greater effect on healthy life expectancy than on general life expectancy and that these differences increase further over the course of time. This effect can be found particularly in men. One mandatory uniform working lifetime for all persons would however not do justice to these findings of socially highly unequally distributed life opportunities. Instead, the findings support a flexible arrangement of retirement age limits.
The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty. This ideology has greatly impacted how the government views and treats AIs and consequently, how it has impacted their health. From the earliest treaties between European settlers and AIs, this legal relationship has been and remains a perplexing issue. With the examination of tribal sovereignty comes the realization that colonization and governmental polices have greatly contributed to the many social and health problems that AIs suffer from today. Understanding that the health disparities that exist among AI/AN populations cannot only be attributed to individual behavior and choice but is driven by societal, economic and political factors may be used to inform social work education, practice, and research.
Luciana França Cescon
Full Text Available The present work aims to reflect on the influence of HIV / AIDS on social relations, sexuality and adolescent affectivity. We conducted a literature review and subsequent theoretical discussion on the topic, with the methodology of qualitative analysis of texts and scientific articles. The findings of the study demonstrated that it is necessary to fully consider the various psychosocial aspects of this dynamic, since the psychological aspects significantly influence disease progression and quality of life of HIV patient. For adolescents, this influence becomes even greater, because puberty is a specific stage of biological development, emotional and social, where social interaction plays an important role for the construction of the subject's personality. It is hoped that this study may contribute to the reflection on the importance of creating themselves coping strategies and health care interventions geared to this particular group, especially with regard to the psychologist, who should seek to accommodate these demands subjects, contributing to a healthy psychosocial development, considering its specific features.
Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H
Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.
Background: Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences—and a potentially rising trend—among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low-fertility co......Background: Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences—and a potentially rising trend—among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low...... in Denmark may signal important social and cultural impediments to contraception. The summer peak in abortions among low-income women, moreover, conflicts with the conventional assumption that the social and demographic composition of mothers who electively end their pregnancy remains stable within...
N.F. Johnsen; M. Toftager; O. Melkevik; B.E. Holstein; M. Rasmussen
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 3...
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from theDanish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representativesamples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent onvigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,97...
Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко; Осама Абузаїд Мохамед Нур Ахмед
Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis result...
Manikonda, Lydia; Venkatesan, Ragav; Kambhampati, Subbarao; Li, Baoxin
Social media platforms are popular venues for fashion brand marketing and advertising. With the introduction of native advertising, users don't have to endure banner ads that hold very little saliency and are unattractive. Using images and subtle text overlays, even in a world of ever-depreciating attention span, brands can retain their audience and have a capacious creative potential. While an assortment of marketing strategies are conjectured, the subtle distinctions between various types o...
Pila, Eva; Mond, Jonathan M; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram. Analysis of the volume and type of food revealed the presence of very large quantities (54.5%) of calorie-dense foods (71.3%) that was rated to qualify as an objective binge episode. Photographic content of people commonly portrayed highly-muscular bodies (60.7%) in the act of intentional body exposure (40.0%). Meanwhile, textual content exemplified the idealization of overconsumption, a strict commitment to fitness, and a reward-based framework around diet and fitness. Collectively, these findings position cheat meals as goal-oriented dietary practices in the pursuit of physique-ideals, thus underscoring the potential clinical repercussions of this socially-endorsed dietary phenomenon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to outline the current challenges of beer industry in Lithuania and provide suggestions for future development of organizations in this industry, by focusing on diversification strategy and social responsibility. The main challenges of Lithuanian beer industry are related to finding ways of future development in a constantly contracting market, as well as to find a competitive strategy of market penetration. In connection of these challenges, product differentiation creates new benefits for the consumers. However this strategy proves itself not being sufficient to reach the desired goals. Diversification of portfolio, being more risky, gives opportunity to target new customer groups and increase market presence. However, both strategies are less effective without changing the culture of drinking and consumer perceptions of beer. These issues will be addressed through the lenses of social responsibility, by emphasizing the promotion of responsible alcohol consumption and responsible behaviour of beer industry. As a result, the customers have to be ready to pay higher price for new products and develop a more responsible culture of beer consumption. To overcome outlined challenges, organizations in Lithuanian beer industry, must rethink their existing strategies and operations. Based on proposed future directions, the paper provides suggestions for business practices, how to implement differentiation strategy and actions in order to increase the level of social responsibility of various stakeholders.
Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I
The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.
Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J
Methodological considerations and selected null findings indicate the need to reexamine the Type D construct. We investigated whether associations with cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involve the specific combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition...
Larisa A. Krapivina
Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational
Gervais, Matthew M; Fessler, Daniel M T
Contempt is typically studied as a uniquely human moral emotion. However, this approach has yielded inconclusive results. We argue this is because the folk affect concept "contempt" has been inaccurately mapped onto basic affect systems. "Contempt" has features that are inconsistent with a basic emotion, especially its protracted duration and frequently cold phenomenology. Yet other features are inconsistent with a basic attitude. Nonetheless, the features of "contempt" functionally cohere. To account for this, we revive and reconfigure the sentiment construct using the notion of evolved functional specialization. We develop the Attitude-Scenario-Emotion (ASE) model of sentiments, in which enduring attitudes represent others' social-relational value and moderate discrete emotions across scenarios. Sentiments are functional networks of attitudes and emotions. Distinct sentiments, including love, respect, like, hate, and fear, track distinct relational affordances, and each is emotionally pluripotent, thereby serving both bookkeeping and commitment functions within relationships. The sentiment contempt is an absence of respect; from cues to others' low efficacy, it represents them as worthless and small, muting compassion, guilt, and shame and potentiating anger, disgust, and mirth. This sentiment is ancient yet implicated in the ratcheting evolution of human ultrasocialty. The manifolds of the contempt network, differentially engaged across individuals and populations, explain the features of "contempt," its translatability, and its variable experience as "hot" or "cold," occurrent or enduring, and anger-like or disgust-like. This rapprochement between psychological anthropology and evolutionary psychology contributes both methodological and empirical insights, with broad implications for understanding the functional and cultural organization of social affect.
Full Text Available The quality of the constructed social infrastructure project has been considered a necessary measure for the sustainability of projects. Studies on factors affecting project quality have used various techniques and methods to explain the relationships between particular variables. Unexpectedly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM has acquired very little concern in factors affecting project quality studies. To address this limitation in the body of knowledge, the objective of this study was to apply the SEM approach and build a model that explained and identified the critical factors affecting quality in social infrastructure projects. The authors developed a quantitative approach using smart-PLS version 3.2.7. This study shed light on the views of different experts based on their experience in public construction projects in Pakistan. Particularly, the authors aimed to find out the relationships between construction, stakeholders, materials, design, and external factors, and how these relate to project quality. The findings of this study revealed that the R2 value of the model was scored at 0.749, which meant that the five exogenous latent constructs collectively explained 74.9% of the variance in project quality. The Goodness-of-Fit of the model was 0.458. The construction related factor was the most important out of the five constructs. This study determined that better planning and monitoring and evaluation should be developed to better address and control the quality defects by decision-makers, project managers as well as contractors. These findings might support practitioners and decision makers to focus on quality related problems that might occur in their current or future projects.
Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt
Permanent plots were established in 2000 to examine how tree and site factors affect risk of Phytophthora ramorum stem canker (sudden oak death [SOD]) and determine how affected stands change over time due to disease. P. ramorum canker was prevalent in the sampled coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) or...
Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M
The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.
Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.
Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310
Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R
Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.
Rydenfält, Christofer; Johansson, Gerd; Larsson, Per Anders; Akerman, Kristina; Odenrick, Per
This article is a report of a study of how healthcare professionals involved in surgery orientate themselves to their common task, and how this orientation can be affected by the social and organizational context. Previous research indicates that surgical teams are not as cohesive as could be expected and that communication failures frequently occur. However, little is known about how these problems are related to their social, cultural and organizational context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 healthcare professionals, representing all personnel categories of the surgical team. During the interview, a virtual model, visualizing a real operating theatre, was used to facilitate reflection. The interviews were conducted in 2009. Themes were created from the interviews, with a focus on similarities and differences. An activity analysis was conducted based on the themes. Poor team functionality and communication failures in the operating theatre can to some degree be explained by differences in activity orientation between professions and by insufficient support from social and organizational structures. Differences in activity orientation resulted in different views between professional groups in their perceptions of work activities, resulting in tension. Insufficient support resulted in communication thresholds that inhibited the sharing of information. Organizing work to promote cross-professional interaction can help the creation of social relations and norms, providing support for a common view. It can also help to decrease communication thresholds and establish stronger relations of trust. How this organization structure should be developed needs to be further investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi
To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…
Muhammet Hanifi Selvi
Full Text Available In this study, genetic parameters, macro environmental factors and genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for actual and 305 day milk yield of Brown Swiss cattle reared in Research Farm of Agricultural College at Atatürk University were estimated. Estimated breeding values that were used for calculation of the genetic trend and genetic parameters were estimated by using MTDFREML computer package program. Environmental factors affecting on actual and 305day milk yields were analysed by using Harvey statistic package program. While effects of the years and parities on the actual and 305-day milk yields were highly significant, the influence of the calving season was found to be insignificant. Environmental and phenotypic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were determined as -33.2 kg and -29.0 kg; and -27.8±19.1 kg/year and -25.9±8.7 kg/year respectively. Genetic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were calculated as 5.4±3.8 kg and 3.1±3.4 kg. Heritability’s for actual and 305-day milk yields were 0.21±0.12 and 0.16±0.14 respectively. Repeatability values for actual and 305-day milk yield were found as 0.29 and 0.33 respectively.
Full Text Available The development of the Web towards a Universal Digital Network entails a change in the behaviours, uses and competences of internet users. There are new forms to access, manage and design information and they are generating different behaviours in the management of such information and in social relations. Those who make greater use of such new resources and services are the so-called “digital natives”. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and analyse the socio-communicative behaviours and competences that young people and “digital natives” are developing in the Web. This phase of analysis is purely qualitative so the conclusions are only about trends. The results show that there are clear differences in the online behaviours of two age groups: the “digital natives” (14 to 17 year-olds and the “digital immigrants” (18 to 35 year-olds.
Cristina del Barrio
Full Text Available Si bien es innegable el interés de los numerosos estudios que intentan determinar mediante encuestas el grado de severidad del acoso escolar y la victimización entre iguales en las escuelas, pocos de los estudios publicados se han llevado a cabo mediante selección de muestras representativas de ámbito nacional que permita generalizar las características de este fenómeno. Más excepcional todavía es que dichos estudios hayan tenido carácter longitudinal. En el año 1999 se realizó el primer estudio nacional sobre el acoso y la exclusión social en el ámbito de la enseñanza secundaria española (Defensor del Pueblo-UNICEF, 2000. Los resultados aportaron un retrato preciso de las diferentes formas de victimización padecidas, presenciadas o realizadas por los estudiantes, informando de su incidencia relativa entre chicos y chicas, a lo largo de los diferentes cursos y en función de la titularidad de los centros (públicos/privados. Siete años más tarde se ha llevado a cabo un segundo estudio con el mismo diseño e instrumentos a fin de determinar posibles cambios en la incidencia del acoso y la exclusión social en la enseñanza secundaria. Los resultados de la comparación apuntan a un decremento en el porcentaje de estudiantes que se reconocen víctimas o agresores de algunos tipos de acoso, mientras que permanecen inalterados los relativos a la exclusión social y a la difusión de rumores a espaldas de un tercero. Estos resultados se discuten en relación con los esfuerzos de mejora de las relaciones llevados a cabo por los centros educativos.
Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel
We have developed a set of techniques and an analysis methodology aimed at boosting the quality of interactive tourism systems. The details of it will be presented in full and with real examples which have yielded interesting results in the last few years, both from the social and economical point of view, but with a huge wealth of cultural and natural heritage. We will also present a first guidelines to foster tourism in those villages that are willing to promote themselves in the national and international market at a low cost.
Singh, Gopal K; Daus, Gem P; Allender, Michelle; Ramey, Christine T; Martin, Elijah K; Perry, Chrisp; Reyes, Andrew A De Los; Vedamuthu, Ivy P
This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health and health care. Life tables, age-adjusted rates, prevalence, and risk ratios were used to examine health differentials, which were tested for statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Life expectancy of Americans increased from 69.7 years in 1950 to 78.8 years in 2015. However, despite the overall improvement, substantial gender and racial/ethnic disparities remained. In 2015, life expectancy was highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (87.7 years) and lowest for African-Americans (75.7 years). Life expectancy was lower in rural areas and varied from 74.5 years for men in rural areas to 82.4 years for women in large metro areas, with rural-urban disparities increasing during the 1990-2014 time period. Infant mortality rates declined dramatically during the past eight decades. However, racial disparities widened over time; in 2015, black infants had 2.3 times higher mortality than white infants (11.4 vs. 4.9 per 1,000 live births). Infant and child mortality was markedly higher in rural areas and poor communities. Black infants and children in poor, rural communities had nearly three times higher mortality rate compared to those in affluent, rural areas. Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities were particularly marked in mortality and/or morbidity from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS, homicide
Sarah C Woolley
caudomedial mesopallium (CMM was most affected by whether a song was directed or undirected, whereas the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM was most affected by whether a song was familiar or unfamiliar. Together these data demonstrate that females detect and prefer the features of directed song and suggest that high-level auditory areas including the CMM are involved in this social perception.
Bondar Nataliya A.
In the article it was identified the main areas of realization of social protection of disabled persons and it was considered the experience of states that are part of the EU, concerning conditions for various types of assistance within these areas. Identified deficiencies in the system of social protection in the Member States of the EU.В статье определены основные направления реализации социальной защиты инвалидов и рассмотрен опыт государств, которые входят в состав ЕС, относительно услови...
Woods, Amelia Mays; McLoughlin, Gabriella M; Kern, Ben D; Graber, Kim C
Public health concerns regarding childhood obesity and sedentary behavior make investigations of children's physical activity (PA) promotion crucial. School recess, a highly discretional time, plays a central role in shaping children's activity preferences. Participants included 40 children (30 girls, 10 boys) from fourth and fifth grades, categorized as low active during recess (<26% moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA]). PA was measured via accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X+) and activity choice gauged through a self-report measure over a 3-day period. To assess attitudes and perceptions of recess, individual interviews were conducted. Accelerometer data were analyzed into minutes and percentage of MVPA; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed utilizing open and axial coding. Participants were active for 18% of recess, choosing activities that were primarily individual-based. Interview data showed low active children attribute recess enjoyment to social interaction and time away from schoolwork as well as an intention to avoid other children who were unkind and/or caused social conflict. This study supports the importance of gaining a child's perspective of their own behavior, particularly those children classified as less active. Findings add a unique contribution to school health research through an innovative, child-centered approach to explore perceptions of PA. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Social marketing methods are nowadays frequently used in the development of healthprevention programs. The main Objectives of this paper are: to identify the role of skin protectionprograms in society, to evaluate sun protection behavior among consumers and to propose futuredirections of research in skin cancer prevention. Prior Work in skin protection focused on the risksassociated with long periods of sun exposure while offering advice regarding responsible behavior. InEurope, the main center of skin cancer research is European Cancer Observatory and, in Romania,Romanian Society of Dermatology (SRD. These institutions develop specialized programs annualy.The Approach used in this article is the survey. The paper analysis consumers’ perceptions regardingskin protection behavior in Romania by using a structured online questionnaire. A total number of 86respondents participated in the study. Results show that 53% of respondents don’t have a sunprotection behavior. Implications of the study are: health practitioners can use these findings infurther research and nonprofit organizations can increase their prevention programs in certain groups.The Value of this paper consists of direct analysis regarding skin cancer issue in Romania whileemphasizing the importance of health prevention programs for social marketing domain.
Ira Rahmawati; Ah. Yusuf; Ilya Krisnana
Introduction: One of school age children may developing task is learning to interact with their peer groups. The introvert have problem with their social interaction. One ways that can increase the social skill is play activities with social situation. So social play activities: cooperative play can be one of alternative solution to increase social interaction of children with introvert symptom. This study was aimed to explain effect of social play activities: cooperative play on social inter...
Briesacher, Becky A; Madden, Jeanne M; Zhang, Fang; Fouayzi, Hassan; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Soumerai, Stephen B
Medicare Part D increased economic access to medications, but its effect on population-level health outcomes and use of other medical services remains unclear. To examine changes in health outcomes and medical services in the Medicare population after implementation of Part D. Population-level longitudinal time-series analysis with generalized linear models. Community. Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries (n = 56,293 [unweighted and unique]) from 2000 to 2010. Changes in self-reported health status, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) (ADLs and instrumental ADLs), emergency department visits and hospital admissions (prevalence, counts, and spending), and mortality. Medicare claims data were used for confirmatory analyses. Five years after Part D implementation, no clinically or statistically significant reductions in the prevalence of fair or poor health status or limitations in ADLs or instrumental ADLs, relative to historical trends, were detected. Compared with trends before Part D, no changes in emergency department visits, hospital admissions or days, inpatient costs, or mortality after Part D were seen. Confirmatory analyses were consistent. Only total population-level outcomes were studied. Self-reported measures may lack sensitivity. Five years after implementation, and contrary to previous reports, no evidence was found of Part D's effect on a range of population-level health indicators among Medicare enrollees. Further, there was no clear evidence of gains in medical care efficiencies.
This article explores developments in author numbers in five disciplines of the Social Sciences from 1991 to 2014, Economics, Educational Sciences, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology. The relationship between the mean number of authors per article (in every discipline's five top journals) and three factors, publication year, international collaboration (IC), and article content (theoretical, experimental, or large-scale comparative) are analyzed. The findings show that single-authorship is decreasing and multi-authorship is on the rise, publication year was found to be significantly correlated with the number of authors. In addition, IC is positively correlated with the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. The content type “theoretical articles” is negatively related to the number of authors, even when publication year is controlled for. (Author)
Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary
This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.
Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Winston, Joel S; Yoshida, Wako; Wright, Nicholas; Symmonds, Mkael; Dolan, Ray
A standard view in health economics is that, although there is no market that determines the "prices" for health states, people can nonetheless associate health states with monetary values (or other scales, such as quality adjusted life year [QALYs] and disability adjusted life year [DALYs]). Such valuations can be used to shape health policy, and a major research challenge is to elicit such values from people; creating experimental "markets" for health states is a theoretically attractive way to address this. We explore the possibility that this framework may be fundamentally flawed-because there may not be any stable values to be revealed. Instead, perhaps people construct ad hoc values, influenced by contextual factors, such as the observed decisions of others. The participants bid to buy relief from equally painful electrical shocks to the leg and arm in an experimental health market based on an interactive second-price auction. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions where the bids by "others" were manipulated to follow increasing or decreasing price trends for one, but not the other, pain. After the auction, a preference test asked the participants to choose which pain they prefer to experience for a longer duration. Players remained indifferent between the two pain-types throughout the auction. However, their bids were differentially attracted toward what others bid for each pain, with overbidding during decreasing prices and underbidding during increasing prices. Health preferences are dissociated from market prices, which are strongly referenced to others' choices. This suggests that the price of health care in a free-market has the capacity to become critically detached from people's underlying preferences. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G
The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.
Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James
Building upon previous work describing declining rates and socioeconomic disparities in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service use among young women in the United States, we reexamined patterns and determinants of SRH service use in 2006-2010. We used the latest data from the National Survey of Family Growth to evaluate SRH service use including contraceptive, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and other gynecological exam services among 3780 women ages 15-24 years. We compared proportions of service use across survey years and employed multiple logistic regression to estimate the influence of time and women's sociodemographic characteristics on the likelihood of SRH service use. The proportion of women using SRH services increased from 50% (2006-2007) to 54% (2007-2008) and 57% (2008-2010) [all year odds ratios (ORs) 1.4, p valuessexually experienced women, the proportions using SRH and contraceptive services were unchanged, while STI service use increased from 22% (2006-2007) to 33% (2008-2009) (OR 1.7, confidence interval 1.1-2.4, p=.009). Differentials in service use existed across sociodemographic groups, largely with lower proportions of service use among women of social disadvantage. Our results suggest a reversal of negative trends but continuing social disparities in young women's use of SRH services in the United States. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.
Marone, Jane R; Thakkar, Shivam C; Suliman, Neveen; O'Neill, Shannon I; Doubleday, Alison F
Poor academic performance from extensive social media usage appears to be due to students' inability to multitask between distractions and academic work. However, the degree to which visually distracted students can acquire lecture information presented aurally is unknown. This study examined the ability of students visually distracted by social media to acquire information presented during a voice-over PowerPoint lecture, and to compare performance on examination questions derived from information presented aurally vs. that presented visually. Students ( n = 20) listened to a 42-min cardiovascular pathophysiology lecture containing embedded cartoons while taking notes. The experimental group ( n = 10) was visually, but not aurally, distracted by social media during times when cartoon information was presented, ~40% of total lecture time. Overall performance among distracted students on a follow-up, open-note quiz was 30% poorer than that for controls ( P < 0.001). When the modality of presentation (visual vs. aural) was compared, performance decreased on examination questions from information presented visually. However, performance on questions from information presented aurally was similar to that of controls. Our findings suggest the ability to acquire information during lecture may vary, depending on the degree of competition between the modalities of the distraction and the lecture presentation. Within the context of current literature, our findings also suggest that timing of the distraction relative to delivery of material examined affects performance more than total distraction time. Therefore, when delivering lectures, instructors should incorporate organizational cues and active learning strategies that assist students in maintaining focus and acquiring relevant information.
Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R
Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.
Boland, Elaine M; Stange, Jonathan P; Labelle, Denise R; Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/Reward Hypersensitivity Theory and the Social Zeitgeber Theory are two biopsychosocial theories of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) that may work together to explain affective dysregulation. The present study examined whether BAS sensitivity is associated with affective symptoms via a) increased social rhythm disruption in response to BAS-relevant life events, or b) greater exposure to BAS events leading to social rhythm disruption and subsequent symptoms. Results indicated that high BAS individuals were more likely to experience social rhythm disruption following BAS-relevant events. Social rhythm disruption mediated the association between BAS-relevant events and symptoms (hypothesis a). High BAS individuals experienced significantly more BAS-relevant events, which predicted greater social rhythm disruption, which predicted greater levels of affective symptoms (hypothesis b). Individuals at risk for BSD may be sensitive to BAS-relevant stimuli, experience more BAS-relevant events, and experience affective dysregulation due to the interplay of the BAS and circadian rhythms.
Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E
We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.
Elsa Del Castillo Mory
Full Text Available La Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE ha evolucionado como concepto. En sus inicios, las mencionesen la literatura sobre el tema vinculaban la RSE con los principios y valores corporativos. Con el paso deltiempo, estos principios y valores se han hecho tangibles en los sistemas de gestión empresarial. Es así quediversos instrumentos internacionales han recogido una gran variedad de prácticas deseables en los distintosámbitos de la actuación de la empresa. Si bien existe abundancia de instrumentos, no hay evidencia de suvalidación en términos de rigurosidad académica. El trabajo aquí presentado ha buscado sistematizar losaportes de diversos instrumentos utilizados en el ámbito internacional, y particularmente en el de Latinoamérica,para producir una escala de medida –validada estadísticamente– que permita la priorización de acciones deRSE. A partir de la aplicación de este instrumento en una muestra de cien de las más grandes empresas queoperan en el Perú, las autoras analizan la forma en que los directivos de estas organizaciones otorgan mayoro menor relevancia a los posibles campos de la actuación responsable. Una mayor comprensión de estadinámica de decisión puede contribuir al desarrollo de mecanismos más efectivos para promover en losdirectivos una visión integral de la gestión de la RSE.Los hallazgos de esta investigación dan cuenta de una visión de la RSE aún heterogénea y lejana al desarrollo deuna conceptualización integral de la actuación responsable, donde el mayor énfasis está puesto en aquellasacciones directamente identificadas con el resultado económico del negocio, en contraposición a aquellas otrasque fortalecen relaciones más amplias con otros grupos de interés de la empresa. Los ámbitos que obtuvieron laspuntuaciones promedio más elevadas fueron: «la oferta de productos y servicios al mercado» y «la gestióninterna», en contraposición con otros ámbitos que exigen una alta
This article presents an analysis of trends in mortality differentials and life expectancy by average relative earnings for male Social Security-covered workers aged 60 or older. Because average relative earnings are measured at the peak of the earnings distribution (ages 45-55), it is assumed that they act as a rough proxy for socioeconomic status. The historical literature reviewed in this analysis generally indicates that mortality differentials by socioeconomic status have not been constant over time. For this study, time trends are examined by observing how mortality differentials by average relative earnings have been changing over 29 years of successive birth cohorts that encompass roughly the first third of the 20th century. Deaths for these birth cohorts are observed at ages 60-89 from 1972 through 2001, encompassing roughly the last third of the 20th century. The large size and long span of death observations allow for disaggregation by age and year-of-birth groups in the estimation of mortality differentials by socioeconomic status. This study finds a difference in both the level and the rate of change in mortality improvement over time by socioeconomic status for male Social Security-covered workers. Average relative earnings (measured as the relative average positive earnings of an individual between ages 45 and 55) are used as a proxy for adult socioeconomic status. In general, for birth cohorts spanning the years 1912-1941 (or deaths spanning the years 1972-2001 at ages 60-89), the top half of the average relative earnings distribution has experienced faster mortality improvement than has the bottom half. Specifically, male Social Security-covered workers born in 1941 who had average relative earnings in the top half of the earnings distribution and who lived to age 60 would be expected to live 5.8 more years than their counterparts in the bottom half. In contrast, among male Social Security-covered workers born in 1912 who survived to age 60, those
Full Text Available Purpose: Whether this earthquake would become a turning point of the high oil price and whether it would have big impact on yen exchange rate are two issues to be discussed in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: To analyze deeply the internal relations between changes in yen exchange rate caused by Japan’s earthquake and price fluctuation of international crude oil, this research chooses middle rate of yen exchange rate during the 45 days around Japan’s earthquake and price data of international crude oil to do an empirical study, uses VAR model and HP trend decomposition to estimate the mutual effect of yen exchange rate change and price fluctuation of international crude oil in this period.Findings: It has been found in the empirical study with VAR model and HP filter decomposition model on the yen exchange rate and the international crude oil price fluctuation during 45 days around Japan’s earthquake that: the fluctuation of yen exchange rate around the earthquake is one of the main reasons for the drastic fluctuation of international crude oil price in that period. The fluctuation of international crude oil price directly triggered by yen exchange rate occupies 13.54% of its total variance. There is a long-term interactive relationship between yen exchange rate and international crude oil price. The upward trend of international crude oil price after the earthquake was obvious, while yen exchange rate remained relatively stable after the earthquake.Originality/value: As economic globalization goes deeper, the influence of natural disasters on international financial market and world economy will become more and more obvious. It has a great revelatory meaning to studying further each kind of natural disaster’s impacts on international financial market and world economics.
Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman
Available evidence suggests that infants use adults' social cues for learning by the second half of the first year of life. However, little is known about the short-term or long-term effects of joint attention interactions on learning and memory in younger infants. In the present study, 4-month-old infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high vs. low). Brain activity in response to familiar and novel objects was assessed immediately after the familiarization phase (immediate recognition), and following a 1-week delay (delayed recognition). The latency of the Nc component differentiated between recognition of old versus new objects. Pb amplitude and latency were affected by joint attention in delayed recognition. Moreover, the frequency of infant gaze to the experimenter during familiarization differed between the two experimental groups and modulated the Pb response. Results show that joint attention affects the mechanisms of long-term retention in 4-month-old infants. We conclude that joint attention helps children at this young age to recognize the relevance of learned items.
Hawkins, C Matthew; Duszak, Richard; Rawson, James V
Twitter is a social media microblogging platform that allows rapid exchange of information between individuals. Despite its widespread acceptance and use at various other medical specialty meetings, there are no published data evaluating its use at radiology meetings. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the use of Twitter as a microblogging platform at recent RSNA annual meetings. Twitter activity meta-data tagged with official meeting hashtags #RSNA11 and #RSNA12 were collected and analyzed. Multiple metrics were evaluated, including daily and hourly Twitter activity, frequency of microblogging activity over time, characteristics of the 100 most active Twitter users at each meeting, characteristics of meeting-related tweets, and the geographic origin of meeting microbloggers. The use of Twitter microblogging increased by at least 30% by all identifiable meaningful metrics between the 2011 and 2012 RSNA annual meetings, including total tweets, tweets per day, activity of the most active microbloggers, and total number of microbloggers. Similar increases were observed in numbers of North American and international microbloggers. Markedly increased use of the Twitter microblogging platform at recent RSNA annual meetings demonstrates the potential to leverage this technology to engage meeting attendees, improve scientific sessions, and promote improved collaboration at national radiology meetings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Committee for the Continuing Study of Evolving Trends in Society Affecting Life was established by the CMA House of Delegates in 1971, following the consideration of a number of resolutions on the topic of abortion. The committee's charge was broadened, however, to include topics such as euthansia, biomedical engineering, medicine and religion, ecology and education. The committee's discussions, as its name indicates can cover a wide range of fields of interest to the medical profession. The following article is the first of several which the committee plans to publish, although the products of its deliberations may take the form of resolutions to future meetings of the House of Delegates. PMID:4694710
The noticeably high social and ethnic intolerance in Romania may have not only historical or cultural explanations, but also structural explanations. This research paper settles on social frustration as a predictor of various types of intolerance. Social frustration may be caused by perceived social inequities and inequalities, and by discontent with current standards of every day life. Whereas social frustration appears to be a predictor for the general social, ethnic and religious intoleran...
Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Lühmann, D; Eisele, M; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Weeg, D; Heser, K; Jessen, F; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H
To investigate how visual impairment affects social ties in late life longitudinally. Population-based prospective cohort study. Individuals in old age were recruited via general practitioners' offices (at six study centers) in Germany. They were interviewed every 18 months. Individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline. Follow-up wave 2 (36 months after baseline, n=2,443) and wave 4 (72 months after baseline, n=1,618) were used for the analyses presented here. Social ties were assessed using the 14-item form of the questionnaire for social support (F-SozU K-14). Visual impairment was self-rated on a three level Likert scale (no impairment, mild visual impairment, or severe/profound visual impairment). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, hearing impairment and comorbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of mild visual impairment decreased the social support score, in particular the emotional support score. Additionally, the onset of mild hearing impairment decreased the social support score in men. Moreover, increasing age decreased the social support score in the total sample and in both sexes. Loss of spouse and increasing comorbidity did not affect the social support score. Our results highlight the importance of visual impairment for social ties in late life. Consequently, appropriate strategies in order to delay visual impairment might help to maintain social ties in old age.
Anna Maaria Järvinen
Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.
Järvinen, Anna; Dering, Benjamin; Neumann, Dirk; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Grichanik, Mark; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula
Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of “peaks and valleys” of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD) group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR) reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:23049519
Cox, Sharon; Bertoux, Maxime; Turner, John J D; Moss, Antony; Locker, Kirsty; Riggs, Kevin
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). The mini-SEA was used to evaluate social and emotional understanding through a facial emotional recognition task and by utilising a series of social scenes some of which contain a faux pas (social error). Eighty-five participants (individuals with AUD and controls) completed demographic questions and a general cognitive and social cognitive test battery over three consecutive days. Between group analyses revealed that the participants with AUD performed less well on the faux pas test, and differences were also revealed in the emotional facial recognition task. Years of problematic alcohol consumption was the strongest predictor of poor ToM reasoning. These results suggest a strong link between AUD chronicity and social cognition, though the direction of this relationship needs further elucidation. This may be of clinical relevance to abstinence and relapse management, as basic social cognition skills and ability to maintain interpersonal relationships are likely to be crucial to recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Leonard, Rachel C; Wetterneck, Chad T; Smith, Brad E R; Farrell, Nicholas R; Riemann, Brad C
Despite evidence documenting relationships between eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, little is known regarding how social anxiety is related to ED symptoms in treatment. Therefore this study examined associations between depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and ED psychopathology at the beginning and end of treatment (EOT) among patients (N = 380) treated in a residential ED program. Participants completed measures of ED psychopathology and affective variables. Higher depression and general anxiety, but not social anxiety, were related to higher ED psychopathology at baseline. However, social anxiety emerged as a unique predictor of ED psychopathology at EOT such that participants with higher social anxiety evidenced less improvement in ED psychopathology. Findings suggest that social anxiety has specific relevance to treatment in EDs, which may reflect shared mechanisms and underlying deficits in emotion regulation.
Knight, Andrew P; Eisenkraft, Noah
Grounded in a social functional perspective, this article examines the conditions under which group affect influences group functioning. Using meta-analysis, the authors leverage heterogeneity across 39 independent studies of 2,799 groups to understand how contextual factors-group affect source (exogenous or endogenous to the group) and group life span (one-shot or ongoing)-moderate the influence of shared feelings on social integration and task performance. As predicted, results indicate that group positive affect has consistent positive effects on social integration and task performance regardless of contextual idiosyncrasies. The effects of group negative affect, on the other hand, are context-dependent. Shared negative feelings promote social integration and task performance when stemming from an exogenous source or experienced in a 1-shot group, but undermine social integration and task performance when stemming from an endogenous source or experienced in an ongoing group. The authors discuss implications of their findings and highlight directions for future theory and research on group affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Rendon Finnell, Laura; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T.
In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social…
Rupp, Tracy L; Killgore, William D S; Balkin, Thomas J
to examine the effects of socially enriched versus socially impoverished environments on performance and alertness decline during sleep deprivation in extraverts versus introverts. participants (n = 29 men, n = 19 women) were assigned to socially enriched (n = 24; 13 introverts, 11 extraverts) or socially impoverished (n = 24; 12 introverts, 12 extraverts) conditions (activities matched) for 12 hours (1000-2200) on Day 1 followed by 22 hours of sleep deprivation (2200-2000; 36 h awake total), monitored by actigraphy. The median split of volunteers' Eysenck Extraversion scores was used for extravert/introvert categorization. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were administered every 2 hours throughout. PVT speed, transformed lapses, modified MWT sleep-onset latency, and SSS were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance, with covariates of age and total actigraphic activity during enrichment or impoverishment. residential sleep/performance testing facility. forty-eight healthy adults (aged 18-39). Twelve hours of socially enriched or isolated environments in extraverts and introverts prior to sleep deprivation. Social experience interacted with personality type to affect alertness and vigilance. Social enrichment, as compared with social impoverishment, was associated with more PVT lapses at 04:00 overall. Similarly, following social enrichment, PVT speed was significantly slower among extraverts than among introverts during sleep deprivation, but no personality-group differences emerged following social impoverishment. MWT sleep latency and SSS subjective sleepiness did not show significant personality or social-condition effects during sleep deprivation. the effect of social exposure on vulnerability or resiliency to sleep deprivation was modulated by introversion and extraversion. Extraverts exposed to social environments were more vulnerable to subsequent sleep
Full Text Available The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners’ cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias towards guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants’ positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect—that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners—depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.□
Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J
Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel
The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias toward guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants' positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect-that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners-depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.
Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...
Beyer, Frederike; Sidarus, Nura; Fleming, Stephen; Haggard, Patrick
Social contexts substantially influence individual behavior, but little is known about how they affect cognitive processes related to voluntary action. Previously, it has been shown that social context reduces participants' sense of agency over the outcomes of their actions and outcome monitoring. In this fMRI study on human volunteers, we investigated the neural mechanisms by which social context alters sense of agency. Participants made costly actions to stop inflating a balloon before it burst. On "social" trials, another player could act in their stead, but we analyzed only trials in which the other player remained passive. We hypothesized that mentalizing processes during social trials would affect decision-making fluency and lead to a decreased sense of agency. In line with this hypothesis, we found increased activity in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus, and middle frontal gyrus during social trials compared with nonsocial trials. Activity in the precuneus was, in turn, negatively related to sense of agency at a single-trial level. We further found a double dissociation between TPJ and angular gyrus (AG): activity in the left AG was not sensitive to social context but was negatively related to sense of agency. In contrast, activity in the TPJ was modulated by social context but was not sensitive to sense of agency.
Cruwys, T.; Bevelander, K.E.; Hermans, R.C.J.
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely)
A. Figen ERSOY
Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions
Leinonen, Taina; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko
The balance between the amount of time spent in work and in retirement underlies the long-term sustainability of the social security system. We examined socioeconomic differences in how increasing longevity is distributed between labor market statuses in Finland. We used register data and the Sullivan method to analyze life expectancy at age 50 spent in different labor market statuses over the period 1989-2012 and across cohorts born in 1938-1953. We projected the future mortality and labor market participation rates of partially observed cohorts. Both working life expectancy at age 50 and the share of remaining life spent in work have increased across periods following the recession of the early 1990s, and across successive cohorts. The trends were similar across the social classes, but there were large differences in the numbers of years spent in various states: for the most recent period and the youngest cohort, we find that compared with upper non-manual employees, male and female manual workers were expected to spend 3.6-3.7 fewer years in work, 1.7-4.7 fewer years in statutory retirement, and 3.2-3.9 more years in other forms of nonemployment. Our finding that the share of remaining life at age 50 spent in work is increasing implies that pressure on the welfare system is not as severe as is commonly thought. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick
ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-...
Puskaric, Marin; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg
When making decisions, people are often exposed to relevant information stemming from qualitatively different sources. For instance, when making a choice between two alternatives people can rely on the advice of other people (i.e., social information) or search for factual information about the alternatives (i.e., non-social information). Prior research in categorization has shown that social information is given special attention when both social and non-social information is available, even when the social information has no additional informational value. The goal of the current work is to investigate whether framing information as social or non-social also influences information search and choice in probabilistic inferences. In a first study, we found that framing cues (i.e., the information used to make a decision) with medium validity as social increased the probability that they were searched for compared to a task where the same cues were framed as non-social information, but did not change the strategy people relied on. A second and a third study showed that framing a cue with high validity as social information facilitated learning to rely on a non-compensatory decision strategy. Overall, the results suggest that social in comparison to non-social information is given more attention and is learned faster than non-social information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Lienemann, Brianna A; Hohman, Zachary P; O'Brien, Erin
Depression is a mental illness affecting 121 million people. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration recently launched a national, bilingual (English and Spanish) campaign to motivate young adults to support friends with mental illness. This article highlights and assesses the usefulness of two theoretically derived variables for increasing the social support received by all depressed individuals: (a) affect and (b) social support outcome expectations. In accord with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's bilingual campaign, the authors conducted two studies using intercepts at 2 swap meets in the U.S. Southwest. One study sample consisted of Spanish-dominant Hispanics, the other non-Hispanics. For both samples, results indicate that affect, social support outcome expectations, and their interaction accounted for more than 50% of the variance of social support intentions (67% in the Hispanic sample when familism was considered). Affect is commonplace in the helping behavior literature; results indicate social support outcome expectations deserve equal consideration. Moreover, an unexpected finding emerged: Perceiving a lack of willpower, need for attention, and lack of moral character to be the cause of depression resulted in increased sympathy among the Hispanic sample but increased anger among non-Hispanics.
Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici
We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…
Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Mallon, Tina; van der Leeden, Carolin; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Luck, Tobias; König, Hans-Helmut
to investigate how social support affects functional impairment (FI) in late life in a longitudinal approach. in a multicenter prospective cohort study, subjects in old age (≥75 years at baseline) were interviewed every 1.5 years. Social support was quantified in the follow-up (FU) Waves 2 and 4 (FU Wave 2: n = 2,349; FU Wave 4: n = 1,484). FI was assessed by using the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. fixed effects regressions showed that a decrease in social support is associated with FI in the total sample and in both sexes. The effect on FI was most pronounced with the dimension social integration, whereas changes in practical support only affected FI in the total sample and changes in emotional support only affected FI in men. our findings emphasise the importance of social support for functional status in late life. Thus, strengthening social support in old age might be effective in maintaining functional abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com
Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul
Tiger conservation in India represents an excellent case study of the many challenges facing conservation programs internationally. It is well understood that tigers are sensitive to human disturbances and large areas of habitat need to be protected for their conservation. Such protected areas in India are managed by the governments using an exclusionary approach. However, this approach is known to create several issues with local communities, including historical, legal, livelihood and management issues; with a volume of literature suggesting the inclusion of local communities in management. Yet, other evidence suggests that inclusion of communities in tiger conservation may lead to anthropogenic disturbances that can jeopardize tigers. The gravity of the situation is reflected in the recent disappearance of tigers from two key protected areas in India, the Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves. This review paper connects the key literature from conservation biology, environmental history, management sciences, policy and political sciences to underline the gridlock of tiger conservation: it needs exclusive protected areas that antagonize communities, and it depends on the support of the same communities for success. We examine the possibility of reconciliation between these disciplines, and assert that research on tiger conservation needs to allow for an increasingly interdisciplinary approach. We call for a more integrated approach to tiger conservation, to examine the values inherent in conservation and to shed more light on the social factors that affect tiger conservation schemes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.
Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael
What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.
Full Text Available Gorj, Valcea and Mehedinti counties have important reserves of lignite whose recovery began over 50 years ago. Exploitation of lignite deposits produced and produces multiple changes, affecting almost the entire ecosystem, affecting the environment and forest sealing of large areas of land by building new pathways through displacement of human settlements, deviations of water courses, building new productive and social objectives. Cast mining leaves behind a relief disturbed, chaotic mixture consisting of rocks, devoid of vegetation, erosion and strong subject with a look of "soft lunar land". These rocks are mixtures of low fertility, have degrees of suitability for recultivation very different due to heterogeneity, with particular problems in the process of recultivation. Many countries in the world has experienced in the restoration of degraded land for coal mining activities. Such technology upgrading in Romania, refertilization and recultivation of land affected by mining were addressed in Rovinari mining basin since 1968 by the Fruit Research Station Targu-Jiu, Soil and Agrochemical Research Institute Bucharest. The data recorded during the 15 years of study come to, the following conclusions: • plum pretend best on the land redeveloped, making a 10-year average production of 6.2 t/ha in variety Stanley, 5.9 t / ha the variety Anna Spath and 5.2 t/ha in variety Early haulm; Of phenological observations made that early haulm varieties mature in 8-10 days earlier compared to those in other areas of the county, as dump area creates a microclimate determined by the remnants of coal mixed with tailings • apple varieties first, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson achieved average yields of 12-15 t/ha • a good development on the land had walnut planted in pure culture or sandwiched with hazelnut or cherry species • Walnut was experienced and agrosylvicultural under grass strips between rows in a demonstration plot with good results on growth
Full Text Available Introduction: One of school age children may developing task is learning to interact with their peer groups. The introvert have problem with their social interaction. One ways that can increase the social skill is play activities with social situation. So social play activities: cooperative play can be one of alternative solution to increase social interaction of children with introvert symptom. This study was aimed to explain effect of social play activities: cooperative play on social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Method: Quasy experiment design was used in this study. The population was school aged children with introvert symptom in SDN Kendangsari III/278 Surabaya. Total sample was 23 respondents consist of 12 respondents as treatment group and 11 respondents as controlled group. The independent variable was social play activities: cooperative play. The dependent was social interaction of children with introvert symptom. The Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with level significance ofα ≤ 0.005. Result: Result showed that social play activities: cooperative play had significant effect on social interaction of children with introvert symptom (increased. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test showed treatment group had p = 0.002 and controlled group had p = 1.00. Mann Whitney U Test showed p = 0.002. Discussion: It concluded that social play activities: cooperative play can be one way to change social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Further studies should involve larger respondents and better measurement tools to obtain more accurate results.
Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley
A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...
Social contexts substantially influence individual behavior, but little is known about how they affect cognitive processes related to voluntary action. Previously, it has been shown that social context reduces participants’ sense of agency over the outcomes of their actions and outcome monitoring. In this fMRI study on human volunteers, we investigated the neural mechanisms by which social context alters sense of agency. Participants made costly actions to stop inflating a balloon before it burst. On “social” trials, another player could act in their stead, but we analyzed only trials in which the other player remained passive. We hypothesized that mentalizing processes during social trials would affect decision-making fluency and lead to a decreased sense of agency. In line with this hypothesis, we found increased activity in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus, and middle frontal gyrus during social trials compared with nonsocial trials. Activity in the precuneus was, in turn, negatively related to sense of agency at a single-trial level. We further found a double dissociation between TPJ and angular gyrus (AG): activity in the left AG was not sensitive to social context but was negatively related to sense of agency. In contrast, activity in the TPJ was modulated by social context but was not sensitive to sense of agency. PMID:29527568
Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.
Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…
Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.
Kathryn Gazal; Iris Montague; Rajendra Poudel; Jan Wiedenbeck
The use of social media as a marketing tool has increased significantly in recent years. However, limited information is available regarding social media use in the US forest products industry or social media adoption at the organizational level, especially within the business-to-business context. This study presents part two of a two-part series of articles that look...
Fernandez Espejo, Emilio
Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short
Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…
Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.
The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…
Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B
Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo
Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…
Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.
In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…
Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih
The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications. Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to practices
Full Text Available The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health.Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications.Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to
Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation
Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morso, L; Albert, H B; Refshauge, K M; Ferreira, P H
Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Some level of social isolation was reported by 39.2% of the participants (n = 80) with 5.9% (n = 12) being very socially isolated. One-point difference on social isolation predicted one point on a 100-point disability scale (adjusted unstandardized coefficient: -0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.56 to -0.26). Social isolation predicted anxiety; however, a change of one point on the social isolation scale represents a difference of only 0.08 points on a 22-point scale in anxiety (95% CI: 0.01-0.15) and is unlikely to denote clinical importance. Social isolation did not predict pain catastrophizing or depression. Patients' perceived social isolation predicts disability related to LBP. Further understanding of the role of social isolation in LBP is warranted. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm
Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15-49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005-2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Koontz, Nicholas A; Hill, Danielle V; Dodson, Sean C; Capps, Alisha E; Kamer, Aaron P; Frank, Mark S; Heitkamp, Darel E
We report the development of a new "Case of the Day" (COTD) educational initiative using email, social media (SoMe), and a website to disseminate content, as well as its trends in viewership and assessment of utility for the first year of implementation. Using an image-rich format, a new unknown case was disseminated to radiology trainees and attendings at our institution by email twice per week, including history, salient images, and follow-up questions. Simultaneously, content was externally disseminated on Twitter and a publicly viewable departmental website. On subsequent days, the answer was posted via email, Twitter, and website in the form of a brief YouTube video lecture. Viewership data were collected over the first 12 months (July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017), and an anonymous survey of participants was performed. Sixty-five COTDs had complete viewership data and were included in our analysis, yielding 4911 "case" email views (mean = 76), 3798 "answer" email views (mean = 58), 68,034 "case" Twitter impressions (mean = 1047), 75,724 "answer" Twitter impressions (mean = 1164), 5465 "case" Twitter engagements (mean = 84), and 5307 "answer" Twitter engagements (mean = 82). COTD YouTube video lectures garnered 3657 views (mean = 61) amounting to 10,358 minutes of total viewing time. Viewers were very satisfied with COTD quality, with 97% (n = 63) reporting the quality as "good" or "excellent." Email and SoMe can serve as effective tools for disseminating radiology educational content. SoMe offers substantial external visibility and branding potential for programs. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cedillo Torres, Cristina A.; Garcia-French, Mercedes; Hordijk, Rosemarie; Nguyen, Kim; Olup, Lana
This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart) in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR
Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.
The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.
Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101
The paper explores the effects of the social security system over retirement and labor supply decision of individuals aged 55 to 65 in Chile. We use the 1998 CASEN survey elaborated by the Chilean government. Due to regulations established by the current social security law, two social security systems coexist on 1998: the .Pay-as-you-go. and the individual account system. This property of the dataset, allows us to disentangle the effects of those two systems over retirement and labor supply....
Social status is commonly established among individuals within groups of animals. Despite this common characteristic of social animals it is still unclear how individuals establish their status. I investigated the relationships between morphology, posture and behaviours with social status in red junglefowl hens. The hens tested were measured (weight, comb length, comb height and tarsus length) and exposed to three different behavioural tests (novel arena, novel object and interaction test). N...
Sauerwein, Markus; Theis, Desiree; Fischer, Natalie
Research has shown that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on adolescents' social behaviour and academic performance; however, the reciprocal influence of extracurricular activities and leisure on the development of adolescents' academic performance and social behaviour is unclear. In our study, we investigate the effect of school based and out-of-school leisure activities on adolescent's social and scholastic development. We also explore how students' gender, s...
Nyman, Cecilia; Fischer, Stefan; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Taborsky, Barbara
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors ( gr ) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher , reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. When blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GR) with an antagonist, mifepristone (RU486), parent-reared individuals showed more socially appropriate, submissive behaviour when intruding on a larger conspecific's territory. Remarkably, mifepristone-treated fish were less attacked by territory owners and had a higher likelihood of territory takeover. Our results indicate that early social-environment effects on stress axis programming are mediated by an evolutionary conserved molecular pathway, which is causally involved in environmentally induced variation of animal social competence. © 2018 The Author(s).
Topic, we want to examine closer what exactly can be understood by “sharedness” and “normativity” by taking a closer look at discursive, embodied and affective engagements with the world in social interaction. As Charles Goodwin has convincingly shown, these discursive practices need to be understood...... of certain ways of understanding the world and the normative dimension of social life as action based, as processual, mutually shaped, dynamic and fluid, ever evolving meaning making in situated social interaction (cp. Bakhtin, Garfinkel and Wittgenstein). Within the broader field of Cultural Psychology......, this Research Topic considers approaches that deem the nature of psychological phenomena to be dialogically intertwined with discursive and embodied practices in social interaction, the shape of which is always situational, ecologically embedded. We specifically want to address the question of methodology. What...
Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Smith, Otto R F; Augustine, Lilly
BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level. METHODS: Comprising N...... at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants...... were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific...
Edison W. Lubua
Full Text Available Background: The study was established based on the inherent challenges of traditional learning systems, which require to be addressed. Arguably, social media can address many challenges of traditional learning if used properly. On this basis, it was important for the study to determine factors associated with the adoption of social media in learning. Objectives: This study determines the relationship between the ease of use and the usefulness of social media to its adoption. Moreover, it shows whether the perceived security of social media relates to its adoption in the learning environment of higher learning students. The objectives were met through testing hypotheses. Methods: Overall, the study was objective and followed the positivism philosophical stance. It adopted the survey research design. Data were collected through the use of a closed-end questionnaire and was tested using descriptive statistics and the One-Way ANOVA model. The generalisation of the results of tested hypotheses is allowed to the population with characteristics similar to that of the study. Results: Social media offer a good platform for the learning process. Moreover, necessary efforts are required to enhance the perception of users on the usefulness of social media, and improve their awareness of security issues because they relate with the adoption of social media. Also, the complexity of social media relates with to adoption. An ease of use platform enhances the adoption. Conclusion: Social media offer a suitable platform for the extension of traditional classes. Their use would be more effective provided that users are aware of maintaining their safety, able to apply social media tools and able to share the content useful to their learning process. Moreover, the study recommends further studies in specific social media.
Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent
Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jones, Ann; Issroff, Kim
This paper is concerned with "affective" issues in learning technologies in a collaborative context. Traditionally in learning there has been a division between cognition and affect: where cognition is concerned with skills and processes such as thinking and problem-solving and affect with emotional areas such as motivation, attitudes, feelings.…
The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…
Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Clarke, Brandy L.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Coutts, Michael J.
Research Findings: Children's early academic achievement is supported by positive social and behavioral skills, and difficulties with these skills frequently gives way to underachievement. Social and behavioral problems often arise as a product of parent-child interactional patterns and environmental influences. Few studies have examined the role…
Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda; Baroutsis, Aspa; Te Riele, Kitty; Hayes, Debra
This article considers the ways in which three alternative education sites in Australia support socially just education for their students and how injustice is addressed within these schools. The article begins with recognition of the importance of Nancy Fraser's work to understandings of social justice. It then goes on to argue that her framework…
Hofstetter, Heather N.; Hofstetter, Merlin I.
This paper describes the beliefs and values of a pluralistic approach to social change and of four competing approaches: social Darwinism, functionalism, militancy, and conflict theory. Stressing the alienation and dogmatism of the competing approaches, the authors relate each approach to its operation in community action projects. Social…
Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morsø, Lars
BACKGROUND: Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity...... of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social...... isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes...
Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J
The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (M age = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spapé, Michiel M; Kivikangas, J Matias; Järvelä, Simo; Kosunen, Ilkka; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas
In daily life, we often copy the gestures and expressions of those we communicate with, but recent evidence shows that such mimicry has a physiological counterpart: interaction elicits linkage, which is a concordance between the biological signals of those involved. To find out how the type of social interaction affects linkage, pairs of participants played a turn-based computer game in which the level of competition was systematically varied between cooperation and competition. Linkage in the beta and gamma frequency bands was observed in the EEG, especially when the participants played directly against each other. Emotional expression, measured using facial EMG, reflected this pattern, with the most competitive condition showing enhanced linkage over the facial muscle-regions involved in smiling. These effects were found to be related to self-reported social presence: linkage in positive emotional expression was associated with self-reported shared negative feelings. The observed effects confirmed the hypothesis that the social context affected the degree to which participants had similar reactions to their environment and consequently showed similar patterns of brain activity. We discuss the functional resemblance between linkage, as an indicator of a shared physiology and affect, and the well-known mirror neuron system, and how they relate to social functions like empathy.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, comprised of three diagnostic entities - autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's disorder (AS), and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (including atypical autism) (PDD-NOS). A number of intervention techniques are currently used to reduce some of the associated challenges, with techniques ranging from behavioral therapy to dietary interventions and traditional counseling. This positional paper proposes the use of video games which leverage affective computing technologies as intervention in autism spectrum disorders in the context of the use of traditional play therapy with adolescents, who may feel uncomfortable engaging in traditional play with toys they may be too old for. It aims to explore the potential for greater 'social physics' made possible by affective computing technologies. This involves computationally 'recognizing' emotions in a user, often through the use of multimodal affective sensors, including facial expressions, postural shifts, and physiological signals such as heart rate, skin conductivity, and EEG signals. However, it is suggested that this should be augmented by researching the effect of social game design mechanisms on social-emotional development, particularly for those who experience difficulty with social interaction.
Michiel M Spapé
Full Text Available In daily life, we often copy the gestures and expressions of those we communicate with, but recent evidence shows that such mimicry has a physiological counterpart: interaction elicits linkage, which is a concordance between the biological signals of those involved. To find out how the type of social interaction affects linkage, pairs of participants played a turn-based computer game in which the level of competition was systematically varied between cooperation and competition. Linkage in the beta and gamma frequency bands was observed in the EEG, especially when the participants played directly against each other. Emotional expression, measured using facial EMG, reflected this pattern, with the most competitive condition showing enhanced linkage over the facial muscle-regions involved in smiling. These effects were found to be related to self-reported social presence: linkage in positive emotional expression was associated with self-reported shared negative feelings. The observed effects confirmed the hypothesis that the social context affected the degree to which participants had similar reactions to their environment and consequently showed similar patterns of brain activity. We discuss the functional resemblance between linkage, as an indicator of a shared physiology and affect, and the well-known mirror neuron system, and how they relate to social functions like empathy.
Teng, Pan; Hall, Brian J.; Li, Ling
Background Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant's depression symptoms. Method We recruited 1,368 women (1,003 migrants and 365 local-born) of childbearing age from population and family planning centers in two districts using a quota sampling method matched to the 2012 population census. Chinese versions of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale measured IPV, depression, and social support. Social integration was measured with a locally derived scale. Results Migrants reported a similar prevalence for IPV (41.20%) to local women (39.20%). Bivariate comparisons demonstrated that migrants reported greater depression (11.8±8.9 vs. 10.0±8.8, t=−3.27, p<0.001) and less social support (22.2±5.1 vs. 27.1±5.5, t=14.84, p<0.001). Regression analysis indicated that the effect of violence on depression symptoms for migrant women was moderated by social integration. Women who experienced violence and had greater integration in their community reported less depression than women who experienced violence but reported less social integration. Conclusion A high prevalence of IPV was reported in our sample. Social integration is a key risk factor for migrant mental health. Social services aimed to reduce IPV and integrate migrants in their new communities are needed. PMID:25511732
Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal violence (IPV is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant's depression symptoms. Method: We recruited 1,368 women (1,003 migrants and 365 local-born of childbearing age from population and family planning centers in two districts using a quota sampling method matched to the 2012 population census. Chinese versions of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale measured IPV, depression, and social support. Social integration was measured with a locally derived scale. Results: Migrants reported a similar prevalence for IPV (41.20% to local women (39.20%. Bivariate comparisons demonstrated that migrants reported greater depression (11.8±8.9 vs. 10.0±8.8, t=−3.27, p<0.001 and less social support (22.2±5.1 vs. 27.1±5.5, t=14.84, p<0.001. Regression analysis indicated that the effect of violence on depression symptoms for migrant women was moderated by social integration. Women who experienced violence and had greater integration in their community reported less depression than women who experienced violence but reported less social integration. Conclusion: A high prevalence of IPV was reported in our sample. Social integration is a key risk factor for migrant mental health. Social services aimed to reduce IPV and integrate migrants in their new communities are needed.
Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W
The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Focus by child health professionals on the well-being of young Australian children and their families has intensified in the past decade, with particular attention drawn to the importance of the early detection and intervention of developmental problems. While many children with developmental difficulties are detected in the preschool years, those with more subtle forms of developmental problems are often only noticed by their mothers, passing unnoticed by professionals until the children begin school and fail socially or academically. This study aimed to ascertain ways in which child health professionals may utilise the experience of mothers to improve early recognition and diagnosis of subtle developmental and behavioural problems in children. French philosopher, Roland Barthes (1973) proposed that myths play an important social role in defining underlying social values that affect how people interpret what others say or do. This paper explores how the social myths of childhood, motherhood and medicine impact upon the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. In particular, it examines how social myths affect when and how mothers become concerned about their children's development, from whom they seek advice, and the responses which mothers receive in regard to their concerns. Mythical notions of the 'blameless child', 'boys will be boys' and 'children who look OK are OK', and the constituted myth of motherhood, are all shown to affect when mothers become concerned about their children's development. What mothers do about their concerns and the responses they receive from child health professionals are also influenced by these myths. The myth of medicine is also examined to determine how it affects communication between mothers and doctors, the roles and responsibilities of doctors, and the value placed on a mother's concerns by doctors.
Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel
Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bergami, M; Bagozzi, R P
The purpose of this study is to distinguish between cognitive, affective and evaluative components of social identity in the organization and to show how the components instigate behaviours that benefit in-group members. A new scale for measuring cognitive organizational identification (i.e. self-categorization) is developed and compared to a leading scale. Internal consistency, convergent validity, predictive validity and generalizability of the two scales are established on a sample of Italian (N = 409) and Korean (N = 283) workers. Next, convergent and discriminant validity for measures of organizational identification, affective commitment and group self-esteem are demonstrated. Then, two antecedents of these components of social identity are examined: organization prestige and organization stereotypes. Finally, the mediating role of the components of social identity are investigated between the antecedents and five forms of citizenship behaviours. The last three analyses are performed on the Italian (N = 409) workers. Among other findings, the results show that affective commitment and self-esteem are the primary motivators of citizenship behaviours. Moreover, cognitive identification performs as a central mediator between prestige and stereotypes on the one hand, and affective commitment and self-esteem on the other. Identification is thus an indirect determinant of citizenship behaviours.
Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J
Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.
Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.
Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay
Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. PMID:23352202
McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal; Dilley, Laura B; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Hwang, Stephen W
Intersecting social determinants of health constrain access to care and treatment adherence among homeless populations. Because clinicians seldom receive training in the social determinants of health, they may be unprepared to account for or address these factors when developing treatment strategies for homeless individuals. This study explored: (i) clinicians' preparedness to provide care responsive to the social determinants of health in homeless populations, and (ii) the steps taken by clinicians to overcome shortcomings in their clinical training in regard to the social determinants of health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 6) and nurses (n = 18) in six Canadian cities. Participants had at least 2 years of experience in providing care to homeless populations. Interview transcripts were analysed using methods of constant comparison. Participants highlighted how, when first providing care to this population, they were unprepared to account for or address social determinants shaping the health of homeless persons. However, participants recognised the necessity of addressing these factors to situate care within the social and structural contexts of homelessness. Participants' accounts illustrated that experiential learning was critical to increasing capacity to provide care responsive to the social determinants of health. Experiential learning was a continuous process that involved: (i) engaging with homeless persons in multiple settings and contexts to inform treatment strategies; (ii) evaluating the efficacy of treatment strategies through continued observation and critical reflection, and (iii) adjusting clinical practice to reflect observations and new knowledge. This study underscores the need for greater emphasis on the social determinants of health in medical education in the context of homelessness. These insights may help to inform the development and design of service-learning initiatives that integrate understandings of the
Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D
Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.
Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.
Roč. 65, Suppl.5 (2016), S547-S555 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : social behavior * opioids * morphine * cannabinoids * THC * male rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016
ter Hoeven, C.L.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Purpose - The effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication on external stakeholders' perceptions and behaviours have been studied extensively; however, researchers have largely overlooked the effects of CSR communication on internal stakeholders. This study seeks to propose that,
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Saeideh Sharifi fard; Ezhar Tamam; Md Salleh Hj Hassan; Moniza Waheed; Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh
This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE) and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI) through social networking sites (SNSs) in Malaysia. As for moderating influe...
Snider, Keith F.; Halpern, Barton H.; Rendon, Rene G.; Kidalov, Max V.
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pursup.2013.01.001 How does government drive the corporate social responsibility of firms that supply it with goods and services? This paper reviews relevant theory and practice to describe ways in which public procurement shapes corporate social responsibility, and it builds upon theory to develop testable propositions to describe these influences. Using the case of U.S. defense procurement, statisti...
Bo Terning Hansen; Tore Slagsvold
Social dominance influences the outcome of competitive interactions over limited resources, and may hence be important for individual fitness. Theory thus predicts that its heritability will be low and that non-genetic determinants of dominance should prevail. In this field experiment we reciprocally cross-fostered great tits (Parus major) to blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to investigate the impact of early social experience on dominance status in competition over food during winter. Controlling...
Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.
Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; M age =23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Academic Dishonesty is one of the important issues in the higher education system of Iran, and reducing or preventing it requires identifying the factors which have an impact on it. The present study has analyzed the perceptions and understandings of PhD students in social science fields, who have a wider experience of scientific socialization in the process of education, with the aim of identifying the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science in Iran. The findings of this research show that the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science education can be detected at two individual and structural levels. At the structural level, sources and rules, and at the individual level, academic dishonesty among three groups of actors in educational space, i.e. professors, students and managers (heads of departments and faculties, with reference to their individual and personality characteristics, have paved the way for academic dishonesty, or have resulted in its occurrence. In the framework of a combination of actor/structure in explaining social phenomena, the factors influencing academic dishonesty and non-conformity to the norms of the ethics of science in the educational space can be reduced neither to the role of the structure nor that of the actor. Dishonesty in the ethics of science in social science education and the factors affecting them can be explained in the light of a combination of structure and actor.
Cristina A. Cedillo Torres
Full Text Available This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught using child labour in Bangladesh and has faced gender discrimination charges. In 2010 the media reported on suicides at Foxconn, one of Apple's biggest suppliers. And although Canon did not mention any employee stress-related problems at its factories, they nevertheless occurred.This article will discuss the different CSR issues that emerged within the mentioned multinationals. It will provide a comparison of the companies' CSR reporting before and after the problematic events occurred. The case studies show whether the multinationals acted before a conflict emerged or adapted their CSR policy when the problem was already widely known. Thus, it analyses whether the companies adopted clear and quantifiable policies after the issues occurred. The conclusion points out that the companies not only reported on CSR but that they also adopted long-term commitments. The findings also suggest that the conflicts may have contributed to the adoption of these multinationals' CSR commitments.
Corthals, Kristina; Heukamp, Alina Sophia; Kossen, Robert; Großhennig, Isabel; Hahn, Nina; Gras, Heribert; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Geurten, Bart R H
The genome of Drosophila melanogaster includes homologs to approximately one-third of the currently known human disease genes. Flies and humans share many biological processes, including the principles of information processing by excitable neurons, synaptic transmission, and the chemical signals involved in intercellular communication. Studies on the molecular and behavioral impact of genetic risk factors of human neuro-developmental disorders [autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome] increasingly use the well-studied social behavior of D. melanogaster , an organism that is amenable to a large variety of genetic manipulations. Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of phylogenetically conserved postsynaptic adhesion molecules present (among others) in nematodes, insects, and mammals. Impaired function of Nlgs (particularly of Nlg 3 and 4) has been associated with ASDs in humans and impaired social and communication behavior in mice. Making use of a set of behavioral and social assays, we, here, analyzed the impact of two Drosophila Nlgs, Dnlg2 and Dnlg4, which are differentially expressed at excitatory and inhibitory central nervous synapses, respectively. Both Nlgs seem to be associated with diurnal activity and social behavior. Even though deficiencies in Dnlg2 and Dnlg4 appeared to have no effects on sensory or motor systems, they differentially impacted on social interactions, suggesting that social behavior is distinctly regulated by these Nlgs.
Full Text Available The genome of Drosophila melanogaster includes homologs to approximately one-third of the currently known human disease genes. Flies and humans share many biological processes, including the principles of information processing by excitable neurons, synaptic transmission, and the chemical signals involved in intercellular communication. Studies on the molecular and behavioral impact of genetic risk factors of human neuro-developmental disorders [autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome] increasingly use the well-studied social behavior of D. melanogaster, an organism that is amenable to a large variety of genetic manipulations. Neuroligins (Nlgs are a family of phylogenetically conserved postsynaptic adhesion molecules present (among others in nematodes, insects, and mammals. Impaired function of Nlgs (particularly of Nlg 3 and 4 has been associated with ASDs in humans and impaired social and communication behavior in mice. Making use of a set of behavioral and social assays, we, here, analyzed the impact of two Drosophila Nlgs, Dnlg2 and Dnlg4, which are differentially expressed at excitatory and inhibitory central nervous synapses, respectively. Both Nlgs seem to be associated with diurnal activity and social behavior. Even though deficiencies in Dnlg2 and Dnlg4 appeared to have no effects on sensory or motor systems, they differentially impacted on social interactions, suggesting that social behavior is distinctly regulated by these Nlgs.
Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung
This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381
Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung
This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related to stress involving the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings highlight specific areas of stress experienced by mothers of children with ASD that are related to the child's symptoms, providing information for caregiver support and intervention.
Joan E. Foley
Full Text Available Using a normative sample of 1,057 children studied across 4 waves over 6 years with multiple informants, we investigated transactional relations for sleep problems, anxious-depressed symptoms, and social functioning from preschool to preadolescence, assessing cumulative effects on children's emotional and social adjustment. To examine sex differences in the developmental processes, we conducted separate analyses for boys and girls. For both boys and girls, longitudinal cross-lagged panel analyses showed that preschool sleep problems directly predicted anxious-depressed symptoms 2 years later; indirect effects continued into preadolescence. For girls, early and later sleep problems directly or indirectly predicted a wide variety of preadolescent emotional and social adjustment domains (e.g., depressive symptoms, school competence, emotion regulation, risk-taking behaviors. For boys, social competence played a more important role than sleep problems in predicting preadolescent adjustment. Among the first set of findings that demonstrate longitudinal relations between sleep problems and social functioning in middle childhood and preadolescence, these results support Dahl's and Walker's neurological models of sleep and emotional functioning. We discuss these findings in light of relations between sleep and affect during pre-pubertal development and discuss differential findings for boys and girls.
Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek
Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…
Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.
Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.
Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862
Full Text Available Three studies address the role of social consensus on evaluative standards in different comparative contexts. Previous research has documented that self-categorisation at the individual or group level changes social comparison effects in terms of assimilation and contrast. With regard to self-ratings of physical attractiveness, the present studies show that people who focus on group membership can benefit from including outstanding others in their reference group, whereas people who focus on their individual attributes run the risk of self-devaluation. It is argued that high consensus strengthens the association between evaluative standards and group membership and renders the inclusion of outstanding others more likely. Study 3 shows that the need to protect self-esteem moderates the influence of perceived consensus. Stressing the individual self led participants who received negative feedback to exclude outstanding others when consensus was low. Stressing the social self, however, led participants to include outstanding others when consensus was high.