WorldWideScience

Sample records for social support self-esteem

  1. Compare Self-Esteem and Social Support among Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodaabakhshi-Koolaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.

  2. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  3. Self-Esteem, Social Support, Collectivism, and the Thin-Ideal in Latina College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2010-01-01

    Thin-ideal internalization (TII) reflects agreement that thinness equates with beauty. TII is a risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology; this phenomenon and its correlates, however, are just beginning to be studied in Latina undergraduates. This study examined the ability of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism to predict TII in Latina undergraduates. It was hypothesized that higher levels of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism would predict lower levels of TII. Cross-sectional data were analyzed using multiple regression; the model was significant, p < .01. Although both self-esteem and social support negatively correlated with thin-ideal internalization, only self-esteem accounted for a significant amount of variance. Results indicate that investigations of self-esteem as a protective factor against TII in Latina undergraduates would be fruitful, as would how self-esteem and social support affect the relationship between TII and other variables. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:21147052

  4. Social Support and Self-Esteem in Unemployed University Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…

  5. Utilized social support and self-esteem mediate the relationship between perceived social support and suicide ideation. A test of a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H

    2013-01-01

    While perceived social support has received considerable research as a protective factor for suicide ideation, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that mediate its effects. We integrated two theoretical models, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide and Leary's (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995) sociometer theory of self-esteem to investigate two hypothesized mechanisms, utilization of social support and self-esteem. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals must utilize the social support they perceive that would result in increased self-esteem, which in turn buffers them from suicide ideation. Participants were 172 college students who completed measures of social support, self-esteem, and suicide ideation. Tests of simple mediation indicate that utilization of social support and self-esteem may each individually help to mediate the perceived social support/suicide ideation relationship. Additionally, a test of multiple mediators using bootstrapping supported the hypothesized multiple-mediator model. The use of a cross-sectional design limited our ability to find true cause-and-effect relationships. Results suggested that utilized social support and self-esteem both operate as individual moderators in the social support/self-esteem relationship. Results further suggested, in a comprehensive model, that perceived social support buffers suicide ideation through utilization of social support and increases in self-esteem.

  6. Association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vinita; Unnikrishnan, B; Hegde, Supriya; Ramapuram, John T; Rao, S; Achappa, B; Madi, D; Kotian, M S

    2011-12-01

    Depression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positives has implications such as poor drug compliance, lower quality of life, faster progression to full blown Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and higher mortality. To assess depression, social support and self-esteem in HIV positives and to find out the association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positive patients. Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, Mangalore, India and cross-sectional design. Study constituted of 105 HIV positive subjects; depression was assessed using BDI (Beck depression inventory), social support was assessed using Lubben social network scale and self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Kappa statistics was used to measure the agreement of depression assessed by BDI with clinical diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression analyses were done to find out predictors of depression among HIV positives. All analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Depression was found to be present in 43.8% of HIV positives. Among the study subjects, 10.5% had high risk for isolation and low self-esteem was found only among 5.7%. In univariate analysis both gender and self-esteem were significantly associated with depression whereas in multivariate analysis only self-esteem was found to be significantly associated with depression. The present study shows a high prevalence of depression in HIV positive patients along with the importance of self-esteem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.

  9. Self-Esteem among Vietnamese American Adolescents: The Role of Self-Construal, Family Cohesion, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian Trung

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…

  10. Self-esteem, social support perception and seizure controllability perception in adolescents with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália F. Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the self-esteem of adolescents with epilepsy and adolescents without epilepsy and relate it to social support and seizure controllability perception. METHOD: The study sample consisted: case participants (34 subjects attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital and control participants (30 subjects from public schools in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, a semi-structured interview on aspects of the disease, and a Self-Esteem Multidimensional Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups but majority of adolescents with epilepsy presented higher self esteem rate, have knowledge about epilepsy, presented high levels of social support and seizure controllability perception. There was no significant relationship between social support and seizure controllability perception with self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about epilepsy, social support such good controllability seizure perception seem are important contingencies for a better evaluation of self esteem in adolescents with epilepsy.

  11. Effects of peer education, social support and self esteem on breast self examination performance and knowledge level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti

    2009-01-01

    To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.

  12. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez-Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Gázquez Linares, José Jesús; Barragán Martín, Ana Belén

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome. Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout. Method: The sample was made up of 719 healthcare professionals with a mean of 38.52 years of age. The Short Questionnaire of Burnout, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire and the Basic Empathy Scale were used. Results: The results of a cluster analysis with self-esteem, empathy, and perceived social support showed four groups/profiles. Two of them, which included professionals with low self-esteem, differed in the rest of the characteristics. Furthermore, significant differences in burnout scores were found among the groups identified. Conclusion: The results show the need to study burnout with attention to individual and or social characteristics, where self-esteem is shown to be one of the explanatory variables making the main differences among the groups.

  13. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Molero Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome.Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout.Method: The sample was made up of 719 healthcare professionals with a mean of 38.52 years of age. The Short Questionnaire of Burnout, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire and the Basic Empathy Scale were used.Results: The results of a cluster analysis with self-esteem, empathy, and perceived social support showed four groups/profiles. Two of them, which included professionals with low self-esteem, differed in the rest of the characteristics. Furthermore, significant differences in burnout scores were found among the groups identified.Conclusion: The results show the need to study burnout with attention to individual and or social characteristics, where self-esteem is shown to be one of the explanatory variables making the main differences among the groups.

  14. INTERNET DEPENDENCE IN CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SEX, SELF-ESTEEM, AND SOCIAL SUPPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships among self-esteem, social support, and Internet dependence. A sample of young people aged between 15 and 18 years old (M age = 16.3 yr., SD = 0.7; 470 boys, 441 girls) completed measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Internet Dependence Test. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use, social support should mediate the relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence. Furthermore, based on previous research it was predicted that boys would score higher on Internet dependence than women. Support for this model was obtained. Internet dependent students were more likely to be boys. Self-esteem and social support were negatively correlated with Internet dependence. The relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence was mediated by social support. Although the effect sizes were small, the findings of the present study are of significance in investigating adolescents' Internet dependence.

  15. Perceived social support, self esteem, and pregnancy status among Dominican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, Lynn M; Malone, Linda; Kelley, Barbara R

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major health concern among Dominicans in the U.S. and in the Dominican Republic (DR). Twenty three percent of adolescents age 15-19 have experienced pregnancy and this trend is rising. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare social support, self-esteem and pregnancy between Dominican adolescents in the DR with those who have immigrated to the U.S. This study used an exploratory, descriptive design including study samples from both the U.S. and DR. Findings showed that young women with stronger social support and higher self esteem experienced lower pregnancy rates in both the DR and U.S. Neither self esteem nor social support was found to be predictors of pregnancy. Important findings from this study will inform the development of interventions aimed at preventing pregnancy in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hope, social support, and depression among Hong Kong youth: personal and relational self-esteem as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chu, Samuel K W

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression is negatively associated with hope and social support. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the theoretical mechanisms underlying the connections among hope, social support, and depression. This study examined how two types of self-esteem (personal and relational) would mediate the relationship of hope and social support to depression among 384 Hong Kong adolescents (age: 12-18 years; M = 14, SD = 1.19). Participants reported their levels of hope, social support, personal self-esteem, relational self-esteem, and depressive mood. Results of the path analysis showed that both personal and relational self-esteem mediated the associations of hope and social support with depression. Hope and social support were associated with higher levels of personal and relational self-esteem, which were in turn related to decreased levels of depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. A comparison of adult and teenage mother's self-esteem and satisfaction with social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, C; Smith, M

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the similarities and differences between teenage and adult mothers and their level of self-esteem and satisfaction with social support at six weeks and six months postpartum. A two group comparative study. Maternal child health, immunisation and midwives' clinics in New South Wales, Australia. 173 adult mothers and 72 adolescent mothers who had experienced a normal pregnancy, labour and delivery and delivered a healthy baby near term. Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Brown's Support Behavior Inventory and a personal information form were used. Irrespective of age, breast-feeding rates and satisfaction with social support decreased significantly during the early months postpartum. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship was noted between maternal age and satisfaction with support and a positive relationship was identified between maternal age and self-esteem. Maternal self-esteem may be challenged by the demands of motherhood and dissatisfaction with social support could contribute to the decline in breast-feeding practices. Developing a postnatal support plan, including fathers in education programmes and offering courses and workshops designed to enhance self-esteem and parentcraft may assist mothers to assume baby care responsibilities and increase their satisfaction with support.

  18. The protective role of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts: Self-esteem and loneliness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mediation effects of both self-esteem and loneliness on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in drug addicts. In all, 110 participants, all drug addicts from Guangdong Fangcun Brain Hospital, completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that perceived social support was positively related to self-esteem and life satisfaction and was negatively correlated with loneliness in drug addicts. Structural equation modeling estimated by the Bootstrap method indicated that loneliness and self-esteem partially mediated the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction. These findings provided insights into the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts.

  20. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  1. Cyberbullying Victimization in Adolescents as Related to Body Esteem, Social Support, and Social Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined cyberbullying victimization in the context of issues of key importance to youth: body esteem, social support, and social self-efficacy. Research has found that traditional peer-bullying victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem in Western societies, especially pertaining to weight (R. Puhl & J. Luedicke, 2012 ). Studies have also found a relationship among bullying victimization, appearance-related bullying, low body esteem, and psychosocial difficulties among youth (L. E. Park, R. M. Calogero, A.F. Young, & A. Diraddo, 2010 ). However, the emergence of cyberbullying, characterized by its own special features (P. K. Smith et al., 2008 ), has raised a salient need to explore the relationship between cyber victimization and body esteem, no less important with social framework, because both are key components in adolescents' lives that may be associated with cyberbullying victimization. The authors examined these relationships among 204 Israeli adolescents 14-16 years old. The results indicate a noteworthy prevalence (45%) of cyber victims. Cyber victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem and low social support and social self-efficacy. Low body esteem and low social support predicted the probability of being a cyber victim. The results extend the knowledge about potential personal and social risk factors for cyber victimization during adolescence. Implications for specific intervention programs are discussed.

  2. Depression and its Correlation with Self-esteem and Social Support among Iranian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rezaei Ardani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Considering the effects of the level of social support and self-esteem as risk factors in the onset and continuation of depression, the purpose of the current study (in addition to studying the demographic items of depression was to investigate the correlation between depression and level of social support and self-esteem in Iranian university students studying non medical majors. "nMethod: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research carried out on the students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. Self administered questionnaires on socio-demographic information (age, gender, marital status, and educational level, Eysenk self-esteem scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Cassidy social support scale were randomly given out to students who were selected by multi stage randomized sampling. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 using the χ2-test. "nResults: 1200 students responded to the anonymous questionnaires. A total of 57.2% of the participants had depression (36.3% mild, 14.4% moderate and 6.5% severe. Depression was significantly higher in males, singles and in 25-29-year-old students. Results showed that 9.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% of the participants reported low, moderate and high levels of social support respectively. 1.8% and 6.3% of the participants reported low and moderate levels of self-esteem respectively; while 91.9% reported high levels of self-esteem. "nConclusion: Depression has a higher rate in non-medical university students of Iran than general population. Levels of social support and self-esteem were negatively associated with frequency of depression.

  3. Family Function and Self-esteem among Chinese University Students with and without Grandparenting Experience: Moderating Effect of Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD. Six hundred and forty-five (25.69% students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed.

  4. Family Function and Self-esteem among Chinese University Students with and without Grandparenting Experience: Moderating Effect of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Zhan, Chenyu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF) than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed.

  5. Family Function and Self-esteem among Chinese University Students with and without Grandparenting Experience: Moderating Effect of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Zhan, Chenyu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF) than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed. PMID:28611720

  6. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  7. Socio-economic differences in self-esteem of adolescents influenced by personality, mental health and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that self-esteem is lower among adolescents of low socio-economic status and is associated with a number of intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural factors. Evidence on the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the connection between socio-economic status and developing self-esteem is incomplete, however. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess whether personality, mental health and social support contribute to the relationship between socio-economic status and self-esteem. A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from Slovakia (mean age = 14.3 years, 49% boys) filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Family Affluence Scale, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Hierarchical linear regression showed family affluence, personality dimensions of extroversion, emotional stability and openness to experience, as well as mental health subscales and social support from family and significant others to be associated with self-esteem. Results indicate that personality dimensions and mental health subscales contribute to the association between family affluence and self-esteem. The contribution of personality and mental problems in the relation between socio-economic status and self-esteem may have important implications for the design of promotional programs aimed at enhancing self-esteem.

  8. Social support buffers the effect of self-esteem on quality of life of early-stage cervical cancer survivors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Chen, Mei-Ling; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chen, Min-Yue

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-esteem and social support on quality of life (QoL) in stage I and II cervical cancer survivors. The sample consisted of 110 participants who had been diagnosed with stage I-II cervical cancer and had completed their treatment 5 years or more before data collection. Each participant completed four structured questionnaires: a demographic-disease survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The participants' mean age was 60.74 ± 10.69 years. Better QoL was significantly associated with younger age, higher self-esteem, and stronger social support; in addition, social support buffered the effect of self-esteem on global QoL. Together, five variables (age, time since treatment, self-esteem, social support, and the interaction term of self-esteem and social support) explained 36% of the variance in global QoL, with self-esteem being the strongest predictor. The results of this study advance current knowledge of QoL in cervical cancer survivors by demonstrating that survivors with low self-esteem and social support tend to have lower QoL than those with low self-esteem but high social support. Health professionals should help survivors seek support and provide appropriate strategies to expand their social networks and enhance their self-esteem to improve their global QoL after cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of social support and self-esteem on depressive symptoms in Japanese middle-aged and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukawa, Y; Tsuboi, S; Niino, N; Ando, F; Kosugi, S; Shimokata, H

    2000-04-01

    We examined the relationship among social support, self-esteem, and depression. The subjects were 1,116 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged between 40-79, who were the first wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences--Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale that supported the superiority of the bi-dimensional structure of the scale marked by self-confidence and self-deprecation subscales. The subsequent causal analyses, using structural equation modeling, demonstrated that social support reduced depressed affect through an increase in self-confidence and a decrease in self-deprecation. By contrast, social support did not show a direct effect on depressed affect. The findings suggest the importance of esteem-improving elements of social support in reducing depressive symptoms.

  10. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  11. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile

    OpenAIRE

    María del Mar Molero Jurado; María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes; José Jesús Gázquez Linares; José Jesús Gázquez Linares; Ana Belén Barragán Martín

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome.Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout.Method: The sample was made up of 719 ...

  12. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...

  13. Relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, & optimism in a sample of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott; Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu

    2010-09-01

    Stress, developmental changes and social adjustment problems can be significant in rural teens. Screening for psychosocial problems by teachers and other school personnel is infrequent but can be a useful health promotion strategy. We used a cross-sectional survey descriptive design to examine the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, and optimism in a sample of rural school-based adolescents. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with peer social support, family social support, self-esteem, and optimism. Findings underscore the importance for teachers and other school staff to provide health education. Results can be used as the basis for education to improve optimism, self-esteem, social supports and, thus, depression symptoms of teens.

  14. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  15. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erango, Markos Abiso; Ayka, Zikie Ataro

    2015-01-01

    Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7-18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children), parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem.

  16. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erango MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem

  17. Social-Support, Self-Esteem and Depression as Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of social support, self-esteem and depression on the quality of life among sickle cell patients in Benin City. A total of 52 sickle cell patients made up of 29 males and 23 females participated in the study. Questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of the ...

  18. Associations between trait emotional intelligence and loneliness in Chinese undergraduate students: mediating effects of self-esteem and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jilin

    2014-06-01

    Prior studies indicate that trait emotional intelligence (EI) is associated negatively with loneliness. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship are not clear. This study assessed whether both self-esteem and social support mediated the associations between trait EI and loneliness. 469 Chinese undergraduate participants whose age ranged from 18 to 23 years (208 women) were asked to complete four self-report questionnaires, including the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Analyses indicated that self-esteem and social support fully mediated the associations between trait EI and loneliness. Effect contrasts indicated that the specific indirect effect through social support was significantly greater than that through self-esteem. Moreover, a multiple-group analysis indicated that no path differed significantly by sex. These results suggest that social support is more important than self-esteem in the association between trait EI and loneliness. Furthermore, both sexes appear to share the same mechanism underlying this association.

  19. Perceived Social Support, Self-Esteem, and Internet Addiction Among Students of Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Laila; Mohamadi, Jalal; Sayehmiri, Koroush; Azizpoor, Yosra

    2015-09-01

    Internet addiction is a global phenomenon that causes serious problems in mental health and social communication. Students form a vulnerable group, since they have free, easy, and daily access to the internet. The current study aimed to investigate perceived social support, self-esteem, and internet addiction among Al-Zahra University students. In the current descriptive research, the statistical sample consisted of 101 female students residing at AL-Zahra University dormitory, Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomly selected and their identities were classified. Then, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and Yang Internet Addiction Test. After completion of the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using the correlation test and stepwise regression. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated significant relationships between self-esteem and internet addiction (P scale of internet addiction and the family subscale were predicative variables for self-esteem (r = 0.137, P self-esteem were more vulnerable to internet addiction.

  20. Loneliness and Self-Esteem as Mediators between Social Support and Life Satisfaction in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediation effects of loneliness and self-esteem for the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Three hundred and eighty nine Chinese college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25 (M = 20.39), completed the emotional and social loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale, the satisfaction with life…

  1. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.

  2. Predicting Career Adaptability through Self-Esteem and Social Support: A Research on Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataç, Lale Oral; Dirik, Deniz; Tetik, Hilmiye Türesin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between career adaptability and self-esteem, and analyze the moderating role of social support in this relationship on a sample of 313 young adults. The results of the study confirm that career adaptability is significantly predicted by self-esteem. Moreover, findings suggest that (1)…

  3. Relationships between Academic Stress, Social Support, Optimism-Pessimism and Self-Esteem in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, L.; González-Hernández, A.; Trianes-Torres, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This research aims to analyse how optimism, self-esteem and social support help to predict academic stress. Method: The sample consisted of 123 students aged 20 to 31 years old, from the 3rd Year in the Psychology Degree. Students completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Optimism Questionnaire (LOT-R), the…

  4. Self-esteem and hope mediate the relations between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents following the Ya'an earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Zhen, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) can co-exist, and several theories suggest that social support, self-esteem, and hope can predict both PTSD and PTG, no study to date has examined the combined role of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. The present study aimed to simultaneously examine the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope in the relations between social support and PTSD, and between social support and PTG. This study included 397 adolescents living in Lushan County, China, who were affected by the Ya'an earthquake. The participants completed the self-report questionnaires at two and a half years after the earthquake. Structural equation models were built to examine the roles of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. Social support directly and negatively predicted PTSD and positively predicted PTG. Moreover, social support negatively predicted PTSD via self-esteem, and positively predicted PTG via hope. In addition, social support positively predicted PTG through multiple mediating paths from self-esteem to hope. PTSD and PTG had different predictive paths. Specifically, social support reduced PTSD through enhanced self-esteem and promoted PTG through hope, or through the path from self-esteem to hope.

  5. Images of the Self and Self-Esteem: Do Positive Self-Images Improve Self-Esteem in Social Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia

    2012-01-01

    Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697

  6. [Self-esteem, coping, perceived social support and substance use in young adults with a cannabis dependence disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Bungener, C; Corcos, M; Berthoz, S

    2014-06-01

    Self-esteem, coping strategies and perceived social support play a role in the adaptive functioning of the human being: they allow the adjustment of the subject to his/her environment. These dimensions could be protective factors regarding multiple risks associated with adolescent development, and particularly substance use. Thus our objective was twofold: to evaluate self-esteem, coping strategies and perceived social support in adolescents and young adults with a cannabis dependence in comparison with subjects from the general population; to establish the correspondence between these psychological dimensions and the patients' substance use pattern. Data from 43 young patients (36 males; mean age=19.6±3), consulting for their cannabis dependence, and 50 young adults from the general population (39 males; mean age=19.7±3.4) were included. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Social Self-Esteem Inventory of Lawson, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation of Endler & Parker, and the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire of Sarason. The MINI was administered to evaluate cannabis abuse or dependence; a semi-structured clinical interview was given to determine psychoactive substance use. Between-group comparisons (two independent sample t-tests) showed that the patients had significantly lower scores on global (P=0.002) and social (P=0.035) self-esteem, task-oriented coping (Pself-esteem scores (P=0.028). Moreover, polysubstance misuse is associated with low distraction-avoidant coping scores. No association was found between clinical scores and tobacco and alcohol uses variables. These results suggest that cannabis dependent patients may present a lack in individual and interpersonal resources. This clinical study underscores the potential contribution of maladaptive coping to the development or maintenance of substance use in young adulthood. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  7. The influence of self-esteem and social support on the relationship between stigma and depressive symptomology in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, J; Muldoon, O; Gallagher, S

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the synergistic relationship between stigma, self-esteem and social support, as predictors of depressive symptomology in parents of children with disabilities (e.g. Autism and Down syndrome). One hundred and seventy-three parents (115 parents of children with disabilities and 58 control parents) completed measures of perceived stigma, self-esteem, social support and depressive symptoms. Parents of children with disabilities reported more depressive symptomology; additionally, stigma, self-esteem and social support were associated with depressive symptomology. Moreover, the association between stigma and depressive symptomology was mediated by self-esteem, i.e. parents who reported higher stigma were lower on self-esteem and more depressed. Further, this path varied as a function of emotional support. Results highlight the need for tailored interventions that offer parents effective strategies in dealing with stigma through social support and self-esteem. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Multiple social identifications and adolescents' self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish-Weisman, Maya; Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Möllering, Anna; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    The research examined the relationship between multiple social identifications and self-esteem. Early adolescents (M = 11.4, SD = .95) and mid-adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.18) from Germany and Israel (n = 2337) were studied. Respondents described their social identification as students, family members, and as members of the majority national group and reported self-esteem. A longitudinal, cross-sectional and cross-cultural design revealed, as predicted, multiple social identifications related positively to self-esteem concurrently; they also related positively to self-esteem longitudinally over the course of a year. Moreover, multiple social identifications were found to be antecedent to self-esteem, not vice versa. Finally, multiple social identifications were found to decrease over time. The article discusses the contribution of multiple social identifications to self-esteem at different ages and in various contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A cross-cultural comparison of climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo women and Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xudong; Leonhart, Rainer; Nadig, Maya; Hasenburg, Annette; Wirsching, Michael; Fritzsche, Kurt

    2016-07-01

    This cross-cultural study aimed to compare climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo and Han Chinese women, and to explore the interaction between culture and climacteric symptoms. Mosuo is a Chinese minority group with a matriarchal structure, and Han Chinese is the majority ethnic group in China with a patriarchal structure. Through convenience sampling, 54 Mosuo women and 52 Han Chinese women between 40 and 60 years of age completed the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Compared with Han Chinese women, Mosuo women scored lower on the psychological (P psychological symptoms severity. Referring to the severity of all symptoms, predictive variables were: perceived support from family (β = -0.210, P = 0.017); self-esteem (β = 0.320, P Cultural variables such as familial structure, women's self-esteem, and perceived social support were correlated with symptomatology.

  10. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  11. Family Function and Self-esteem among Chinese University Students with and without Grandparenting Experience: Moderating Effect of Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Shi; Lu Wang; Yuhong Yao; Na Su; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Chenyu Zhan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandp...

  12. The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael K; Pidgeon, Aileen M

    2011-03-01

    The current study investigated relationships between dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, and social anxiety using self-report measures. Correlational data were collected from 205 Australian undergraduate students who completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Mindfulness significantly predicted high levels of self-esteem and low levels of social anxiety. Mediation analysis supported the role of self-esteem as a partial mediator between mindfulness and social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Social Support, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Coping Among LGBTQ Adolescents Participating in Hatch Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β 1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β 6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.

  14. The impact of social support and overprotection on dialysis patients’ labour participation, autonomy and self-esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, D.; Rijken, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived social support from significant others and overprotection by significant others and doctors is related to employment, perceived autonomy, and self-esteem in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis. 166 dialysis patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Perceived overprotection and lack of social support were correlated with low levels of autonomy and self-est...

  15. Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents – an intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Hilde; Kvalem, Ingela L.; Berget, Bente; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Braastad, Bjarne O.

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12–15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants answered questionnaires at three time periods. Study I (N = 49) examined the effect of the intervention compared with the control group. Study II (N = 41) examined the relationship between the same psychological variables and change in mastering skills with horse. The intervention group reported a significant increase in perceived social support compared with the control group. There were no differences in self-esteem and general self-efficacy between the groups. The results from study II showed that a lower level of perceived social support prior to the intervention predicted an increase in mastering skills with the horse during the intervention. PMID:24833811

  16. Self esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Generational Status, Self-Esteem, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Social Support in College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…

  18. Socialization and Adolescent Self-Esteem: Symbolic Interaction and Social Learning Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of social learning and symbolic interaction on adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents (N=368) and their parents completed measures of self-esteem, parental behavior and parental power. Results suggested adolescent self-esteem is more a function of social interaction and the reflected appraisals of others than a modeling of…

  19. [Self-esteem, self-centeredness and social-emotional adjustment of gifted children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate of how giftedness affects social-emotional adjustment. Self-esteem may be an indicator of social-emotional adjustment but insufficient in its explanatory capacity, especially high self-esteem which tends to produce opposite responses in regards to adjustment. A distinction between defensive and genuine high self-esteem could account for these results. In order to understand how self-esteem operates on social-emotional adjustment, it should be associated with other measurements relating to self-concern. In the Rorschach comprehensive system (CS), egocentricity index measures self-centeredness, which can be defined as the balance between self-concern and concern for others. High self-concern is associated with a neglect of the others. Operationalized here, as the interaction of high self-esteem and excessive self-concern, defensive high self-esteem should predict maladaptive outcomes. Participants were aged from 9 to 15 years old, with an IQ greater or equal to 130 on the WISC-III. They were attending regular classes and were not in counseling or psychotherapy. Children and adolescents were administrated the Rorschach CS and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Parents completed the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) which assesses general psychopathology. Seventy-eight subjects' data satisfy the conditions of validity of the instruments used. Gifted boys present more behavior and emotional problems than gifted girls in this study. Self-esteem predicts social-emotional adjustment. There is an interaction between self-esteem and self-concern on psychopathology only for high values of self-esteem. Gifted with high self-esteem associated with high self-concern are more vulnerable to maladjustment than high self-esteem associated with low self-concern. Gifted children and adolescents with low self-esteem experience more problems anyhow. These findings reinforce the view that the gifted are a diverse group in terms of social-emotional adjustment

  20. The protective functions of relationships, social support and self-esteem in the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chang, Yingli; He, Xuesong; Wu, Qiaobing

    2010-03-01

    At present, China has approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children accompanying their parents in relocating to the cities. However, very little is known about them. Using a resilience framework, the present study attempted to examine the psychosocial factors affecting their life satisfaction in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 migrant children were recruited from 10 schools in Shanghai through a cross-sectional survey design using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The questionnaire included measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, social support, relationships at school and the parent-child and peer relationships. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the relative effects of different relationship domains, self-esteem and social support on the life satisfaction of migrant children. The results suggested that parent-child and peer relationships significantly influenced the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers. Relationships in school did not exert such effect. Both social support and self-esteem had significant effects on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Relationship factors, social support and self-esteem are critical factors affecting the life satisfaction of migrant children. The findings and implications were discussed in relation to developmental and migration-related issues and the social contexts of the lives of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

  1. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-verification and social anxiety: preference for negative social feedback and low social self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiner, David P; Skowronski, John J; McGrath, Patrick B; Smith, Sarah A; Renner, Kerry A

    2011-10-01

    A self-verification model of social anxiety views negative social self-esteem as a core feature of social anxiety. This core feature is proposed to be maintained through self-verification processes, such as by leading individuals with negative social self-esteem to prefer negative social feedback. This model is tested in two studies. In Study 1, questionnaires were administered to a college sample (N = 317). In Study 2, questionnaires were administered to anxiety disordered patients (N = 62) before and after treatment. Study 1 developed measures of preference for negative social feedback and social self-esteem, and provided evidence of their incremental validity in a college sample. Study 2 found that these two variables are not strongly related to fears of evaluation, are relatively unaffected by a treatment that targets such fears, and predict residual social anxiety following treatment. Overall, these studies provide preliminary evidence for a self-verification model of social anxiety.

  3. The effect of a creative art program on self-esteem, hope, perceived social support, and self-efficacy in individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Cira; Keating, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Creative art has been found to be beneficial to some patients with chronic illness. Little is understood about how creative art can benefit individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the pilot study was to determine if there was a difference in self-esteem, hope, perceived social support, and self-efficacy in individuals with MS after a 4-week creative art program. A one-group, pretest/posttest design was used. The convenience sample of 14 individuals was recruited from MS Centers and the National MS Society. They ranged in age from 29 to 70 years (M = 51.3 years, SD = 12.5 years). Participants included 14 women. The creative art program included week 1-watercolor, week 2-collage making, week 3-beading, and week 4-knitting. Each of the four weekly sessions was facilitated by a registered nurse with expertise in MS and lasted 2 hours. Creative artists instructed participants and provided a hands-on experience for each of the creative projects. Participants were free to share thoughts, experiences, and words of support and encouragement during each session. The variables were measured before starting the creative art program and after the final session. The instruments included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Modified Social Support Survey, the MS Self-Efficacy Scale, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was used to analyze the data. There was a significant increase in all variables after the creative art program as follows: self-esteem (t = -3.05, p = 009), hope (t = -3.96, p = .002), social support (t = -2.21, p = .046), self-efficacy to function with MS (t = -2.68, p = .019), and self-efficacy to control MS (t = 3.22, p = .007). The power analysis revealed a large effect size for hope (d = 1.06), self-esteem (d = 0.82), and self-efficacy (control; d = 0.86). A medium effect size was found for self-efficacy (function; d = 0.72) and social support (d = 0

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers’ Parenting Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures (Mage = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers’ educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents’ social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents’ and mothers’ reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented. PMID:24244049

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan

    2013-06-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers ( M age = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures ( M age = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers' educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents' social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers' future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents' and mothers' reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented.

  6. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  7. Self-esteem and social respect within the high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J

    1998-08-01

    A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.

  8. The impact of social support and overprotection on dialysis patients’ labour participation, autonomy and self-esteem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.; Rijken, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived social support from significant others and overprotection by significant others and doctors is related to employment, perceived autonomy, and self-esteem in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis. 166 dialysis patients completed questionnaires at home

  9. The Relationship between Regional Gray Matter Volume of Social Exclusion Regions and Personal Self-Esteem Is Moderated by Collective Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Yujie; Chen, Bing; Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE) and collective (CSE) self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.

  10. The Relationship between Regional Gray Matter Volume of Social Exclusion Regions and Personal Self-Esteem Is Moderated by Collective Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE and collective (CSE self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.

  11. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer: a comparison based on relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, Marrit A; Hoekstra, Harald J; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem, social support, and mental health in 3 groups of survivors of testicular cancer: singles, those with the same partner as at diagnosis (relationship during testicular cancer), and those with a partner they met after completion of treatment (relationship after testicular cancer). A total of 129 survivors completed the Social Support List, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the subscale mental health of the RAND-36. Mean time since diagnosis for single survivors was 8.3 years (range 1-23), for survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer 9.3 years (range 1-24), and for survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer 13.6 years (range 1-24). Levels of social support were equal in groups, but satisfaction with support was not. Survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer were most satisfied with support, and had the highest self-esteem and mental health. Survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer reported the next best levels of functioning but had the same mental health as singles. Singles and survivors with a relationship established after testicular cancer had a lower mental health than a reference group of men. The difference in self-esteem between singles and survivors of testicular cancer with a relationship during testicular cancer appeared most distinct and was clinically relevant. Mental health was predicted by different factors for the 3 groups. Being single at diagnosis seems to cause a vulnerability that remains when survivors do develop a relationship after treatment is completed because these groups are at risk for a lower mental health.

  12. On the context dependency of implicit self-esteem in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas S; Steffens, Melanie C; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction. We measured implicit self-esteem with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Implicit self-esteem differed significantly between SAD and NC groups under the speech condition but not under the no-speech condition. The SAD group showed lower implicit self-esteem than the NC group under the speech-condition. State anxiety was significantly higher under the speech condition than under the no-speech condition in the SAD group but not in the NC group. Mediation analyses supported the idea that for the SAD group, the effect of experimental condition on state anxiety was mediated by implicit self-esteem. The causal relation between implicit self-esteem and state anxiety could not be determined. The findings corroborate hypotheses derived from cognitive models of SAD: Automatic self-evaluations were negatively biased in individuals with SAD facing social threat and showed an inverse relationship to levels of state anxiety. However, automatic self-evaluations in individuals with SAD can be unbiased (similar to NC) in situations without social threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  14. Theories on coping with loss: the impact of social support and self-esteem on adjustment to emotional and social loneliness following a partner's death in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarsen, Berna

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on the role of self-esteem and social support in adjustment to loneliness experienced by bereaved elderly persons. This study also examined the contributions of a general and a specific coping theory toward explaining loneliness. A distinction has been made between emotional loneliness and social loneliness/perceived support. The theory of mental incongruity predicts that the presence of more favorable conditions, such as higher self-esteem or more social support, results in less loneliness (i.e., less incongruity). According to the theory of relational loneliness, the partner's death leads to a loss of identity, thus increasing emotional loneliness, and social support does not mitigate emotional loneliness following a loss. In total, 101 participants, aged 55-89 years, were interviewed before and after their partners' deaths. Findings were ambiguous with regard to both theories. As hypothesized, partner loss lowered self-esteem, resulting in higher emotional loneliness and social loneliness, that is, perception of less support. Supportive personal relations reduced emotional loneliness. The presence of close friends, however, seemed to increase emotional and social loneliness (i.e., decrease perceived support) in the long term, particularly among bereaved participants with lower self-esteem. The findings highlight the need to integrate theoretical concepts. In explaining adjustment to a partner's death, attention should be paid to underlying mechanisms relevant to the restoration process (e.g., identity change) and the ways in which the adjustment process can be improved (e.g., intimate relationships) or impeded (e.g., dependency-sustaining relationships).

  15. The Relationship between Emotional and Esteem Social Support Messages and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James D; Turner, Jeanine W; Tian, Yan; Neustadtl, Alan; Mun, Seong Ki; Levine, Betty

    2017-11-28

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the relative contribution of five types of social support to improved patient health. This analysis suggests that emotional and esteem social support messages are associated with improved patient health as measured by a decrease in average blood glucose levels among diabetic patients. In addition, when two system feature variables, two system use variables, two measures of learning, one measure of self-efficacy, and one measure of affect toward their HCP were added to the baseline model, a third significant factor emerged. Perceptions about learning about diabetes from reading the digital messages sent by their HCP also predicted improved patient health. Cognitive-Emotional Theory of Esteem Support Messages suggests a combination of esteem social support and emotional social support messages enhanced our ability to predict improved patient health by change in patient hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) scores. While a nonrandomized prospective study, this investigation provides support for the notion that provider-patient interaction is related to improved patient health and that both emotional and esteem social support messages play a role in that process. Finally, the study suggests some types of social support are and other types are not associated with improved patient health; this is consistent with the optimal matching hypothesis.

  16. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Enayati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital in Ganaveh. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive – analytic study. The sample consisted of 60 inpatients burnt (males & females of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital (Ganaveh. The method of sampling was simple random. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q- 28 of Goldberg, Cooper Smith’s questionnaire of self–esteem and Philip’s social support scale. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and T-test were the major statistical analysis in this research. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the general health were 44.57 ± 14.65 for self-inflicted burn persons and for non - self inflicted burn they were 10.83 ± 6.27. In the self–esteem variable, the mean and the standard deviation were 57.90 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 55.47 ± 6.04 for non-self inflicted burn ones. Mean and standard deviation of whole social supporting were 20.40 ± 4.94 for self-inflicted burn persons and 23.73 ± 1.17 for non-self inflicted burn group. The findings showed significant differences between the two groups from viewpoint of general health and social supporting while there were no significant differences between two groups in case of self–esteem. Conclusion: There are a significant relationship between general health, social supporting and self-inflicted burn.Therefore, in order to prevent self inflicted burn it is suggested that we make a relationship between persons and societies, families, groups and

  17. Social acceptance and self-esteem: tuning the sociometer to interpersonal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Danu B; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V

    2007-06-01

    The authors draw on sociometer theory to propose that self-esteem is attuned to traits that garner others' acceptance, and the traits that garner acceptance depend on one's social role. Attunement of self-esteem refers to the linkage, or connection, between self-esteem and specific traits, which may be observed most clearly in the association between self-esteem and specific self-evaluations. In most roles, appearance and popularity determine acceptance, so self-esteem is most attuned to those traits. At the same time, interdependent social roles emphasize the value of communal qualities, so occupants of those roles have self-esteem that is more attuned to communal qualities than is the general norm. To avoid the biases of people's personal theories, the authors assessed attunement of self-esteem to particular traits indirectly via the correlation between self-esteem and self-ratings, cognitive accessibility measures, and an experiment involving social decision making. As hypothesized, self-esteem was generally more attuned to appearances than to communal qualities, but interdependent social roles predicted heightened attunement of self-esteem to qualities like kindness and understanding. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  19. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, P J; Sportel, B E; de Hullu, E; Nauta, M H

    2012-03-01

    Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluative processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory. Previous research suggests that low explicit self-esteem is involved in both social anxiety and depression whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. We tested whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression can indeed be explained by low explicit self-esteem, whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. Adolescents during the first stage of secondary education (n=1806) completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) to measure symptoms of social anxiety and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to index explicit self-esteem and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-esteem. There was a strong association between symptoms of depression and social anxiety that could be largely explained by participants' explicit self-esteem. Only for girls did implicit self-esteem and the interaction between implicit and explicit self-esteem show small cumulative predictive validity for social anxiety, indicating that the association between low implicit self-esteem and social anxiety was most evident for girls with relatively low explicit self-esteem. Implicit self-esteem showed no significant predictive validity for depressive symptoms. The findings support the view that both shared and differential self-evaluative processes are involved in depression and social anxiety.

  20. Validation of the Croatian Version of the Social Self-Esteem Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta Jelić

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT) self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Sc...

  1. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one’s own personality traits and of others’ opinion about one’s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one’s own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback. PMID:26842975

  2. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-04

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one's own personality traits and of others' opinion about one's own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one's own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback.

  3. Need for Closure, Gender and Social Self-Esteem of youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    I. VERMEIR; M. GEUENS

    2004-01-01

    High and low Need for Closure youngsters were compared on values and self-images related to social self-esteem. In addition, gender differences were researched. Results show that NFCL and gender significantly influence social self-esteem values like eagerness for approval and tranquility, achievement pressure and orientation, individualism, independency and appearance mindedness. NFCL and gender also affect youngster’s social esteem related self-images. In addition, interesting interaction ef...

  4. Organisation-based self-esteem mediates the effects of social support and job satisfaction on intention to stay in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chao, Wan-Ching; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Li, Chiu-Kuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of underlying contextual factors on the intention to stay in nurses. Workplace promotion, social support, work stress, job satisfaction and organisation-based self-esteem (OBSE) are psychosocial factors influencing the intention to stay in nurses. However, few studies have analysed the relationships among these factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and a sample was recruited in convenience sampling method from a medical centre in Taiwan. A total of 791 nurses completed a self-report questionnaire over a 3-month period in 2013. Social support, work stress, job satisfaction and OBSE significantly affected the intention to stay in nurses. Furthermore, social support and job satisfaction showed a positive direct effect on the intention to stay and an indirect effect on the intention to stay; the indirect effect was mediated by OBSE. Organisation-based self-esteem mediates the effects of social support and job satisfaction on the intention to stay in nurses. The results showing the influence of OBSE on the intention to stay in nurses can serve as insight for hospital managers to make decisions when encouraging and managing employees. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Self-esteem and in-group bias among members of a religious social category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J A

    2001-06-01

    In a sample of New Zealand university students, the author extended earlier research into the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup discrimination. He found no support for the hypothesis that social-category members (i.e., Christians) experience an elevation in the domain of self-esteem (i.e., religious self-esteem) judged as more relevant to the in-group after evaluations favoring the in-group. Regardless of whether the evaluation targets behaved positively or negatively, the respondents in the experimental condition evaluated in-group (Christian) targets more highly than out-group (Atheist) targets. After evaluations favoring the in-group, the respondents did not experience an elevation of religious self-esteem, global self-esteem, or mathematical self-esteem (judged as less relevant to the in-group).

  6. You can't always give what you want: the challenge of providing social support to low self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigold, Denise C; Cavallo, Justin V; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V

    2014-07-01

    It can be challenging for support providers to facilitate effective social support interactions even when they have the best intentions. In the current article, we examine some reasons for this difficulty, with a focus on support recipients' self-esteem as a crucial variable. We predicted that recipients' receptiveness to support would be influenced by both support strategy and recipient self-esteem and that receptiveness in turn would impact providers' perceived caregiving efficacy and relationship quality. Study 1 (hypothetical scenarios), Study 2 (confederate interaction), and Study 3 (reports of recently received support) showed that individuals with low self-esteem (LSEs) are less receptive than are individuals with high self-esteem (HSEs) to support that positively reframes their experience but are equally receptive to support that validates their negative feelings. In Study 4, providers demonstrated some knowledge that positive reframing would be less helpful to LSEs than to HSEs but indicated equal intention to give such support. Study 5 showed that, in a real interaction, friends were indeed equally likely to offer positive reframing to both LSEs and HSEs but were less likely to offer validation to LSEs. LSEs were less accepting of such support, and in turn providers felt worse about the interaction, about themselves, and about their friendship more broadly. Study 6 confirmed that recipients' receptivity to support directly influenced providers' experience of a support interaction as well as their self- and relationship evaluations. The findings illustrate how well-meaning support attempts that do not match recipients' particular preferences may be detrimental to both members of the dyad.

  7. The relationship between educational stress, stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status among nursing students in Turkey: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, N; Karaca, A; Cangur, S; Acıkgoz, F; Akkus, D

    2017-01-01

    Nursing education can be a stressful experience. To fully benefit from this experience and develop a positive professional identity, it is essential for nursing students to effectively cope with education-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between nursing students' education-related stress and stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status. This study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational design. The sample consisted 517 nursing students from a bachelor program in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants provided data on sociodemographic characteristics as well as completing the following instruments: Nursing Education Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory for Nursing Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Relationships were examined using multivariate structural equation modeling. Results indicated that nursing students' stress coping levels were affected by self-esteem and social support. Additionally, this interaction appears to affect general health status. Although the direct effect of stress on coping was non-significant, its overall effect was significant within the model. It is necessary to conduct further intervention studies examining the role of self-esteem and social support in facilitating nursing students' stress-related coping during their education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  9. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.

  10. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  11. Sports participation as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents as mediated by self-esteem and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiss, Lindsay A; Gangwisch, James E

    2009-10-01

    Participation in sports has been shown to be protective against depression and suicidal ideation, but little is known about what factors mediate these relationships. No previous studies examined potential mediators between sports participation and suicidal ideation and only one study explored possible mediators between sports participation and depression. Increased sports participation could protect against depression and suicidal ideation by increasing endogenous endorphin levels, boosting self-esteem, improving body image, increasing social support, and affecting substance abuse. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses of Add Health data to explore whether increased participation in sports (none, 1-2, 3-4, or 5 or more times per week) is associated with depression and suicidal ideation and whether exercise, self-esteem, body weight, social support, and substance abuse mediate these relationships. As sports participation increases, the odds of suffering from depression decreases by 25% (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.70-0.82) and the odds of having suicidal ideation decreases by 12% (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) after controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, public assistance, and physical limitations. Substance abuse, body weight, and exercise did not mediate these associations. Consistent with self-esteem and social support acting as mediators of these relationships, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models attenuated the associations for depression (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.91) and suicidal ideation (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88-0.99). Adolescents should be offered ample opportunity and encouragement to participate in sports, which can protect against depression and suicidal ideation by boosting self-esteem and increasing social support.

  12. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  13. Social Support and Adjustment Outcomes of First-Year University Students in Hong Kong: Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Chan, Kevin Ka Shing; Lam, Chun Bun

    2018-01-01

    Although the contribution of family support and peer support to university adjustment has been examined separately, few attempts have been made to explore the mechanism underlying this relation. This is the first study in the Asian context to test the role of self-esteem in mediating the effect of social support on first-year university adjustment…

  14. Does verruca vulgaris affect social anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan

    2017-05-24

    Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.

  15. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381

  16. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  17. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Strengthening Social Ties to Increase Confidence and Self-Esteem Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijnders, Kim A; Wilkerson, J Michael; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Bauldry, Jessica; Lawler, Sylvia M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth too often live in nonsupportive environments. This study reports the influence of social support from primary and secondary social ties on confidence and self-esteem among participants in Hatch Youth, a drop-in group-level intervention for SGM youth. Each 3-hour Hatch Youth meeting consists of a social, educational, and youth-led support hour. Over 14 weeks, these meetings were randomly observed and individual interviews with participating youth ( n = 12) and staff and volunteers ( n = 12) were conducted; data underwent a content analysis. Participants perceived an increase in confidence and self-esteem through enhanced bonding with family and friends, a sense of belonging, and community empowerment because of their involvement with Hatch Youth, suggesting drop-in centers can strengthen secondary social ties and improve confidence and self-esteem.

  19. Home health nurses: stress, self-esteem, social intimacy, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Lindquist, S; Katz, B

    1997-06-01

    A survey of 253 home health care nurses' perceptions of work-related stress, self-esteem, social intimacy, and job satisfaction found that stress has a negative correlation with self-esteem, social intimacy, and job satisfaction. A positive correlation, however, was found between self-esteem and social intimacy and job satisfaction. Health system administrators, owners, and directors had significantly higher levels of self-esteem, nurses with 5 years or more in their home health nursing position had significantly higher levels of self-esteem. The survey found that nurses with less than a baccalaureate degree possessed significantly lower levels of sociability than those with a graduate or baccalaureate degree. Administrators and managers scored significantly higher on sociability than head nurses.

  20. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, V; Nicolaisen-Sobesky, E; Collado, E; Horta, S; Rey, C; Rivero, M; Berriolo, P; Díaz, M; Otón, M; Pérez, A; Fernández-Theoduloz, G; Cabana, Á; Gradin, V B

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an attitude formed by self-evaluation based on positive and negative aspects of oneself. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders and is especially associated with social difficulties. Recently, behavioral economics has allowed the quantitative study of social interactions. We investigated the association between self-esteem and interpersonal problems and whether self-esteem modulates behavior and emotions during an economic task, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task participants accept or reject fair/unfair monetary offers from others. Low (LSE, n=40) and high (HSE, n=45) self-esteem participants were assessed in their interpersonal problems and psychiatric symptoms using self-reported questionnaires, and were compared on their decision making and emotional response during the UG. LSE was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. In addition, LSE was associated with interpersonal problems, especially in the domains of socially inhibited, nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing and cold/distant. During the UG, LSE women reported more anger towards unfair offers than HSE women. Our findings suggest that low self-esteem individuals experience high distress by interpersonal problems in several domains. Importantly, low self-esteem in women seems to be associated with an accentuated emotional response to unfair social exchanges. These results may contribute to treat social difficulties in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ... completed a questionnaire comprising of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the General ... in social competence or interpersonal relationship skills and psychological well ...

  2. Adaptive disengagement buffers self-esteem from negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M

    2014-11-01

    The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Relationships between social skills and self-esteem in nurses: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; López López, Daniel; Rodriguez Vazquez, Rocío; Becerro de Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Our study attempts to evaluate whether nurses' social skills are related to their self-concept and self-esteem. A descriptive survey study was developed to 464 nurses who had worked for a minimum of one year in adult or pediatric services. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Scale of Social Skills (SSS) by Gismero were used to measure nurses' self-esteem and social skills, respectively. Evaluation of self-esteem and social skills revealed no significant associations between sex and specific nursing speciality, (p > .05). Significant differences were observed based on the marital status for RSE and SSS Factor 1 (RSE, p = .013; SSS-F1, p = .033). Correlation and regression analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between nurse self-esteem and some social skills factors. This study shows that there exists a relationship between higher self-esteem and self-concept among nurses and this issue can affect effective communication with patients.

  4. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. Moving the Self-Esteem of People with Epilepsy by Supportive Group: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritaya Sawangchareon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with epilepsy (PWE face physical and mental illness, and social stigma, which affect their self-esteem and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a support group on the self-esteem of PWE. Methods: A Quasi-experimental study was performed on 120 PWE in the Epilepsy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital. The experimental group (N=60 attended the support group before receiving regular health care services. The control group (N=60 received only regular healthcare services. Data was collected by using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scoring before and after the experiment. The score was analyzed by using a paired t-test and an independent t-test. Results: The study showed that before the experiment, the self–esteem score of the control group was significantly higher than the experimental group. After the experiment, the scores of the control group and the experimental group showed a significant statistical difference. The score in the control group was significantly lower than the experimental group, while the score in the experimental group was significantly higher than before the experiment. Conclusion: The support group improves the self-esteem of PWE. Medical personnel should set up a support group for PWE to enhance their self-esteem.

  6. The association between body mass index and physical activity, and body image, self esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with body image, self-esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to adolescents without health conditions. We studied 46 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 comparison adolescents who provided self-reports of height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Participants also completed validated questionnaires that assessed physical activity, body image, self-esteem and social support. No significant group differences were found between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and comparison adolescents in terms of BMI and physical activity. Examination of group and gender revealed that higher BMI was significantly associated with a less positive body image in girls with diabetes only. Higher BMI was associated with poorer self-esteem and lower levels of social support in adolescents with diabetes, particularly girls. Higher levels of physical activity were not associated with a more positive body image and no significant associations were found between physical activity and self-esteem or social support. BMI and physical activity levels of adolescents with type 1 diabetes do not differ from those of adolescents without diabetes. Higher BMI is associated with a less positive body image and poorer psychosocial outcomes, particularly in girls with diabetes. As body image concerns and various psychosocial factors could be precursors to the development of eating-disorder symptoms, future research in adolescents with diabetes with higher BMIs should examine the associations among these variables. Further, it is essential that research on body image take into account gender differences. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Lower Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, Optimism and Hope Scores With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sabrina B; Rocha, Gabrielli P; Fernandez, Liana L; de Padua, Analuiza C; Reppold, Caroline T

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study's Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups ( p spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group. Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease's impact on these constructs.

  8. Social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of an extension of Self-Discrepancy Theory (SDT) to the social aspect of the self (A. Bizman, Y. Yinon, & S. Krotman, 2001), the authors examined the relationships between social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem. The authors assessed perceptions of actual, ideal, and ought attributes of Israelis from own and other standpoints; perceived importance of others' evaluation of Israel; and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) among 114 Israelis. The results revealed that the association of the discrepancy between actual Israelis and ideal Israelis from the other standpoint with the public Collective Self-Esteem (CSE) subscale was negative among participants with high perceived importance and positive among those with low perceived importance. In addition, the discrepancy between actual and ideal Israelis from the own standpoint was related to the private, public, and membership CSE subscales. Overall, the findings suggest that the SDT distinction between the own and other standpoints on the self is applicable to the social self.

  9. Multiple Mediation of Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support in the Relationship between Loneliness and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test serial-multiple mediation role of self-esteem and perceived social support on the relationship between university students' loneliness and life satisfaction. The participants of this study consisted of 398 undergraduate students, with 289 females and 109 males aged between 17 and 41 with a mean age of 21.79 (SD…

  10. Social integration, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in mid- and later life: intersections with age and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jeffrey E

    2018-03-15

    Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation. This study examines the impacts of social integration and perceived discrimination on self-esteem, and whether such impacts differ according to individuals' age and/or neuroticism. Random effects models analyzed 2,982 observations from 1,882 individuals who participated in at least one of the two most recent waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2014). Self-esteem displayed a minor cubic trajectory across the age range, including declines after age 70. Social integration, perceived discrimination, and neuroticism were all significantly associated with self-esteem, in the expected directions. Self-esteem trajectories varied according to the level of social integration, such that low social integration exacerbated later life declines in self-esteem. The influence of social integration on self-esteem was also stronger at higher levels of neuroticism. Perceived discrimination's influence on self-esteem did not vary by participants' age or neuroticism. Social ties are influential for well-being across the life course, but may take on added importance in later life. Oldest-old and neurotic adults are at particular risk of experiencing low self-esteem if they lack integration with their community.

  11. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer : A comparison based on relationship status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy to men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem. social support. and mental health

  12. Association of Lower Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, Optimism and Hope Scores With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina B. dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positive psychology (PP constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia.Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group.Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study’s Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS.Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.05. The individuals with MCI and mild dementia had lower spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group.Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease’s impact on these constructs.

  13. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  14. Loneliness and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self Esteem and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure whether self-esteem and social support are mediators in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. The study includes early teenagers from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades aged between 11 and 15 (M = 13.31, SD = 1.09). The study group consisted of 431 secondary school students from large and medium sized…

  15. Validation of the Croatian Version of the Social Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Jelić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES (Luhtanen i Crocker, 1992, has thus been adapted for use in Croatia. The scale measures social identity level based on belonging to the group in focus and has proved to be a useful tool in many studies. The aim of this research was the validation of the Collective Self-esteem Scale. The research was conducted on 1014 citizens of Vukovar and 273 pupils and students from Zagreb and Velika Gorica. Firstly, metric characteristics of the Croatian version of the scale were checked. Secondly, its validity and connections to related constructs were determined. Although the obtained 4-factor solution does not fully meet the structure proposed by the authors of the scale, it has had a stable factor structure on the Croatian sample, confirmed on two different samples. It gives information on the positive and negative social self-esteem level; on how one thinks other perceive his/her group; and how important that group is for one’s self-concept. All four types of information proved useful in explanation of the ethnic identity level, ingroup bias and intergroup attitudes in general. Reliability and validity values obtained in two research projects have shown the Collective Self-Esteem Scale’s potential as a useful tool when investigating group processes and intergroup relations in Croatia.

  16. Parenting competence, social support, and self-esteem in teen mothers case managed by public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, M M; Van Cleve, L; Levisen, L

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine whether self-esteem, parenting competence, and social support for teenage mothers changed over the first 18 months of parenting when case managed by a public health nurse (PHN). A sample of 56 first-time teen mothers from a health department parenting project agreed to participate in the study. PHN case managers collected data close to the birth of the infants and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Demographic findings of teen mothers showed that the majority were below expected grade level, over half lived with parents, and over half were children of teen mothers. Outcome findings related to the infants revealed no delays in development as measured on the Denver Development Screening Test, adequate follow-up for identified health problems, and a high percentage of the children with up-to-date with immunizations. The research question findings showed a statistically significant drop in self esteem for the teens between birth and 6 months, and in social support between 6 and 18 months. No other findings were significant, but some trends appeared when the sample was divided by ethnicity, suggesting a need for closer follow-up for certain groups. Implications for public health nursing and nursing education are included.

  17. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem: The Effects of Social Support and Subjective Well-Being on Adolescents' Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Çakar, Firdevs; Tagay, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study based on the testing of a structural model developed by considering the effects of perceived social support and subjective well-being on adolescents' risky behaviors, and the possible mediating role of self-esteem. Participants consisted of 676 high school students attending formal education institutions,…

  19. [Three types of self-esteem: its characteristic differences of contingency and contentment of sources of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaya; Kawasaki, Naoki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2011-02-01

    Previous research and theory (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Kernis, 2003) suggests that adaptive self-esteem stems from just being oneself, and is characterized by a sense of authenticity (SOA). Maladaptive self-esteem is derived from meeting external standards and social comparisons, and is characterized by a sense of superiority (SOS). Thus, the qualitative difference between SOA and SOS depends on the sources of self-esteem. We hypothesized that SOA is related to internal sources of self-esteem, while SOS is related to external sources. In order to control for covariance, global self-esteem was also examined in a questionnaire survey of self-esteem that was administered to 273 university students. The results of a partial correlation analysis showed that SOA was positively correlated with internal sources of self-esteem such as committed activities and efforts for self-development. In contrast, SOS was positively correlated with external sources of self-esteem such as approval from others and appearance. These results mainly support our hypotheses.

  20. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents' use of social network sites and their social self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Koutamanis, Maria; Vossen, Helen G M

    2017-11-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents' use of social network sites (SNSs) and their social self-esteem. The second aim was to investigate whether the valence of the feedback that adolescents receive on SNSs can explain these relationships. We conducted a three-wave panel study among 852 pre- and early adolescents (10-15 years old). In line with earlier research, we found significant concurrent correlations between adolescents' SNS use and their social self-esteem in all three data waves. The longitudinal results only partly confirmed these concurrent findings: Adolescents' initial SNS use did not significantly influence their social self-esteem in subsequent years. In contrast, their initial social self-esteem consistently influenced their SNS use in subsequent years. The valence of online feedback from close friends and acquaintances explained the concurrent relationship between SNS use and social self-esteem, but not the longitudinal relationship. Results are discussed in terms of their methodological and theoretical implications.

  1. Differences In Self Esteem Between Adopted and Looked After ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...

  2. Trauma Symptoms, Perceived Social Support, Emotional Competence and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Nursing School Teachers' Behavior Styles in Social Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vlah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to analyse the relationship between three styles used in social conflicts (cooperation, avoiding/adapting and winning and some personality traits shared by future nursery school teachers, and to explore the possibility of predicting styles used in social conflicts on the basis of these traits. One hundred and seven students of Early and Preschool Education in Rijeka (M=23 years, 98% female students completed a questionnaire that integrated the Scale of Attitudes Towards Behavioural Styles in Social Conflicts (Vlah, 2013, Trauma Symptoms Checklist (Šimić, Sesar, & Barišić, 2012, Social Support Appraisals Scale (Kurtović, 2013, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (Takšić, 2002, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1979. Descriptive, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyse the data. All three styles used in social conflicts were correlated to other research variables. Older students and those more competent in perceiving and understanding emotions and those with higher self-esteem with regard to oneself are significantly more oriented towards the cooperation style. The avoiding/adapting style can be predicted on the basis of students' somatic symptoms, while trauma symptoms present in students predict the winning style.

  3. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Self-esteem and communal responsiveness toward a flawed partner: the fair-weather care of low-self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S

    2009-06-01

    Three studies provide evidence that people with low self-esteem, but not those with high self-esteem, distance themselves from a flawed partner in situations in which the flaws seem likely to reflect negatively on them. Participants with low (but not high) self-esteem reduced their motivation to care for the partner's needs when they felt they might share a partner's salient flaws (Study 1), when they were primed to focus on similarities between themselves and a socially devalued partner (Study 2), and when they learned that their partner was socially incompetent (Study 3). In Study 3, individuals with low (but not high) self-esteem provided less emotional support and experienced more public image threat when they learned that partners were socially incompetent. In addition, all three studies provided evidence that participants' distancing reduced their confidence in the partner's motivation to care for them, suggesting that distancing involves a cost to the self.

  5. On the social nature of global self-esteem: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Maiano, Christophe

    2007-10-01

    Few researchers have considered the relationship between global self-esteem and the reflected appraisal of others in one's life, or how reflected appraisals and global self-esteem may change as a result of interpersonal feedback. In this study, the authors collected data from 110 undergraduate students on (a) their global self-esteem and the reflected appraisals of multiple others in their lives and (b) how these dimensions changed in hypothetical interpersonal-feedback situations. Results showed that participants' global self-esteem was related to the reflected appraisals of their fathers, teachers, and friends. The results also indicated that others' reflected appraisals and the individual's global self-esteem fluctuated according to the nature (i.e., positive vs. negative) of the hypothetical interpersonal feedback. Overall, the findings emphasize the social nature and regulation of global self-esteem.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2005-12-01

    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  7. Effect of Supportive Nursing Care on Self Esteem of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients. PMID:25276758

  8. Effect of supportive nursing care on self esteem of patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2014-06-01

    Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ(2), t-test and ANCOVA. RESULTS showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.

  9. Effect of Supportive Nursing Care on Self Esteem of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35 and intervention (n=35 groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES. Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention.Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.

  10. SELF SYSTEMS, ANOMIE AND SELF ESTEEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as

  11. A mediational model of self-esteem and social problem-solving in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gillian; Power, Kevin; Collin, Paula; Greirson, David; Yellowlees, Alex; Park, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Poor problem-solving and low self-esteem are frequently cited as significant factors in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa. The current study examines the multi-dimensional elements of these measures and postulates a model whereby self-esteem mediates the relationship between social problems-solving and anorexic pathology and considers the implications of this pathway. Fifty-five inpatients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 50 non-clinical controls completed three standardised multi-dimensional questionnaires pertaining to social problem-solving, self-esteem and eating pathology. Significant differences were yielded between clinical and non-clinical samples on all measures. Within the clinical group, elements of social problem-solving most significant to anorexic pathology were positive problem orientation, negative problem orientation and avoidance. Components of self-esteem most significant to anorexic pathology were eating, weight and shape concern but not eating restraint. The mediational model was upheld with social problem-solving impacting on anorexic pathology through the existence of low self-esteem. Problem orientation, that is, the cognitive processes of social problem-solving appear to be more significant than problem-solving methods in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Negative perceptions of eating, weight and shape appear to impact on low self-esteem but level of restriction does not. Finally, results indicate that self-esteem is a significant factor in the development and execution of positive or negative social problem-solving in individuals with anorexia nervosa by mediating the relationship between those two variables. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of self-esteem in early psychosis: The role of perceived social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Arlene G; Vandermeer, Matthew R J; Norman, Ross M G

    2017-12-01

    Self-esteem plays a role in the formation and maintenance of symptoms and in the recovery from psychotic illness. This study examines the relative contribution of perceived social dominance and other known predictors in determining self-esteem in 102 individuals in an early intervention program for psychosis. Regression analysis demonstrated that scores on the Perceived Relational Evaluation Scale (PRES), depressed mood, social dominance, gender and positive symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), whereas self-stigma and negative symptoms did not. Our study suggests that low self-esteem in early psychosis can be understood in part as a reflection of low levels of perceived social value and status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Focus of Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety: Communication Skills or Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Terence V.

    2017-01-01

    Social skills training is a long-standing intervention for adolescents with social anxiety, while self-esteem is often ignored. However, there is little evidence suggesting that those with social anxiety require social skills training or interventions associated with self-esteem. The aim of the research was to investigate whether social skills and…

  15. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Social Anxiety in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Saira

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the relationship between self-esteem, parenting style and social anxiety in girls. A sample of 100 female students selected from different schools. For data collection Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scales were used together with demographic sheet.…

  16. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  17. Does Self-Esteem Have an Interpersonal Imprint Beyond Self-Reports? A Meta-Analysis of Self-Esteem and Objective Interpersonal Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jessica J; Granger, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Self-esteem promises to serve as the nexus of social experiences ranging from social acceptance, interpersonal traits, interpersonal behavior, relationship quality, and relationship stability. Yet previous researchers have questioned the utility of self-esteem for understanding relational outcomes. To examine the importance of self-esteem for understanding interpersonal experiences, we conducted systematic meta-analyses on the association between trait self-esteem and five types of interpersonal indicators. To ensure our results were not due to self-esteem biases in perception, we focused our meta-analyses to 196 samples totaling 121,300 participants wherein researchers assessed interpersonal indicators via outsider reports. Results revealed that the association between self-esteem and the majority of objective interpersonal indicators was small to moderate, lowest for specific and distal outcomes, and moderated by social risk. Importantly, a subset of longitudinal studies suggests that self-esteem predicts later interpersonal experience. Our results should encourage researchers to further explore the link between self-esteem and one's interpersonal world.

  18. Self-Esteem And Self-Estimates Of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…

  19. The role of social support in dialysis patients' feelings of autonomy and self-esteem: is support more beneficial for patients with specific illness perceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Kaptein, Ad A; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Dekker, Friedo W; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether effects of various types of support on dialysis patients' perceived autonomy and self-esteem depend on patients' perceived concerns and personal control regarding their illness. One hundred sixty-six patients completed written questionnaires. Main and interaction effects of support, concern, and personal control on autonomy and self-esteem were examined using linear regression analyses. General emotional support was positively related to autonomy in highly concerned patients (p autonomy (p emotional support (p autonomy appears to depend on patients' illness perceptions, whereas the role of support in patients' self-esteem does not. These findings suggest that dialysis patients' personal views about their illness can provide insight into whether patients could benefit from support, and that the provision of support should be tailored to patients' individual needs.

  20. Self-Esteem and Social Adaptation Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lamia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem is the self-evaluation each individual makes from the representations it has of itself and from the representations constructed by the others. The sense of personal worth appears in a process of identity construction. This is associated with the assessment that people make about the social adaptation of the child. The present study concerns the development of self-image and self-esteem of children in school age. The sample consisted of 180 children. The results demonstrated a difference in the responses of children in relation to age and gender. The boys were evaluated more positively than girls. There has been the same results in younger children compared to the older ones.

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: A Systematic Review of Self-Esteem and Social Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V; Mazzone, L; Raynaud, J P; Kahle, J; Hodgkins, P

    2016-04-01

    To compare the long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes of individuals with untreated and treated ADHD across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A systematic search of 12 databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed, primary research articles, published January 1980 to December 2011, reporting long-term self-esteem and/or social function outcomes (≥2 years; life consequences distinct from symptoms) of individuals with untreated or treated ADHD. Overall, 127 studies reported 150 outcomes. Most outcomes were poorer in individuals with untreated ADHD versus non-ADHD controls (57% [13/23] for self-esteem; 73% [52/71] for social function). A beneficial response to treatment (pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and multimodal treatments) was reported for the majority of self-esteem (89% [8/9]) and social function (77% [17/22]) outcomes. Untreated ADHD was associated with poorer long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes compared with non-ADHD controls. Treatment for ADHD was associated with improvement in outcomes; however, further long-term outcome studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. The role of perceived social support in loneliness and self-esteem among children affected by HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal multilevel analysis in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-07-01

    To delineate the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time among children affected by parental HIV and AIDS, and to examine how their perceived social support (PSS) influenced initial scores and change rates of these two psychological outcomes. We collected longitudinal data from children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural central China. Children 6-18 years of age at baseline were eligible to participate in the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Multilevel regression models for change were used to assess the effect of baseline PSS on the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time. We employed maximum likelihood estimates to fit multilevel models and specified the between-individual covariance matrix as 'unstructured' to allow correlation among the different sources of variance. Statistics including -2 Log Likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion were used in evaluating the model fit. The results of multilevel analyses indicated that loneliness scores significantly declined over time. Controlling for demographic characteristics, children with higher PSS reported significantly lower baseline loneliness score and experienced a slower rate of decline in loneliness over time. Children with higher PSS were more likely to report higher self-esteem scores at baseline. However, the self-esteem scores remained stable over time controlling for baseline PSS and all the other variables. The positive effect of PSS on psychological adjustment may imply a promising approach for future intervention among children affected by HIV/AIDS, in which efforts to promote psychosocial well being could focus on children and families with lower social support. We also call for a greater understanding of children's psychological adjustment process in various contexts of social support and appropriate adaptations of evidence-based interventions to meet their diverse needs.

  3. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.

  4. Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety: a longitudinal study in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; de Hullu, Eva; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-03-01

    A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations. This longitudinal study aimed to test the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and symptoms of adolescent depression and social anxiety disorder. Two complementary models were tested: the vulnerability model and the scarring effect model. Participants were 1641 first and second year pupils of secondary schools in the Netherlands. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale were completed to measure explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem and symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), respectively, at baseline and two-year follow-up. Explicit self-esteem at baseline was associated with symptoms of MDD and SAD at follow-up. Symptomatology at baseline was not associated with explicit self-esteem at follow-up. Implicit self-esteem was not associated with symptoms of MDD or SAD in either direction. We relied on self-report measures of MDD and SAD symptomatology. Also, findings are based on a non-clinical sample. Our findings support the vulnerability model, and not the scarring effect model. The implications of these findings suggest support of an explicit self-esteem intervention to prevent increases in MDD and SAD symptomatology in non-clinical adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  6. [Self-esteem predictors in adolescents with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Gajewski, Jakub; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the conviction concerning self-satisfaction and self-assessment of one's competence. It can influence the overall emotional state, and determine the motivation to take actions of characteristic teenagers. Presentation of the results of research on predictors of self-esteem in healthy adolescents and their peers with diabetes. Is was investigated whether there were differences in factors that determine directly and indirectly the self-esteem within these groups. The survey was conducted during the school year 2010/2011 as a part of cultural and linguistic adaptation of the CHIP-AE questionnaire (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition). Data were collected from 1177 students with average age of 15.4 years, who attended junior high and high schools of different types, in five provinces of Poland. In this group there were 117 adolescents with diabetes and 1060 healthy peers. The CHIP-AE questionnaire consists of six main dimensions: satisfaction, complaints, protective factors, risk factors, achievements and illness. Students are asked to respond mostly from the perspective of the last 4 weeks. Predictors of self-esteem were selected from the following fields of CHIP-AE questionnaire: physical health, self-efficiency, limitation of daily activities, academic achievement, burden of school work, social support, capability of solving social problems, family relationships, relationships with peers and with teachers. Multivariate regression models and structural equitation models were estimated for both the healthy and the ill adolescents. It has been proved that self-esteem of healthy adolescents was determined differently than that of their peers with diabetes. The most important elements forming self-esteem of adolescents with diabetes were as follows: self-assessment of physical fitness, academic achievements and social support. In the studied group an indirect impact of limitations of physical activity on self-perceived fitness and

  7. The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Danka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction research, conducted on a sample of 133 high school seniors, consisted of two phases. In phase one, participants were given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Appearance Satisfaction Scale and Appearance Relevance Scale, and in phase two, one month later, they were exposed to photographs of attractive and unattractive individuals. Two groups of boys and girls each assessed attractive or unattractive individuals of their own gender, while two control groups (of both genders were not exposed to any photographs. Immediately after assessing the photographs, the participants were again given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and Appearance Satisfaction Scale. We found that forced social comparison had an impact on self-esteem and a marginally significant effect on appearance satisfaction in the group of participants (of both genders assessing the photographs of unattractive individuals, while no effects were found in the either the control group or the group assessing the photographs of attractive individuals. We also examined the impact of self-esteem, appearance satisfaction and appearance relevance as moderating variables on the effect size of social comparison and showed that higher pretest self-esteem and appearance relevance and lower appearance satisfaction predict higher posttest self-esteem scores, regardless of the participants’ group membership. The group of participants exposed to photographs of unattractive people, however, showed the opposite pattern - those participants who had initially lower self-esteem have increased it more as a result of the experimental exposure.

  8. The impact of social stress on self-esteem and paranoid ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Bredenpohl, Marcel; Klenke, Julia; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2013-03-01

    Vulnerability-stress models propose that social stress triggers psychotic episodes in high risk individuals. Previous studies found not only stress but also a decrease in self-esteem to precede the formation of delusions. As evidence for causal conclusions has not been provided yet, the present study assessed the direct impact of social stress on paranoid beliefs using an experimental design and considered a decrease in self-esteem as a mediator and the proneness to psychosis and paranoia as moderators of the effect. A nonclinical population sample (n = 76) was randomly assigned to an experimental (EG) or a control group condition (CG). In the EG, participants were excluded during a virtual ball game (Cyberball) by the other two players and received a negative feedback after performing a test. The CG was included in the game and received a neutral feedback. Before and after the experimental conditions, emotions, self-esteem and paranoid beliefs were assessed using state-adapted questionnaires. After the social stress induction, the EG reported a higher increase in subclinical paranoid beliefs compared to the CG. The impact of social stress on paranoid ideation was mediated by a decrease in self-esteem and moderated by proneness to paranoia. Individuals who felt distressed by paranoid thoughts at baseline were more likely to react with an increase in paranoid ideation under social stress. The results need to be confirmed in a patient sample to draw conclusions about the processes involved in the formation of delusions in clinically relevant stages. The impact of social stress on symptom formation and self-esteem is discussed in terms of recent models of symptom formation and interventions in psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Assessment of self-esteem in pregnant women using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.

  10. Exercise-, nature- and socially interactive-based initiatives improve mood and self-esteem in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jo; Griffin, Murray; Pretty, Jules

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated two existing group-based health promotion initiatives (a social club and a swimming group) and compared these to a new green exercise programme (weekly countryside and urban park walks). Participants represented a clinical population (N = 53) and were all experiencing a range of mental health problems. They only attended one of the three programmes and sessions were held once a week for six weeks in all initiatives. Composite questionnaires incorporating two standardized measures to analyse changes in self-esteem and mood were completed before and after all sessions. A significant main effect for self-esteem and mood pre and post activity (p self-esteem was significantly greater in the green exercise group compared with the social activities club (p self-esteem and mood levels improved over the six-week period and improvements were related to attendance in the green exercise group. Green exercise as a health-promoting initiative for people experiencing mental ill health is equally as effective as existing programmes. Combining exercise, nature and social components in future initiatives may play a key role in managing and supporting recovery from mental ill health, suggesting a potential 'green' approach to mental healthcare and promotion.

  11. Socializing problems and low self-esteem enhance interpersonal models of eating disorders: Evidence from a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Fursland, Anthea

    2017-09-01

    The present study evaluated the relative clinical validity of two interpersonal models of the maintenance of eating disorders, IPT-ED (Rieger et al., ) and the interpersonal model of binge eating (Wilfley, MacKenzie, Welch, Ayres, & Weissman, ; Wilfley, Pike, & Striegel-Moore, ). While both models propose an indirect relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder symptoms via negative affect, IPT-ED specifies negative social evaluation as the key interpersonal problem, and places greater emphasis on the role of low self-esteem as an intermediate variable between negative social evaluation and eating pathology. Treatment-seeking individuals (N = 306) with a diagnosed eating disorder completed measures of socializing problems, generic interpersonal problems, self-esteem, eating disorder symptoms, and negative affect (depression and anxiety). Structural equation models were run for both models. Consistent with IPT-ED, a significant indirect pathway was found from socializing problems to eating disorder symptoms via low self-esteem and anxiety symptoms. There was also a direct pathway from low self-esteem to eating disorder symptoms. Using a socializing problems factor in the model resulted in a significantly better fit than a generic interpersonal problems factor. Inconsistent with both interpersonal models, the direct pathway from socializing problems to eating disorder symptoms was not supported. Interpersonal models that included self-esteem and focused on socializing problems (rather than generic interpersonal problems) explained more variance in eating disorder symptoms. Future experimental, prospective, and treatment studies are required to strengthen the case that these pathways are causal. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Howe, George W

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined whether having high self-esteem or a self-compassionate perspective help mitigate the impact of daily social rejection on negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. Following a baseline survey assessing self-esteem and self-compassion, 121 college women completed online daily diaries for one week. Negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. On days when women reported more rejection, they also reported higher restrictive eating behaviours and greater negative affect. Effects were moderated by self-esteem and self-compassion, such that the lower participants were in self-esteem or self-compassion, the stronger the positive relation between rejection and negative affect and restrictive eating. However, only the common humanity/isolation dimension of self-compassion significantly moderated daily effects of rejection when controlling for self-esteem. Mediated moderation results reveal different mechanisms by which self-esteem and self-compassion buffer against rejections' effects on affect and restrictive eating. Self-compassion and self-esteem influence the complex impact that social rejection has on affect and restrictive eating. More than other dimensions of self-compassion or self-esteem, remembering one's common humanity can result in a healthier response to social rejection.

  13. Gender as a moderator of self-esteem in socially adjusted and maladjusted youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into the self-esteem of adolescents. The comparative analysis conducted reveals that the self-esteem of juveniles placed in social rehabilitation institutions is higher than the self-esteem of youth attending public schools and that gender is not a statistically significant differentiating factor. The text also includes a review of empirical studies of other authors dealing with this issue, a discussion of the obtained results, and practical recommendations useful in the social rehabilitation juveniles

  14. The relationship between self-esteem and problem behaviour, social and academic competence

    OpenAIRE

    Theie, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between low self-esteem and problem behaviour, social competence and academic achievement among students in lower secondary schools in Norway. 2164 students in 11 lower secondary schools filled in a self-evaluation scale on self-esteem (Harter 1999). Teachers evaluated the same students using the problem-behaviour-scale, social competence scale and academic achievement scale developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990). Correlations were computed between each f...

  15. Associations between Game Users and Life Satisfaction: Role of Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Rim Lee; Eui Jun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree...

  16. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  17. Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.

  18. Group Therapy for Improving Self-Esteem and Social Functioning of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of interpersonal group therapy designed to improve self-esteem and social functioning in college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Participants with documented ADHD diagnoses completed self-report measures of self-esteem and social functioning at the initiation of the study,…

  19. The effect of social exclusion on state paranoia and explicit and implicit self-esteem in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C; Rogers, F; Pilch, M; Stewart, I; Barnes-Holmes, Y; Westermann, S

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and paranoia may be influenced by social stress. This study aimed to replicate previous research on the impact ofsocial exclusion on paranoia and self-esteem in a non-clinical sample and to extend this work by examining the effect of exclusion on self-esteem at the 'implicit' level. Non-clinical participants (N = 85) were randomly allocated to the Inclusion or Exclusion condition of a virtual ball-toss game ('Cyberball'). They completed self-reportmeasures of state paranoia and self-esteem, and two implicit measures of self-esteem - theImplicit Association Task (IAT) and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) -prior to and after exposure to Cyberball. Social exclusion increased state paranoia. This effect was moderated by distress associated with trait paranoia. Exclusion was also associated with decreased self-reported self-esteem, as well as reduced implicit self-esteem on the IAT. Changes in self-reported self-esteem were associated with state paranoia at post-Cyberball. The IRAP indicated that reductions in implicit self-esteem may be due to increases in 'Me-Negative' and 'Others-Positive' biases (rather than reductions in 'Me-Positive' bias). The current study involved a non-clinical sample and so findings cannot be generalized to clinical paranoia. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that paranoia is associated with negative self-evaluations, whereas positive self-evaluations can persist in paranoia. They also provide support for the suggestion that investigations of self-esteem in paranoia should extend beyond global self-esteem and might benefit from a distinction between positive and negative components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Is self-esteem a "double edged sword"? Self-esteem and the onset of adolescent sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Favara, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem has been conceptualized as a "social vaccine". The belief is that high self-esteem can inoculate young people, against vulnerability to a wide range of social illnesses. This study gives a contribution in the understanding of the causal relation between self-esteem and sexual behaviour among American adolescents. I analyzes the impact of different levels of early self-esteem on a wide set of risky sexual behaviours. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Hea...

  2. Enhancing Self-Esteem through Self-Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valett, Robert E.

    Self-esteem, well managed, is a powerful force for effective learning. Research has shown that good self-esteem is associated with analytical thinking, persistence, creative ability, social independence, stability and high expectations, and that the antecedents of positive self-esteem are found in parental models who provide firm guidance in the…

  3. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Moein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.

  4. Relationship Between College Students’ Online Social Support, Self-esteem and Cyberbullying%大学生网络社会支持、自尊和网络欺负之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 李扬

    2016-01-01

    Using Cyberbullying Inventory, Online Social Support and Self-Esteem Scale, we investigated the relationship between college students’ online social support and cyberbullying , and the intermediary role that self-esteem plays. The results show that students’ cyberbullying exhibit significant gender differences in online social support , cyberbullying is significantly negatively correlated with self-esteem , cyberbullying is significantly negatively correla-ted with online social support, self-esteem is an intermediary role in college students’ online social support and cy-berbullying. When college students get more online social support, it will increase their self-evaluation, thereby pro-mate increased their self-esteem, which will be able to reduce their cyberbullying.%为了考察大学生网络社会支持与网络欺负之间的关系,检验自尊在其中所起的中介作用,选取三所综合性大学611名大学生为被试,使用网络欺负量表、大学生网络社会支持问卷和自尊量表进行测量。研究发现,大学生网络欺负呈现显著的性别差异,网络社会支持和网络欺负呈显著负相关,自尊和网络欺负呈显著负相关,网络社会支持和自尊呈显著正相关,自尊在网络社会支持和网络欺负之间起中介作用。当大学生获得较多的网络社会支持,他们的自我评价升高,自尊上升,这能减少他们实施网络欺负行为。

  5. Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: how implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2005-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that high self-esteem is heterogeneous. Recent research suggests that individuals who report having high self-esteem (i.e., have high explicit self-esteem) behave more defensively to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The current studies test whether individuals with high explicit self-esteem are more likely to discriminate ethnically, as a defensive technique, to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The results support this prediction. Among participants with high explicit self-esteem, all of whom were threatened by negative performance feedback, those with relatively low implicit self-esteem recommended a more severe punishment for a Native, but not a White, student who started a fist-fight. In Study 2, this pattern was not apparent for participants with relatively low explicit self-esteem.

  6. Self-Esteem in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón; José Alfonso Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The present article gives a panoramic view about self-esteem as a characteristic of the human psyche, and as a social product which is developed in man-world interaction. It also presents some derived results of the researches carried out by the authors about the impact that self-esteem has in the work with individual's self-esteem in the pedagogic contexts.

  7. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  8. Low adolescent self-esteem leads to multiple interpersonal problems: a test a social-adaptation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L R; Kulka, R A; Klingel, D M

    1980-09-01

    This article reports the results of a study that annually monitored the self-esteem and interpersonal problems of over 100 boys during their sophomore, junior, and senior years of high school. Cross-lagged panel correlation differences show that low self-esteem leads to interpersonal problems in all three time lags when multiple interpersonal problems constitute the dependent variable but not when single interpersonal problem criteria constitute the dependent variable. These results are interpreted as supporting social-adaptation theory rather than self-perception theory. Implications for the conceptual status of personality variables as causal antecedents and for the assessment of individual differences are discussed.

  9. Self-esteem and anxiety: key issues in an abused women's support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, M L

    1989-01-01

    A support group was organized for women who sought help to cope with physical and emotional abuse from their male partners. Women who have lived through the cycle of violence may experience a stress response that includes fear, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. High anxiety can interfere with problem solving and with developing new coping patterns. Low self-esteem can accompany depression and intensify the sense of helplessness and powerlessness abused women feel. A descriptive study was conducted to determine to what extent women in the group experienced high anxiety and low self-esteem. Results indicated that high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem were present in the group. Anxiety reduction strategies and techniques to enhance self-esteem were developed.

  10. Self-esteem, social participation, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Pavol; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Stewart, Roy E; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether self-esteem and social participation are associated with the physical and mental quality of life (Physical Component Summary, Mental Component Summary) and whether self-esteem can mediate the association between these variables. We collected information from 118 consecutive multiple sclerosis patients. Age, gender, disease duration, disability status, and participation were significant predictors of Physical Component Summary, explaining 55.4 percent of the total variance. Self-esteem fully mediated the association between social participation and Mental Component Summary (estimate/standard error = -4.872; p educational programs.

  11. Evaluation of social anxiety, self-esteem, life quality in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dilek; Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin

    2016-08-05

    Acne vulgaris is a visible skin disease commonly seen in adolescence. As it affects the appearance, it is likely to bring stress to the adolescent's life regarding sensitivity about their appearance. The aim of the study was to investigate the social anxiety level, acne-specific life quality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acne vulgaris. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between these parameters, clinical severity, and sociodemographic data. One hundred and two adolescents with acne vulgaris, aged 12-17 years without any psychiatric or medical comorbidity were recruited. The control group consisted of 83 adolescents in the same age range, who had neither psychiatric disease nor acne. Sociodemographic form (SDF), Capa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (CSPSCA), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) were applied to both groups. Additionally, the severity of acne was determined with Global Acne Grading System (GAGS), and life quality of the patients was evaluated with Acne Quality of Life Scale (AQOL). There was no significant difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the study and control groups. Life quality impairment and high social anxiety levels, as well as low self-esteem, were found to be associated regardless of the clinical severity. Clinicians should be aware of the psychiatric comorbidities when treating adolescents with acne vulgaris. Especially, low self-esteem and life quality impairment should warn clinicians to predict high social anxiety levels in adolescent acne patients.

  12. Appearance-related social comparisons: the role of contingent self-esteem and self-perceptions of attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton; Knee, C Raymond

    2004-04-01

    Two studies examined contingent self-esteem (CSE) and responses to appearance-related social comparisons. Study 1 was an experimental study in which women rated a series of advertisements from popular women's magazines. Study 2 employed an event-contingent diary recording procedure. In Study 1, women who were higher in CSE and lower in self-perceptions of attractiveness (SPA) experienced greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in negative affect following the ad-rating task. Study 2 results supported a mediation model in which women who were higher in CSE felt worse after social comparisons because they made primarily upward comparisons. Overall, results suggest that appearance-related comparisons are more distressing for those who base their self-worth on contingencies and have lower self-perceived attractiveness.

  13. Situated Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigman, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…

  14. [Self-stigma, self-esteem and self-efficacy of mentally ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmatzi, E; Koulierakis, G; Giaglis, G

    2016-01-01

    The way that the social stigma of mental illness is related with the self-stigma, which in turn affects self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients was investigated. A sample of 66 patients in the Adult Psychiatric Clinic of the Thessaloniki General Hospital "G. Papanikolaou" was participated in this descriptive association study, with cross-sectional comparisons. The sample comprised of patients who were hospitalized or visited the Clinic as out-patients during the period that the study was undertaken. A tool for measuring the basic demographic, social and clinical characteristics of the participants was designed and used. Additionally, the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, SSMIS, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, RSE and the General Self-Efficacy Sherer Scale, GSESH were used for measuring self-stigma, self-esteem and self-efficacy respectively. Results showed that self-esteem and self-efficacy were highly associated with each another. Self-esteem and self-efficacy co varied. Greater self-stigma was associated with lower self-esteem and selfefficacy confirming the power of this relationship which is connected with patients' psychological empowerment and acts as mediator between patients' self-categorization as "mentally ill" and their self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additionally, a mild negative association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and age was found while higher educational level was associated with greater selfefficacy. Greater self-stigma along with lower educational level were the most significant predictors of both self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients, as shown by regression analysis. Some of our results, such as the percentage of low self-esteem (30.3%), were different from previous relevant data (9.1-24%), probably due to differences in sample's cultural characteristics and composition, research tools used, and the degree of mentally ill patients' reaction to social stigma perception. Despite its methodological limitations, the

  15. Paradoxical self-esteem and selectivity in the processing of social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, R W

    1998-05-01

    Paradoxical self-esteem is defined as contrasting levels of self-liking and self-competence. Consideration of the social and motivational implications of this uncommon form of self-esteem suggests that heightened selectivity in the processing of social information may be behind its persistence. Two experiments were conducted to confirm the prediction of heightened selectivity in paradoxicals. As expected, those paradoxically low in self-liking were more negatively biased in their memory for personality feedback (Study 1) and interpretation of valuatively ambiguous phrases (Study 2) than were their counterparts who shared the same low self-liking but were also low in self-competence. Symmetrical with this result, those paradoxically high in self-liking exhibited a heightened positive bias relative to those who were high in both self-liking and self-competence. The findings are discussed in relation to attitudes and motivation.

  16. Self-presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Soraya

    2010-08-01

    Online social networking sites have revealed an entirely new method of self-presentation. This cyber social tool provides a new site of analysis to examine personality and identity. The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site Facebook.com . Self-esteem and narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from 100 Facebook users at York University. Participant Web pages were also coded based on self-promotional content features. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals higher in narcissism and lower in self-esteem were related to greater online activity as well as some self-promotional content. Gender differences were found to influence the type of self-promotional content presented by individual Facebook users. Implications and future research directions of narcissism and self-esteem on social networking Web sites are discussed.

  17. Self-esteem and peer-perceived social status in early adolescence and prediction of eating pathology in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2018-04-27

    Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Crossover effects of servant leadership and job social support on employee spouses : the mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ziwei; Zhang, Haina; Ho Kwong, Kwan; Chen, Shouming

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the crossover effects of employee perceptions of servant leadership and job social support on the family satisfaction and quality of family life experienced by the employees’ spouses. These effects were explored through a focus on the mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Results from a three-wave field survey of 199 employee–spouse dyads in the People’s Republic of China support our hypotheses, indicating that OBSE fully mediates the...

  19. Perceived stigma, self-esteem and social comparison of people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Ivana; Milačić-Vidojević Ivona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ...

  20. Justified Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…

  1. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  2. Self-esteem and suicide risk

    OpenAIRE

    perrot, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...

  3. Social marketing self-esteem: a socio-medical approach to high-risk and skin tone alteration activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelas, Gregory D

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes social marketing as a tool to build individual self-esteem and thus prevent the uptake of activities that pose risk to health. Evidence supporting this approach can be drawn from pioneer social marketing campaigns of the last 30 years that successfully addressed the prevention, treatment and stigmatization of skin cancer and leprosy with a fraction of the communication and media tools available today. Focusing primarily on the practices of skin tanning and lightening, this paper builds on studies that validate the ties between self-esteem and behavior, and addresses popular conceptions of skin color as drivers for individual behavior. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (M age =35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-categorization, commitment to the group and social self-esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.; Kortekaas, P.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that, when examining social identification, it is both possible and important to distinguish between self-categorisation, commitment to the group, and group self-esteem, as related but separate aspects of group members' social identity. This was demonstrated in an

  6. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  7. When is selective self-presentation effective? An investigation of the moderation effects of "self-esteem" and "social trust".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonkyung; Baek, Young Min

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between selective self-presentation and online life satisfaction, and how this relationship is influenced by respondents' perceptions of "self" (operationalized by "self-esteem") and "others" (operationalized by "social trust"). Relying on survey data from 712 Korean online users, two important findings were detected in our study. First, the positive relationship between selective self-presentation and online life satisfaction becomes more prominent among people with low self-esteem compared to those with high self-esteem, and second, this positive relationship is enhanced among people with high levels of social trust compared to those with low trust levels. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings as well as potential limitations are discussed.

  8. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  9. Self-esteem as mediator and moderator of the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of Chinese adults with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Wentao; Liu, Binbin; Xie, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies show the relationship between self-esteem and stigma perception and also between self-esteem and social alienation, but none sufficiently analyze the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the mediator and moderator effects of self-esteem on the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The participants were 129 adults with disability (80 males and 49 females) from eight communities in China. Data was collected by using the stigma perception scale, self-esteem scale, social avoidance scale, social anxiety subscale of the self-consciousness scale, and loneliness scale. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale (1 = "strongly disagree" to 5 = "strongly agree"). Stigma perception was positively correlated with social avoidance (p Self-esteem was inversely correlated with social avoidance (p perception (p Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, social anxiety and loneliness. Moreover, self-esteem moderated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, but not on social anxiety and loneliness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-esteem, social participation, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikula, Pavol; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Stewart, Roy E; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether self-esteem and social participation are associated with the physical and mental quality of life (Physical Component Summary, Mental Component Summary) and whether self-esteem can mediate the association between these variables. We collected information

  11. Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.

  12. Possible antecedents and consequences of self-esteem in persons with multiple sclerosis: preliminary evidence from a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have consistently reported lower levels of self-esteem compared with the general population. Despite this, very little is known about the antecedents and consequences of self-esteem in persons with MS. To examine (1) physical activity and social support as potentially modifiable correlates (i.e., antecedents) of self-esteem and (2) physical and psychological health-related quality of life as possible consequences of self-esteem in persons with MS. Participants (N = 46) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), and Social Provisions Scale (SPS). The data were analyzed using PASW Statistics 18. Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that average daily step counts (r = .298, p = .026) and social support (r = .366, p = .007) were significantly correlated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only social support was a significant predictor of self-esteem scores (β = .411, p = .004); pedometer steps approached significance as a predictor of self-esteem (β = .178, p = .112). Bivariate correlation analysis further indicated significant negative associations between self-esteem and physical (r = -.391, p = .004) and psychological (r = -.540, p = .0001) domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), indicating that higher self-esteem was associated with more positive HRQOL. Social support is a potentially modifiable variable that may be important to target when designing interventions to improve self-esteem and this might have implications for improving physical and psychological HRQOL in persons with MS.

  13. Effect of perceived organizational support on suicidal ideation of young employees: The mediator role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jinyan; Ji, Yongbao; Li, Ping; Zhao, Hao

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation of young employees. A total of 447 unmarried employees completed the survey of perceived organizational support, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and suicide ideation scale. The results revealed that perceived organizational support, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation were significantly correlated with each other. Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis both indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the effect of perceived organizational support on suicidal ideation.

  14. Psychometric characteristics in normal and social phobic samples for a Spanish version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, R M; Guillén, V

    2000-08-01

    The present paper had three purposes: (a) presenting normative data for the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in a Spanish sample, (b) studying whether there are significant sex or age differences in self-esteem, and (c) studying whether there are significant differences between a Control group with no psychological diagnosis and a group of social phobics. Of the total sample of 266 persons, 214 belonged to the Control group and 52 to the Social Phobic group. Item-total score correlations and alpha reliabilities supported the internal consistency of the scale. There were statistically significant differences between the Control and Social Phobic groups, but not by sex or age.

  15. #Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more – both overall and at night – and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and h...

  16. When compliments don't hit but critiques do: an fMRI study into self-esteem and self-knowledge in processing social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, C C; Chiu, C D; Rombouts, S A R B; Heiser, W J; Elzinga, B M

    2018-02-27

    The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Participants (N = 46) with a high range of self-esteem levels performed the social feedback task in an MRI scanner. Negative, intermediate and positive feedback was provided, supposedly by another person based on a personal interview. Participants rated their mood and applicability of feedback to the self. Analyses on trial basis on neural and affective responses are used to incorporate applicability of individual feedback words. Lower self-esteem related to low mood especially after receiving non-applicable negative feedback. Higher self-esteem related to increased PCC and precuneus activation (i.e., self-referential processing) for applicable negative feedback. Lower self-esteem related to decreased mPFC, insula, ACC and PCC activation (i.e, self-referential processing) during positive feedback and decreased TPJ activation (i.e., other referential processing) for applicable positive feedback. Self-esteem and consistency of feedback with self-knowledge appear to guide our affective and neural responses to social feedback. This may be highly relevant for the interpersonal problems that individuals face with low self-esteem and negative self-views.

  17. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.

  18. Longitudinal predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem in people with ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Atkins, L; Landau, S; Brown, R G; Leigh, P N

    2006-11-14

    To identify predictors of psychological distress (measured by anxiety and depression) and low self-esteem and to determine whether these change over time in people with ALS. We interviewed 50 patients with ALS living with a spouse/partner; further interviews were held at median intervals of 6 and then 5 months. Although carers were interviewed, we report the patients' data. Patients completed measures about their social support and marital relationship; the functional impact of ALS; everyday cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes; symptoms of anxiety and depression; and self-esteem. The ALS Severity Scale was also completed. From the initial sample of 50, 26 patients were interviewed on all three occasions. At the first interview, negative social support and bulbar impairment were most predictive of psychological distress; pre-illness marital intimacy was the best predictor of patients' self-esteem. Over time, negative social support and pre-illness marital intimacy retained an ability to predict patients' affective state and self-esteem. Social factors are important in determining longer-term psychological well-being in people with ALS who are in the relatively early stages of the disease.

  19. Self-esteem and social support as moderators of depression, body image, and disordered eating for suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.

  20. Family support is not a risk factor of negative self-esteem in HIV/AIDS women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Valeria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Women with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA have a complex psychosocial burden and a tendency to negative self-esteem, possibly resulting in mental and emotional problems. They need family support to deal with the HIV/AIDS infection and its psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine chacteristics of family support, self-esteem, and depression of WLWHA and the relationship between family support and self-esteem and depression. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 99 WLWHA infected through their husbands/partners, with no history of drug abuse. The data was taken by a consecutive sampling of two proportions test at Dharmais Cancer Hospital from November 2013 – January 2014. The instruments comprised a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and a family support questionnaire. The data was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Results There were 99 respondents with mean age of 36 years, of whom 44.4% were high school graduates, 54.5% unemployed, and 91.9% had HIV/AIDS for more than a year. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no significant relationship between family support and self-esteem (p=0.700 and depression (p=0.396. Good family support has a protective effect of 1.3 times (OR=0.772; 95%CI: 0.138-3.770 towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression 1.5 times (OR=1.477; 95%CI: 0.598-3.645 in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner. Conclusions Good family support tend to have a protective effect towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner.

  1. Ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination and the maintenance of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter.

  2. Ethnicity- and Sex-Based Discrimination and the Maintenance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter. PMID:25978646

  3. Self-esteem in later life: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, L B

    1985-10-01

    Self-esteem provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long-term care. This article defines self-esteem in relation to self-concept and identifies the antecedents that affect its development. Elements of labeling theory, activity theory, and social exchange theory are explored to account for a potential decline in self-esteem among the elderly. According to this electric theoretical framework, stigmatization, decreased social interaction, and loss of control over the environment are all negatively correlated with self-esteem. Institutionalization intensifies the effect of these forces. Nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem by combating ageism, promoting social interaction, and maximizing the control and participation of elderly residents.

  4. Self-esteem in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  5. Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruklu, Nermin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…

  6. The effects of socioeconomic incongruity in the neighbourhood on social support, self-esteem and mental health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albor, C; Uphoff, E P; Stafford, M; Ballas, D; Wilkinson, R G; Pickett, K E

    2014-06-01

    Analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics and health indicators consistently show that health is worse in poorer neighbourhoods. However, some studies that examined neighbourhood effects separately for individuals of different socioeconomic position found that poor people may derive health benefits from living in poor neighbourhoods where they are socioeconomically congruous. This study investigates whether such patterns may be driven by psychosocial factors. The sample consisted of 4871 mothers in the Millennium Cohort Study aged 14-53. The outcomes analysed were neighbourhood friendship, emotional support, self-esteem and depression or anxiety. Neighbourhood status was classified by residents' educational and occupational status derived from the 2001 Census. We used multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for mothers' socio-demographic characteristics: first analysing health by neighbourhood status separately for the highest and lowest status mothers, then testing for modification in the association between neighbourhood status and health, by individual status. Results show that for highest status mothers, living in mixed or high status neighbourhoods compared to low status neighbourhoods significantly reduced the odds of having no friends in the neighbourhood by 65%. Living in high status neighbourhoods compared to low status neighbourhoods also significantly reduced the odds of depression or anxiety for highest status mothers by 41%. No associations were found for emotional support or self-esteem amongst highest status mothers. No associations were found for any outcome among lowest status mothers. In conclusion, low status mothers in England did not have better social support, self-esteem, or mental health when living in low status neighbourhoods compared to high status neighbourhoods; any benefits of socioeconomic congruity may have been counteracted by neighbourhood deprivation. Nevertheless, we found that mothers of high status do have

  7. Social desirability: the role of over-claiming, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESSICA MESMER-MAGNUS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Socially desirable responding (SDR has been widely studied with regards to personality assessment due to fears it may attenuate the predictive validity of decisions made using such assessments (e.g., in personnel selection. A number of scales have been employed to assess individual differences in response distortion. We expand the nomological net for a popular measure of social desirability – the Marlowe-Crowne scale – by correlating individual differences in SDR to measures of over-claiming, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence. Survey results (n = 198 yielded a significant positive correlation between SDR and both self-esteem and emotional intelligence. Over-claiming was found to be negatively related to self-deceptive enhancement, a form of SDR, but not to SDR overall. Regression analyses revealed emotional intelligence explains significant variance in SDR, over and above that which is explained by self-esteem and over-claiming alone (ΔR2 = .16, p < .01. Implications for personality assessment are discussed.

  8. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week, have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.

  9. The Neurobiology of Self-Esteem and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Recent primate studies suggest that fluctuations in the neurotransmitter serotonin help regulate our level of self-esteem and place within the social hierarchy. The serotonin system helps us cope psychologically in a bad social situation. The best support for a serotonin deficiency is probably the natural system of positive social feedback evolved…

  10. When compliments do not hit but critiques do: an fMRI study into self-esteem and self-knowledge in processing social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Charlotte C; Chiu, Chui-De; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Heiser, Willem J; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Participants (N = 46) with a high range of self-esteem levels performed the social feedback task in an MRI scanner. Negative, intermediate and positive feedback was provided, supposedly by another person based on a personal interview. Participants rated their mood and applicability of feedback to the self. Analyses on trial basis on neural and affective responses are used to incorporate applicability of individual feedback words. Lower self-esteem related to low mood especially after receiving non-applicable negative feedback. Higher self-esteem related to increased posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus activation (i.e. self-referential processing) for applicable negative feedback. Lower self-esteem related to decreased medial prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex activation (i.e. self-referential processing) during positive feedback and decreased temporoparietal junction activation (i.e. other referential processing) for applicable positive feedback. Self-esteem and consistency of feedback with self-knowledge appear to guide our affective and neural responses to social feedback. This may be highly relevant for the interpersonal problems that individuals face with low self-esteem and negative self-views. PMID:29490088

  11. Self-esteem and coping responses of athletes with acute versus chronic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, D; Lox, C L

    1998-06-01

    Self-esteem and coping strategies have been important factors in athletes' response to injury and subsequent rehabilitation. Specifically, athletic injury has been negatively associated with self-esteem, while certain coping strategies may enhance adherence to rehabilitation (1, 4). Little is known, however, concerning the effect of acute (sudden specific event) versus chronic injury (repetitive injury over a prolonged period of time) on self-esteem and coping strategies. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (3), selected subscales of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (2), and a demographic questionnaire were administered. The subscales of Ways of Coping Questionnaire employed were Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility for the injury, and Escape Avoidance of the injury. To assess the influence of acute versus chronic injury status, effect sizes (ES) were calculated. Although no difference was found for Accepting Responsibility, chronically injured athletes scored higher on Escape/Avoidance (M = 2.4 vs 1.9, SD = 1.2 vs .6, ES = .52) and lower on Seeking Social Support (M = 2.5 vs 2.8, SD = .6 vs .4, ES = .47) than athletes with acute injuries. Those with chronic injuries also second more negatively on self-esteem (M = 6.2 vs 4.4, SD = 1.2 vs 1.2, ES = 1.30) than acutely injured athletes. These preliminary results suggest the type of injury may differentially affect self-esteem and coping behavior. As self-esteem is theorized to be relatively stable construct, it is perhaps not surprising that chronic injuries have a greater effect than acute injuries. Chronically injured athletes also sought social support less and engaged in more escape/avoidance behavior, suggesting that they cope with injury differently than those with acute injuries.

  12. Self-Esteem and Mastery Trajectories in High School by Social Class and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Christina D.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 769 white adolescents in the Midwest, this research applies a social structure and personality perspective to examine variation in self-esteem and mastery trajectories by gender and SES across the high school years. Analyses reveal that high SES adolescents experience significantly steeper gains in self-esteem and mastery compared to low SES adolescents, resulting in the reversal of SES differences in self-esteem and the emergence of significant SES differences in mastery. Pre-existing gender differences in self-esteem narrow between the 9th and 12th grade because self-esteem increases at a faster rate among girls than boys during high school. These SES and gender differences in self-concept growth are explained by changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality and stress exposure. Specifically, boys and adolescents with lower SES backgrounds experienced steeper declines in parent-adolescent relationship quality and steeper gains in chronic work strain compared to girls and low SES adolescents, respectively. PMID:21423844

  13. Self-esteem development in the school context: The roles of intrapersonal and interpersonal social predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Göllner, Richard; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-05-26

    When considering that social inclusion is a basic human need, it makes sense that self-esteem is fueled by social feedback and the sense of being liked by others. This is particularly true with respect to early adolescence, when peers become increasingly important. In the current article, we tested which components of social inclusion are particularly beneficial for the development of self-esteem by differentiating between intrapersonal components (i.e., self-perceptions of social inclusion) and interpersonal components (i.e., perceiver and target effects of liking). Using longitudinal data from 2,281 fifth graders and 1,766 eighth graders (TRAIN; Jonkmann et al., 2013), we tested mean-level self-esteem development and the role of intrapersonal components in this development. Using classroom round-robin data on liking from subsamples of 846 (689) fifth-(eighth-)grade students nested in 46 (39) classes, we tested effects of interpersonal relationship components on self-esteem development in the classroom context. The three major findings demonstrated, first, no consistent trends in mean levels of self-esteem in early to middle adolescence; second, constant positive effects of intrapersonal components between students and within students across time; and third, no stable effects of interpersonal components. The discussion highlights the role of intrapersonal components and the methodological challenges of our study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Self-esteem in Early Adolescence as Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Motivational and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J

    2018-05-01

    Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.

  15. Development of a behavioural self-regulation intervention to improve employment, autonomy and self-esteem in ESRD patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, D.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim was to develop a psychological intervention for ESRD patients and their partners aimed at maintaining/widening patients’ daily activities including work, and increasing patients’ autonomy and self-esteem. Methods: The intervention was based on self-regulation theory, social learning theory, selfdetermination theory and results of a cross-sectional study on the role of illness/treatment perceptions, and social support/overprotection in perceived autonomy, state self-esteem ...

  16. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  17. Self-esteem, general and sexual self-concepts in blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar

    2015-10-01

    People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-concept using Eysenck self-esteem and Rogers' self-concept questionnaires. The correlation between above two variables was measured using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software by Pearson correlation test. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 30.9 ± 8 years. The mean (±SD) of general self-concept score was 11 ± 5.83. The mean (±SD) of self-esteem score was 16.62 ± 2.85. Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and general self-concept (r = 0.19, P = 0.025). The mean of sexual self-concept scores in five subscales (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear, and sexual depression) were correspondingly 11 ± 4.41, 19.53 ± 4.53, 12.96 ± 4.19, 13.48 ± 1.76, and 5.38 ± 2.36. Self-esteem and self-concept had significant positive correlation with sexual anxiety (r = 0.49; P Self-esteem and self-concept had significant correlation with sexual anxiety and sexual fear; and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy and sexual-esteem.

  18. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women – Study 1 – and men – Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration. PMID:27872665

  19. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men ( N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.

  20. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F; Campbell, W Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-03-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

  1. Interpersonal consequences of seeking self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  2. Self-Esteem and the Reproduction of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L; Amato, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States.

  3. Social connectedness and self-esteem: predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health.

  4. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...

  5. Children's Levels of Contingent Self-Esteem and Social and Emotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan S. B.; Smith, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (CSE) describes the degree to which self-esteem is dependent on meeting day-to-day appraisals from oneself and others. This will vary between individuals, ranging from lower to higher CSE. A lower CSE is related to a range of adaptive social and emotional outcomes in adolescents and young adults. This study explores…

  6. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  7. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  8. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  9. Self-Esteem and the Reproduction of Social Class*

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Method Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Results Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Conclusion Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States. PMID:25568500

  10. Social functioning and self-esteem in young people with disabilities participating in adapted competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinomais, M; Gambart, G; Bruneau, A; Bontoux, L; Deries, X; Tessiot, C; Richard, I

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social functioning quality of life and self-esteem in young people with disabilities taking part in adapted competitive sport. A sample of 496 athletes (mean age 16 years 4 months, range: 9 years to 20 years 9 months) was obtained from the 540 participants (91.8%) involved in a French national championship. The main outcome measurements were a social functioning inventory (PedsQL 4.0 social functioning) and a self-esteem inventory in physical areas (physical self inventory 6 PSI-6). The mean PedsQL SF score was 74.6 (SD: 17.7). Comparisons of PedsQL SF according to gender, age, self mobility and training revealed no significant differences between the groups. PedsQL SF was weakly but significantly correlated with all subscales of the PSI-6 in the total population. PSI-6 scores were significantly different between boys and girls, with better self-esteem for boys on general self-esteem (7.7 vs. 6.9, P=0.018), physical condition (6.8 vs. 6.0, P=0.023) and attractive body subscores (6.5 vs. 5.1, Pself-concept, social functioning quality of life and participation in adapted sport activities require further studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  11. Disability pride protects self-esteem through the rejection-identification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Kathleen R; Lund, Emily M; Rottenstein, Adena

    2018-02-01

    The rejection-identification model (RIM) argues that the negative impacts of stigma, such as decreased self-esteem, may be mitigated when members of the stigmatized group choose to identify with each other rather than with the majority culture. A previously unstudied potential RIM stigma-reduction mechanism is disability pride, which views disability as a source of valuable, enriching, and positive experience. Impairment, personal, and environmental factors based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) predict whether people will categorize themselves as disabled, but predictors of pride have received little examination. The purpose of this study was to (a) explore whether ICF factors predict disability pride, and (b) assess whether disability pride mediates a relationship between stigma and self-esteem, supporting RIM. Research Method/Design: Participants completed an Internet-based survey assessing pride, self-esteem, and ICF factors. Disability was not mentioned in recruitment materials to prevent selection biases. People who reported at least 1 impairment (n = 710) were included in analyses. ICF personal and environmental factors (stigma, social support, and being a person of color), but not impairment factors, predicted disability pride. Supporting RIM, disability pride partially mediated the relationship between stigma and self-esteem. Disability pride is a promising way to protect self-esteem against stigma. Disability pride is still a rare phenomenon. Given that pride is associated with social support, stigma, and, to a lesser extent, ethnicity, but not impairment characteristics, interventions might focus on personal and environmental factors like these to promote pride. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Moein; Mohammad Reza Abedi; Iran Baghban

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-estee...

  14. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  15. Sexual self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in military veterans after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.

  16. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  17. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi

    2012-03-20

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  18. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosogi Mizuho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  19. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22433387

  20. Psychordrama Effect on Social Skills and Self Esteem of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mowlavi

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Execution of psychodrama significantly affects social skills and self-esteem of patients with schizophrenia. This is significantly higher in the patients of type I in comparison with type II.

  1. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L.; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F.; Campbell, W. Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem’s moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications—suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks. PMID:22611304

  3. Emotional intelligence as a basis for self-esteem in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Hue, Ming-Tak

    2015-01-01

    As self-esteem is likely to build on favorable social experiences, such as those derived from achievement (i.e., GPA) and social competence, emotional intelligence is likely to be pivotal in fostering social experiences conducive to self-esteem. Accordingly, emotional intelligence is likely to underlie social competence and mediate the contribution of achievement to self-esteem. This uncharted role is the focus of this study, which surveyed 405 undergraduates in Hong Kong, China. Results demonstrated the pivotal role of emotional intelligence. Essentially, emotional intelligence appeared to be a strong determinant of self-esteem and explain away the positive effect of social competence on self-esteem. The results imply the value of raising emotional intelligence in order to consolidate the basis for the young adult's self-esteem.

  4. Self-Esteem Among the Elderly Visiting the Healthcare Centers in Kermanshah-Iran (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franak, Jafari; Alireza, Khatony; Malek, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Self-esteem is viewed the most decisive factor in the psychological development of the elderly. This study was performed to assess self-esteem among the elderly referring to the elderly consulting unit of the healthcare centers in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was completed with 201 elderly respondents visiting the consulting unit of the healthcare services in Kermanshah, Iran. The samples were selected through convenience sampling. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSC) was used to gather the required data. Data were analyzed by using both descriptive (frequency, mean, median and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi-square and independent t-test). Results: The findings showed a mean of 35.63±5.25 for self-esteem, indicating a high level of self-esteem (66.2%) among the elderly. A statistically significant difference was reported between the mean of self-esteem and career (pself-esteem, which is indicative of the need to promote the self-esteem of the elderly in order to reduce their physical, psychological and social problems. Thus, it is necessary for the healthcare authorities to provide the elderly with financial, social and psychological support. PMID:26156932

  5. Self-Esteem Among the Elderly Visiting the Healthcare Centers in Kermanshah-Iran (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Franak; Khatony, Alireza; Mehrdad, Malek

    2015-04-15

    Self-esteem is viewed the most decisive factor in the psychological development of the elderly. This study was performed to assess self-esteem among the elderly referring to the elderly consulting unit of the healthcare centers in Kermanshah, Iran. A cross-sectional study was completed with 201 elderly respondents visiting the consulting unit of the healthcare services in Kermanshah, Iran. The samples were selected through convenience sampling. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSC) was used to gather the required data. Data were analyzed by using both descriptive (frequency, mean, median and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi-square and independent t-test). The findings showed a mean of 35.63±5.25 for self-esteem, indicating a high level of self-esteem (66.2%) among the elderly. A statistically significant difference was reported between the mean of self-esteem and career (pself-esteem, which is indicative of the need to promote the self-esteem of the elderly in order to reduce their physical, psychological and social problems. Thus, it is necessary for the healthcare authorities to provide the elderly with financial, social and psychological support.

  6. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  7. Hubungan antara, Self Esteem dengan Self Disclosure pada Saat Chatting di Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Nitya Santi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facebook is an internet based social media that were populer at the moment. The use of sosial media is very populer no exception student. Students communicatem confide and seek information through facebook. Of the activities, appears a phenomenon experienced by students of the symptoms of self esteem and self disclosure. This research aims to determine the relationship between self esteem and self disclosure. The relationship between the level of self esteem with self disclosure while chatting on facebook worth 0,766. Meaning that the reletionship between the level of self esteem with self disclosure is very strong and direct. Where a person who has high self esteem will be able to able to demonstrate self-disclosure are effective in communicating that is: be open, able to empathize, to be positive in the communication process and feel similar to the communication partner. Conversely a low self esteem are less able to express himself well, fear of failure in social relations

  8. The influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R; Doosje, Bertjan

    2009-04-01

    This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are primed with the idea of engaging in a fair intergroup competition. They measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) discrimination and fairness in real (Study 1) and minimal (Study 2) groups, after which they manipulated the presence of an intergroup competition in both studies. Collective self-esteem served as the main dependent measure. Results indicated that when an intergroup competition was present or impending, previously expressed fairness (or less discrimination) was positively related to self-esteem, whereas discrimination was positively related to collective self-esteem in the absence of an intergroup competition. Results are discussed in terms of social identity theory and the importance of the broader social context for examining the relationship between discrimination and self-esteem.

  9. Effects of social comparison direction, threat, and self-esteem on affect, self-evaluation, and expected success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, L G; Taylor, S E

    1993-05-01

    Two studies explored the conditions under which social comparisons are used to manage negative affect and naturalistic threats. Study 1 examined induced mood and dispositional self-esteem as determinants of affective responses to upward and downward comparisons. Consistent with a mood repair prediction, only low-self-esteem Ss in whom a negative mood had been induced reported improved mood after exposure to downward comparison information. Study 2 examined the impact of naturalistic threats on responses to comparison information. Relative to a no-comparison baseline, low-self-esteem Ss who had experienced a recent academic setback reported more favorable self-evaluations and greater expectations of future success in college after exposure to downward comparison information. These results remained significant after controlling statistically for general distress. Implications for downward comparison theory are discussed.

  10. Enhancing Children's Self-Esteem: Illusion and Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to enhance children's self-esteem are critiqued, and an alternative direction is proposed that is based on the notion of self-esteem as a crucial aspect of human dignity. This approach connects self-esteem to both cultural and social conditions and works toward the reconstruction of school and society. (LB)

  11. Social relations and the self-esteem of older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G R; Shehan, C L

    1989-12-01

    This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.

  12. Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, M; Bagozzi, R P

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to distinguish between cognitive, affective and evaluative components of social identity in the organization and to show how the components instigate behaviours that benefit in-group members. A new scale for measuring cognitive organizational identification (i.e. self-categorization) is developed and compared to a leading scale. Internal consistency, convergent validity, predictive validity and generalizability of the two scales are established on a sample of Italian (N = 409) and Korean (N = 283) workers. Next, convergent and discriminant validity for measures of organizational identification, affective commitment and group self-esteem are demonstrated. Then, two antecedents of these components of social identity are examined: organization prestige and organization stereotypes. Finally, the mediating role of the components of social identity are investigated between the antecedents and five forms of citizenship behaviours. The last three analyses are performed on the Italian (N = 409) workers. Among other findings, the results show that affective commitment and self-esteem are the primary motivators of citizenship behaviours. Moreover, cognitive identification performs as a central mediator between prestige and stereotypes on the one hand, and affective commitment and self-esteem on the other. Identification is thus an indirect determinant of citizenship behaviours.

  13. Self-esteem, social participation, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mikula, Pavol; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Stewart, Roy E; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether self-esteem and social participation are associated with the physical and mental quality of life (Physical Component Summary, Mental Component Summary) and whether self-esteem can mediate the association between these variables. We collected information from 118 consecutive multiple sclerosis patients. Age, gender, disease duration, disability status, and participation were significant predictors of Physical Component Summary, explaining 55.4 percen...

  14. Two objective measures of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorr, M; Wunderlich, R A

    1986-01-01

    Two scales were constructed to assess self-esteem, conceptualized as reflecting (a) feelings of competence and efficacy, and (b) perceived positive appraisal from significant others. To control for response bias a paired choice format was chosen for the items constructed. A buffer scale designed to measure social assertiveness was also included. Data were collected on three samples of high school boys. The item intercorrelations were subjected to principal component analyses followed by Varimax rotations. In each of the three analyses factors of Confidence, Popularity (Social Approval), and Social Assertiveness emerged. The revised self-esteem scales, each defined by 11 items, have been shown to have acceptable reliability and some concurrent validity based on correlations with the well-known Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

  15. Efficacious Action and Social Approval as Interacting Dimensions of Self-Esteem: A Tentative Formulation Through Construct Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, David D.; Marolla, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and operational rationale is presented for the development of multidimensional measures of self-esteem. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a function of two processes reflected appraisals of significant others in one's social environment in the form of social approval, and the individual's feelings of efficacy and competence derived…

  16. Cross-Cultural Difference in Academic Motivation, Academic Self-Esteem, and Upward Social Mobility within a Student Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabe, C.; Brug, P.; Catling, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between academic motivation, support structures, self-esteem, and social mobility was assessed between three culturally distinct Higher Education student cohorts. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven students took part in the study: 64 American undergraduates; 100 British undergraduates; and 103 Ugandan undergraduates. Using a number of…

  17. An Examination of Social and Psychological Influences on Academic Learning: A Focus on Self-Esteem, Social Relationships, and Personal Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study focused on an examination of both "global" and "domain-specific self-esteems" in secondary mathematics learning. The extent to which self-esteem, in general, would account and explain educational success through "social relationships with teachers" and "peers", and "personal interest…

  18. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...

  19. Depression, stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Zeller, Richard; Srisaeng, Pakvilai; Yimmee, Suchawadee; Somchid, Sujidra; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential depression among nursing students is crucial since depression can lead to low productivity, minimized quality of life, and suicidal ideas. Identifying factors affecting depression among students can help nursing educators to find ways to decrease depression. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of depression and the associations between depression and stress, emotional support, and self-esteem among baccalaureate nursing students in Thailand. This correlational, cross-sectional study recruited 331 baccalaureate Thai nursing students. Students completed three instruments that had been translated into Thai: The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Another instrument created in Thai was used to measure emotional support. Results revealed that, when using the standard definition, 50.1% of the students were depressed. Stress was positively related to depression, whereas emotional support and self-esteem were negatively related to depression.

  20. Social skills training with early adolescents : Effects on social skills, well-being, self-esteem and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijstra, J.O.; Jackson, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study discusses the educational effects of a social skills training on adolescents' social skills, self-esteem, well-being and coping. A group of 14- to 16-year-old normal adolescents followed a social skills training based on social learning principles. A pre-tear experiment - post-test design

  1. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.

  2. Validation of two conceptualizations of fragile self-esteem: Contingent high self-esteem and incongruent high self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža Bojana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...

  3. Self-Esteem Is Relatively Stable Late in Life: The Role of Resources in the Health, Self-Regulation, and Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Hoppmann, Christiane; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has documented changes in self-esteem across adulthood and individual-difference correlates thereof. However, little is known about whether people maintain their self-esteem until the end of life and what role key risk factors in the health, cognitive, self-regulatory, and social domains play. To examine these questions,…

  4. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Wei Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals according to gender and (2 to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=−2.940 to 2.173, p0.05. In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=−3.339 to −2.704, p0.05 or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=−1.396, p>0.05. Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement.

  5. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pin-Chen; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals) according to gender and (2) to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=-2.940 to 2.173, p0.05). In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=-3.339 to -2.704, p0.05) or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=-1.396, p>0.05). Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Self-esteem, general and sexual self-concepts in blind people

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-conce...

  7. Parenting and Adolescents’ Self-Esteem: The Portuguese Context

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; Fuentes, María C.; García, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...

  8. The relative importance of body change strategies, weight perception, perceived social support, and self-esteem on adolescent depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of body change strategies and weight perception in adolescent depression after accounting for established risk factors for depression, namely low social support across key adolescent contexts. The moderating effect of self-esteem was also examined. Participants (N=4587, 49% female) were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Regression analyses were conducted on the association between well-known depression risk factors (lack of perceived support from parents, peers, and schools), body change strategies, weight perception, and adolescent depressive symptoms one year later. Each well-known risk factor significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Body change strategies related to losing weight and overweight perceptions predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond established risk factors. Self-esteem moderated the relationship between trying to lose weight and depressive symptoms. Maladaptive weight loss strategies and overweight perceptions should be addressed in early identification depression programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.

  10. Emotional experience with dyslexia and self-esteem: the protective role of perceived family support in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carawan, Lena W; Nalavany, Blace A; Jenkins, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that suggests dyslexia persists through the life span, there is a dearth of research that explores the complicating factor of dyslexia in late adulthood. Based upon stress and coping theory, this study examined whether perceived family support protects the impact of negative emotional experience with dyslexia on self-esteem. Adults aged 21 years and older with diagnosed or self-reported dyslexia were participants in a web-based survey. A total of 224 individuals completed the survey. These findings are from the 50 participants who reported to be 60 years or older. Completed measures include their perception of family support, emotional experience with dyslexia, self-esteem, and demographic variables. Preliminary analysis revealed that negative emotional experience with dyslexia negatively impacts self-esteem. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis demonstrated that positive perceived family support significantly buffers, mitigates, and protects the effects of negative emotional experiences with dyslexia on self-esteem in individuals with dyslexia in late adulthood. In this study, family support promoted self-esteem because as a protective dynamic, it helped older adults cope with the emotional distress associated with dyslexia. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  12. The influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, D.; Spears, R.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Doosje, B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are

  13. The Influence of Discrimination and Fairness on Collective Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Doosje, Bertjan

    This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are

  14. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  15. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  16. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. Methods In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. Results The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. Conclusion The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre. PMID:27247595

  17. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre.

  18. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Sex work and three dimensions of self-esteem: self-worth, authenticity and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Smith, Michaela; Jansson, Mikael; Magnus, Samantha; Flagg, Jackson; Maurice, Renay

    2018-01-01

    Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how their work affected their sense of self. Using thematic analysis based on a three-dimensional conception of self-esteem - self-worth (viewing oneself in a favourable light), authenticity (being one's true self) and self-efficacy (competency) - we shed light on the relationship between involvement in sex work and self-esteem. Findings demonstrate that the relationship between sex work and self-esteem is complex: the majority of participants discussed multiple dimensions of self-esteem and often spoke of how sex work had both positive and negative effects on their sense of self. Social background factors, work location and life events and experiences also had an effect on self-esteem. Future research should take a more complex approach to understanding these issues by considering elements beyond self-worth, such as authenticity and self-efficacy, and examining how sex workers' backgrounds and individual motivations intersect with these three dimensions.

  20. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  1. Exploring the relationships between self-presentation and self-esteem of mothers in social media in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Djafarova, Elmira; Trofimenko, Oxana

    2017-01-01

    Majority of parents use social media platforms, with young mothers being the most active users. Academic research has only recently started addressing the impact of social media on mothers, although they are one of the most engaged online audiences. Instagram and Facebook perceived as positive types of social media, where users post positive content to increase encouraging response from their subscribers and thus enhance their self-esteem. This also relates to mothers portraying positive self...

  2. Improving childrens self-esteem and perceived social related abilities: the evaluation of a school-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lemma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objective: Health education programmes delivered in school settings are often design to enhance child self–esteem or various social skills in order to improve the way that they interact in every day life. Although these are becoming increasingly frequent, little is known about the real efficacy of many of the available programs that claim to be able to positively develop these psychologica dimensions. This study, which takes a Public Health approach, examines the effect of a school-based educational programme, designed following the WHO recommendations, in order to favour children’s self-esteem and improve perceived socio-relational competences.

    Method: To test the effectiveness of this intervention, a non randomized, controlled, prospective study was set up. All 291 eligible students, aged between 8-10 years, were enrolled. To assess self-esteem and perceived supportive relationship, a well-known and descriptive scales were utilised (MSCS, SPPC, AIR.

    Results: No difference was found between the experimental and control groups with respect to the children’s self-esteem and perceived socio-relational competences following the intervention, except in the quality of their relationships with their teachers, which improved in the experimental group and declined in the control group.

    Discussion: The educational programme used in our study did not seem to be able to enhance self-esteem in the intervention group, but the methodological instruments used to monitor the change in self-esteem domonstrated a different rate of change in the more disadvantaged sub-groups of the observed population.

  3. [Social reputation and relational violence in adolescents: the role of loneliness, self-esteem and life satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ruiz, David; Estévez López, Estefanía; Murgui Pérez, Sergio; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyse the relationship among adolescents' social reputation--perceived and ideal--, relational violence at the school context and their specific psychosocial adjustment variables such as loneliness, self-esteem and life satisfaction. The sample comprised 1319 adolescents aged 11 to 16 years old. Results suggested that adolescents who wish for and seek a non-conforming social reputation (ideal) report more loneliness, have lower self-esteem and feel more dissatisfied with their lives, factors all linked to higher participation in behaviours involving relational violence. Conversely, adolescents who already have a non-conforming social reputation (perceived) report less feelings of loneliness and higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction, thus having less involvement in acts of relational violence. Associations among the variables included in the structural model were also analysed as a function of sex.

  4. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Dorsch, Kim D; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-03-01

    This study examined gender differences on body image measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys). Multi-group invariance analyses indicated that the measurement and structural models were partially invariant for boys and girls, allowing for gender comparisons. Results indicated that boys reported significantly lower drive for thinness and SPA, and higher drive for muscularity and self-esteem compared to girls. The measurement and structural models were an adequate fit for the total sample. Findings supported the proposed sequence in which self-esteem significantly influenced SPA, and SPA significantly influenced the drives for muscularity and thinness. Interventions aimed at decreasing SPA, by promoting self-esteem, may be helpful in decreasing adolescent boys' and girls' drive for muscularity and thinness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-esteem, social adjustment and suicidality in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, E G; Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Souery, D; Blairy, S; Massat, I; Mendlewicz, J; Stefanis, C N

    2002-09-01

    Self-esteem (SE) and social adjustment (SA) are often impaired during the course of affective disorders; this impairment is associated with suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate SE and SA in unipolar or bipolar patients in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, especially the presence of suicidality (ideation and/or attempt). Forty-four patients, 28 bipolar and 16 unipolar, in remission for at least 3 months, and 50 healthy individuals were examined through a structured clinical interview. SE and SA were assessed by the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the social adjustment scale, respectively. The results have shown that bipolar patients did not differ from controls in terms of SE, while unipolar patients had lower SE than bipolars and controls. No significant differences in the mean SA scores were found between the three groups. Suicidality during depression was associated only in bipolar patients with lower SE at remission; similar but not as pronounced was the association of suicidality with SA. It is concluded that low SE lasting into remission seems to be related to the expression of suicidality during depressive episodes of bipolar patients, while no similar pattern is evident in unipolar patients.

  6. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...

  7. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, psingle parent families, social support, family hardiness, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, p<.001). Nurse working with children should consider family type-specific factors influencing their self-esteem.

  8. Effectiveness of self-esteem and social skills group therapy in adolescent eating disorder patients attending a day hospital treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, L; Font, E; Moreno, E; Calvo, R; Vila, M; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Canalda, G; Martínez, E; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-esteem and social skills in adolescent eating disorder patients before and after specific group therapy as part of a Day Hospital Programme. One hundred and sixty adolescent eating disorder patients, classified as anorexia nervosa and related disorders (AN-rd) (N = 116) or bulimia nervosa and related disorders (BN-rd) (N = 44) received structured group therapy for developing self-esteem and social skills. BN-rd patients had poorer perceptions of some self-esteem and social skills variables. After group therapy, both groups presented significant improvements in their perceptions of physical appearance, their self-concept related to weight and shape and to others, happiness and satisfaction, social withdrawal and leadership. BN-rd patients presented more changes on many of the variables. Specific self-esteem and social skills group therapy in patients with eating disorders can be useful in improving certain core features. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Amy L; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting hypotheses were posed to test the effect of Facebook exposure on self-esteem. Objective Self-Awareness (OSA) from social psychology and the Hyperpersonal Model from computer-mediated communication were used to argue that Facebook would either diminish or enhance self-esteem respectively. The results revealed that, in contrast to previous work on OSA, becoming self-aware by viewing one's own Facebook profile enhances self-esteem rather than diminishes it. Participants that updated their profiles and viewed their own profiles during the experiment also reported greater self-esteem, which lends additional support to the Hyperpersonal Model. These findings suggest that selective self-presentation in digital media, which leads to intensified relationship formation, also influences impressions of the self.

  10. An Indian Perspective of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)

  11. Parenting and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…

  12. Measuring self-esteem with games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.; Hutchinson, K.; Khan, J.V.; Markopoulos, P.

    Self-esteem is a personality trait utilized to support the diagnosis of several psychological conditions. With this study we investigate the potential that computer games can have in assessing self-esteem. To that end, we designed and developed a platformer game and analyzed how in-game behavior

  13. Self-Esteem and Academic Stress among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N

    2015-01-01

    Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.

  14. When Parents' Praise Inflates, Children's Self-Esteem Deflates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2017-11-01

    Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent-child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7-11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted higher narcissism-but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Do Social Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem Moderate the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…

  16. When social networking is not working: individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Amanda L; Wood, Joanne V

    2012-03-01

    The popular media have publicized the idea that social networking Web sites (e.g., Facebook) may enrich the interpersonal lives of people who struggle to make social connections. The opportunity that such sites provide for self-disclosure-a necessary component in the development of intimacy--could be especially beneficial for people with low self-esteem, who are normally hesitant to self-disclose and who have difficulty maintaining satisfying relationships. We suspected that posting on Facebook would reduce the perceived riskiness of self-disclosure, thus encouraging people with low self-esteem to express themselves more openly. In three studies, we examined whether such individuals see Facebook as a safe and appealing medium for self-disclosure, and whether their actual Facebook posts enabled them to reap social rewards. We found that although people with low self-esteem considered Facebook an appealing venue for self-disclosure, the low positivity and high negativity of their disclosures elicited undesirable responses from other people.

  17. Promoting a Positive Middle School Transition: A Randomized-Controlled Treatment Study Examining Self-Concept and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R

    2017-03-01

    The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age  = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.

  18. Self-esteem and health-related quality of life in ostomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Emmanuelle da Cunha; Barbosa, Maria Helena; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    to assess self-esteem (SE) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ostomized patients due to colorectal cancer. cross sectional research with a quantitative approach. Three instruments were used for data collection: one instrument containing sociodemographic and clinical data, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. SE and HRQoL were considered satisfactory. Significant statistical difference was found in the social function domain and marital status, ostomy duration, location, and time; global health scale and ostomy type; cognitive function and pain in the ostomy site. There was a correlation between self-esteem and all the functional scales and the global health scale. knowing SE and HRQoL levels, in addition to the variables that influence them, supports ostomized patients' care planning, rehabilitation, and social autonomy.

  19. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: perceived - but not actual - social acceptance as an underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem is virtually non-existent. The present study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. First, the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem was investigated in two independent longitudinal studies: a five-wave study sampling Dutch adolescents (M age = 15.22 years at T1; 47 % female; N = 428) and a three-wave study sampling Belgian adolescents (M age = 14.95 years at T1; 63 % female; N = 882). Second, the underlying role of social acceptance was investigated in the latter sample by applying a multi-method approach that included actual (i.e., peer-reported) and perceived (i.e., self-reported) social acceptance. Results indicated that self-esteem and loneliness influenced one another in a reciprocal manner. Furthermore, the dominant path from self-esteem to loneliness was partially mediated by perceived--but not actual--social acceptance. The importance of distinguishing actual from perceived social acceptance is discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  1. Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A

    2015-03-09

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  3. Hubungan antara, Self Esteem dengan Self Disclosure pada Saat Chatting di Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Novi Nitya Santi

    2017-01-01

    Facebook is an internet based social media that were populer at the moment. The use of sosial media is very populer no exception student. Students communicatem confide and seek information through facebook. Of the activities, appears a phenomenon experienced by students of the symptoms of self esteem and self disclosure. This research aims to determine the relationship between self esteem and self disclosure. The relationship between the level of self esteem with self disclosure while chattin...

  4. Terror management theory and self-esteem revisited: the roles of implicit and explicit self-esteem in mortality salience effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-05-01

    Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Perceived organizational support and intention to remain: The mediating roles of career success and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingying; Liu, Yan-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, career success, self-esteem and intention to remain. A cross-sectional study was designed, and subjects were recruited from six nonprofit organizations in China in spring 2015. A convenience sample of 610 nurses answered a survey with questions related to their ideas about their work. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. The results revealed that perceived organizational support was positively associated with intention to remain and career success, which, in turn, mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and intention to remain. We also found that self-esteem mediated the relationships between perceived organizational support and career success and between career success and intention to remain. Higher perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem can increase intention to remain in Chinese nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Implicit self-esteem decreases in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L L; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r =  -.25, p = 1. 10(-10). A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.

  7. Narcissistic self-esteem or optimal self-esteem? A Latent Profile Analysis of self-esteem and psychological entitlement

    OpenAIRE

    Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...

  8. Ecological correlates of depression and self-esteem in rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-10-01

    The current study examines individual-, social-, and school-level characteristics influencing symptoms of depression and self-esteem among a large sample (N = 4,321) of U.S. youth living in two rural counties in the South. Survey data for this sample of middle-school students (Grade 6 to Grade 8) were part of the Rural Adaptation Project. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that being female, having a low income, and having negative relationships with parents and peers are risk factors that increase the probability of reporting high levels of depressive symptoms and low levels of self-esteem. In contrast, supportive relationships with parents and peers, high religious orientation, ethnic identity, and school satisfaction increased the probability of reporting low levels of depressive symptoms and high levels of self-esteem. There were few school-level characteristics associated with levels of depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Implications are discussed.

  9. [Self-esteem and giftedness: a Rorschach Comprehensive System study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2014-02-01

    According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These

  10. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  11. Self-Esteem is Relatively Stable Late in Life: The Role of Resources in the Health, Self-Regulation, and Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Hoppmann, Christiane; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has documented changes in self-esteem across adulthood and individual-difference correlates thereof. However, little is known about whether people maintain their self-esteem until the end of life and what role key risk factors in the health, cognitive, self-regulatory, and social domains play. To examine these questions, we apply growth modeling to 13-year longitudinal data obtained from by now deceased participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE, N = 462; age 70 – 103, M = 86.3 yrs., SD = 8.3; 51% male). Results revealed that self-esteem, on average, does decline in very old age and close to death, but the amount of typical decline is minor. Health-related constraints and disabilities as well as lower control beliefs and higher loneliness were each associated with lower self-esteem late in life. We obtained initial evidence that some of these associations were stronger among the oldest-old participants. Our results corroborate and extend initial reports that self-esteem is, on average, fairly stable into the last years of life. We discuss possible pathways by which common and often severe late-life challenges may undermine an otherwise relatively robust self-esteem system. PMID:25546600

  12. Self-esteem and health-related quality of life in ostomized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle da Cunha Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess self-esteem (SE and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in ostomized patients due to colorectal cancer. Method: cross sectional research with a quantitative approach. Three instruments were used for data collection: one instrument containing sociodemographic and clinical data, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: SE and HRQoL were considered satisfactory. Significant statistical difference was found in the social function domain and marital status, ostomy duration, location, and time; global health scale and ostomy type; cognitive function and pain in the ostomy site. There was a correlation between self-esteem and all the functional scales and the global health scale. Conclusion: knowing SE and HRQoL levels, in addition to the variables that influence them, supports ostomized patients' care planning, rehabilitation, and social autonomy.

  13. Implicit self-esteem decreases in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai

    Full Text Available Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16. The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77. For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all ps<0.001. The simple correlation between implicit self-esteem and age was significant, r =  -.25, p = 1. 10(-10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.

  14. Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2009-08-01

    This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.

  15. Relation of physical activity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.

  16. Suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents: different factors contribute to self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrøm, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-10-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's Self-Perceived Profile for Adolescents, self-concept stability, seeking support, loneliness, and depression. Self-concept stability, loneliness, and peer support correlated differently with self-esteem. In multivariate regression analyses, variance in self-esteem was explained by depression and loneliness, and among nonsuicidal adolescents also by self-concept stability, support, and competencies. Loneliness and self-concept stability related differently to self-esteem in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. When the aim is to enhance self-esteem, this difference may delineate suicidal subgroups that need special interventions.

  17. The Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships between Adolescents’ Use of Social Network Sites and their Social Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Koutamanis, M.; Vossen, H.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents' use of social network sites (SNSs) and their social self-esteem. The second aim was to investigate whether the valence of the feedback that adolescents receive on SNSs can explain these

  18. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-In Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05 and obese adolescents (p < 0.001 had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  19. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Warner-Czyz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years. Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002 and attention (r = .45, p = .001 temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001. No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.

  20. Self-esteem across the second half of life: The role of socioeconomic status, physical health, social relationships, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wagner, Jenny; Hansen, Thomas; Gerstorf, Denis

    2018-06-01

    Self-esteem development across adulthood has been in the center of interest for some time now. However, not much is known about factors that shape self-esteem and its development in the second half of life and whether the factors differ with age and gender. To examine these questions, this study uses 2-wave data from the population-based NorLAG study in Norway (N = 5,555; M age = 58 years; 51% women) and combines self-report data on self-esteem and personality with registry-based information on socioeconomic status (education, income, unemployment), health problems (sick leave, lifetime history of disability), and social relationships (cohabiting partner, lifetime history of divorce and widowhood). Results from latent change score models revealed that self-esteem peaked at around age 50 and declined thereafter. More importantly, lower socioeconomic status, not having a cohabiting partner, unemployment, and disability were each uniquely associated with lower levels of self-esteem and/or steeper declines in self-esteem over the 5-year study period. Over and above registry-based information, personality characteristics were relevant, with a more mature personality being associated with higher self-esteem level. Emotionally stable participants also showed less pronounced declines in self-esteem. Moreover, associations of disability and of emotional stability with self-esteem level were weaker with advancing age. Among women, self-esteem level was more strongly associated with emotional stability and less strongly with openness, compared to men. Our findings demonstrate the utility of registry-based information and suggest that physical health, social relationships, and personality factors are in manifold ways uniquely associated with self-esteem and its development later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  2. Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r = −.25, p = 1.0×10−10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = −0.19, t = −3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse “U” shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition. PMID:24587169

  3. Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Pathways between self-esteem and depression in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.

  6. Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Authenticity and Relationship Satisfaction: Two Distinct Ways of Directing Power to Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Nan

    2015-01-01

    Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants’ communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem. PMID:26720814

  8. Authenticity and Relationship Satisfaction: Two Distinct Ways of Directing Power to Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Nan

    2015-01-01

    Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants' communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem.

  9. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  10. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101

  11. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eCreemers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  12. Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Hu, Liang; Marquez, David X

    2005-09-01

    We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.

  13. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence : differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P. J.; Sportel, B. E.; de Hullu, E.; Nauta, M. H.

    Background. Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit

  14. Self-Esteem and the Acute Effect of Anxiety on Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.

  15. Self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.

  16. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method is descriptive-correlational. By random sampling and offline method, we have selected a sample consisting of 120 persons from Dubai coffee net users with different native languages, 74males and 46 females, aged at least 18 years old and proficient in the English language. Research tools were young internet addiction test (IAT with reliability α=0.88, Beck depression inventory with reliability α=0.84, Sinha social adjustment with reliability α=0.92 and Eysenck self esteem inventory with reliability α= 0.87. The data was analyzed with path analysis method.Results: The results from analysis showed that the data has goodness of fit with the presented model (χ2=3.17; df=3; P=0.36; GFI= 0.99; AGFI= 0.96; CFI= 1.00; NFI= 0.97; RMSEA=0.02. Scales means in internet addiction was 47.69±17.75; depression 21.29 ± 11.12; social adjustment 19.75±7.91 and self esteem was 15.16±4.16. Path coefficient showed that depression (β= 0.57; t=7.61, social adjustment (β= -0.55; t=13.1 and self esteem (β= -0.32; t=14.8 have significantly predicted internet addiction Conclusion: Internet is an important means in the today’s world, but we have to be fully aware of its dangers .In order to avoid the risks of internet use, vast national and international culture-building activities should be done. The results of our research proved the above-mentioned hypothesis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:41-48

  17. Self-Esteem, Social Phobia and Depression Status in Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer

    2013-12-01

    The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.

  18. Aesthetic self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2015-01-01

    The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.

  19. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-04-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Authors have long noted the human penchant for self-esteem. Experimental research has revealed that this desire for self-esteem has wide-ranging effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Terror management theory explains that this desire for self-esteem results from a fundamental need for psychological security, which is engendered by humans' awareness of their own vulnerability and mortality. A large body of evidence has supported this explanation. Specifically, substantial lines of research have shown that self-esteem buffers anxiety and reduces defenses against death and that reminders of mortality increase efforts to defend and bolster self-esteem. Complementary findings have helped clarify the role of culture in self-esteem striving and the ways in which people can vary in their level, stability, and sources of self-esteem. I conclude by briefly considering how this contemporary knowledge regarding the quest for self-esteem informs current events and daily life. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  1. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Lazarević, Dušanka; Orlić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES), Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are modera...

  2. Self-esteem and social desirability in relation to college students' retrospective perceptions of parental fairness and disciplinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C E

    1991-08-01

    This study examined the relationships that fathers' and mothers' interactive of disciplinary behaviors have with college students' Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory scores, Social Desirability scale scores, and their retrospective perceptions of their parents' fairness (50 sons, 84 daughters). Sons with higher scores in self-esteem reported that their mothers were fairer, had more interest in their activities, and were less likely to use verbal put-downs (abuse). Daughters with high self-esteem reported both of their parents were more interested in their activities, used praise more often, and refrained from verbal abuse. Also, these daughters reported that their mothers were more fair and encouraged their independence more. Daughters who reported their fathers as being more strict had lower self-esteem scores. There was no evidence that spanking, grounding, scolding, or monetary rewards had any effect on children's self-esteem scores, whether these methods were used by mothers or by fathers. Both sons and daughters who perceived their parents as being more fair also saw them as being more interested, having used praise more often, and having been less likely to have used verbal abuse. Daughters were less likely to view either fathers or mothers as being more fair if they had used spanking, grounding, or scolding more, and had been over-all stricter. Sons who had less strict fathers or who had received monetary rewards from them tended to regard them as being more fair. Higher social desirability scores correlated with higher self-esteem of women. Also, women with these higher social desirability scores tended to report that both their fathers and mothers used scolding and grounding less often.

  3. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.

  4. Family income and young adolescents’ perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Design and objectives Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents’ perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). Results The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Conclusions Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. PMID:26957529

  5. Self and health: factors that encourage self-esteem and functional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzes, Donald C; Mutran, Elizabeth J

    2006-01-01

    We are interested in whether functional health enhances self-esteem, as well as whether self-esteem, worker, parent, and friend identities are related to changes in functional health over a 2-year period of study. Data were collected in 1992 and 1994 from 737 older workers living in a North Carolina metropolitan area. Functional health is derived from questions asking respondents about their difficulties performing seven activities. We use Rosenberg's (1965) 10-item scale to tap self-esteem, and identities are measured with 10 adjective pairs that cover being competent, confident, and sociable as a worker, parent, and friend. Several findings are of interest. Better functional health is associated with greater self-esteem over 2 years, and self-esteem is positively related to changes in functional health. In addition, worker identity and some social background factors are associated with positive changes in self-esteem. The findings suggest that good health may contribute to positive self assessments, but also the less well-studied expectation that self processes are associated with positive changes in health. Individuals may be motivated by their desire to affirm a sense of self-worth and positive identities to maintain and improve their physical health.

  6. Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

  7. Are adolescents with high self-esteem protected from psychosomatic symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F; Varga, Szabolcs; Mellor, David

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the role of self-esteem, social (need to belong, loneliness, competitiveness, and shyness), and health (smoking, drinking) behaviors in Hungarian adolescents' psychosomatic symptoms. Our sample of 490 students (ages 14-19 years) from Debrecen (Hungary) completed the questionnaires. Besides descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses were applied to test interrelationships. Frequency analysis revealed that fatigue was the most commonly experienced psychosomatic symptom in this sample, followed by sleeping problems and (lower) back pain. Girls reported experiencing more symptoms. Multiple regression analyses suggested that (1) need to belong, shyness, and competitiveness may serve as social behavioral risk factors for adolescents' psychosomatic symptomatology, whereas (2) self-esteem may play a protective role. The role of social and health behaviors was modified when analyzed by gender: the psychosomatic index score was positively related to smoking and shyness among girls, and need to belong among boys. Self-esteem provided protection for both sexes. We conclude that problems with social relationships (namely, unmet need to belong, competitiveness, and shyness) may lead to psychosomatic health complaints, whereas self-esteem may serve as a protection. Findings suggest that social skills training and strengthening self-esteem should be an important part of children's health promotion programs in schools to improve their psychosomatic health and well-being. • Despite being free of serious physical illness, many adolescents often report subjective health complaints, such as psychosomatic symptoms • As children in this life stage develop independence and autonomy, new types of social relationships, and identity, their social needs and skills also change What is new: • Need to belong, shyness, and competitiveness may serve as social behavioral risk factors for adolescents' psychosomatic symptomatology, whereas self-esteem

  8. Generalizing about Sex Role and Self-Esteem: Results or Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the relationship between sex role and self-esteem, different results were obtained with two different self-esteem measures (the Texas Social Behavior Inventory and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory). The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting research results beyond the limits of procedures used. (Author/MJL)

  9. Self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy: Psychosocial and seizure-related correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy and its association with psychosocial and disease-related variables. This was a cross-sectional study with patients enrolled between January and June 2010. Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory for Children (CFSEI-2) was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10-18years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly lower overall self-esteem score when compared with those with asthma, 17±5.21 versus 19.4±3.83, respectively (P=0.005). Thirty-one (22.1%) children with epilepsy compared with 4 (8.3%) with asthma had overall self-esteem score below the cutoff (P=0.034). There was a significant correlation between overall self-esteem score and duration of epilepsy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety score, HADS depression score, and Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating combined score. The impact of various correlates on individual domains was not identical. Independent factors associated with low overall self-esteem were HADS depression score (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2; P=0.002), duration of epilepsy (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.88; P=0.024), and father employment status economically inactive (OR: 11.9; 95% CI: 1.07, 125; P=0.044). Seizure-free ≥12months was a favorable factor that was less likely to be associated with low self-esteem (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.81; P=0.028). Self-esteem was compromised in adolescents with epilepsy. A significant correlation between self-esteem and psychological comorbidities was demonstrated. Enhancing social support and education programs may improve the self-esteem and, ultimately, the lives of adolescents living with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in implicit self-esteem following a romantic partner's success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Kate A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2013-10-01

    This research examined the influence of a romantic partner's success or failure on one's own implicit and explicit self-esteem. In Experiment 1, men had lower implicit self-esteem when their partner did well at a "social intelligence" task than when their partner did poorly. Women's implicit self-esteem was unaffected by partner performance. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that Dutch men's implicit self-esteem was negatively affected by their romantic partner's success. In Experiment 4, we replicated Experiments 1-3 in both the academic and social domains, and in Experiment 5, we demonstrated that men's implicit self-esteem is negatively influenced by thinking about a romantic partner's success both when the success is relative and when it is not. In sum, men's implicit self-esteem is lower when a partner succeeds than when a partner fails, whereas women's implicit self-esteem is not. These gender differences have important implications for understanding social comparison in romantic relationships.

  11. Relationships among Humour, Self-Esteem, and Social Support to Burnout in School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the total, direct, and indirect effects of humour on burnout among 539 school teachers. As predicted, those with high humour reported significantly lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation but higher levels of personal accomplishment. Self-esteem consistently explained parts of the associations between humour…

  12. Story on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Kids / Self-Esteem Print en español Sobre la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...

  13. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

    2009-02-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.

  14. Comparison between Couple Attachment Styles, Stress Coping Styles and Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Akbas, Turan; Uslu, Sevcan Karabulut

    2017-01-01

    Data were acquired from a total of 422 university students with 216 female and 206 male students via Couple Attachment Scale, Stress Coping Styles Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Positive and statistically significant relationships were determined between self-confident approach, optimistic approach and social support approach…

  15. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mediating Effects of Positive Thinking and Social Support on Suicide Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matel-Anderson, Denise M; Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2018-02-01

    Suicide has been the second leading cause of death for 18- to 24-year-olds in the United States since 2011. The stress experienced by undergraduate college students has the potential to increase one's risk for suicide. Resilience theory was used as a theoretical framework to examine the interplay between risk and protective factors. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used to assess the mediating effects of positive thinking and/or social support on suicide resilience in 131 college students 18 to 24 years old who completed an online survey. The study found an indirect effect of self-esteem on suicide resilience through positive thinking and social support indicating that as self-esteem increases, positive thinking and social support also increase, which leads to an increase in resilience. The study also found a direct effect of self-esteem, positive thinking, and social support on suicide resilience. The findings inform the development of tailored interventions to build suicide resilience in college students.

  17. Social Connectedness, Self-Esteem, and Depression Symptomatology among Collegiate Athletes versus Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shelley; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared collegiate athletes and nonathletes to see whether there were significant differences in the perceived levels of social connectedness, self-esteem, and depression and if an interaction among the variables of athlete status, gender, GPA, BMI, and levels of weekly exercise and sleep were associated with depression…

  18. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self esteem, and, for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs. PMID:20423545

  19. Delineating the maladaptive pathways of child maltreatment: a mediated moderation analysis of the roles of self-perception and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K

    2010-05-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self-perception (i.e., loneliness and self-esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0-6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6-8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self-esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self-esteem, and for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self-esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs.

  20. Myopia, contact lens use and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lynette; Manny, Ruth E; Weissberg, Erik; Fern, Karen D

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate whether contact lens (CL) use was associated with self-esteem in myopic children originally enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), that after 5 years continued as an observational study of myopia progression with CL use permitted. Usable data at the 6-year visit, one year after CL use was allowed (n = 423/469, age 12-17 years), included questions on CL use, refractive error measurements and self-reported self-esteem in several areas (scholastic/athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioural conduct and global self-worth). Self-esteem, scored from 1 (low) to 4 (high), was measured by the Self-Perception Profile for Children in participants under 14 years or the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, in those 14 years and older. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between self-esteem and relevant factors identified by univariate analyses (e.g., CL use, gender, ethnicity), while adjusting for baseline self-esteem prior to CL use. Mean (±S.D.) self-esteem scores at the 6-year visit (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.3 years; mean refractive error = -4.6 ± 1.5 D) ranged from 2.74 (± 0.76) on athletic competence to 3.33 (± 0.53) on global self-worth. CL wearers (n = 224) compared to eyeglass wearers (n = 199) were more likely to be female (p self-esteem or CL use. COMET participants who chose to wear CLs after 5 years of eyeglass use had higher self-esteem compared to those who remained in glasses both preceding and following CL use. This suggests that self-esteem may influence the decision to wear CLs and that CLs in turn are associated with higher self-esteem in individuals most likely to wear them. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Neural and computational processes underlying dynamic changes in self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is shaped by the appraisals we receive from others. Here, we characterize neural and computational mechanisms underlying this form of social influence. We introduce a computational model that captures fluctuations in self-esteem engendered by prediction errors that quantify the difference between expected and received social feedback. Using functional MRI, we show these social prediction errors correlate with activity in ventral striatum/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, while updates in self-esteem resulting from these errors co-varied with activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We linked computational parameters to psychiatric symptoms using canonical correlation analysis to identify an ‘interpersonal vulnerability’ dimension. Vulnerability modulated the expression of prediction error responses in anterior insula and insula-vmPFC connectivity during self-esteem updates. Our findings indicate that updating of self-evaluative beliefs relies on learning mechanisms akin to those used in learning about others. Enhanced insula-vmPFC connectivity during updating of those beliefs may represent a marker for psychiatric vulnerability. PMID:29061228

  2. Neural and computational processes underlying dynamic changes in self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Rutledge, Robb B; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-10-24

    Self-esteem is shaped by the appraisals we receive from others. Here, we characterize neural and computational mechanisms underlying this form of social influence. We introduce a computational model that captures fluctuations in self-esteem engendered by prediction errors that quantify the difference between expected and received social feedback. Using functional MRI, we show these social prediction errors correlate with activity in ventral striatum/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, while updates in self-esteem resulting from these errors co-varied with activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We linked computational parameters to psychiatric symptoms using canonical correlation analysis to identify an 'interpersonal vulnerability' dimension. Vulnerability modulated the expression of prediction error responses in anterior insula and insula-vmPFC connectivity during self-esteem updates. Our findings indicate that updating of self-evaluative beliefs relies on learning mechanisms akin to those used in learning about others. Enhanced insula-vmPFC connectivity during updating of those beliefs may represent a marker for psychiatric vulnerability.

  3. Explaining the “how” of self-esteem development : The self-organizing self-esteem model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Naomi M.P.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The current article proposes a theoretical model of self-esteem called the Self-Organizing Self-Esteem (SOSE) model. The model provides an integrative framework for conceptualizing and understanding the intrinsic dynamics of self-esteem and the role of the context across 3 levels of development: The

  4. When does self-esteem relate to deviant behavior? The role of contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Brown, Douglas J; Lian, Huiwen; Keeping, Lisa M

    2009-09-01

    Researchers have assumed that low self-esteem predicts deviance, but empirical results have been mixed. This article draws upon recent theoretical developments regarding contingencies of self-worth to clarify the self-esteem/deviance relation. It was predicted that self-esteem level would relate to deviance only when self-esteem was not contingent on workplace performance. In this manner, contingent self-esteem is a boundary condition for self-consistency/behavioral plasticity theory predictions. Using multisource data collected from 123 employees over 6 months, the authors examined the interaction between level (high/low) and type (contingent/noncontingent) of self-esteem in predicting workplace deviance. Results support the hypothesized moderating effects of contingent self-esteem; implications for self-esteem theories are discussed.

  5. The effect of social exclusion on state paranoia and explicit and implicit self-esteem in a non-clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, C.; Rogers, F.; Pilch, M.; Stewart, I.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; Westermann, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives:\\ud The relationship between self-esteem and paranoia may be influenced by social stress. This study aimed to replicate previous research on the impact ofsocial exclusion on paranoia and self-esteem in a non-clinical sample and to extend this work by examining the effect of exclusion on self-esteem at the ‘implicit’ level.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud Non-clinical participants (N = 85) were randomly allocated to the Inclusion or Exclusion condition of a virtual ball-toss game ...

  6. Original article Validation of the Polish version of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róża Bazińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this article is to present research on the validity and reliability of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES for the Polish population. The CSES is a measure of individual differences in collective self-esteem, understood as the global evaluation of one’s own social (collective identity. Participants and procedure Participants from two samples (n = 466 and n = 1,009 completed a paper-pencil set of questionnaires which contained the CSES and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and subsets of participants completed scales related to a sense of belonging, well-being and psychological distress (anxiety and depression. Results Like the original version, the Polish version of the CSES comprises 16 items which form the four dimensions of collective self-esteem: Public collective self-esteem, Private collective self-esteem, Membership esteem and Importance of Identity. The results confirm the four-factor structure of the Polish version of the CSES, support the whole Polish version of the CSES as well as its subscales, which represent satisfactory reliability and stability, and provide initial evidence of construct validity. Conclusions As the results of the study indicate, the Polish version of the CSES is a valid and reliable self-report measure for assessing the global self-esteem derived from membership of a group and has proved to be useful in the Polish context.

  7. Self-esteem and the acute effect of anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, pself-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481

  8. FEATURES OF INTERCONNECTION OF SELF-ESTEEM AND ANXIETY IN THE YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Калюжна, Євгенія; Шевергіна, Марія

    2015-01-01

     The article is devoted the phenomenology of anxiety and self-esteem of personality and the nature their interconnection in the younger school age. Is emphasized that self-esteem and anxiety are complex personal formations, which belong to basic personality traits. The importance of self-esteem as a component of core of personality and the important regulator of social activity. Substantiated the thesis that self-esteem is the result of comparing the person’s qualities with social relevant st...

  9. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.

  10. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L; Asghar, K; Seff, I; Cislaghi, B; Yu, G; Tesfay Gessesse, T; Eoomkham, J; Assazenew Baysa, A; Falb, K

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem. Key independent variables of interest included a scale measuring personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms, a measure of perceived injunctive norms capturing how a girl believed her family and community would react if she was raped, and a peer-group measure of collective descriptive norms surrounding gender inequity. The key outcome variable, self-esteem, was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Girl's personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms were not significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline, when adjusting for other covariates. Collective peer norms surrounding the same gender inequitable statements were significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.130; p   =  0.024). Additionally, perceived injunctive norms surrounding family and community-based sanctions for victims of forced sex were associated with a decline in self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.103; p   =  0.014). Significant findings for collective descriptive norms and injunctive norms remained when controlling for all three constructs simultaneously. Findings suggest shifting collective norms around gender inequity, particularly at the community and peer levels, may sustainably support the safety and well-being of adolescent girls in refugee settings.

  11. [Self-esteem of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachno, Magdalena; Kołakowski, Artur; Wójtowicz, Stanisław; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita; Pisula, Agnieszka; Złotkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    To compare the self concept of boys with ADHD and health subjects; to determine which symptoms ofADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) have the greatest impact on self-concept. Polish version of The Harter Self-Esteem Questionnaire (HSEQ) was filled by boys with ADHD and control group. In addition, a diagnosis of ODD and CD was made in ADHD group. A significant difference was observed between boys with ADHD and control group on the following scales of HSEQ: Global Self-Esteem Subscale, Social Acceptance Subscale and Scholastic Performance Subscale. No significant influence of the quantity and intensity of ADHD and ODD symptoms on self-esteem was found. A significant correlation was indicated between all scales of HSEQ and quantity and intensity of symptoms ofADHD. Boys with ADHD have lower self-esteem than their healthy peers and their global self-esteem, social acceptance and school skills are most affected. The presence of conduct disorder (CD) had the greatest impact on the decrease of self esteem in ADHD group.

  12. Self-esteem of physical education students: sex differences and relationships with intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guszkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem of physical education and sport students, its diversification according to sex, as well as relationships between self-esteem and the following variables: fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and academic performance. Participants and procedure A total of 385 first-year undergraduates aged 18-26 years studying physical education and sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw participated in the study. The following research tools were used: the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Social Competence Questionnaire. The average of marks obtained for all courses taken during the first year was adopted as an indicator of academic performance. Results The obtained results attest to the high self-esteem of the first-year students. Male students gave higher ratings for their body appearance and body functioning, personal power and likeability, self-control, and competence. They also indicated a higher level of global self-esteem and identity integration. The highest number of significant positive correlations connected self-esteem and emotional intelligence; slightly fewer correlations existed between self-esteem and social competence. The lowest number of significant relationships was established for fluid intelligence. Only one positive predictor of average evaluations was established in male students (self-control and female students (competence. Conclusions The profile of self-esteem of physical education students demonstrates their high self-esteem, especially in areas related to their field of study. Some variations in the components of self-esteem of male and female students reflect the differences between sexes typical for the Polish adult population.

  13. Networking: Addressing Urban Students' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…

  14. MEASURING SELF-ESTEEM OF DEAF/HARD OF HEARING COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin ZHENG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Deaf/hard of hearing college students' implicit and explicit self-esteem, with thirty-six 18 to 21 year old (Age ± SD, 19.4±0.9 subjects. Following are the results of this study: Just as hearing students, Deaf/hard of hearing students also have significant implicit self-esteem effect; none of the observed correlations with explicit esteem is significant for either attributive IAT or the affective IAT; Implicit self-esteem of males is higher than that of females; No significant correlation exists between implicit self-esteem and the level of depression. Social comparisons and negative evaluations and attitudes of others always tend to damage explicit self-esteem of Deaf/hard of hearing students. However, positive self-attitude characterizations still exist in their self-schema.

  15. Dimensions of functional social support and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, I S

    1991-11-01

    In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.

  16. Sources of Self-Esteem in Work: What's Important for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 250 workers in five manufacturing firms examined sources of self-esteem in work. Responses suggest that, in the workplace, self-perceived competence is the most important source of self-esteem, followed by reflected appraisals and social comparisons. (JOW)

  17. Self-esteem and health-risk behaviours: Is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Mullan, Elaine; NicGabhainn, Saoirse

    2002-01-01

    Rosenburg Self-esteem Scale scores from 7706 Irish young people, aged 10 to 17 years, were analysed in order to determine if self-esteem is related to incidence of smoking, drinking and drunkenness and drug use (among 15 to 17 year olds only). In addition, age, sex and social class differences in self-esteem scores are examined. There were no significant differences in self-esteem scores between those who had and had not tried smoking, those who drank regularly and those who did not, or those...

  18. The neural sociometer: brain mechanisms underlying state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Naomi I; Inagaki, Tristen K; Muscatell, Keely A; Byrne Haltom, Kate E; Leary, Mark R

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of the importance of social connection for survival, humans may have evolved a "sociometer"-a mechanism that translates perceptions of rejection or acceptance into state self-esteem. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of the sociometer by examining whether neural regions responsive to rejection or acceptance were associated with state self-esteem. Participants underwent fMRI while viewing feedback words ("interesting," "boring") ostensibly chosen by another individual (confederate) to describe the participant's previously recorded interview. Participants rated their state self-esteem in response to each feedback word. Results demonstrated that greater activity in rejection-related neural regions (dorsal ACC, anterior insula) and mentalizing regions was associated with lower-state self-esteem. Additionally, participants whose self-esteem decreased from prescan to postscan versus those whose self-esteem did not showed greater medial prefrontal cortical activity, previously associated with self-referential processing, in response to negative feedback. Together, the results inform our understanding of the origin and nature of our feelings about ourselves.

  19. The Impact of Social Connectedness and Internalized Transphobic Stigma on Self-Esteem Among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ashley; Goodman, Revital

    2017-01-01

    The transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) community continues to represent a notably marginalized population exposed to pervasive discrimination, microaggressions, and victimization. Congruent with the minority stress model, TGNC individuals persistently experience barriers to wellbeing in contemporary society; however, research uncovering resilience-based pathways to health among this population is sparse. This study aimed to explore the impact and interaction between internalized transphobic stigma and a potential buffer against minority stress-social connectedness-on the self-esteem of TGNC identified adults. Data were collected from 65 TGNC identified adults during a national transgender conference. Multiple regression analysis reveals that self-esteem is negatively impacted by internalized transphobia and positively impacted by social connectedness. Social connectedness did not significantly moderate the relationship between internalized transphobia and self-esteem. Micro and macro interventions aimed at increasing social connectedness and decreasing internalized transphobic stigma may be paramount for enhancing resiliency and wellbeing in the TGNC community.

  20. An implicit theory of self-esteem: the consequences of perceived self-esteem for romantic desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Myers, Erin M

    2011-04-07

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  1. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  2. Self-esteem among nursing assistants: reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.

  3. Impact of activities in self-esteem of patients in a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Nascimento de; Tavares, Cecilia Melo Rosa; Squassoni, Selma Denis; Machado, Nadine Cristina; Cordoni, Priscila Kessar; Bortolassi, Luciene Costa; Lapa, Mônica Silveira; Fiss, Elie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate self-esteem and self-image of respiratory diseases patients in a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, who participated in socialization and physical fitness activities, and of patients who participated only in physical fitness sessions. A descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Out of a total of 60 patients analyzed, all enrolled in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, 42 participated in at least one of the proposed activities, 10 did not participate in any activity and 8 were excluded (7 were discharged and 1 died). When the two groups were compared, despite the fact that both demonstrated low self-esteem and self-image, the difference between them was relevant (pself-esteem, indicating that those who participated in the proposed socialization activities had better self-esteem than the individuals who only did the physical fitness sessions. Regarding self-image, the difference between the groups was not relevant (p>0.05). The Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program patients evaluated presented low self-esteem and self-image; however, those carrying out some socialization activity proposed had better self-esteem as compared to the individuals who did only the physical fitness sessions.

  4. A Multifaceted Program To Improve Self-Esteem and Social Skills while Reducing Anxiety in Emotionally Handicapped Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Lynn

    A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…

  5. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang; Wang, Yige; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The self-face processing advantage (SPA) refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another's face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another's face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral) and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy), self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy) can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  6. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-face processing advantage (SPA refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another’s face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another’s face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy, self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  7. Parental and Peer Support as Predictors of Depression and Self-Esteem among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…

  8. Longitudinal Relation Between General Well-Being and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem of male adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the transition out of secure residential care was studied. Adolescents ( N = 172) were assessed three times with 6 months between each assessment. The sample comprised adolescents who were admitted throughout the entire study ( n = 116) and who had been discharged at 6/12 months follow-up ( n = 56). General well-being and self-esteem were stable concepts over time. The relation between general well-being and self-esteem differed for both groups. Among the admitted group general well-being positively predicted self-esteem and self-esteem negatively predicted general well-being from Time 2 to Time 3. Among the discharged adolescents, self-esteem at Time 1 positively predicted general well-being at Time 2 and general well-being at Time 2 positively predicted self-esteem at Time 3. Changing social contexts, as well as problems experienced during the transition out of secure care, might affect this relationship.

  9. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna; Hope, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents' perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  10. Social Support and Mental Health in LGBTQ Adolescents: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kari

    2018-01-01

    LGBTQ adolescents experience higher rates of mental health disorders than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to examine studies evaluating social support and its effects on mental health in the LGBTQ adolescent population. Higher levels of social support were associated with positive self-esteem. Lack of social support (or low social support) was associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, alcohol or drug misuse, risky sexual behaviors, shame, and low self-esteem. Interdisciplinary research teams from multiple and diverse professions could provide valuable insight supporting the development of inclusive and comprehensive interventions programs for this population.

  11. Acceptance is in the eye of the beholder: self-esteem and motivated perceptions of acceptance from the opposite sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jessica J; Stinson, Danu Anthony; Gaetz, Roslyn; Balchen, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    Social risk elicits self-esteem differences in signature social motivations and behaviors during the relationship-initiation process. In particular, the present research tested the hypothesis that lower self-esteem individuals' (LSEs) motivation to avoid rejection leads them to self-protectively underestimate acceptance from potential romantic partners, whereas higher self-esteem individuals' (HSEs) motivation to promote new relationships leads them to overestimate acceptance. The results of 5 experiments supported these predictions. Social risk increased activation of avoidance goals for LSEs on a word-recall task but increased activation of approach goals for HSEs, as evidenced by their increased use of likeable behaviors. Consistent with these patterns of goal activation, even though actual acceptance cues were held constant across all participants, social risk decreased the amount of acceptance that LSEs perceived from their interaction partner but increased the amount of acceptance that HSEs perceived from their interaction partner. It is important to note that such self-esteem differences in avoidance goals, approach behaviors, and perceptions of acceptance were completely eliminated when social risk was removed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. KECERDASAN EMOSIONAL, KEMATANGAN SOSIAL, SELF-ESTEEM, DAN PRESTASI AKADEMIK MAHASISWA LULUSAN PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melly Latifah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference of emotional intelligence, social maturity, self-esteem, and academic achievement on Islamic dan nonIslamic boarding graduate students; the correlation between research variables; and influence of graduate students and family’s characteristics, emotional intelligence, social maturity, and self-esteem toward academic achievement. This research involved 100 college students that were selected systematic randomly. Data were collected by interview and self report with questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive, different test, correlation test, and regression test. The results showed that there were no significant differences between emotional intelligence, social maturity, self-esteem, and academic achievement between Islamic boarding and nonIslamic boarding graduate students. Emotional intelligence and social maturity had significant and positive correlation with self-esteem. Academic achievement of Islamic boarding graduate students was influenced by emotional intelligence and social maturity. While in the nonIslamic boarding graduate students, academic achievement was influenced by student activities.

  13. Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association ...

  14. Interpersonal Problems and Their Relationship to Depression, Self-Esteem, and Malignant Self-Regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Lengu, Ketrin; Evich, Carly

    2016-12-01

    DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice. MSR, anaclitic, and introjective depression predicted unique variance in six of the eight domains of interpersonal problems assessed. In Study 2, 68 undergraduates were provided positive or negative feedback. Consistent with theory, MSR predicted unique variance in state anxiety but not state anger. Results support the validity of the MSR construct.

  15. Gender Differences in the Meaning of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrick, Patricia

    It has been found that the sexes differ as to social/affective versus instrumental/competence orientation, with females oriented more towards the social domain and males oriented more towards the instrumental domain. Because it has been suggested that the sexes also differ as to the source of self-esteem, with males deriving esteem from task…

  16. The relationship between psychological comfort space and self-esteem in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the general health questionnaire-12 and Rosenberg self-esteem scale in Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkova, M.; Nagyova, I.; Katreniakova, Z.; Geckova, A.M.; Orosova, O.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) were evaluated in samples of Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents. The principal component analyses support the two-factor solution for GHQ-12 with subscales "depression/anxiety" and "social dysfunction". Similarly, the RSE appears to be an instrument with a two-factor structure with subscales "negative self-esteem" and "positive self-esteem" in both samples. Reliab...

  18. Promoting Self-Esteem in Adolescents: The Influence of Wellness Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Willse, John T.; Villalba, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the extent to which holistic wellness factors are predictive of self-esteem, the authors administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventories, School Form (Coopersmith, 2002), and the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (Myers & Sweeney, 2005a) to 225 adolescents ages 15 to 17 years. Wellness factors (Coping Self, Social Self, and…

  19. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it

  20. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  1. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551

  2. PENGASUHAN OTORITER BERPOTENSI MENURUNKAN KECERDASAN SOSIAL, SELF ESTEEM, DAN PRESTASI AKADEMIK REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiasari Alfiasari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of relation between parenting style perception and academic achievement, social intelligence, and self-esteem become the main issue of the research. This research involved 107 respondents of college students that consist of 55 male and 52 female of 1st grade. Respondents were chosen by proportional random sampling. Authoritative, authority, and permissive choosen as parenting style. Female students had significant correlation with authoritative perception scores. Meanwhile, family income had significant and positive correlation with permissive perception scores. Result showed that higher scores of authoritative that perceived by adolescents then higher scores of social intelligence and self-esteem. In the other hand, higher score of authoritarian that perceived by adolescents then lower scores of sosial intelligence, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Permissive parenting style had positive and significant correlation with academic achievement. Sosial intelligence had positive and significant correlation with self-esteem, meanwhile social intelligence and self-esteem did not had significant correlation with academic achievement. 

  3. The role of self-control and self-esteem and the impact of early risk factors among violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Gunda; Schneider, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Research on the role of self-esteem and self-control among violent offenders has so far yielded inconsistent findings. Certain factors, such as an adverse upbringing, foster development of delinquent behaviour, but it is less clear how this is mediated. Little is known about the interrelationship between self-control and self-esteem or factors that influence them. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relevance of self-esteem and self-control as distinct characteristics of violent offenders, and of their interrelationship with biographical risk factors for violence. Data were obtained from interviews and psychological testing with 101 incarcerated violent male offenders. These violent men showed higher body-related self-esteem compared with a general population sample. There were no offence-specific differences for self-control. Self-esteem was associated with self-control on binary testing, but, when entered into a regression analysis with attention and cognitive factors together with established early childhood risk factors, only the variable 'family problems' was independently related to self-control. The findings stress the complex interrelation between self-control, self-esteem and early childhood risk factors for antisocial behaviour. The combination of low social self-esteem, high body-related self-esteem and history of parenting problems characterising the violent offenders raises testable questions about whether high body-related self-esteem and violence are means of compensating for low social self-esteem with origins in parental neglect, inconsistent or harsh discipline. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-esteem moderates neuroendocrine and psychological responses to interpersonal rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Máire B; Collins, Nancy L

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated self-esteem as a moderator of psychological and physiological responses to interpersonal rejection and tested an integrative model detailing the mechanisms by which self-esteem may influence cognitive, affective, and physiological responses. Seventy-eight participants experienced an ambiguous interpersonal rejection (or no rejection) from an opposite sex partner in the context of an online dating interaction. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 5 times, and self-reported cognitive and affective responses were assessed. Compared with those with high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem responded to rejection by appraising themselves more negatively, making more self-blaming attributions, exhibiting greater cortisol reactivity, and derogating the rejector. Path analysis indicated that the link between low self-esteem and increased cortisol reactivity was mediated by self-blame attributions; cortisol reactivity, in turn, mediated the link between low self-esteem and increased partner derogation. Discussion centers on the role of self-esteem as part of a broader psychobiological system for regulating and responding to social threat and on implications for health outcomes.

  6. The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young-Adult Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state dependence bias stemming from recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events. To address these objectives we use data from a two-wave panel study based on a community sample of young adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida (n = 1,197). Results indicated a history of major depression during sensitive periods of social development is associated with negative changes in self-esteem over a two-year period during the transition to young adulthood. Among those with a history of depression, earlier onset was more problematic than later onset for young adult self-esteem, although the difference disappeared once the level of self-esteem two years prior was controlled. The linkages between the history and timing of depression onset with self-esteem were observed net of recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events, and thus robust to an alternative interpretation of state dependence. The findings support the argument that major depression, especially if it develops earlier during child-adolescent development, has negative consequences for one’s self-esteem. PMID:21860585

  7. Racial differences in adolescent coping and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L

    2000-06-01

    Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  8. The development and validation of the Relational Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2012-06-01

    According to the tripartite model of the self (Brewer & Gardner, 1996), the self consists of three aspects: personal, relational, and collective. Correspondingly, individuals can achieve a sense of self-worth through their personal attributes (personal self-esteem), relationship with significant others (relational self-esteem), or social group membership (collective self-esteem). Existing measures on personal and collective self-esteem are available in the literature; however, no scale exists that assesses relational self-esteem. The authors developed a scale to measure individual differences in relational self-esteem and tested it with two samples of Chinese university students. Between and within-network approaches to construct validation were used. The scale showed adequate internal consistency reliability and results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit. It also exhibited meaningful correlations with theoretically relevant constructs in the nomological network. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Self esteem and outgroup derogation: A clarification of competing theories

    OpenAIRE

    Davidowitz, Cara; Childs, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Research surrounding the Self Esteem Hypothesis has produced conflicting results and unresolved issues. Whilst the original hypothesis posited that it is individuals low in self-esteem that are motivated to show intergroup discrimination, subsequent research has found evidence to suggest a pattern of individuals high in self esteem showing greater amounts of intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, the Social Identity Theory suggests that this intergroup discrimination will occur between membe...

  10. Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra E H; Esteves, Francisco; Carvalho, Helena

    2015-09-30

    Some mental illnesses and certain mental health care environments can be severely stigmatizing, which seems to be related to decreased self-esteem and a deterioration of the quality of social relationships for people with mental illness. This study aims to identify clinical profiles characterized by clinical diagnoses more strongly associated with the treatment settings and related to internalized stigma, self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships. It also aimed to analyze associations between clinical profiles and socio-demographic indicators. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on a sample of 261 individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, from hospital-based and community-based facilities. MCA showed four distinct clinical profiles allowing a differentiation among levels of: internalized stigma, social relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. Overall, results revealed that internalized stigma remains a pervasive problem for some people with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Particularly, internalized stigma and social relationships dissatisfaction and associated socio-demographic indicators appear to be a risk factor for social isolation for individuals with schizophrenia, which may worsen the course of the disorder. Our findings highlight the importance to develop structured interventions aimed to reduce internalized stigma, and exclusion of those who suffer the loss of their social roles and networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The development of global and domain-specific self-esteem from age 13 to 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [Poor self-esteem is correlated with suicide intent, independently from the severity of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, C; Vera, L; Gorwood, P

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a major Public Health concern, and low self-esteem might represent a major risk factor. Our main objective was to assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. More specifically, we aimed to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social) and suicide intent. We also sought the role of depression in the relationship of self-esteem to suicide intent. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a suicide prevention department at the CMME (Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France). We included patients aged 15 and older and admitted for suicide attempt over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Self-esteem was assessed with the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) scale that takes into account several domains of self-esteem. Subjects scoring over 5 points on the lie scale were excluded. Our primary endpoint was the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. Our secondary endpoint was the same correlation adjusted for depression severity (using the Hamilton scale). Suicide intent was estimated using Beck's Suicide Intentionality Scale (SIS). We examined the Pearson's correlation coefficients between self-esteem and suicide intent. These analyses were adjusted for the severity of depressive symptoms assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Overall, 132 patients were included. Suicide intent was correlated with total self-esteem (r=-0.227, P=0.009), social self-esteem (r=-0.331, Pself-esteem (r=-0.260, P=0.003). These results remained significant after adjusting for the level of depression for total score (r=-0.181, P=0.038), and the social (r=-0.282, P=0.001) and familial (r=-0.237, P=0.006) dimensions. Self-esteem (and especially social and familial dimensions) is likely to be associated with suicide intent, at least in part independently of the severity of depression, in a population of subjects

  13. Age variations in personal agency and self-esteem: the context of physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, S; Campbell, J E

    2001-05-01

    This study examines how age patterns in health control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem are influenced by age-correlated social status, health, personality, and social integration variables. Ordinary least squares regression documents age patterns in data from a 1985 community sample of 1,549 physically disabled and nondisabled individuals from southwestern Ontario, Canada. Older respondents report lower health control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Less education, more physical impairment, poorer global health, less empathy, and less introspectiveness explain about 43% of age's negative association with health control and more than half of its negative association with self-esteem. In addition, age is associated more negatively with self-efficacy among the disabled. Social status variables conceal the strength of the age-by-disability interaction coefficient, while health accounts for almost an equal amount. The findings describe how age-correlated personal and social factors contribute to, or statistically conceal, older adults' sense of health control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

  14. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers

    2011-01-01

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...

  15. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...

  16. An Assessment of Positive Organizational Behavior in Service Sector of Pakistan: Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem and Global Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Khurram; Kamariah Bte Ismail; Syed Khurram Ali Jafri; Khairiah Soehod

    2013-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate prevalence of positive organizational behavior in the organizations in the service sector of Pakistan. We tested effects of organization based self-esteem, role stressors (role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity), leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support on positive organizational behavior as well as mediation of organization-based-self-esteem in this regard. Moreover, moderation of global self-esteem was also estimated in rel...

  17. Response to moral choices as a function of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yong; Nolan, Rebecca F; White, Barzanna

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between self-reported self-esteem and academic moral choice by 162 middle school students enrolled in Grades 6, 7, and 8 of public institutions. They were presented nine moral situations (five are school-related) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (School Form). Analysis indicated that four of the five school-related moral situations were statistically significantly related to scores of self-esteem. Students reporting higher self-esteem were more likely to make a moral choice in a given academic situation. It is recommended that support of academic honesty can be encouraged by increasing youth self-esteem.

  18. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Altmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  19. Self-esteem, Self-focused Attention, and the Mediating Role of Fear of Negative Evaluation in College Students With and Without Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Suorsa, Kristina I; Tackett, Alayna P; Burkley, Edward; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between self-focused attention and self-esteem among college students with and without asthma. Young adults with (n = 148) and without (n = 530) childhood-onset asthma were recruited from a college student population. Self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation measures were completed. Participants also answered questions about inclusion in a social activity. Higher levels of self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation were associated with lower self-esteem in both groups within the context of social activity participation. Fear of negative evaluation mediated the relationship between self-consciousness and self-esteem. No significant differences were found between groups. Findings indicate significant relationships among self-focused attention, fear of negative evaluation, and self-esteem in the context of social activity participation. Further examination of self-esteem regarding participation in social activities among college students appears warranted.

  20. The Role of Peer Pressure, Automatic Thoughts and Self-Esteem on Adolescents' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzer, Yasemin; Karatas, Zeynep; Civilidag, Aydin; Gundogdu, Rezzan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression is defined as any kind of behavior intended to hurt others. Aggression generally arises due to the interaction between individual (e.g., social and emotional difficulties, low self-esteem, peer rejection, academic failure) and environmental (e.g., poverty, lack of family supervision, limited social support, conflicts…

  1. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury-Does social support make a difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (pself-esteem......Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make....... The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than...

  2. The Role of Explicit and Implicit Self-Esteem in Peer Modeling of Palatable Food Intake: A Study on Social Media Interaction among Youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This experimental study investigated the impact of peers on palatable food intake of youngsters within a social media setting. To determine whether this effect was moderated by self-esteem, the present study examined the roles of global explicit self-esteem (ESE), body esteem (BE) and

  3. The relevance of self-esteem and self-schemas to persecutory delusions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2013-10-01

    Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD). However, its precise role in the formation and maintenance of PD is unclear and has been subject to a number of theories: It has been hypothesized that PD function to enhance self-esteem, that they directly reflect negative conceptualizations of the self, that self-esteem follows from the perceived deservedness of the persecution (poor-me versus bad-me-paranoia) and that the temporal instability of self-esteem is relevant to PD. In order to increase our understanding of the relevance of self-esteem to PD, this article systematically reviews the existing research on self-esteem in PD in the light of the existing theories. We performed a literature search on studies that investigated self-esteem in PD. We included studies that either investigated self-esteem a) within patients with PD or compared to controls or b) along the continuum of subclinical paranoia in the general population. We used a broad concept of self-esteem and included paradigms that assessed implicit self-esteem, specific self-schemas and dynamic aspects of self-esteem. The literature search identified 317 studies of which 52 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD. The studies therefore do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self-esteem but underline the theory that they directly reflect specific negative self-schemas. There is evidence that low self-esteem is associated with higher perceived deservedness of the persecution and that PD are associated with instable self-esteem. Only few studies investigated implicit self-esteem and the results of these studies were inconsistent. We conclude by proposing an explanatory model of how self-esteem and PD interact from which we derive clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  5. Physical Activity and Self-Esteem: "Jonny's Story"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…

  6. Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernis, Michael H

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.

  7. Self-esteem in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandell, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the ......-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions....

  8. Perceived autonomy support, motivation regulations and the self-evaluative tendencies of student dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Limited research has considered the social-environmental and motivational processes predictive of self evaluations and body-related concerns. Evidence suggests that low self-esteem, poor body evaluations, and associated anxieties are particularly prevalent among the student dance population. Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study examined the relationships among perceptions of autonomy support, motivation regulations, and self-evaluations of body-related concerns in the context of vocational dance. Three hundred and ninety-two dancers completed questionnaires regarding their perceptions of autonomy support in their dance school, reasons for engaging in dance, self-esteem, social physique anxiety (SPA), and body dissatisfaction. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that perceived autonomy support predicted intrinsic motivation (+) and amotivation (-). Extrinsic regulation positively predicted SPA. Amotivation mediated the associations between perceptions of autonomy support and dancers' self-esteem, SPA, and body dissatisfaction. The utility of SDT in understanding predictors of self-worth, physical evaluations, and associated concerns was supported. Moreover, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the applicability of SDT in dance contexts.

  9. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  10. Is Low Self-Esteem a Risk Factor for Depression? Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty–trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States vs. Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant third variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization), and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the third variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations. PMID:23895172

  11. Is low self-esteem a risk factor for depression? Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty-trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States versus Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant 3rd variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization) and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the 3rd variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations.

  12. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminar...

  13. Academic underachievement, self-esteem and self-efficacy in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between decision making styles, self-esteem and self-beliefs about decision- making ability and the differences linked to academic performance. A sample of 100 students split into two groups aged 15-16 years and 17-18 years participated in the study. All subjects compiled the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test (T.M.A. – Bracken, 1993 for the evaluation of academic success and competence of environmental control and How I Make my Choices (H.M.C. – Filippello et al., 2011, a structured interview, specifically designed to measure decision-making styles in two different contexts (school context vs. social context and decision-making self-efficacy (Low vs. High Self-efficacy in making decisions.The exploratory factor analysis reflects the theorized construction. Age and gender differences were found. Furthermore, as expected, low academic performance was associated with lower self-esteem, lower decision-making self-efficacy and more dysfunctional decision-making styles. Students with a high  academic performance, instead, showed higher self-esteem, higher decision-making self-efficacy and more functional decision-making styles.Data encourages the use of H.M.C., not only in the research of personality but also for educational and counseling purposes.

  14. Self-statements, locus of control, and depression in predicting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, V D; Holliman, W B; Madonna, S

    1995-06-01

    The contributions of frequency of positive and negative self-statements and their ratio, locus of control, and depression in prediction of self-esteem were examined. Volunteers were 145 college students (100 women and 45 men) who were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Intercorrelations suggested significant relationships among variables. The magnitude of the relationship was strongest between the frequency of negative self-statements and self-esteem. These results are consistent with and lend further support to prior studies of Kendall, et al. and Schwartz and Michaelson.

  15. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Arjan; Muris, Peter; Mulkens, S.; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theoretical overview of self-esteem in children and adolescents is presented, in which recent research on different aspects of self-esteem will be discussed. Subsequently, research on treatment and pri...

  16. Decomposing global self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Milne, Alan B

    2002-08-01

    We argue in this paper for distinguishing two dimensions of global self-esteem, self-competence and self-liking. Studies 1 and 2 identify a corresponding pair of factors in Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale. Studies 3 and 4 examine the predictive value of the two-dimensional approach to self-esteem as reflected in the unique associations of self-competence and self-liking with negative life events and word recognition.

  17. Self-esteem in patients with borderline and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynum, L I; Wilberg, T; Karterud, S

    2008-10-01

    This study compared self-esteem in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients diagnosed with one or more personality disorders answered the questionnaire Index of Self Esteem as part of a comprehensive evaluation within the setting of a treatment trial. Our hypotheses were that (1) both patients with APD and patients with BPD would report low levels of self-esteem, (2) patients with APD would report lower self-esteem than patients with BPD. We further expected that (3) patients with higher levels of depression would report lower levels of self-esteem, but that (4) both borderline and avoidant personality pathology would contribute to explained variance in self-esteem beyond what would be accounted for by depression. All of our hypotheses were supported. The results from our study showed a significant difference in self-esteem level between the two personality disorders, patients with APD reporting lower self-esteem than patients with BPD. Subjects with both disorders were measured to have self-esteem levels within the range that presumes clinical problems. Self-esteem represents an important quality of subjective experience of the self, and the study of self-esteem in PDs can offer new and important knowledge of PDs as self-pathology.

  18. The relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E

    2003-03-01

    To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.

  19. The relationship between perceived parental favoritism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F

    1994-03-01

    In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.

  20. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  1. Internalized stigma and quality of life domains among people with mental illness: the mediating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra E H; Carvalho, Helena; Esteves, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness who internalize stigma often experience reduced self-esteem and impaired quality of life (QOL). To propose a theoretical model in which self-esteem mediates the effects of internalized stigma on the multidimensional domains comprising QOL. In 403 inpatients and outpatients (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994), from hospital-based and community mental health facilities, self-report measures of internalized stigma (ISMI), self-esteem (RSES) and QOL (WHOQOL-Bref) were administrated. Structural equation modeling results supported the proposed model. Self-esteem fully mediated the relation between internalized stigma and the physical and the social relationships domains, and partially mediated the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological, environment and level of independence QOL domains. Such results provided empirical support and shed light upon previous research. Specifically the results emphasize the mediating role that self-esteem plays in the degree to which internalized stigma exerts a negative effect on specific QOL domains. Self-esteem appears to be a core element in reducing the negative effects of internalized stigma on aspects of QOL among people with mental illness. These findings suggest there is a crucial impact regarding clinical mental health interventions along with important theoretical implications.

  2. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

  3. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Shui, Qing; Zhong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  4. The role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in peer modeling of palatable food intake: a study on social media interaction among youngsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study investigated the impact of peers on palatable food intake of youngsters within a social media setting. To determine whether this effect was moderated by self-esteem, the present study examined the roles of global explicit self-esteem (ESE, body esteem (BE and implicit self-esteem (ISE. METHODS: Participants (N = 118; 38.1% boys; M age 11.14±.79 were asked to play a computer game while they believed to interact online with a same-sex normal-weight remote confederate (i.e., instructed peer who ate either nothing, a small or large amount of candy. RESULTS: Participants modeled the candy intake of peers via a social media interaction, but this was qualified by their self-esteem. Participants with higher ISE adjusted their candy intake to that of a peer more closely than those with lower ISE when the confederate ate nothing compared to when eating a modest (β = .26, p = .05 or considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .32, p = .001. In contrast, participants with lower BE modeled peer intake more than those with higher BE when eating nothing compared to a considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .21, p = .02; ESE did not moderate social modeling behavior. In addition, participants with higher discrepant or "damaged" self-esteem (i.e., high ISE and low ESE modeled peer intake more when the peer ate nothing or a modest amount compared to a substantial amount of candy (kcal (β = -.24, p = .004; β = -.26, p<.0001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Youngsters conform to the amount of palatable food eaten by peers through social media interaction. Those with lower body esteem or damaged self-esteem may be more at risk to peer influences on food intake.

  5. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  6. Self-reassurance, not self-esteem, serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocchi, Nicola; Dentale, Francesco; Gilbert, Paul

    2018-06-15

    Several studies suggest that self-criticism and self-reassurance operate through different mechanisms and might interact with each other. This study examined the hypothesis that self-reassurance serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms in a way that self-esteem, which is rooted in a different motivational system, may not. We hypothesized that self-criticism would be correlated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but that this association would be weaker at higher levels of self-reassurance abilities. We also hypothesized that self-esteem, a self-relating process based on feeling able and competent to achieve life goals, would not buffer the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed in a sample of 419 participants (66% females; M age  = 33.40, SD = 11.13). At higher levels of self-reassurance, the relationship between self-criticism and depressive symptoms became non-significant, supporting the buffering hypothesis of self-reassurance. Despite the high correlation between self-esteem and self-reassurance, self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Results support the growing evidence that not all positive self-relating processes exert the same protective function against psychopathological consequences of self-criticism. Implications for psychotherapy and the validity of using compassion-focused interventions with clients with self-critical issues are discussed. Self-reassurance and self-criticism are distinct processes and they should not be considered positive and negative variations of a single dimension Different types of positive self-relating do not show the same correlation with depressive symptoms. The ability to be self-reassuring protects against the psychopathological correlates of self-criticism while having high self-esteem does not. Compassion-focused interventions are

  7. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Continuity and Change in Self-Esteem During Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355

  9. Self-Esteem and Children's Reactions to Youth Sport Coaching Behaviors: A Field Study of Self-Enhancement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.

    1990-01-01

    Studied the attraction responses of child athletes to coaches who differed in their behavior patterns during the season. Children with low self-esteem responded positively to coaches with high self-esteem and negatively to coaches with low self-esteem on the instructiveness and supportiveness dimensions. Moderate- and high-self-esteem children…

  10. Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…

  11. A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

  12. What Is Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branden, Nathaniel

    By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…

  13. Mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the proposed study was fourfold: (i) to examine the effects of parental alcoholism on adult offspring's self-esteem; (ii) to identify and test possible mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring; (iii) to examine the utility and relevance of attachment theory (Bowlby J. (1969) Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books) in explaining parental alcoholism effects on self-esteem and (iv) to address some of the methodological limitations identified in past research on adult children of alcoholics (ACOA). Participants (N = 515) completed retrospective reports of parental alcoholism, family stressors, family communication patterns, parental attachment and a current measure of self-esteem. The results showed support for the detrimental effects of parental alcoholism on offspring self-esteem and offered partial support for family stressors as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on parental attachment and parental attachment as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem, respectively. Finally, support was found for family communication patterns as a moderator of the effects of family stressors on attachment. The study findings offer preliminary support for the utility of attachment theory in explicating parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring. Findings from the present study make salient the need to consider factors beyond the identification of parental alcohol abuse when explicating individual differences in offspring self-esteem in adulthood. The identification of protective and risk factors can contribute to the development of optimal intervention strategies to help ACOAs better than simply the knowledge of family drinking patterns.

  14. Self-Esteem Check: Too Low, Too High or Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed April 29, 2017. Orth U, et al. Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: A cohort-sequential longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2010;98:645. Ways to build self-esteem. Girlshealth.gov. https://www.girlshealth.gov/disability/feeling/ ...

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Franck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.

  16. Is self-regard a sociometer or a hierometer? Self-esteem tracks status and inclusion, narcissism tracks status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Nikhila; Gregg, Aiden P; Sedikides, Constantine

    2018-04-02

    What adaptive function does self-regard serve? Sociometer theory predicts that it positively tracks social inclusion. A new theory, hierometer theory, predicts that it positively tracks social status. We tested both predictions with respect to two types of self-regard: self-esteem and narcissism. Study 1 (N = 940), featuring a cross-sectional design, found that both status and inclusion covaried positively with self-esteem, but that status alone covaried positively with narcissism. These links held independently of gender, age, and the Big Five personality traits. Study 2 (N = 627), a preregistered cross-sectional study, obtained similar results with alternative measures of self-esteem and narcissism. Studies 3-4 featured experimental designs in which status and inclusion were orthogonally manipulated. Study 3 (N = 104) found that both higher status and higher inclusion promoted higher self-esteem, whereas only higher status promoted higher narcissism. Study 4 (N = 259) obtained similar results with alternative measures of self-esteem and narcissism. The findings suggest that self-esteem operates as both sociometer and hierometer, positively tracking both status and inclusion, whereas narcissism operates primarily as a hierometer, positively tracking status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Self-esteem and non-suicidal self-injury in adulthood: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Rebecca L; Slater, Hayley; Jomar, Khowla; Mitzman, Susan; Taylor, Peter James

    2017-10-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive act that represents a considerable burden on the individual and society. Low self-esteem may be a psychological variable that is related to NSSI. However, little is known about the nature of this relationship in adulthood. This systematic review therefore aimed to provide a synthesis of the available literature on the relationship between self-esteem and NSSI. Articles were independently identified and risk of bias assessed by two reviewers searching PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) a mean sample age of eighteen years or over (2) full manuscripts available in English (3) assessment of NSSI (4) assessment(s) of self-esteem. A narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. A random-effects meta-analysis of differences in self-esteem between NSSI and non-NSSI groups was also undertaken. Seventeen studies were identified and indicated a significant negative relationship between self-esteem and NSSI. The meta-analysis indicated lower self-esteem in those with experiences of NSSI versus those without, d = 0.59 - 1.17. Results suggested that although low self-esteem and NSSI are related in both clinical and non-clinical populations, there are a number of factors which also influence this relationship. The absence of longitudinal research is a major limitation of this literature. It will be important for clinicians to consider the impact of self-esteem in those seeking support for NSSI. Further research should undertake longitudinal research to better understand the self-esteem and NSSI relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-Esteem: A Family Affair. An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoft, David J.

    Over the past decade parent education programs, following either a democratic or behavior modification model, have gained in recognition and support. To investigate the effectiveness of Jean Illsley Clarke's parent education program, Self Esteem: A Family Affair, on self-esteem, conflict resolution, and family togetherness and flexibility, 27…

  19. Self-esteem modulates the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants' self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing.

  20. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gender moderates the relation between implicit and explicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelham, B.W.; Koole, S.L.; Hardin, C.D.; Hetts, J.J.; Seah, E.; DeHart, T.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to men, women are more strongly socialized to trust their feelings and intuitions. We thus expected that the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem would be stronger for women than for men. That is, if implicit self-esteem contains a large intuitive, experiential or affective

  2. The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehdaluee, Mohammad; Zavar, Abbas; Alidoust, Mahbobeh; Pourandi, Razieh

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is the period of stress and strain. Researchers have shown that adolescents without strong social supports would have tendency towards smoking and drug abuse. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between low self-esteem and illegal drug abuse. Participants were 943 grades nine to 12 high school students, from Sarakhs during 2010 - 2011. Adolescents participated in the study, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first questionnaire included questions about individual and family information, smoking and illegal drug abuse history, and the second was the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. 53.8% of participants were male (507 individuals). The mean Rosenberg self-esteem score was 19.8 + 5.2, and the most frequent obtained scores were from 22 to 30. The difference of Rosenberg self-esteem score test between students who did not use any substance and those who had a history of smoking or drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohols, betel nut (Nas) and other drugs (such as Pan and Hookah) was significant (P self-esteem scores between adolescents who lived with both or one of the parents, and those who did not live with any of parents, was significant (P = 0.04). There was also a significant association between the number of children in the family and self-esteem score. The current study showed significant association between the Rosenberg self-esteem test results and smoking, and illegal drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohol, Nas, and other substances. Therefore, increasing self-esteem is essential for preventing the adolescents' emotional and behavioral disorders. This fact could guide us to the new approaches for smoking and drug-abuse prevention in adolescents.

  3. Puffed-up but shaky selves: State self-esteem level and variability in narcissists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Katharina; Nestler, Steffen; Hutteman, Roos; Dufner, Michael; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Egloff, Boris; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D

    2017-05-01

    Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the effects of two theoretically distinct facets of narcissism (i.e., admiration and rivalry) on the two aspects of state self-esteem (i.e., level and variability). We report on data from a laboratory-based and two field-based studies (total N = 596) in realistic social contexts, capturing momentary, daily, and weekly fluctuations of state self-esteem. To estimate unbiased effects of narcissism on the level and variability of self-esteem within one model, we applied mixed-effects location scale models. Results of the three studies and their meta-analytical integration indicated that narcissism is positively linked to self-esteem level and variability. When distinguishing between admiration and rivalry, however, an important dissociation was identified: Admiration was related to high (and rather stable) levels of state self-esteem, whereas rivalry was related to (rather low and) fragile self-esteem. Analyses on underlying processes suggest that effects of rivalry on self-esteem variability are based on stronger decreases in self-esteem from one assessment to the next, particularly after a perceived lack of social inclusion. The revealed differentiated effects of admiration and rivalry explain why the analysis of narcissism as a unitary concept has led to the inconsistent past findings and provide deeper insights into the intrapersonal dynamics of grandiose narcissism governing state self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J M; Paull, J C

    1995-07-01

    This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.

  5. The Perception of the Autonomy Supportive Behaviour as a Predictor of Perceived Effort and Physical Self-esteem among School Students from Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vello Hein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT, this study tested a model of motivational sequence in which perceived autonomy support from teachers in a physical education (PE context predicted the perceived effort and physical self-esteem via self-determined motivation in school students. School students aged 12 to 16 years from Estonia (N = 816, Lithuania (N = 706, Hungary (N = 664, and Spain (N = 922 completed measures of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers, need satisfaction for autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determined motivation, perceived effort and physical self-esteem. The results of the structural equation model (SEM of each sample indicated that the students’ perceived autonomy support from the teacher was directly related to effort and indirectly via autonomous motivation, whereas physical self-esteem was related indirectly. Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-sample structural equation revealed well-fitting models within each sample with the invariances of the measurement parameters across four nations. The findings support the generalizability of the measures in the motivational sequence model to predict perceived effort and physical self-esteem.

  6. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  7. Managing motivational conflict: how self-esteem and executive resources influence self-regulatory responses to risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Justin V; Holmes, John G; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Murray, Sandra L; Wood, Joanne V

    2012-09-01

    This article explores how self-esteem and executive resources interact to determine responses to motivational conflict. One correlational and 3 experimental studies investigated the hypothesis that high and low self-esteem people undertake different self-regulatory strategies in "risky" situations that afford opportunity to pursue competing goals and that carrying out these strategies requires executive resources. When such resources are available, high self-esteem people respond to risk by prioritizing and pursuing approach goals, whereas low self-esteem people prioritize avoidance goals. However, self-esteem does not influence responses to risk when executive resources are impaired. In these studies, risk was operationalized by exposing participants to a relationship threat (Studies 1 and 2), by using participants' self-reported marital conflict (Study 3), and by threatening academic competence (Study 4). Executive resources were operationalized as cognitive load (Studies 1 and 2), working memory capacity (Study 3), and resource depletion (Study 4). When executive resources were ample, high self-esteem people responded to interpersonal risk by making more positive relationship evaluations (Studies 1, 2, and 3) and making more risky social comparisons following a personal failure (Study 4) than did low self-esteem people. Self-esteem did not predict participants' responses when executive resources were impaired or when risk was absent. The regulatory function of self-esteem may be more resource-dependent than has been previously theorized.

  8. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  9. Social threat appeals in commercial advertising: the moderating impact of perceived level of self-efficacy and self-esteem on advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Faseur, Tine; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the level of fear evoked by an advertisement (for deodorant) framing a threatening social situation. Where the effectiveness of threat appeals has been investigated extensively in health communication, this study focuses on the impact of social threat appeals in a commercial setting. The study investigates the moderating impact of self-esteem on the interaction effect between the level of fear (evoked by a social threat ad) and perceived level of self-eff...

  10. Self-Expression on Social Media: Do Tweets Present Accurate and Positive Portraits of Impulsivity, Self-Esteem, and Attachment Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehek, Edward; Human, Lauren J

    2017-01-01

    Self-expression values are at an all-time high, and people are increasingly relying upon social media platforms to express themselves positively and accurately. We examined whether self-expression on the social media platform Twitter elicits positive and accurate social perceptions. Eleven perceivers rated 128 individuals (targets; total dyadic impressions = 1,408) on their impulsivity, self-esteem, and attachment style, based solely on the information provided in targets' 10 most recent tweets. Targets were on average perceived normatively and with distinctive self-other agreement, indicating both positive and accurate social perceptions. There were also individual differences in how positively and accurately targets were perceived, which exploratory analyses indicated may be partially driven by differential word usage, such as the use of positive emotion words and self- versus other-focus. This study demonstrates that self-expression on social media can elicit both positive and accurate perceptions and begins to shed light on how to curate such perceptions.

  11. Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Case Study, English Department Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Andreani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the comparison between English Department students’ emotional intelligence (EQ, their self-esteem and their academic achievement. Twenty-two students participated in the research by answering EQ test and two Self-Esteem questionnaires. The result shows that there is no relation between students’ GPA and their self-esteem and EQ. This means that academic ability does not correspond to social skills. Though most students have average EQ and self-esteem, one student has High EQ, High Self-esteem and a 2.95 GPA (out of 4. 

  12. Stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.

  13. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  14. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  15. Parental Attachment and Adolescents' Perception of School Alienation: The Mediation Role of Self-Esteem and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocayörük, Ercan; Şimşek, Ömer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and their feelings of alienation in the school context by considering the mediating role of adjustment and self-esteem. It was proposed that the degree of attachment to one's parents was associated with adjustment and self-esteem, which in turn predicted possible school alienation. A total of 227 students completed self-report measures on parental attachment, adjustment, self-esteem, and alienation from school. Results were consistent with the attachment theory and related literature that posits that (a) secure attachment to parents was associated with adjustment and self-esteem, (b) secure attachment to parents was negatively associated with feelings of school alienation, and (c) adjustment and self-esteem were a crucial mediators between attachment to parents and school alienation. In addition to enhanced adjustment, the self-esteem of adolescents may be an additional factor in reducing alienation at school. The results also supported the mediator role of self-esteem in the relationship between attachment to parents and adjustment. Finally, the relationship between self-esteem and school alienation were shown to be fully mediated by adjustment. The results were discussed in the context of responsibilities of teachers and school counselors, which may provide both students and parents with the skills to improve social functioning in the school context.

  16. Relationships between racial-ethnic identity, self-esteem and in-group attitudes among First Nation children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Positive in-group distinctiveness has been associated with self-esteem increases among adolescents and adults. To examine whether in-group biases are associated with self-esteem enhancement among minority group children, Native Canadian children (N = 414, 209 female) age 6-11 completed each year for 5 years, measures assessing their level of concrete operational thought, racial-ethnic identity, racial-ethnic centrality, implicit and explicit self-esteem, and implicit and explicit in-group attitudes. According to cognitive developmental theory, increases in the level of concrete operational thought will predict increases in racial-ethnic identity, and increases in identity should, in turn, predict more favorable in-group attitudes. Social identity theory predicts that more favorable in-group attitudes should predict increases in self-esteem. Multi-level structural equation modelling revealed support for these hypotheses. Cognitively mature children who identify closely with their group enhanced their level of self-esteem by positively differentiating between group members on dimensions that favor their group. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future studies are also presented.

  17. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.

  18. Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential.

  19. When paranoia fails to enhance self-esteem: explicit and implicit self-esteem and its discrepancy in patients with persecutory delusions compared to depressed and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Lincoln, Tania M

    2011-04-30

    The hypothesis that persecutory delusions function to enhance self-esteem implies that patients will show normal explicit, but low implicit self-esteem. As evidence for this has been inconsistent, our study assessed delusional state, explicit and implicit self-esteem and depression in a large sample (n=139) of schizophrenia patients with acute persecutory delusions (n=28), patients with remitted persecutory delusions (n=31), healthy controls (n=59), and depressed controls (n=21). Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit, but normal levels of implicit self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale: Initial Validation of a New Measure of Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure. The LSE is a 4-item measure with a 5-point response format using items inspired by established self-esteem scales. The scale is essentially unidimensional and internally consistent, and it converges with existing self-esteem measures across ages 5 to 93 (N = 2,714). Thus, the LSE appears to be a useful measure of global self-esteem suitable for use across the lifespan as well as contexts where a short measure is desirable, such as populations with short attention spans or large projects assessing multiple constructs. Moreover, the LSE is one of the first global self-esteem scales to be validated for children younger than age 8, which provides the opportunity to broaden the field to include research on early formation and development of global self-esteem, an area that has previously been limited.

  1. Explicit self-esteem mediates the relationship between implicit self-esteem and memory biases in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen

    2016-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-esteem and other-esteem in college students with borderline and avoidant personality disorder features: An experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David P; Armitage, Chris J; Drabble, Jennifer; Meyer, Björn

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study investigated self-esteem and other-esteem responses to either fully supportive or less supportive interpersonal feedback in college students with avoidant and borderline personality disorder features (APD and BPD respectively). Disturbances in self-esteem and in evaluations of others are central to definitions of both APD and BPD, but the extent to which such interpersonal appraisals are responsive to contextual features, such as evaluative feedback from others, is not yet clear. In theory, we would expect that individuals with pronounced PD features would show more inflexible and more negative self-evaluations and others- evaluations than those without PD features. In this study with 169 undergraduates, APD but not BPD features were associated with other-contingent state self-esteem and other-esteem. A significant interaction indicated that highly avoidant respondents felt particularly negatively about themselves and their close others in situations that conveyed subtle criticism but not in situations signalling unequivocal support. This suggests that their self-esteem and other-esteem, rather than being rigidly negative, are instead highly contingent upon interpersonal feedback. Such context contingency has implications for the trait-like description of diagnostic characteristics within current taxonomies and is in line with contemporary dynamic models of personality structure and process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264

  4. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students in the Elementary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edins, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the social-cognitive theory, students increase or decrease their self-efficacy and self-esteem based on previous performance, comparison with peers, and feedback from their learning environment. Similar studies have looked at self-efficacy and/or self-esteem; for example, a study was done at the University of Georgia in which they…

  5. Academic Self-Esteem and Perceived Validity of Grades: A Test of Self-Verification Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Fournet, Lee M.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis derived from self-verification theory that semester grade point average would be positively related to perceived validity of grade scores among high self-esteem undergraduates and inversely related for low self-esteem students was not supported in a study with 281 undergraduates. (SLD)

  6. Self-esteem and Individual Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...

  7. Depressive symptoms in university freshmen : Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using

  8. Parental conflict and self-esteem: the rest of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.

  9. A study to ascertain the effect of structured student tutorial support on student stress, self-esteem and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, John; Morgan-Samuel, Heulwen

    2005-05-01

    The overall aim of this intervention study was to investigate, and measure quantitatively, the psychological effects of structured student tutorial support, on undergraduate students' level of stress, self-esteem and cognitive coping. A quantitative research approach was adopted using a quasi-experimental design (post-test only, non-equivalent control group design) in order to ascertain whether there were any significant differences between the experimental conditions (n=25) and a control group (n=25). The independent variable was structured student tutorial support and the dependent variables were student stress, self-esteem and cognitive coping. A total of 50 subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Quantitative data were collected using: the Student Nurse Stress Index (Jones, M.C., Johnston, D.W., 1997a. The derivation of a 22 item Student Nurse Stress Index, using exploratory, confirmatory and multi-sample confirmatory factor analytic techniques. In: Paper Presented at the Annual Nursing Research Conference, 18-20th April, University of Wales, Swansea; Jones, M. C. Johnston, D.W., 1999. Derivation of a brief Student Nurse Stress Index. Work and Stress 13(2), 162-181), the Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, M., 1965. Society and the Adolesent Self Image. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ) and a Linear Analogue Coping Scale (Gammon, J., 1998. Analysis of the stressful effects of hospitalisation and source isolation on coping and psychological constructs. International Journal of Nursing Practice 4(2), 84-97). The methods of data analysis were the application of the t-test and descriptive statistics. The results indicated a significantly lower level of stress in the experimental group (t=-3.85, p=0.001) and a significantly higher self esteem (t=4.11, p=0.001). Results also suggested that students who were provided with structured tutorial support perceived they coped more effectively with their studies (t=4.65, p=0.001). The

  10. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  11. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends while subjects performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed larger P2 amplitudes for one’s own name than for close-other’s name in the low self-esteem group, whereas this P2 effect were not observed in the high self-esteem group. In addition, one’s own name elicited equivalent N250 amplitudes and larger P3 amplitudes compared with close-other’s name in both high and low self-esteem groups. However, no interaction effects were observed between self-esteem and self-relevant processing in the N250 and P3 components. Thus, we found that the modulation effects of self-esteem on self-relevant processing occurred at the early P2 stage, but not at the later N250 and P3 stages. These findings reflect that individuals with low self-esteem demonstrate automatic attention towards their own names.

  12. The role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in peer modeling of palatable food intake: a study on social media interaction among youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Creemers, Daan H M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the impact of peers on palatable food intake of youngsters within a social media setting. To determine whether this effect was moderated by self-esteem, the present study examined the roles of global explicit self-esteem (ESE), body esteem (BE) and implicit self-esteem (ISE). Participants (N = 118; 38.1% boys; M age 11.14±.79) were asked to play a computer game while they believed to interact online with a same-sex normal-weight remote confederate (i.e., instructed peer) who ate either nothing, a small or large amount of candy. Participants modeled the candy intake of peers via a social media interaction, but this was qualified by their self-esteem. Participants with higher ISE adjusted their candy intake to that of a peer more closely than those with lower ISE when the confederate ate nothing compared to when eating a modest (β = .26, p = .05) or considerable amount of candy (kcal) (β = .32, p = .001). In contrast, participants with lower BE modeled peer intake more than those with higher BE when eating nothing compared to a considerable amount of candy (kcal) (β = .21, p = .02); ESE did not moderate social modeling behavior. In addition, participants with higher discrepant or "damaged" self-esteem (i.e., high ISE and low ESE) modeled peer intake more when the peer ate nothing or a modest amount compared to a substantial amount of candy (kcal) (β = -.24, p = .004; β = -.26, pesteem or damaged self-esteem may be more at risk to peer influences on food intake.

  13. Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Case Study, English Department Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwik Andreani.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the comparison between English Department students’ emotional intelligence (EQ), their self-esteem and their academic achievement. Twenty-two students participated in the research by answering EQ test and two Self-Esteem questionnaires. The result shows that there is no relation between students’ GPA and their self-esteem and EQ. This means that academic ability does not correspond to social skills. Though most students have average EQ and self-esteem, one student has High...

  14. Celebrity endorsement : The effects of social comparisons on women's self-esteem and purchase intensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this research we investigated the interplay between celebrities holding positive vs. negative media images and women’s self-esteem and purchase intensions. Study 1 documents that “good” celebrities decrease consumers’ self-esteem while a “bad” celebrity increase self-esteem. Study 2 shows that

  15. Having a Lot of a Good Thing: Multiple Important Group Memberships as a Source of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Jones, Janelle M.; Cui, Lijuan; Dingle, Genevieve; Liu, James; Murphy, Sean; Thai, Anh; Walter, Zoe; Zhang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem. PMID:26017554

  16. Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a, older adults (Study 1b, and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c. Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem.

  17. Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C P M Theunissen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. METHODS: This large (N = 252 retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years. Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. RESULTS: HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs were related to higher levels of self-esteem. CONCLUSION: HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. DISCUSSION: Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential.

  18. Self-Esteem in Hearing-Impaired Children: The Influence of Communication, Education, and Audiological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329