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Sample records for social stress exposure

  1. Juvenile social defeat stress exposure persistently impairs social behaviors and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Akihiro; Ukai, Mayu; Uchida, Mizuki; Hasegawa, Sho; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Takahiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kunimoto, Shohko; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Adverse juvenile experiences, including physical abuse, often have negative health consequences later in life. We investigated the influence of social defeat stress exposure as juveniles on neuropsychological behaviors, and the causal role of glucocorticoids in abnormal behaviors and impairment of neurogenesis in mice exposed to the stress. The juvenile (24-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress induced by an aggressive ICR mouse. Social defeat stress exposure as juveniles, even for 1 day, induced persistent social avoidance to the unfamiliar ICR mouse in the social interaction test, but that was not observed in mice exposed to the stress as adults. Social avoidance by the stress exposure as juveniles for 10 consecutive days was observed, when the target mouse was not only unfamiliar ICR but also another C57BL/J mouse, but not an absent or an anesthetized ICR mouse. The stress exposure did not induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus-maze test, marble-burying test, forced swimming test, or sucrose preference test. Serum corticosterone levels increased immediately after the stress exposure. The hippocampal neurogenesis was suppressed 1 day and 4 weeks after the stress exposure. Administration of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to each stress exposure, blocked the persistent social avoidance and suppression of neurogenesis. In conclusion, social avoidance induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles are more persistent than that as adults. These social avoidances are associated with suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis via glucocorticoid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

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    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  5. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: Effects on stress-induced social alterations and social drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    We previously observed lasting and sex-specific detrimental consequences of early adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE), with male, but not female, rats showing social anxiety-like alterations when tested as adults. The present study used Sprague Dawley rats to assess whether social alterations induced by AIE (3.5g/kg, intragastrically, every other day, between postnatal days [P] 25-45) are further exacerbated by stressors later in life. Another aim was to determine whether AIE alone or in combination with stress influenced intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (Experiment 1) or a sweetened solution ("supersac") alone (Experiment 2) under social circumstances. Animals were exposed to restraint on P66-P70 (90min/day) or left nonstressed, with corticosterone (CORT) levels assessed on day 1 and day 5 in Experiment 2. Social anxiety-like behavior emerged after AIE in non-stressed males, but not females, whereas stress-induced social anxiety was evident only in water-exposed males and females. Adult-typical habituation of the CORT response to repeated restraint was not evident in adult animals after AIE, a lack of habituation reminiscent of that normally evident in adolescents. Neither AIE nor stress affected ethanol intake under social circumstances, although AIE and restraint independently increased adolescent-typical play fighting in males during social drinking. Among males, the combination of AIE and restraint suppressed "supersac" intake; this index of depression-like behavior was not seen in females. The results provide experimental evidence associating adolescent alcohol exposure, later stress, anxiety, and depression, with young adolescent males being particularly vulnerable to long-lasting adverse effects of repeated ethanol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

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    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual

  8. Stressful social relations and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined....... CONCLUSIONS: Stressful social relations are associated with increased mortality risk among middle-aged men and women for a variety of different social roles. Those outside the labour force and men seem especially vulnerable to exposure....

  9. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

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    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  10. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  11. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  12. Vicarious social defeat stress: Bridging the gap between physical and emotional stress.

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    Sial, Omar K; Warren, Brandon L; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2016-01-30

    Animal models capable of differentiating the neurobiological intricacies between physical and emotional stress are scarce. Current models rely primarily on physical stressors (e.g., chronic unpredictable or mild stress, social defeat, learned helplessness), and neglect the impact of psychological stress alone. This is surprising given extensive evidence that a traumatic event needs not be directly experienced to produce enduring perturbations on an individual's health and psychological well-being. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by intense fear of trauma-related stimuli, often occurs in individuals that have only witnessed a traumatic event. By modifying the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm to include a witness component (witnessing the social defeat of another mouse), we demonstrate a novel behavioral paradigm capable of inducing a robust behavioral syndrome reminiscent of PTSD in emotionally stressed adult mice. We describe the vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS) model that is capable of inducing a host of behavioral deficits that include social avoidance and other depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in adult male mice. VSDS exposure induces weight loss and spike in serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. A month after stress, these mice retain the social avoidant phenotype and have an increased CORT response when exposed to subsequent stress. The VSDS is a novel paradigm capable of inducing emotional stress by isolating physical stress/confrontation in mice. The VSDS model can be used to study the short- and long-term neurobiological consequences of exposure to emotional stress in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactivity to social stress in ethnic minority men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an

  14. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

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    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  16. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

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    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  17. Corrigendum to "Acute and repeated exposure to social stress reduces gut microbiota diversity in Syrian hamsters" [Behav. Brain Res. 345 (2018) 39-48].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partrick, Katherine A; Chassaing, Benoit; Beach, Linda Q; McCann, Katharine E; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Huhman, Kim L

    2018-08-01

    Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial, aggressive, and rapidly form dominant/subordinate relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to social stress in hamsters alters gut microbiota in dominants and subordinates after an agonistic encounter and if pre-stress gut microbiota composition is correlated with the outcome of such a conflict. Microbiota composition was assessed via 16S mRNA Illumina sequencing on fecal samples. One agonistic encounter caused a decrease in alpha diversity in both dominant and subordinate animals with a more pronounced decrease after repeated encounters. PERMANOVA analysis of the unweighted unifrac distance revealed a distinct change in beta diversity after one and nine encounters in both dominants and subordinates. Linear discriminant analysis (LEfSE) showed bacteria from the order Lactobacillales were significantly reduced following social stress in both dominants and subordinates, and both groups exhibited increases in phyla Bacteroidetes and decreases in phyla Firmicutes following repeated encounters. LEfSE analysis on samples collected prior to social interaction revealed that some microbial taxa were correlated with a hamster achieving dominant or subordinate status. These data suggest that even an acute exposure to social stress can impact gastrointestinal microbiota and that the state of the microbial community before social stress may predict dominant/subordinate status following a subsequent agonistic encounter. Copyright © 2018.

  18. Animal models of social stress: the dark side of social interactions.

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    Masis-Calvo, Marianela; Schmidtner, Anna K; de Moura Oliveira, Vinícius E; Grossmann, Cindy P; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2018-05-10

    Social stress occurs in all social species, including humans, and shape both mental health and future interactions with conspecifics. Animal models of social stress are used to unravel the precise role of the main stress system - the HPA axis - on the one hand, and the social behavior network on the other, as these are intricately interwoven. The present review aims to summarize the insights gained from three highly useful and clinically relevant animal models of psychosocial stress: the resident-intruder (RI) test, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), and the social fear conditioning (SFC). Each model brings its own focus: the role of the HPA axis in shaping acute social confrontations (RI test), the physiological and behavioral impairments resulting from chronic exposure to negative social experiences (CSC), and the neurobiology underlying social fear and its effects on future social interactions (SFC). Moreover, these models are discussed with special attention to the HPA axis and the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin, which are important messengers in the stress system, in emotion regulation, as well as in the social behavior network. It appears that both nonapeptides balance the relative strength of the stress response, and simultaneously predispose the animal to positive or negative social interactions.

  19. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  20. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

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    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  1. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

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    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  2. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

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    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  3. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eNosjean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2-/- mice present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2-/- mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2-/- mice behavioral rigidity.

  4. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2(-/-) mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2(-/-) mice behavioral rigidity.

  5. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2−/− mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2−/− mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2−/− mice behavioral rigidity. PMID:25610381

  6. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  7. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  8. Social rank-associated stress vulnerability predisposes individuals to cocaine attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovich, Chen; Kirby, Michael L; Michaelevski, Izhak; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2018-01-29

    Studies of personality have suggested that dissimilarities in ability to cope with stressful situations results in differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors. The present study used selectively bred stress-resilient, socially-dominant (Dom) and stress-vulnerable, socially-submissive (Sub) mice to investigate the interaction between environmental stress and inbred predisposition to develop addictive behavior to cocaine. In a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm using cocaine, Sub mice displayed an aversion to drug, whereas Dom mice displayed drug attraction. Following a 4-week regimen of Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), Sub mice in CPP displayed a marked increase (>400%) in cocaine attraction, whereas Dom mice did not differ in attraction from their non-stressed state. Examination of hippocampal gene expression revealed in Sub mice, exposure to external stimuli, stress or cocaine, increased CRH expression (>100%), which was evoked in Dom mice only by cocaine exposure. Further, stress-induced decreases in DRD1 (>60%) and DRD2 (>50%) expression in Sub mice differed markedly from a complete lack of change in Dom mice. From our findings, we propose that social stratification dictates vulnerability to stress-induced attraction that may lead to addiction via differential regulation of hippocampal response to dopaminergic input, which in turn may influence differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors.

  9. Stress impairs new but not established relationships in seasonally social voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Reitz, Kara M; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Beery, Annaliese K

    2016-03-01

    Affiliative social relationships are impacted by stressors and can shape responses to stress. However, the effects of stress on social relationships in different contexts are not well understood. Meadow voles provide an opportunity to study these effects on peer relationships outside of a reproductive context. In winter months, female meadow voles cohabit with peers of both sexes, and social huddling is facilitated by exposure to short, winter-like day lengths in the lab. We investigated the role of stress and corticosterone (cort) levels in social behavior in short day-housed female meadow voles. A brief forced swim elevated cort levels, and we assessed the effects of this stressor on new and established relationships between females. In pairs formed following exposure to swim stress, the stressor significantly reduced the fraction of huddling time subjects spent with a familiar partner. Swim stress did not affect partner preferences in pairs established prior to the stressor. Finally, we examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels via immunoassay in voles housed under short day (10h light) versus long day (14 h light) conditions and detected higher glucocorticoid levels in long day-housed voles. These findings support a role for stress regulation in the formation of social relationships in female meadow voles, and are consistent with a potential role for seasonal variation in cort in the behavioral transition from solitary to social. Together they highlight the importance of stress and possibly glucocorticoid signaling for social behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival after pathogen exposure in group-living insects: don't forget the stress of social isolation!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, P; Holländer, K; Meunier, J

    2016-09-01

    A major cost of group-living is its inherent risk of pathogen infection. To limit this risk, many group-living animals have developed the capability to prophylactically boost their immune system in the presence of group members and/or to mount collective defences against pathogens. These two phenomena, called density-dependent prophylaxis and social immunity, respectively, are often used to explain why, in group-living species, individuals survive better in groups than in isolation. However, this survival difference may also reflect an alternative and often overlooked process: a cost of social isolation on individuals' capability to fight against infections. Here, we disentangled the effects of density-dependent prophylaxis, social immunity and stress of social isolation on the survival after pathogen exposure in group-living adults of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. By manipulating the presence of group members both before and after pathogen exposure, we demonstrated that the cost of being isolated after infection, but not the benefits of social immunity or density-dependent prophylaxis, explained the survival of females. Specifically, females kept constantly in groups or constantly isolated had higher survival rates than females that were first in groups and then isolated after infection. Our results also showed that this cost of social isolation was absent in males and that social isolation did not reduce the survival of noninfected individuals. Overall, this study gives a new perspective on the role of pathogens in social evolution, as it suggests that an apparently nonadaptive, personal immune process may promote the maintenance of group-living under pathogenic environments. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. The Role of Social Support in Mediating Stress and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Talwar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As important as it is to fully comprehend the relationship between stress and depression among university students, it is also vital to ascertain the role of perceived social support as an essential psychosocial factor for effectively delimiting the deleterious impact of stress exposure. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether perceived social support functioned as a mediating factor in the relationship between stress and depression among university students. Data was collected from undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. Information on demographics, depression, stress and perceived social support were collated through self-report questionnaires. Results revealed significant gender differences for perceived social support, wherein female students reported lower levels of social support compared to their counterparts. Mediation analysis portrayed that the association between stress and depression was partially accounted for, by the mediating role of perceived social support.

  12. Predictors of social instability stress effects on social interaction and anxiety in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2018-06-21

    Adolescence is an important phase of development of social behaviors, which may be disrupted by the experience of stressors. We previously reported that exposure to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; postnatal day [PND] 30-45) in rats reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). In experiment 1, we replicated the effect of SS on social interaction and found that the pattern of neural activations based on Fos immunohistochemistry in brain regions during social interactions differed for SS and CTL rats. In experiment 2, we found that individual differences in novelty-seeking behavior on PND 30 and SS exposure were unique predictors of anxiety in the elevated plus maze on PND 46, and interacted to predict social interaction on PND 47; among high novelty-seeking rats, SS and CTL rats do not differ, whereas among low-novelty seeking rats, SS rats engaged in less social interaction than did CTL rats. Thus, high novelty-seeking may be a resilience factor against the effects of social stressors in adolescence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL; Selçuk ASLAN

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related ...

  15. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Counotte, J; Pot-Kolder, R; van Os, J; van der Gaag, M

    2016-12-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility). Paranoid ideation was measured after each experiment. Subjective distress was self-rated before and after experiments. Multilevel random regression analyses were used to test main effects of childhood trauma and interaction effects. Childhood trauma was more prevalent in individuals with higher psychosis liability, and was associated with higher level of (subclinical) psychotic and affective symptoms. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma responded with more subjective distress to virtual social stress exposures. The effects of childhood trauma on paranoia and subjective distress were significantly stronger when the number of virtual environmental stressors increased. Higher psychosis liability increased the effect of childhood trauma on peak subjective distress and stress reactivity during experiments. Childhood trauma is associated with heightened social stress sensitivity and may contribute to psychotic and affective dysregulation later in life, through a sensitized paranoid and stress response to social stressors.

  16. Hurricane-Related Exposure Experiences and Stressors, Other Life Events, and Social Support: Concurrent and Prospective Impact on Children's Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Lai, Betty; Jaccard, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the influence of hurricane exposure, stressors occurring during the hurricane and recovery period, and social support on children's persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Method: Using a 2-wave, prospective design, we assessed 384 children (54% girls; mean age = 8.74 years) 9 months posthurricane, and we reassessed 245…

  17. Acute episodes of predator exposure in conjunction with chronic social instability as an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Conrad, Cheryl D; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-07-01

    People who are exposed to horrific, life-threatening experiences are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some of the symptoms of PTSD include persistent anxiety, exaggerated startle, cognitive impairments and increased sensitivity to yohimbine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist. We have taken into account the conditions known to induce PTSD, as well as factors responsible for long-term maintenance of the disorder, to develop an animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a total of 31 days of psychosocial stress, composed of acute and chronic components. The acute component was a 1-h stress session (immobilization during cat exposure), which occurred on Days 1 and 11. The chronic component was that on all 31 days the rats were given unstable housing conditions. We found that psychosocially stressed rats had reduced growth rate, reduced thymus weight, increased adrenal gland weight, increased anxiety, an exaggerated startle response, cognitive impairments, greater cardiovascular and corticosterone reactivity to an acute stressor and heightened responsivity to yohimbine. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of acute inescapable episodes of predator exposure administered in conjunction with daily social instability as an animal model of PTSD.

  18. Stress, social support and problem drinking among women in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.

  19. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  20. The social transmission of risk: Maternal stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and well-being mediate the effects of war exposure on child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Infants, Mothers, and Dyadic Contributions to Stability and Prediction of Social Stress Response at 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…

  2. Exposure to Violence during Adolescence as a Predictor of Perceived Stress Trajectories in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Aiyer, Sophie M; Eisman, Andria B; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to violence during adolescence is related to negative psycho-social outcomes later in life. In the present study, we examined the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and trajectories of perceived stress in emerging adulthood in a sample of at-risk urban youth ( N = 850; 80.1% African American; 50% female). Growth curve modeling indicated an overall decrease in reported stress as individuals aged. Baseline levels of violence exposure ( M age = 14.9) were associated with higher perceived stress levels in emerging adulthood ( M age = 20.1), but also slightly more negative perceived stress slopes from adolescence into emerging adulthood ( M age = 15.9-22.1). Individuals reporting increased violence exposure over time during adolescence also reported higher perceived stress levels in emerging adulthood ( M age = 20.1). Associations held after controlling for demographics and baseline functioning variables. The results suggest that violence exposure may disrupt normative adaptation to daily stressors in emerging adulthood.

  3. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood trauma and social stress reactivity in psychosis : A virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent

  5. Gender/Sex Differences in the Relationship between Psychosocial Work Exposures and Work and Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Bielecky, Amber; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron; Brisson, Chantal; Smith, Peter

    2018-04-18

    Stress is an important factor affecting the health of working population. While work exposures are determinants of levels of work and life stress, we do not know whether similar or different exposures are related to stress levels for men and women. This study aimed to formally examine male/female differences in the relationships between psychosocial work exposures and work and life stress in a representative sample of Canadian labour market participants. We used data from 2012 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a representative population-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada. The sample was restricted to employed labour force participants working 15+ hours per week (N = 8328, 48% female). To examine the relationship between work exposures and work and life stress, we conducted path analyses. Psychosocial work exposures included social support, job insecurity, job control, and job strain. Differences between estimates for men and women were explored using multigroup analyses, constraining paths between male and female models to be equivalent and examining the impact on change in model fit. Male/female differences were observed in the relationships between supervisor support and work stress levels as well as between job control, job insecurity, job strain, and life stress levels. Higher levels of supervisor support at work were associated with lower work stress among women, but not among men. Low job control had a direct protective effect on life stress for men but not for women, while high job strain had a direct adverse effect on life stress among women but not among men. Higher job insecurity was more strongly associated with higher life stress among men compared with women. The relationship between work stress and life stress was similar among men and women. The findings of this study suggest that the relationships between psychosocial exposures and work and life stress differ for men and women. Our study also raised important questions

  6. Perseverative Cognitions and Stress Exposure: Comparing Relationships With Psychological Health Across a Diverse Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-03-29

    Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.

  7. Psychosocial working conditions and stress in UK social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ravalier, J.M

    2018-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to chronic negative working conditions leads to stress. This subsequently impacts sickness absence and attrition, making it a key consideration for policymakers and academics alike. This study therefore seeks to investigate the influence of psychosocial working conditions on stress and related outcomes: sickness presenteeism, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions in UK social workers (SWs). A cross-sectional survey was used, in addition to a single open...

  8. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-05-30

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability: A Virtual Reality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Assessing Lifetime Stress Exposure Using the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN): An Overview and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.; Shields, Grant S.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Numerous theories have proposed that acute and chronic stressors may exert a cumulative effect on life-span health by causing biological “wear and tear,” or allostatic load, which in turn promotes disease. Very few studies have directly tested such models, though, partly because of the challenges associated with efficiently assessing stress exposure over the entire life course. To address this issue, we developed the first online system for systematically assessing lifetime stress exposure, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), and describe its initial validation here. Methods Adults recruited from the community (n = 205) were administered the STRAIN, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, and Perceived Stress Scale, as well as measures of socioeconomic status, personality, social desirability, negative affect, mental and physical health complaints, sleep quality, computer-assessed executive function, and doctor-diagnosed general health problems and autoimmune disorders. Results The STRAIN achieved high acceptability and was completed relatively quickly (mean = 18 minutes 39 seconds; interquartile range = 12–23 minutes). The structure of the lifetime stress data best fit two latent classes overall and five distinct trajectories over time. Concurrent associations with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form and Perceived Stress Scale were good (r values = .147–.552). Moreover, the STRAIN was not significantly related to personality traits or social desirability characteristics and, in adjusted analyses, emerged as the measure most strongly associated with all six of the health and cognitive outcomes assessed except current mental health complaints (β values = .16–.41; risk ratios = 1.02–1.04). Finally, test-retest reliability for the main stress exposure indices over 2–4 weeks was excellent (r values = .904–.919). Conclusions The STRAIN demonstrated good usability and acceptability; very good concurrent

  12. Assessing Lifetime Stress Exposure Using the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN): An Overview and Initial Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Shields, Grant S

    2018-01-01

    Numerous theories have proposed that acute and chronic stressors may exert a cumulative effect on life-span health by causing biological "wear and tear," or allostatic load, which in turn promotes disease. Very few studies have directly tested such models, though, partly because of the challenges associated with efficiently assessing stress exposure over the entire life course. To address this issue, we developed the first online system for systematically assessing lifetime stress exposure, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), and describe its initial validation here. Adults recruited from the community (n = 205) were administered the STRAIN, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, and Perceived Stress Scale, as well as measures of socioeconomic status, personality, social desirability, negative affect, mental and physical health complaints, sleep quality, computer-assessed executive function, and doctor-diagnosed general health problems and autoimmune disorders. The STRAIN achieved high acceptability and was completed relatively quickly (mean = 18 minutes 39 seconds; interquartile range = 12-23 minutes). The structure of the lifetime stress data best fit two latent classes overall and five distinct trajectories over time. Concurrent associations with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and Perceived Stress Scale were good (r values = .147-.552). Moreover, the STRAIN was not significantly related to personality traits or social desirability characteristics and, in adjusted analyses, emerged as the measure most strongly associated with all six of the health and cognitive outcomes assessed except current mental health complaints (β values = .16-.41; risk ratios = 1.02-1.04). Finally, test-retest reliability for the main stress exposure indices over 2-4 weeks was excellent (r values = .904-.919). The STRAIN demonstrated good usability and acceptability; very good concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity; and excellent test

  13. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  14. Molecular Adaptations to Social Defeat Stress and Induced Depression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Natalya; Bryzgalov, Leonid; Ershov, Nikita; Gusev, Fedor; Reshetnikov, Vasiliy; Avgustinovich, Damira; Tenditnik, Mikhail; Rogaev, Evgeny; Merkulova, Tatiana

    2018-04-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for major depression. Social defeat stress is a well-validated murine model of depression. However, little is known about the gene activity dynamics during the development of a depression-like state. We analyzed the effects of social defeat stress of varying duration (10 and 30 days) on the behavioral patterns and prefrontal-cortex transcriptome of C57BL/6 mice. The 10-day exposure to social defeat stress resulted in a high level of social avoidance with no signs of depression-associated behavior. Most animals exposed to 30 days of social defeat stress demonstrated clear hallmarks of depression, including a higher level of social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and anhedonic behavior. The monitoring of transcriptome changes revealed widespread alterations in gene expression on the 10th day. Surprisingly, the expression of only a few genes were affected by the 30th day of stress, apparently due to a reversal of the majority of the early stress-induced changes to the original basal state. Moreover, we have found that glucocorticoid-sensitive genes are clearly stimulated targets on the 10th day of stress, but these genes stop responding to the elevated corticosterone level by the 30th day of stress. The majority of genes altered by the 30-day stress were downregulated, with the most relevant ones participating in chromatin modifications and neuroplasticity (e.g., guanine nucleotide exchange factors of the Rho-family of GTPases). Very different molecular responses occur during short-term and long-term social stress in mice. The early-stress response is associated with social avoidance and with upregulation and downregulation of many genes, including those related to signal transduction and cell adhesion pathways. Downregulation of a few genes, in particular, genes for histone-modifying methyltransferases, is a signature response to prolonged stress that induces symptoms of depression. Altogether, our data

  15. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  16. The Programming of the Social Brain by Stress During Childhood and Adolescence: From Rodents to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.

  17. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and Its Interactions With Sociodemographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Felton, Julia W; Adams, Zachary W; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were associated with lower levels of social support (β = -.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, p tornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = -.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings were generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. Reduced Orexin System Function Contributes to Resilience to Repeated Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Laura A; Eacret, Darrell; Dobkin, Jane; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD. The present experiments used a rodent social defeat model that generates actively coping rats and passively coping rats, which we have previously shown exhibit resilient and vulnerable profiles, respectively, to examine if orexins play a role in these stress-induced phenotypes. In situ radiolabeling and qPCR revealed that actively coping rats expressed significantly lower prepro-orexin mRNA compared with passively coping rats. This led to the hypothesis that lower levels of orexins contribute to resilience to repeated social stress. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent 5 d of social defeat to establish active and passive coping phenotypes. Then, orexin neurons were inhibited before each social defeat for three additional days using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Inhibition of orexins increased social interaction behavior and decreased depressive-like behavior in the vulnerable population of rats. Indeed, these data suggest that lowering orexins promoted resilience to social defeat and may be an important target for treatment of stress-related disorders.

  19. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenerational Social Stress Alters Immune–Behavior Associations and the Response to Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria Hicks-Nelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to the multi-hit theory of schizophrenia, social behavior pathologies are mediated by multiple factors across generations, likely acting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Exposure to social adversity, especially during early life, has been proposed to induce depression symptoms through immune mediated mechanisms. Basal immune factors are altered in a variety of neurobehavioral models. In the current study, we assessed two aspects of a transgenerational chronic social stress (CSS rat model and its effects on the immune system. First, we asked whether exposure of F0 dams and their F1 litters to CSS changes basal levels of IL-6, TNF, IFN-γ, and social behavior in CSS F1 female juvenile rats. Second, we asked whether the F2 generation could generate normal immunological responses following vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG. We report several changes in the associations between social behaviors and cytokines in the F1 juvenile offspring of the CSS model. It is suggested that changes in the immune–behavior relationships in F1 juveniles indicate the early stages of immune mediated disruption of social behavior that becomes more apparent in F1 dams and the F2 generation. We also report preliminary evidence of elevated IL-6 and impaired interferon-gamma responses in BCG-vaccinated F2 females. In conclusion, transgenerational social stress alters both immune–behavior associations and responses to vaccination. It is hypothesized that the effects of social stress may accumulate over generations through changes in the immune system, establishing the immune system as an effective preventative or treatment target for social behavior pathologies.

  1. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  3. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  4. Ethological evaluation of the effects of social defeat stress in mice: beyond the social interaction ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Miranda Henriques-Alves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (> 150 s and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  5. Sex Differences in Social Interaction Behavior Following Social Defeat Stress in the Monogamous California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C.; Pride, Michael C.; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Silva, Andrea L.; Crean, Katie K.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction) that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks). Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior. PMID:21364768

  6. Sex differences in social interaction behavior following social defeat stress in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Trainor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks. Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior.

  7. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy, neighborhood collective efficacy, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2017-07-01

    Older adults exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative psychological outcomes such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neighborhood social capital can act as a resource that supports individual-level coping with stressors. This study explores the ability of perceived neighborhood collective efficacy, a form of social capital, to moderate the association between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and PTSD symptoms in older adults. Data from 2205 older individuals aged 54-80 residing in New Jersey who self-reported exposure to Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 were identified and extracted from the ORANJ BOWL™ research panel. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and individual-level characteristics in 2006-2008 and follow-up assessments about storm exposure, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and social control), and PTSD symptoms 8-33 months following the storm. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were tested to examine the association between exposure, neighborhood collective efficacy, and PTSD symptoms. After accounting for known demographic and individual-level covariates, greater storm exposure was linked to higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Social cohesion, but not social control, was linked to lower reports of PTSD symptoms and moderated the association between exposure and PTSD. The impact of storm exposure on PTSD symptoms was less for individuals reporting higher levels of social cohesion. Mental health service providers and disaster preparedness and response teams should consider the larger social network of individuals served. Building social connections in older adults' neighborhoods that promote cohesion can reduce the negative psychological impact of a disaster.

  8. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Men's Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery: Body Image, Media Exposure, Social Network Use, Masculine Gender Role Stress and Religious Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ozan Luay; Karadavut, Ufuk

    2017-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery is no longer just for females. More men are opting for cosmetic procedures, with marked increases seen in both minimally invasive and surgical options over the last decade. Compared to females, relatively little work has specifically focused on factors predicting males' attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Therefore, we evaluated a number of variables that may predict some facet of men's attitudes toward cosmetic surgery according to evidence reported in the literature METHODS: A total of 151 male patients who applied for a surgical or minimally invasive cosmetic surgery procedure (patient group) and 151 healthy male volunteers who do not desire any type of cosmetic procedure (control group) were asked to fill out questionnaires about measures of body image, media exposure (television and magazine), social network site use, masculine gender role stress and religious attitudes. Our findings showed that lower ratings of body image satisfaction, increased time spent watching television, more frequent social network site use and higher degrees of masculine gender role stress were all significant predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery among males. The current study confirmed the importance of body image dissatisfaction as a predictor of the choice to undergo cosmetic procedure. More importantly, a new predictor of cosmetic procedure attitudes was identified, namely masculine gender role stress. Finally, we demonstrated the effects television exposure and social network site use in promoting acceptance of surgical and nonsurgical routes to appearance enhancement. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5) following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM) sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.

  10. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Henderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.

  11. Measuring lifetime stress exposure and protective factors in life course research on racial inequality and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Jacquez, Farrah; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in better understanding how social factors contribute to racial disparities in health, including birth outcomes. A recent emphasis in this context has been on identifying the effects of stress exposure and protective factors experienced over the entire lifetime. Yet despite repeated calls for a life course approach to research on this topic, very few studies have actually assessed how stressors and protective factors occurring over women's lives relate to birth outcomes. We discuss this issue here by describing how challenges in the measurement of lifetime stress exposure and protective factors have prevented researchers from developing an empirically-based life course perspective on health. First, we summarize prevailing views on racial inequality and birth outcomes; second, we discuss measurement challenges that exist in this context; and finally, we describe both new tools and needed tools for assessing lifetime stress exposure and suggest opportunities for integrating information on stress exposure and psychosocial protective factors. We conclude that more studies are needed that integrate information about lifetime stress exposures and the protective factors that promote resilience against such exposures to inform policy and practice recommendations to reduce racial disparities in birth outcomes.

  12. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Influence of early stress on social abilities and serotonergic functions across generations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B Franklin

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environments during early development is a known risk factor for several psychiatric conditions including antisocial behavior and personality disorders. Here, we induced social anxiety and altered social recognition memory in adult mice using unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress during early postnatal life. We show that these social defects are not only pronounced in the animals directly subjected to stress, but are also transmitted to their offspring across two generations. The defects are associated with impaired serotonergic signaling, in particular, reduced 5HT1A receptor expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and increased serotonin level in a dorsal raphe projection area. These findings underscore the susceptibility of social behaviors and serotonergic pathways to early stress, and the persistence of their perturbation across generations.

  14. Hierarchical Status Predicts Behavioral Vulnerability and Nucleus Accumbens Metabolic Profile Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-07-24

    Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intersection of Stress, Social Disadvantage, and Life Course Processes: Reframing Trauma and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Nurius, Paula S.; Uehara, Edwina; Zatzick, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the intersection of converging lines of research on the social structural, psychosocial, and physiological factors involved in the production of stress and implications for the field of mental health. Of particular interest are the stress sensitization consequences stemming from exposure to adversity over the life course. Contemporary stress sensitization theory provides important clinical utility in articulating mechanisms through which these multiple levels exert influe...

  16. Stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure, sex, and relapse in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Thomas; Radoncic, Vanya; Hien, Denise; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Stress responding is linked to drug use, but little is known about stress responses in cannabis smokers. We investigated acute stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure and sex, and relationships between stress responses and cannabis relapse. 125 healthy, non-treatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers (23F, 102 M) completed the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor; subsets also completed a trauma questionnaire (n = 106) and a laboratory cannabis relapse measure (n = 54). Stress responding was assessed with heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol (CORT), and self-rated mood. Cannabis smokers reporting at least one trauma exposure had higher CORT and anxiety overall compared to those reporting no trauma. Stress responding did not differ as a function of binary trauma exposure, although total number of exposures correlated positively with CORT and anxiety during stress. Females reported increased nervousness after stress relative to males matched to the females for cannabis and cigarette use. An interactive effect of sex and trauma on HR suggested that females with trauma exposure have increased cardiovascular stress responding relative to those without such exposure, with no differential effect in males. Stress responding did not predict laboratory cannabis relapse. We report differences in acute stress responding as a function of trauma, sex, and their interaction in a large sample of relatively homogenous cannabis smokers. Further investigation of how trauma impacts stress responding in male and female cannabis smokers, and how this relates to different aspects of cannabis use, is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Resiliency to social defeat stress relates to the inter-strain social interaction and is influenced by season variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiuqin; Yang, Liu; Liu, Yan; Lv, Ning; Yu, Jin; Wu, Gencheng; Zhang, Yuqiu

    2014-02-21

    Exposure to social defeat (SD) stress exerts social avoidance and depressive disorders. Little is known about the relationship between resiliency to stressors and the inter-strain social interaction (SI) level. We hypothesized that SD resiliency is correlated with a high SI between the same strain. C57BL/6J mice experienced a 10-day period of SD stress by repeated CD-1 mice offensive. The susceptible mice exhibited significant social-avoidance behaviors with less time in interaction-zone (IZ) and lower social interaction ratio (SIR) toward the Target (CD-1 mice), while resilient ones exhibited similar social interaction to control mice. When the Target was C57BL/6J mouse, either susceptible or resilient mice spent more time in IZ and the inter-strain SI in the resilient group was significantly higher than the susceptible. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly non-zero slope of the linear relationship between SIRs toward two strains. But different groups had a similar baseline of the inter-strain SI before stress, indicating a SD-induced defect in both types of SI. In addition, in four different seasons, animals exhibited a significant resiliency to the stress in summer. These data suggest that SD resiliency is related to a higher SI toward the same-strain, and may be regulated by seasonal variations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extended effect of chronic social defeat stress in childhood on behaviors in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina L Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Individuals exposed to social stress in childhood are more predisposed to developing psychoemotional disorders in adulthood. Here we use an animal model to determine the influence of hostile social environment in adolescence on behavior during adult life. One-month-old adolescent male mice were placed for 2 weeks in a common cage with an adult aggressive male. Animals were separated by a transparent perforated partition, but the adolescent male was exposed daily to short attacks from the adult male. After exposure to social stress, some of the adolescent mice were placed for 3 weeks in comfortable conditions. Following this rest period, stressed young males and adult males were studied in a range of behavioral tests to evaluate the levels of anxiety, depressiveness, and communicativeness with an unfamiliar partner. In addition, adult mice exposed to social stress in adolescence were engaged in agonistic interactions. We found that 2 weeks of social stress result in a decrease of communicativeness in the home cage and diminished social interactions on the novel territory. Stressed adolescents demonstrated a high level of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test and helplessness in the Porsolt test. Furthermore, the number of dividing (BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in stressed adolescents. After 3 weeks of rest, most behavioral characteristics in different tests, as well as the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus, did not differ from those of the respective control mice. However, the level of anxiety remained high in adult males exposed to chronic social stress in childhood. Furthermore, these males were more aggressive in the agonistic interactions. Thus, hostile social environment in adolescence disturbs psychoemotional state and social behaviors of animals in adult life.

  20. Extended Effect of Chronic Social Defeat Stress in Childhood on Behaviors in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Irina L.; Galyamina, Anna G.; Smagin, Dmitry A.; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to social stress in childhood are more predisposed to developing psychoemotional disorders in adulthood. Here we use an animal model to determine the influence of hostile social environment in adolescence on behavior during adult life. One-month-old adolescent male mice were placed for 2 weeks in a common cage with an adult aggressive male. Animals were separated by a transparent perforated partition, but the adolescent male was exposed daily to short attacks from the adult male. After exposure to social stress, some of the adolescent mice were placed for 3 weeks in comfortable conditions. Following this rest period, stressed young males and adult males were studied in a range of behavioral tests to evaluate the levels of anxiety, depressiveness, and communicativeness with an unfamiliar partner. In addition, adult mice exposed to social stress in adolescence were engaged in agonistic interactions. We found that 2 weeks of social stress result in a decrease of communicativeness in the home cage and diminished social interactions on the novel territory. Stressed adolescents demonstrated a high level of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test and helplessness in the Porsolt test. Furthermore, the number of dividing (BrdU-positive) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in stressed adolescents. After 3 weeks of rest, most behavioral characteristics in different tests, as well as the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus, did not differ from those of the respective control mice. However, the level of anxiety remained high in adult males exposed to chronic social stress in childhood. Furthermore, these males were more aggressive in the agonistic interactions. Thus, hostile social environment in adolescence disturbs psychoemotional state and social behaviors of animals in adult life. PMID:24667609

  1. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Neurobiology of Maternal Stress: Role of Social Rank and Central Oxytocin in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Coplan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.

  3. Low lifetime stress exposure is associated with reduced stimulus–response memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V.; Shields, Grant S.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Slavich, George M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus–response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme, effects of very low stress exposure are mixed, with some studies reporting that low stress leads to better outcomes, while others demonstrate that low stress is associated with diminished resilience and negative outcomes. However, the influence of very low lifetime stress exposure on episodic and stimulus–response memory is unknown. Here we use a lifetime stress assessment system (STRAIN) to assess cumulative lifetime stress exposure and measure memory performance in young adults reporting very low and moderate levels of lifetime stress exposure. Relative to moderate levels of stress, very low levels of lifetime stress were associated with reduced use and retention (24 h later) of stimulus–response (SR) associations, and a higher likelihood of using context memory. Further, computational modeling revealed that participants with low levels of stress exhibited worse expression of memory for SR associations than those with moderate stress. These results demonstrate that very low levels of stress exposure can have negative effects on cognition. PMID:28298555

  4. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  5. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  7. Sexually dimorphic effects of ancestral exposure to vinclozolin on stress reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K; Gore, Andrea C; Crews, David

    2014-10-01

    How an individual responds to the environment depends upon both personal life history as well as inherited genetic and epigenetic factors from ancestors. Using a 2-hit, 3 generations apart model, we tested how F3 descendants of rats given in utero exposure to the environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) vinclozolin reacted to stress during adolescence in their own lives, focusing on sexually dimorphic phenotypic outcomes. In adulthood, male and female F3 vinclozolin- or vehicle-lineage rats, stressed or nonstressed, were behaviorally characterized on a battery of tests and then euthanized. Serum was used for hormone assays, and brains were used for quantitative PCR and transcriptome analyses. Results showed that the effects of ancestral exposure to vinclozolin converged with stress experienced during adolescence in a sexually dimorphic manner. Debilitating effects were seen at all levels of the phenotype, including physiology, behavior, brain metabolism, gene expression, and genome-wide transcriptome modifications in specific brain nuclei. Additionally, females were significantly more vulnerable than males to transgenerational effects of vinclozolin on anxiety but not sociality tests. This fundamental transformation occurs in a manner not predicted by the ancestral exposure or the proximate effects of stress during adolescence, an interaction we refer to as synchronicity.

  8. Crime, fear and continuous traumatic stress in South Africa: What place social cohesion?

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    International literature on crime and violence suggests that social cohesion may play a key role in facilitating prevention at community level. It is argued that in South Africa high levels of crime entailing interpersonal violation not only reflect ruptures in the social fabric but also contribute to social disorganization. In exploring the traumatic impact of exposure to fairly pervasive criminality via the constructs of Fear of Crime (FoC) and Continuous Traumatic Stress the article explor...

  9. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  10. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  11. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  12. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  14. Stress in the City: Influence of Urban Social Stress and Violence on Pregnancy and Postpartum Quality of Life among Adolescent and Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.

  15. Vagal tone as a biomarker of long-term memory for a stressful social event at 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates infants' memory for social stress after a 15-day retention interval using behavior and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Experimental group infants were exposed to face-to-face still-face paradigm (FFSF) two times; the first time at 4 months and after a 2-week interval. Control group infants were exposed to FFSF only once at 4 months plus 2 weeks. Infants were categorized as suppressors or non-suppressors based on the direction of RSA change at first FFSF exposure. No behavioral differences were found among groups and exposure conditions. In the experimental group suppressors changed and showed no suppression when re-exposed 2 weeks later to FFSF. Non-suppressors showed no change in RSA from the first to the second exposure to FFSF. Control infants showed similar RSA changes to experimental infants at their first exposure. Findings indicate that 4-month-old infants have memory for social stress related to individual differences in autonomic reactivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stress Sensitization of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Reduction in Social Interaction: Inhibition by CRF-1 and Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonists and a 5-HT1A-Receptor Agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H

    2004-01-01

    Repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol sensitize the withdrawal-induced reduction in social interaction behaviors. This study determined whether stress might substitute for repeated withdrawals to facilitate withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. When two 1-h periods of restraint stress were applied at 1-week intervals to rats fed control diet, social interaction was reduced upon withdrawal from a subsequent 5-day exposure to ethanol diet. Neither this ethanol exposure alone nor exposur...

  17. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  19. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  20. Effects of diet quality on vulnerability to mild subchronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P healthy control mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.

  1. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  2. Exogenous testosterone enhances cortisol and affective responses to social-evaluative stress in dominant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-11-01

    Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Media Use and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Holly Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become a pervasive form of communication, yet little is known about how use relates to stress. Previous research suggests a link between social media use and psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and well-being. However, there is limited empirical knowledge concerning how social media use specifically influences and is influenced by stress, with a particular dearth of objective measurement. In a series of studies, this relationship was exp...

  4. Social defeat stress induces a depression-like phenotype in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Riggs, Lace M; Nieto, Steven J; Dayrit, Genesis; Zamora, Norma N; Shawhan, Kristi L; Cruz, Bryan; Warren, Brandon L

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Exposure to stress is highly correlated with the emergence of mood-related illnesses. Because major depressive disorder often emerges in adolescence, we assessed the effects of social defeat stress on responses to depressive-like behaviors in juvenile mice. To do this, postnatal day (PD) 35 male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 10 days of social defeat stress (PD35-44), while control mice were handled daily. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat (PD45), separate groups of mice were tested in the social interaction, forced swimming, sucrose preference, and elevated plus-maze behavioral assays (n = 7-12 per group). Also, we examined body weight gain across days of social defeat and levels of blood serum corticosterone 40 min after the last episode of defeat stress. Our data indicates that defeated mice exhibited a depressive-like phenotype as inferred from increased social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced sucrose preference (a measure of anhedonia), when compared to non-defeated controls. Defeated mice also displayed an anxiogenic-like phenotype when tested on the elevated plus-maze. Lastly, stressed mice displayed lower body weight gain, along with increased blood serum corticosterone levels, when compared to non-stressed controls. Overall, we show that in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice, social defeat stress induces a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype 24 h after the last episode of stress. These data suggest that the social defeat paradigm may be used to examine the etiology of stress-induced mood-related disorders during adolescence.

  5. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) reveals brain circuitry involved in responding to an acute novel stress in rats with a history of repeated social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Lee, Catherine S; Cook, Philip A; Gee, James C; Bhatnagar, Seema; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-10-02

    Responses to acute stressors are determined in part by stress history. For example, a history of chronic stress results in facilitated responses to a novel stressor and this facilitation is considered to be adaptive. We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure of rats to the resident-intruder model of social stress results in the emergence of two subpopulations that are characterized by different coping responses to stress. The submissive subpopulation failed to show facilitation to a novel stressor and developed a passive strategy in the Porsolt forced swim test. Because a passive stress coping response has been implicated in the propensity to develop certain psychiatric disorders, understanding the unique circuitry engaged by exposure to a novel stressor in these subpopulations would advance our understanding of the etiology of stress-related pathology. An ex vivo functional imaging technique, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), was used to identify and distinguish brain regions that are differentially activated by an acute swim stress (15 min) in rats with a history of social stress compared to controls. Specifically, Mn(2+) was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to swim stress and brains were later imaged ex vivo to reveal activated structures. When compared to controls, all rats with a history of social stress showed greater activation in specific striatal, hippocampal, hypothalamic, and midbrain regions. The submissive subpopulation of rats was further distinguished by significantly greater activation in amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and septum, suggesting that these regions may form a circuit mediating responses to novel stress in individuals that adopt passive coping strategies. The finding that different circuits are engaged by a novel stressor in the two subpopulations of rats exposed to social stress implicates a role for these circuits in determining individual strategies for responding to stressors

  6. Effects of ethanol on social avoidance induced by chronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H

    2017-01-01

    In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.

  7. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  8. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  9. Stress of home life and gender role socializations, family cohesion, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-04-05

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis by acrylamide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoike, Yuta, E-mail: komoike@research.twmu.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Masato, E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2016-11-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a well-known neurotoxic compound in humans and experimental animals. However, intracellular stress signaling pathways responsible for the neurotoxicity of AA are still not clear. In this study, we explored the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in AA-induced neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to AA increased the levels of phosphorylated form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and its downstream effector, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), indicating the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by AA exposure. Furthermore, AA exposure increased the mRNA level of c/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), the ER stress-dependent apoptotic factor, and caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SH-SY5Y cells. Treatments of SH-SY5Y cells with the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine reduced the AA-induced expression of ATF4 protein and CHOP mRNA, and resulted in the suppression of apoptosis. In addition, AA-induced eIF2α phosphorylation was also suppressed by NAC treatment. In consistent with in vitro study, exposure of zebrafish larvae at 6-day post fertilization to AA induced the expression of chop mRNA and apoptotic cell death in the brain, and also caused the disruption of brain structure. These findings suggest that AA exposure induces apoptotic neuronal cell death through the ER stress and subsequent eIF2α–ATF4–CHOP signaling cascade. The accumulation of ROS by AA exposure appears to be responsible for this ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. - Highlights: • Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to AA activates the eIF2α–ATF4 pathway of the UPR. • Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to AA induces the CHOP expression and apoptosis. • Exposure of zebrafish to AA induces the chop expression and apoptosis in the brain. • AA possibly induces apoptotic neuronal cell death through the ER

  11. Stress, social behavior, and resilience: Insights from rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates. PMID:25562050

  12. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. PMID:22178036

  13. Stress Management: Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...

  14. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  15. Childhood exposure to emotional abuse and later life stress among Kenyan women: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Gutarra, Claudia; Billingsley, Katherine M; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-07-01

    We explore whether perceived stress among Kenyan mothers is predicted by childhood exposure to emotional abuse - both witnessed among parents and experienced directly. Further, we explore whether this association is mediated by social support, family functioning and polygynous marriage. We used cross-sectional data from a systematic random sample (n = 1974) of mothers in semi-rural Kenya. Data were collected using validated scales and trained interviewers. Analyses were conducted using bootstrapped structural equation models and fixed-effects linear regression models, controlling for age and household wealth. Reported experience of emotional abuse - both directly experienced and observed among household adults - was high in the present population (72.5% and 69%, respectively). Perceived stress among women was significantly higher if they were exposed to more emotional abuse during childhood (p emotional abuse exposure during childhood and adult perceived stress. Future research should investigate whether social integration, identity formation and self-esteem underlie observed dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to promote social integration and support should target children currently experiencing emotional abuse, and may include child-targeted high quality television programing and adult-targeted media and celebrity campaigns.

  16. Early Life Stress, Air Pollution, Inflammation, and Disease: An Integrative Review and Immunologic Model of Social-Environmental Adversity and Lifespan Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera Alvarez, Hector A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Campen, Matthew J; Slavich, George M

    2018-06-03

    Socially disadvantaged individuals are at greater risk for simultaneously being exposed to adverse social and environmental conditions. Although the mechanisms underlying joint effects remain unclear, one hypothesis is that toxic social and environmental exposures have synergistic effects on inflammatory processes that underlie the development of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and certain types of cancer. In the present review, we examine how exposure to two risk factors that commonly occur with social disadvantage-early life stress and air pollution-affect health. Specifically, we identify neuroimmunologic pathways that could link early life stress, inflammation, air pollution, and poor health, and use this information to propose an integrated, multi-level model that describes how these factors may interact and cause health disparity across individuals based on social disadvantage. This model highlights the importance of interdisciplinary research considering multiple exposures across domains and the potential for synergistic, cross-domain effects on health, and may help identify factors that could potentially be targeted to reduce disease risk and improve lifespan health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A; Roberts, William C; Schwab-Stone, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. A school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. Students reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. Community-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization

  18. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu

  19. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloritun, Rahman O; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R(2). This study found a model that explains 68% (pchange in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends.

  20. Socially related fears following exposure to trauma: environmental and genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Taylor, Steven; Jang, Kerry L

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have examined why socially related fears and posttraumatic stress commonly, but not invariably, co-occur. It may be that only traumata of human agency (e.g., sexual assault), for which there is an interpersonal component, give rise to co-occurring socially related fears. These symptoms might also co-occur because of shared genetic factors. We investigated these issues using a sample of 882 monozygotic and dizygotic twins. No significant differences in socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, fear of socially observable arousal symptoms) were found between participants reporting assaultive or nonassaultive trauma. However, significant differences in socially related fear were found when participants were grouped into probable PTSD and no PTSD groups. Participants with probable PTSD exhibited greater socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) than those without PTSD. Using biometric structural equation modeling, trauma exposure was best explained by shared and nonshared environmental influences. The fear of socially observable arousal symptoms was influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Impact of social stress in addiction to psychostimulants: what we know from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    the research, social stress exposure increases the initiation of psychostimulant consumption and the vulnerability to relapse in animal models of addiction. Studies on the mechanisms underlying the effects of social stress and how it can be counteracted pharmacologically, are research areas that should be explored in the future. At the same time, translational research on the effects of environmental conditions and positive social interactions, which have been shown to have a critical role in addictions, should be encouraged.

  2. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  3. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  4. Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ability to Discriminate Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Heat Stress Exposures-Part 1: WBGT Exposure Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Villalba, Ximena P; Wu, Yougui; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress exposure limits based on wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) were designed to limit exposures to those that could be sustained for an 8-h day using limited data from Lind in the 1960s. In general, Sustainable exposures are heat stress levels at which thermal equilibrium can be achieved, and Unsustainable exposures occur when there is a steady increase in core temperature. This paper addresses the ability of the ACGIH® Threshold Limit Value (TLV®) to differentiate between Sustainable and Unsustainable heat exposures, to propose alternative occupational exposure limits, and ask whether an adjustment for body surface area improves the exposure decision. Two progressive heat stress studies provided data on 176 trials with 352 pairs of Sustainable and Unsustainable exposures over a range of relative humidities and metabolic rates using 29 participants wearing woven cotton clothing. To assess the discrimination ability of the TLV, the exposure metric was the difference between the observed WBGT and the TLV adjusted for metabolic rate. Conditional logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) along with ROC's area under the curve (AUC) were used. Four alternative models for an occupational exposure limit were also developed and compared to the TLV. For the TLV, the odds ratio (OR) for Unsustainable was 2.5 per 1°C-WBGT [confidence interval (CI) 2.12-2.88]. The AUC for the TLV was 0.85 (CI 0.81-0.89). For the alternative models, the ORs were also about 2.5/°C-WBGT, with AUCs between 0.84 and 0.88, which were significantly different from the TLV's AUC but have little practical difference. This study (1) confirmed that the TLV is appropriate for heat stress screening; (2) demonstrated the TLV's discrimination accuracy with an ROC AUC of 0.85; and (3) established the OR of 2.5/°C-WBGT for unsustainable exposures. The TLV has high sensitivity, but its specificity is very low, which is protective. There were no important

  6. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  7. Social stress in young people with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of social stress, social skills and social acceptance were obtained. Participants with SLI reported experiencing significantly more social stress than did p...

  8. Lack of Social Support Raises Stress Vulnerability in Rats with a History of Ancestral Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Lotfi, Hamid; Moeeini, Reza; Moharreri, Ali-Reza; Roudaki, Shabnam; Hosseini, S Abedin; Olson, David M; Abdollahi, Ali-Akbar; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Mohajerani, Majid H; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2017-07-13

    Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone. Social isolation during stress induced cognitive and psychomotor retardation only in rats exposed to ancestral stress. Social isolation also hampered the resilience of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic stress and reduced hippocampal volume and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Thus, synergy between social isolation and stress may unmask a latent history of ancestral stress, and raises vulnerability to mental health conditions. The findings support the notion that social support critically promotes stress coping and resilience.

  9. HPA axis response to social stress is attenuated in schizophrenia but normal in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Simone; Dazzan, Paola; Kempton, Matthew J; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the HPA axis response to social stress in studies that used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or comparable distressing paradigms, in individuals with either depression or schizophrenia. Sample size-adjusted effect sizes (Hedge's g statistic) were calculated to estimate the HPA axis stress response to social stress. We used a meta-regression model to take into account the moderating effect of the baseline cortisol level. Participants with depression show an activation pattern to social stress similar to that of healthy controls. Despite a normal cortisol production rate, individuals with schizophrenia have lower cortisol levels than controls both in anticipation and after exposure to social stress. Participants with depression and higher cortisol levels before the task have an increased cortisol production and reached higher cortisol levels during the task. This may be explained by the presence of an impaired negative feedback. The activation pattern present in schizophrenia may explain the reduced ability to appropriately contextualize past experiences shown by individuals with psychosis in social stressful situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and its Interactions with Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Felton, Julia W.; Adams, Zachary W.; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were predicted by lower levels of social support (β = −.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, ptornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = −.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings are generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. PMID:26031997

  11. Social stress in rats and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; Meerlo, P; Sgoifo, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the highlights of our current social stress research in rodents as it was inspired by the work of Jim Henry. First, it is argued that social defeat can be considered as one of the most severe stressors among a number of laboratory stressful stimuli in terms of

  12. Differential GR Expression and Translocation in the Hippocampus Mediates Susceptibility vs. Resilience to Chronic Social Defeat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Qin Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While social stress exposure is a common risk factor for affective disorders, most individuals exposed to it can maintain normal physical and psychological functioning. However, factors that determine susceptibility vs. resilience to social stress remain unclear. Here, the resident-intruder model of social defeat was used as a social stressor in male C57BL/6J mice to investigate the difference between susceptibility and resilience. As depression is often characterized by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, we conducted the present study to further investigate the individual differences in the HPA axis response and glucocorticoid receptor (GR protein expression and translocation between susceptible mice and resilient mice. We found that hypercortisolemia, induced by social defeat stress occurred in susceptible mice, but not in resilient mice. Moreover, susceptible mice exhibited significantly less GR protein expression and nuclear translocation in the hippocampus than resilient mice. Treatment with escitalopram could decrease the serum corticosterone (CORT, increase GR protein expression as well as nuclear translocation in the hippocampus and ultimately reverse social withdrawal behaviors in susceptible mice. These results indicate that the up-regulation of GR and the enhancement of GR nuclear translocation in the hippocampus play an important role in resilience to chronic social defeat stress.

  13. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  14. Reversal of Stress-Induced Social Interaction Deficits by Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Falcon, Edgardo; Robinson, Shivon A; Berton, Olivier; Lucki, Irwin

    2018-02-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder frequently report persistent problems with social interactions, emerging after a traumatic experience. Chronic social defeat stress is a widely used rodent model of stress that produces robust and sustained social avoidance behavior. The avoidance of other rodents can be reversed by 28 days of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the only pharmaceutical class approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. In this study, the sensitivity of social interaction deficits evoked by 10 days of chronic social defeat stress to prospective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder was examined. The effects of acute and repeated treatment with a low dose of buprenorphine (0.25 mg/kg/d) on social interaction deficits in male C57BL/6 mice by chronic social defeat stress were studied. Another cohort of mice was used to determine the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/d), the NMDA antagonist ketamine (10 mg/kg/d), and the selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 (1 mg/kg/d). Changes in mRNA expression of Oprm1 and Oprk1 were assessed in a separate cohort. Buprenorphine significantly reversed social interaction deficits produced by chronic social defeat stress following 7 days of administration, but not after acute injection. Treatment with fluoxetine for 7 days, but not 24 hours, also reinstated social interaction behavior in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat. In contrast, CERC-501 and ketamine failed to reverse social avoidance. Gene expression analysis found: (1) Oprm1 mRNA expression was reduced in the hippocampus and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice and (2) Oprk1 mRNA expression was reduced in the amygdala and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice compared to non-stressed controls and stress-resilient mice. Short-term treatment with buprenorphine and fluoxetine

  15. Intersection of Stress, Social Disadvantage, and Life Course Processes: Reframing Trauma and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Uehara, Edwina; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the intersection of converging lines of research on the social structural, psychosocial, and physiological factors involved in the production of stress and implications for the field of mental health. Of particular interest are the stress sensitization consequences stemming from exposure to adversity over the life course. Contemporary stress sensitization theory provides important clinical utility in articulating mechanisms through which these multiple levels exert influence on mental health. Stress sensitization models (a) extend understanding of neurobiological and functional contexts within which extreme stressors operate and (b) make clear how these can influence psychologically traumatic outcomes. The value of interventions that are sensitive to current contexts as well as life course profiles of cumulative stress are illustrated through recent treatment innovations.

  16. Embryological exposure to valproic acid induces social interaction deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A developmental behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; De Paula Cognato, Giana; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-01-01

    Changes in social behavior are associated with brain disorders, including mood disorders, stress, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, anxiety, hyperactivity, and the presence of restricted interests. Zebrafish is one of the most social vertebrates used as a model in biomedical research, contributing to an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie social behavior. Valproic acid (VPA) is used as an anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer; however, prenatal VPA exposure in humans has been associated with an increased incidence of autism and it can also affect fetal brain development. Therefore, we conducted a behavioral screening at different periods of zebrafish development at 6, 30, 70, and 120dpf (days postfertilization) after VPA exposure in the early development stage to investigate social behavior, locomotion, aggression, and anxiety. VPA (48μM) exposure during the first 48hpf (hours postfertilization) did not promote changes on survival, morphology, and hatching rate at 24hpf, 48hpf, and 72hpf. The behavioral patterns suggest that VPA exposure induces changes in locomotor activity and anxiety at different developmental periods in zebrafish. Furthermore, a social interaction deficit is present at 70dpf and 120dpf. VPA exposure did not affect aggression in the adult stage at 70dpf and 120dpf. This is the first study that demonstrated zebrafish exposed to VPA during the first 48h of development exhibit deficits in social interaction, anxiety, and hyperactivity at different developmental periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social problem solving strategies and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Prevention and reversal of social stress-escalated cocaine self-administration in mice by intra-VTA CRFR1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2017-09-01

    A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined. The current study examines the roles of CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) in escalated intravenous cocaine self-administration after exposure to social defeat stress in mice. First, CRFR1 antagonist (CP 376,395, 15 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min prior to each social defeat episode prevented later escalated cocaine self-administration. When CP 376,395 (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 10 days after the last episode of social stress, the escalation of cocaine intake was dose-dependently reversed. Moreover, socially defeated mice showed increased CRF release in the VTA compared to controls. To further explore the role of CRFR1, CP 376,395 (0.5 and 1 μg/0.2 μl) was infused directly into the VTA before the cocaine self-administration session. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRFR1 was sufficient to reverse social defeat stress-escalated cocaine self-administration. These findings suggest that CRF and CRFR1 exert multiple roles in the response to social stress that are relevant to escalated cocaine self-administration.

  19. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  20. Troubled or Traumatized Youth? The Relations Between Psychopathy, Violence Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Antisocial Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined how psychopathy, exposure to violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with antisocial behavior among 1,354 serious delinquent adolescents from the Pathways to Desistance study. Results showed that psychopathy, violence exposure, and PTSD are independently linked to self-reported involvement of delinquency, even after controlling for respondents' demographic characteristics. However, the effect of PTSD on antisocial behavior was small. Differential associations were observed between the 2 factors of psychopathy, interpersonal/affective and social deviance, and PTSD symptoms. Specifically, the effect of social deviance characteristics on delinquency was above and beyond that of interpersonal/affective features. In addition, exposure to violence as a victim or witness were uniquely associated with increased delinquent behavior. Findings clarified the relations among psychopathy, violence exposure, PTSD, and antisocial behavior, and highlighted the differential links between psychopathy factors and delinquency.

  1. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  2. Low Lifetime Stress Exposure Is Associated with Reduced Stimulus-Response Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V.; Shields, Grant S.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Slavich, George M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme,…

  3. Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Miranda; Homberg, Judith R.; Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life. Development of the HPA-axis and the brain regions involved in its regulation starts prenatally and continues after birth, and is protected by several mechanisms preventing corticosteroid over-exposure to the maturing brain. Nevertheless, early life stress (ELS) exposure has been reported to have numerous consequences on HPA-axis function in adulthood, affecting both its basal and stress-induced activity. According to the match/mismatch theory, encountering ELS prepares an organism for similar (“matching”) adversities during adulthood, while a mismatching environment results in an increased susceptibility to psychopathology, indicating that ELS can exert either beneficial or disadvantageous effects depending on the environmental context. Here, we review studies investigating the mechanistic underpinnings of the ELS-induced alterations in the structural and functional development of the HPA-axis and its key external regulators (amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex). The effects of ELS appear highly dependent on the developmental time window affected, the sex of the offspring, and the developmental stage at which effects are assessed. Albeit by distinct mechanisms, ELS induced by prenatal stressors, maternal separation, or the limited nesting model inducing fragmented maternal care, typically results in HPA

  4. Openness to experience and adapting to change: Cardiovascular stress habituation to change in acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Súilleabháin, Páraic S; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .016), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .036) responsivity across the protocol. Openness was also associated with heart rate (HR) responding to the initial stress exposure (p = .044). Examination of cardiovascular adaptation revealed that higher openness was associated with significant SBP (p = .001), DBP (p = .009), and HR (p = .002) habituation in response to the second differing acute stress exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest persons higher in openness are characterized by an adaptive cardiovascular stress response profile within the context of changing acute stress exposures. This study is also the first to demonstrate individual differences in cardiovascular adaptation across a protocol consisting of differing stress exposures. More broadly, this research also suggests that future research may benefit from conceptualizing an adaptive fitness of openness within the context of change. In summary, the present study provides evidence that higher openness stimulates short-term stress responsivity, while ensuring cardiovascular habituation to change in stress across time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to m...

  6. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  7. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure in Nigerians. JI Anetor, SA Yaqub, GO Anetor, AC Nsonwu, FAA Adeniyi, S Fukushima. Abstract. Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds ...

  8. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  9. Social stress models in rodents : Towards enhanced validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, S F; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential

  10. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  11. Social Emotional Learning and Educational Stress: A Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…

  12. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  13. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  14. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  16. Exposure to stressors and trajectories of perceived stress among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Lynch, Scott M; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    Models of stress incorporate both the environmental demands experienced by individuals (stressors) and the appraisal of these life events (perceptions). Because little is known about the extent to which experience and perceptions are related, we examine this relationship in a nationally representative population of older Taiwanese adults. Using growth models applied to data from 3 waves (1999, 2003, and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging, we (a) investigate patterns of change in perceived stress in later adulthood and (b) examine how experienced stressors influence perceived stress. Participants were asked to report the presence of, and in some cases the degree of, exposure to stressors including total number of medical conditions, difficulty with activities of daily living, difficulty with mobility functions, being financially worse off compared with the prior wave, experiencing the death of a child, and experiencing a marital disruption. Items reflecting perceived stress included concerns about various domains pertaining to the respondent and his/her family member. Our results indicate that exposure to stressors increases, whereas perceived stress decreases, over time. Change in exposure to stressors is not generally associated with change in perceptions of stress, with the exception of a summary measure of health-related exposure to stressors. An increase in poor health over time is related to an increase in perceived stress in all domains. The results underscore the importance of distinguishing between perceptions of stress and exposure to stressors when studying the links between stress and health among older adults. Furthermore, the diminishing linkage between experienced stressors and perceptions of stress suggests that older adults' appraisal may be an adaptive coping strategy that emerges to buffer some of the difficulties that are inevitable in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The

  17. Stress-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory markers observed after common laboratory stressors are not seen following acute social defeat of the Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, Cara M; Barnum, Christopher J; Eberle, Jaime A; Ferraioli, Frank J; Buck, Hollin M; Deak, Terrence

    2011-08-03

    Exposure to acute stress has been shown to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain, blood and peripheral organs. However, the nature of the inflammatory response evoked by acute stress varies depending on the stressor used and species examined. The goal of the following series of studies was to characterize the consequences of social defeat in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat using three different social defeat paradigms. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male SD rats were exposed to a typical acute resident-intruder paradigm of social defeat (60 min) by placement into the home cage of a larger, aggressive Long Evans rat and brain tissue was collected at multiple time points for analysis of IL-1β protein and gene expression changes in the PVN, BNST and adrenal glands. In subsequent experiments, rats were exposed to once daily social defeat for 7 or 21 days (Experiment 3) or housed continuously with an aggressive partner (separated by a partition) for 7 days (Experiment 4) to assess the impact of chronic social stress on inflammatory measures. Despite the fact that social defeat produced a comparable corticosterone response as other stressors (restraint, forced swim and footshock; Experiment 5), acute social defeat did not affect inflammatory measures. A small but reliable increase in IL-1 gene expression was observed immediately after the 7th exposure to social defeat, while other inflammatory measures were unaffected. In contrast, restraint, forced swim and footshock all significantly increased IL-1 gene expression in the PVN; other inflammatory factors (IL-6, cox-2) were unaffected in this structure. These findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of stress-dependent inflammatory changes in the SD rat, raising intriguing questions regarding the features of the stress challenge that may be predictive of stress-dependent neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and behavioural effects induced by social stress plus MDMA administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Roger-Sánchez, C; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2017-02-15

    Adverse life experiences such as social stress may make an individual more vulnerable to drug addiction and mental disorders associated with drug consumption. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of stress induced by acute social defeat combined with the administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on depression-like behaviour, memory function and motor response to drug in late adolescent male mice. Two groups of mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) during four encounters with an aggressive co-specific, which took place on alternate days. Immediately after defeat, animals were treated with saline or MDMA 10mg/kg (SD+SAL and SD+MDMA). In control groups, mice were placed in a neutral cage without an opponent (Control+SAL, Control+MDMA). Corticosterone levels and temperature were measured on the last day of this phase. During the following days, the behaviour of the animals was evaluated in the tail suspension test (an animal model of depression), memory tasks (passive avoidance and object recognition) and, after administration of 5mg/kg of MDMA, in the open-field test. Exposure of adult mice to acute social defeat plus MDMA increased immobility in the tail suspension test (depression-like behaviour), produced cognitive impairment, and reduced the motor response to MDMA. An increase in corticosterone levels and a decrease of temperature were also observed. As hypothesised, a combination of social stress and consumption of MDMA increases the risk of developing mental and cognitive disorders. Our results support the idea that stress is a common contributing factor to the high rate of comorbidity between substance abuse and mental disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  20. Acute stress worsens the deficits in appetitive behaviors for social and sexual stimuli displayed by rats after long-term withdrawal from morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunjing; Belin, David; Zheng, Xigeng; Liu, Zhengkui; Zhang, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Negative affective states, e.g., anhedonia, are suggested to be involved in the long-lasting motivational processes associated with relapse. Here, we investigated whether anhedonic behaviors could be elicited by an acute stress after protracted abstinence from morphine. The behavioral responses to natural stimuli following exposure to an acute stress were examined after 14 days of withdrawal from morphine. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine regimen or daily saline injections for 5 days. The motivation for two natural stimuli, i.e., a social stimulus (male rat) and a sexual stimulus (estrous female rat), was measured, following exposure to an acute stress (intermittent foot shock, 0.5 mA * 0.5 s * 10 min; mean inter-shock interval 40 s), under three conditions: free approach and effort- and conflict-based approaches. Foot-shock-induced stress did not influence free-approach behavior (sniffing time) towards the social or sexual stimulus. However, in the effort-based approach task, the stressed morphine-withdrawn rats demonstrated an attenuated motivation to climb over a partition to approach the social stimulus while the stressed saline-pretreated rats showed an increased motivation to approach the social stimulus. When an aversive stimulus (pins) was introduced in order to induce an approach-avoidance conflict, both drug-withdrawn and drug-naïve groups exhibited a bimodal distribution of approach behavior towards the sexual stimulus after the stress was introduced, i.e., the majority of rats had low risky appetitive behaviors but a minority of them showed rather highly "risky" approach behavior. The acute stress induces differential motivational deficits for social and sexual rewards in protracted drug-abstinent rats.

  1. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  2. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  4. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  5. Physiologic response of rats to cold stress after exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Free, M.J.; Lang, L.L.; Chandon, J.H.; Kaune, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In two experiments, the responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems were assessed in rats subjected to cold stress after exposure to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 100 kV/m for one month. In the first experiment, plasma corticosterone levels were measured following exposure or sham exposure with the animals maintained at room temperature (∼23 deg). Corticosterone levels were also measured in rats subjected to cold stress (-13 deg. for one hour) immediately after the exposure period. Plasma corticosterone levels in the cold-stressed animals were significantly higher than in those kept at room temperature; however, there were no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals for either the ambient or cold-stress situations. The second experiment followed the same field exposure and cold-stress protocol, only measurements of heart rate, deep colonic temperature and skin temperature were made before, during and after cold-stressing. The results for exposed and sham-exposed animals were essentially identical, failing to demonstrate any effect of electric field exposure on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular response to cold stress. (author)

  6. Telecommuting: stress and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L

    1994-06-01

    Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socialization Ambiguity in Samoan Adolescents: A Model for Human Development and Stress in the Context of Culture Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Worthman, Carol M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid globalization is forcing youth around the world to confront new developmental challenges, and conceptual models are needed that can capture this experience and its developmental implications. Exposure to nontraditional lifestyles opens up new socialization opportunities and raises the possibility of stress-inducing dissonance between…

  9. Prenatal stress exposure, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation, and child autistic traits: The moderating role of OXTR rs53576 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-03-01

    Findings of studies investigating OXTR SNP rs53576 (G-A) variation in social behavior have been inconsistent, possibly because DNA methylation after stress exposure was eliminated from consideration. Our goal was to examine OXTR rs53576 allele-specific sensitivity for neonatal OXTR DNA methylation in relation to (1) a prenatal maternal stress composite, and (2) child autistic traits. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 years were collected in a total of 743 children participating in the Generation R Study. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was uniquely associated with child autistic traits but was unrelated to OXTR methylation across both OXTR rs53576 G-allele homozygous children and A-allele carriers. For child autistic traits in general and social communication problems in particular, we observed a significant OXTR rs53576 genotype by OXTR methylation interaction in the absence of main effects, suggesting that opposing effects cancelled each other out. Indeed, OXTR methylation levels were positively associated with social problems for OXTR rs53576 G-allele homozygous children but not for A-allele carriers. These results highlight the importance of incorporating epi-allelic information and support the role of OXTR methylation in child autistic traits. Autism Res 2017, 10: 430-438. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-08-15

    While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  11. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  12. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  13. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  14. [College students social anxiety associated with stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng

    2007-03-01

    To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.

  15. Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Lucas; Gouzi, Fares; Thireau, Jérôme; Meyer, Gregory; Boissiere, Julien; Delage, Martine; Abdellaoui, Aldja; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacampagne, Alain; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Hayot, Maurice; Richard, Sylvain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality. We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the possible involvement of related oxidative stress. Wistar rats exposed chronically (4 weeks) to sustained urban CO pollution presented more arrhythmic events than controls during recovery after cardiac challenge with isoprenaline in vivo. Sudden death occurred in 22% of CO-exposed rats versus 0% for controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation, was increased in left ventricular tissue of CO-exposed rats. Cardiomyocytes isolated from CO-exposed rats showed higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (measured with MitoSox Red dye), higher diastolic Ca(2+) resulting from SR calcium leak and an higher occurrence of irregular Ca(2+) transients (measured with Indo-1) in comparison to control cells after a high pacing sequence. Acute treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, 20 mmol/L, 1 h) prevented this sequence of alterations and decreased the number of arrhythmic cells following high pacing. Chronic CO exposure promotes oxidative stress that alters Ca(2+) homeostasis (through RYR2 and SERCA defects) and thereby mediates the triggering of ventricular arrhythmia after cardiac stress that can lead to sudden death.

  16. school survey of exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological data specifically documenting PTSD prevalence following violence exposure in children and adolescents in South Africa is lacking. In this preliminary survey, a positive association was found between exposure to violent and multiple traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  17. Changes in ventricular function during emotional stress and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Moore, R.A.; Dimsdale, J.; Alpert, N.M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with cardiac disease frequently develop symptoms with emotional stress or cold exposure. To investigate the effects of these stresses in normal subjects, an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST) (previously reported to measure EFs which correlate well with gamma camera measurements) was employed to record sequential 2 minute time activity curves from the left ventricles of 6 healthy men (ages 19-24) during a control period and during a 30 minute stress interview with a psychiatrist. Four of the subjects were also monitored in a cold room (1 0 C) for 20 min. In addition to the left ventricular time-activity curve, heart rate (HR), and BP (cuff) were recorded. All subjects had increases in HR, BP and EF during the stress interview. Cold, however, produced decreases in HR and EF and an increase in BP. The results (mean +- SD) are tabulated. End-systolic and end-diastolic counts and hence volume decreased during the interview and increased during cold exposure. The results suggest that (1) ambulatory changes in ventricular function can be measured with the VEST, and (2) significant changes in cardiovascular physiology are seen in normal subjects during a stress interview and exposure to cold

  18. Stress response in rat brain after different durations of noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, James; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Ravindran, Rajan; Senthilvelan, Manohar

    2007-01-01

    The alteration in the levels of plasma corticosterone, brain norepinephrine (NE), and expression of brain heat shock proteins (Hsp70) after different durations of noise exposure (acute, 1 day; sub-acute, 15 days; chronic, 30 days) has been studied to analyze their role in combating time-dependent stress effects of noise. Broadband white noise (100dB) exposure to male Wistar albino rats significantly increased the levels of plasma corticosterone and NE in all three durations of noise exposure. The sustained increase observed in their levels in the chronic group suggests that animals are not getting adapted to noise even after 30 days of exposure. The important role of Hsp70 in combating noise induced stress is evident from the significant increase in its expression after chronic exposure, while there was a reciprocal decrease in the NE and corticosterone when compared with their levels after acute and sub-acute noise exposure. This clearly indicates that the time-dependent stress response to noise exposure is a complex mechanism involving highly interconnected systems such as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, heat shock proteins and may have serious implications in vital organs, particularly in the brain when there is a prolonged noise exposure.

  19. Physiological adaptation to recurrent social stress of extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  2. Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps < .05). In conclusion, moderate stress exposure was associated with indicators of psychological resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  4. Social media as a shield: Facebook buffers acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2018-03-01

    Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  6. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Fiocco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to either a therapy dog (TD, n = 31 or a no-dog control (C, n = 30 group. The stress response was measured by electrodermal activity (EDA in response to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT. Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed pet attitude, general stress levels, and affect. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs showed that increase in EDA was significantly more pronounced in the C group than in the TD group (p < 0.01. Pet attitudes did not modulate the buffer effect of therapy dog exposure. Results suggest that therapy dog exposure may buffer the stress response in university students, which has implications for the promotion of a viable stress management program on university campuses.

  7. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  8. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Perinatal fluoxetine effects on social play, the HPA system, and hippocampal plasticity in pre-adolescent male and female rats: Interactions with pre-gestational maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Mary; Hazlett, Mariah; Bögi, Eszter; De Lacalle, Sonsoles; Hill, Lesley A; Kokras, Nikolaos; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Dalla, Christina; Charlier, Thierry D; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2017-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress. We also investigated synaptic proteins in the CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as well as number of immature neurons in the granule cell layer, as both measures of plasticity in the hippocampus have been linked to social behaviors. In pre-adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, main findings show that perinatal fluoxetine prevents the negative effect of maternal stress on sibling play behavior. However, perinatal fluoxetine increased social aggressive play with a novel conspecific in both sexes and decreased time grooming a novel conspecific in males only. Perinatal fluoxetine also increased serum corticosteroid binding globulin levels, 5-HT levels in the hippocampus, and pre-synaptic density assessed via synaptophysin in the dentate gyrus. Social interaction was significantly correlated with changes in plasticity in the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Pre-gestational maternal stress exposure resulted in significantly decreased rates of hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptophysin density in the dentate gyrus of pre-adolescent males, but not females. Together, these results further characterize the role of perinatal SSRIs, maternal stress prior to conception, and sex/gender on developing social behaviors and related plasticity in the

  10. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  11. The epigenetic impacts of social stress: how does social adversity become biologically embedded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Vincent T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health. The roles of epigenetic mechanisms in responses to trauma and the evidence for their involvement in intergenerational transmission of the biological impacts of traumatic stress are also considered. Taken together, the emerging insights have important implications for development of strategies to improve societal health and well-being. PMID:27869483

  12. Somatic symptoms, peer and school stress, and family and community violence exposure among urban elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.

  13. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  14. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No effects of psychosocial stress on memory retrieval in non-treated young students with Generalized Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision-Making Competence, Social Orientation, Time Style, and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geisler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peoples’ decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students (n = 118 and professionals (police investigators, n = 90, we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched.

  17. Decision-Making Competence, Social Orientation, Time Style, and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Martin; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2018-01-01

    Peoples' decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students ( n = 118) and professionals (police investigators, n = 90), we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched.

  18. Decision-Making Competence, Social Orientation, Time Style, and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Martin; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2018-01-01

    Peoples’ decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students (n = 118) and professionals (police investigators, n = 90), we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched. PMID:29686634

  19. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice tha...

  20. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ø; Birkeland, M S; Blix, I; Hansen, M B; Heir, T

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and its link to functional impairment over time is limited. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology (Post-traumatic Checklist, PCL) was assessed three times in 1-year increments (T1, T2, T3) following the Oslo bombing of 22 July, 2011, in directly (n = 257) and indirectly exposed (n = 2223) government employees, together with demographics, measures of exposure and work and social adjustment. The dynamics of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom cluster interplay were examined within a structural equation modelling framework using a cross-lagged autoregressive panel model. Intrusions at T1 played a prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2 for the directly exposed group, exhibiting especially strong cross-lagged relationships with avoidance and anxious arousal. For the indirectly exposed group, dysphoric arousal at T1 played the most prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2, exhibiting a strong relationship with emotional numbing. Emotional numbing seemed to be the main driver behind prolonged stress at T3 for both groups. Functional impairment was predominately associated with dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing in both groups. For directly exposed individuals, memories of the traumatic incident and the following intrusions seem to drive their post-traumatic stress symptomatology. However, as these memories lose their potency over time, a sequela of dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing similar to the one reported by the indirectly exposed individuals seems to be the main driver for prolonged post-traumatic stress and functional impairment. Findings are discussed using contemporary models within an exposure-dependent perspective of post-traumatic stress.

  4. Adolescent Social Stress Produces an Enduring Activation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Alters its Coherence with the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure and endothelial stress in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Judith A; Huang, Hong; Nagaraja, Haikady; Kuck, Jennifer; Bauer, John Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Links between secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular disease in adults are well established. Little is known about the impact of this exposure on cardiovascular status during childhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between secondhand smoke exposure in children and adolescents and cardiovascular disease risk--systemic inflammation, endothelial stress, and endothelial repair. A total of 145 subjects, aged 9 to 18 years, were studied. Tobacco smoke exposure was determined by hair nicotine level. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and adiponectin); by soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (s-ICAM1), which measures endothelial activation after surface vascular injury; and by endothelial repair. This was measured by prevalence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are bone marrow-derived cells that home preferentially to sites of vascular damage. Hair nicotine was directly correlated with s-ICAM1 (r = 0.4090, P Secondhand smoke exposure during childhood and adolescence is detrimental to vascular health because s-ICAM1 is a marker for endothelial activation and stress after vascular surface injury, and EPCs contribute to vascular repair. The fact that body mass index is also a factor in the model predicting s-ICAM1 is concerning, in that 2 risk factors may both contribute to endothelial stress. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Exposure to Heat Stress with a Simple Urban Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoffmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in modeling health-related urban well-being (UrbWellth, a mathematical model is constructed that dynamically simulates heat stress exposure of commuters in an idealized city. This is done by coupling the Simple Urban Radiation Model (SURM, which computes the mean radiant temperature ( T m r t , with a newly developed multi-class multi-mode traffic model. Simulation results with parameters chosen for the city of Hamburg for a hot summer day show that commuters are potentially most exposed to heat stress in the early afternoon when T m r t has its maximum. Varying the morphology with respect to street width and building height shows that a more compact city configuration reduces T m r t and therefore the exposure to heat stress. The impact resulting from changes in the city structure on traffic is simulated to determine the time spent outside during the commute. While the time in traffic jams increases for compact cities, the total commuting time decreases due to shorter distances between home and work place. Concerning adaptation measures, it is shown that increases in the albedo of the urban surfaces lead to an increase in daytime heat stress. Dramatic increases in heat stress exposure are found when both, wall and street albedo, are increased.

  7. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  8. Teacher Stress and Social Support Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…

  9. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. II. Social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMikulecka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior represents an integral part of behavioral repertoire of rats particularly sensitive to pharmacological and environmental influences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early postnatal clonazepam (CZP exposure can induce age-dependent changes related to expression of social behavior. The drug was administered from postnatal day (P 7 until P11 at daily doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p. We designed three experiments to assess whether exposure to CZP affects social behavior in respect to the age of rats and the test circumstances, specifically their familiarity with test conditions during adolescence (P32, social behavior in juveniles and adolescents (P18-P42 and social behavior in a resident-intruder paradigm. The frequency and duration of a various patterns of social behavior related to play and social investigation not related to play were evaluated. The results showed that CZP postnatal exposure decreased social play behavior regardless of age and familiarity or unfamiliarity of experimental environment but did not affect the social investigation per se. When rats were confronted with an intruder in their home cages intense wrestling and inhibition of genital investigation were found. In conclusion, these findings show that short-term CZP postnatal exposure inhibits social play behavior and alters specific patterns of social behavior in an age and environment related manner

  10. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Social Buffering of Stress in Development: A Career Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed. The central developmental question in this area derives from attachment theory which argues that the infant's experience of stress and arousal regulation in the context of her early attachment relationships is not an immature form of social buffering experienced in adulthood, but rather the foundation out of which individual differences in the capacity to gain stress relief from social partners emerge. The emergence of social buffering in infancy, changes in social buffering throughout childhood and adolescence, the influence of early experience on later individual differences in social buffering, and critical gaps in our knowledge are described. PMID:28544861

  13. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study:

  14. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkalec, Mirta [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mtkalec@zg.biol.pmf.hr; Malaric, Kresimir [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-12-15

    Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency EMFs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed effects. Duckweed was exposed for 2 h to EMFs of 400 and 900 MHz at field strengths of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m{sup -1}. The effect of a longer exposure time (4 h) and modulation was also investigated. After exposure, parameters of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content, activities and isoenzyme pattern of antioxidative enzymes as well as HSP70 expression were evaluated. At 400 MHz, lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content were significantly enhanced in duckweed exposed to EMFs of 23 and 120 V m{sup -1} while other exposure treatments did not have an effect. Compared to the controls, the activities of antioxidative enzymes showed different behaviour: catalase (CAT) activity increased after most exposure treatments while pyrogallol (PPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were not changed. Exceptions were reduced PPX and APX activity after longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} and increased PPX activity after exposures at 10 and 120 V m{sup -1}. By contrast, at 900 MHz almost all exposure treatments significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content but mostly decreased PPX activity and did not affect CAT activity. Exceptions were exposures to a modulated field and to the field of 120 V m{sup -1} which increased PPX and CAT activity. At this frequency APX activity was significantly decreased after exposure at 10 V m{sup -1} and longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} but it increased after a shorter exposure at

  15. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Malaric, Kresimir; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2007-01-01

    Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency EMFs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed effects. Duckweed was exposed for 2 h to EMFs of 400 and 900 MHz at field strengths of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m -1 . The effect of a longer exposure time (4 h) and modulation was also investigated. After exposure, parameters of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, H 2 O 2 content, activities and isoenzyme pattern of antioxidative enzymes as well as HSP70 expression were evaluated. At 400 MHz, lipid peroxidation and H 2 O 2 content were significantly enhanced in duckweed exposed to EMFs of 23 and 120 V m -1 while other exposure treatments did not have an effect. Compared to the controls, the activities of antioxidative enzymes showed different behaviour: catalase (CAT) activity increased after most exposure treatments while pyrogallol (PPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were not changed. Exceptions were reduced PPX and APX activity after longer exposure at 23 V m -1 and increased PPX activity after exposures at 10 and 120 V m -1 . By contrast, at 900 MHz almost all exposure treatments significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and H 2 O 2 content but mostly decreased PPX activity and did not affect CAT activity. Exceptions were exposures to a modulated field and to the field of 120 V m -1 which increased PPX and CAT activity. At this frequency APX activity was significantly decreased after exposure at 10 V m -1 and longer exposure at 23 V m -1 but it increased after a shorter exposure at 23 V m -1 . At both frequencies no differences in isoenzyme

  16. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  17. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  18. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  19. The longitudinal relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and perceived social support in survivors of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, A; Creamer, M; Forbes, D; McFarlane, A C; O'Donnell, M L; Silove, D; Steel, Z; Felmingham, K; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Bryant, R A

    2017-01-01

    Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury. Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event. Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point. Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.

  20. Violence Exposure in Home and Community: Influence on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the levels and types of violence exposure, levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the relationship among exposure to violence, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and early discharge in U.S. Army recruits at Basic Combat Training (BCT). The study applied a modified ABCX model of family stress adaptation developed by McCubbin,…

  1. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  2. Exposure and Engagement With Tobacco- and E-Cigarette-Related Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Case, Kathleen R; Kelder, Steven H; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L; Harrell, Melissa B

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the nature and extent of adolescents' exposure to tobacco- and e-cigarette-related communications on social media. In this study, we describe the prevalence and correlates of youth exposure and engagement with tobacco- and e-cigarette-related social media. Data are from the baseline survey of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system, a cross-sectional sample of sixth, eighth, and 10th graders (n = 3907, N = 461,097). Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics, sensation seeking, tobacco use, and exposure and engagement with tobacco-related social media. Overall, 52.5% of students reported exposure to tobacco-related social media in the past month, whereas social media was higher among those who were susceptible to, had ever, or currently use both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.10-3.46, p social media. Adolescents who are susceptible to or use e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco are exposed to and engage with tobacco-related social media more than their peers. Social media appears to be an important venue when targeting vulnerable youth in prevention campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Stress Exposure and Family Functioning in Internalizing Outcomes of Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Strachan, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing.

  4. Verbal Ability, Social Stress, and Anxiety in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…

  5. Developmental differences in stress responding after repeated underwater trauma exposures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel E; Simmons, Laurence P; Vuong, Chau T; Taylor, Rachel M; Sousa, Jason C; Marcsisin, Sean R; Zottig, Victor E; Moore, Nicole L T

    2018-05-01

    Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence. The present study characterized the ontogeny of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to eight underwater trauma (UWT) exposures in rats over a two week poststress time period during adolescence (P34) or adulthood (P83) relative to age-matched control groups that underwent eight swimming episodes without UWT. Repeated UWT exposures starting in adolescence, but not adulthood, resulted in adverse behavioral responses on the elevated plus maze 1 day post-stress. Corticosterone responses did not differ between UWT-exposed and controls for either age group at 1 day or at 7 days poststress, although there was an effect of age on corticosterone levels. We conclude that repeated UWT stress events have a lasting, negative behavioral effect on adolescent rats that is not observed in adult rats after the two-week exposure window. These results suggest that neurophysiological mechanisms underlying recovery from a repeated stressor are immature in adolescence relative to adulthood in rats.

  6. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  7. Cognitive impact of social stress and coping strategy throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.

  8. Indirect Effects of Social Skills on Health Through Stress and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2017-10-20

    The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.

  9. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  10. Social connectedness, stressful life events, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella

    2018-01-01

    Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacret, Darrell; Grafe, Laura A; Dobkin, Jane; Gotter, Anthony L; Rengerb, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-11

    Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determined the role of the orexin 2 receptor in these behaviors by using a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (MK-1064) administered prior to each social defeat. Following the 5 day social defeat conditioning period, rats were evaluated in social interaction and novel object recognition paradigms to assess anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory, respectively. Activation of orexin neurons by DREADDs prior to each social defeat decreased the average latency to become defeated across 5 days, indicative of a passive coping strategy that we have previously linked to a stress vulnerable phenotype. Moreover, stimulation of orexin signaling during defeat conditioning decreased subsequent social interaction and performance in the novel object recognition test indicating increased subsequent anxiety-like behavior and reduced working memory. Blocking the orexin 2 receptor during repeated defeat did not alter these effects. Together, our results suggest that orexin neuron activation produces a passive coping phenotype during social defeat leading to subsequent anxiety-like behaviors and memory deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives : Associations with affect and loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected

  13. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  14. Following the voices? Effects of social endorsements on exposure to political content on social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Mothes, Cornelia

    New technologies have altered news use patterns of citizens worldwide. A particular prominent feature on social media platforms are social endorsements (i.e., recommendations, reactions, and popularity measures). Those newly available indicators may guide users’ news consumption in significant ways....... Extant research points to the capability of social endorsements to instigate user interest and to even counteract traditional effects of source credibility or partisanship. However, effects of endorsements have not yet been tested comprehensively in realistic exposure settings. This study explores...... effects of social endorsements on selective exposure to political news in an online-survey experiment (n=209) before the German federal election in 2017. In a closely mimicked Facebook newsfeed, participants were provided with news and entertainment posts in conjunction with various social cues. Under...

  15. Dynamic functional connectivity and individual differences in emotions during social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Michael J; Hayashi, Koby; Ballard, Grey; Gotlib, Ian H; Waugh, Christian E

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to acute stress induces multiple emotional responses, each with their own unique temporal dynamics. Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) measures the temporal variability of network synchrony and captures individual differences in network neurodynamics. This study investigated the relationship between dFC and individual differences in emotions induced by an acute psychosocial stressor. Sixteen healthy adult women underwent fMRI scanning during a social evaluative threat (SET) task, and retrospectively completed questionnaires that assessed individual differences in subjectively experienced positive and negative emotions about stress and stress relief during the task. Group dFC was decomposed with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) into 10 components, each with a temporal signature, spatial network of functionally connected regions, and vector of participant loadings that captures individual differences in dFC. Participant loadings of two networks were positively correlated with stress-related emotions, indicating the existence of networks for positive and negative emotions. The emotion-related networks involved the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala, among other distributed brain regions, and time signatures for these emotion-related networks were uncorrelated. These findings demonstrate that individual differences in stress-induced positive and negative emotions are each uniquely associated with large-scale brain networks, and suggest that dFC is a mechanism that generates individual differences in the emotional components of the stress response. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6185-6205, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in pediatric primary care: association with child maltreatment and frequency of child exposure to traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Gudiño, Omar G; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with increased risk for child maltreatment and child exposure to traumatic events. Exposure to multiple traumatic events is associated with a wide range of adverse health and social outcomes in children. To examine the association of probable maternal depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD and depression with the risk for child maltreatment and parenting stress and with the number of traumatic events to which preschool children are exposed. Cross-sectional observational design. We used analysis of variance to determine whether probable maternal psychopathology groups differed on child maltreatment, parenting stress, and children's exposure to traumatic events. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the unique and interactive effects of depression and PTSD severity scores on these outcomes. Urban pediatric primary care outpatient clinic. Ninety-seven mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years. Pediatric primary care visit. Probable maternal depression and/or PTSD, parenting stress, child exposure to traumatic events, and child maltreatment. Mothers with probable comorbid PTSD and depression reported greater child-directed psychological aggression and physical assault and greater parenting stress. The children of mothers with PTSD (mean number of events the child was exposed to, 5.0) or with comorbid PTSD and depression (3.5 events) experienced more traumatic events than those of mothers with depression (1.2 events) or neither disorder (1.4 events). Severity of depressive symptoms uniquely predicted physical assault and neglect. Symptom scores for PTSD and depression interacted to predict psychological aggression and child exposure to traumatic events. When PTSD symptom severity scores were high, psychological aggression and the number of traumatic events children experienced rose. Depressive symptom severity scores predicted the risk for psychological aggression and exposure to traumatic events

  17. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. Perceived Stress and Social Networks among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where ...

  19. Social anxiety, acute social stress, and reward parameters interact to predict risky decision-making among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  1. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  2. Dominance relationships in Syrian hamsters modulate neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Koul-Tiwari, Richa; Grizzell, J Alex; Harvey, Marquinta L; Datta, Subimal; Cooper, Matthew A

    2018-06-22

    Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates. Although the vmPFC can inhibit the neuroendocrine stress response, it is unknown whether dominants and subordinates differ in stress-induced activity of the extended hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we show that, following acute social defeat, dominants exhibit decreased submissive and defensive behavior compared to subordinates but do not differ from subordinates or social status controls (SSCs) in defeat-induced cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, both dominants and SSCs show greater corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the basolateral/central amygdala compared to subordinates, while there was no effect of social status on CRH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Overall, status-dependent differences in the CD response do not appear linked to changes in stress-induced cortisol concentrations or CRH gene expression, which is consistent with the view that stress resilience is not a lack of a physiological stress response but the addition of stress coping mechanisms. Lay summary Dominant hamsters show resistance to the behavioral effects of acute social defeat compared to subordinates, but it is unclear whether social status modulates the neuroendocrine stress response

  3. Stress, social relationships and health outcomes in low-income Francistown, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modie-Moroka, Tirelo

    2014-08-01

    Studies assessing the impact of stress on health outcomes are lacking in developing countries such as Botswana, in Southern Africa. This study examines the relationships between individual life stressors (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships and quality of life (QoL), for low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. Although there are many studies of social support and quality of life, no studies have so far explored the relationship among the three variables. Selected concepts from stress theory are used as a conceptual framework. Using a cross-sectional quantitative design (both descriptive and explanatory), this study examined the associations among life stress (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships, and four indicators of health and QoL among a sample of 388 low-income urban dwellers in Francistown, Botswana. Using multiple regression models, the results of this study show that the availability of social relationships was associated with better physical and psychological health and level of independence. Controlling for the physical domain of QoL, social relationships buffered the effects of chronic life stressors on QoL and level of independence. Social relationships buffer the effects of stressful life events on quality, not on psychological well-being. Social relationships had no moderating effect on physical health, level of independence and on quality of life.

  4. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  5. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  6. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  7. The stress response in gametes and embryos after paternal chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Barbara F.; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Robaire, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation

  8. Trait anxiety mediates the effect of stress exposure on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression risk in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lotte; Sep, Milou S; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Cornelisse, Sandra; Nierich, Arno P; van der Maaten, Joost; Rosseel, Peter M; Hofland, Jan; Dieleman, Jan M; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Joëls, Marian; van Dijk, Diederik; Hillegers, Manon H

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are common after cardiac surgery. Lifetime stress exposure and personality traits may influence the development of these psychiatric conditions. Self-reported rates of PTSD and depression and potential determinants (i.e., trait anxiety and stress exposure) were established 1.5 to 4 years after cardiac surgery. Data was available for 1125 out of 1244 (90.4%) participants. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to investigate mediating and/or moderating effects of trait anxiety on the relationship between stress exposure, and PTSD and depression. Pre-planned subgroup analyses were performed for both sexes. PTSD and depression symptoms were present in 10.2% and 13.1% of the participants, respectively. Trait anxiety was a full mediator of the association between stress exposure and depression in both the total cohort and female and male subgroups. Moreover, trait anxiety partially mediated the relationship between stress exposure and PTSD in the full cohort and the male subgroup, whereas trait anxiety fully mediated this relationship in female patients. Trait anxiety did not play a moderating role in the total patient sample, nor after stratification on gender. The unequal distribution of male (78%) and female patients (22%) might limit the generalizability of our findings. Furthermore, risk factors were investigated retrospectively and with variable follow-up time. In cardiac surgery patients, trait anxiety was found to be an important mediator of postoperative PTSD and depression. Prospective research is necessary to verify whether these factors are reliable screening measures of individuals' vulnerability for psychopathology development after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary traumatic stress among mental health providers working with the military: prevalence and its work- and exposure-related correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C

    2013-11-01

    Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).

  11. The impact of life stress on adult depression and anxiety is dependent on gender and timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Allen, Karina; Robinson, Monique; Newnham, John; Pennell, Craig

    2017-10-01

    There is debate about the relative importance of timing of stressful events prenatally and over the life course and risk for subsequent depressive/anxious illness. The aim of this study was to examine the relative roles of prenatal stress and postnatal stress trajectories in predicting depression and anxiety in early adulthood in males and females. Exposure to life stress events was examined in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study during pregnancy and ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years. At age 20, offspring completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Prenatal stress and trajectories of stress events from age 1 to 17 were analyzed in linear regression analyses. Five postnatal stress trajectories were identified. In females, medium to high chronic stress exposure or exposure during puberty/adolescence predicted depression and anxiety symptoms while low or reduced stress exposure over the life course did not, after adjustment for relevant confounders. High stress early in pregnancy contributed to male depression/anxiety symptoms independent of postnatal stress trajectory. In females, postnatal stress trajectory was more important than prenatal stress in predicting depression/anxiety symptoms. Interventions focused on reducing and managing stress events around conception/pregnancy and exposure to chronic stress are likely to have beneficial outcomes on rates of depression and anxiety in adults.

  12. Critical disease windows shaped by stress exposure alter allocation trade-offs between development and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested. We used ranavirus and larval amphibians as a model system to investigate how physiological stress and pathogenic infection shape development and disease dynamics in vertebrates. Based on a resource allocation model, we designed experiments to test how exposure to stressors may induce resource trade-offs that shape critical windows and disease processes because the neuroendocrine stress axis coordinates developmental remodelling, immune function and energy allocation in larval amphibians. We used wood frog larvae (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate how chronic and acute exposure to corticosterone, the dominant amphibian glucocorticoid hormone, mediates development and immune function via splenocyte immunohistochemistry analysis in association with ranavirus infection. Corticosterone treatments affected immune function, as both chronic and acute exposure suppressed splenocyte proliferation, although viral replication rate increased only in the chronic corticosterone treatment. Time to metamorphosis and survival depended on both corticosterone treatment and infection status. In the control and chronic corticosterone treatments, ranavirus infection decreased survival and delayed metamorphosis, although chronic corticosterone exposure accelerated rate of metamorphosis in uninfected larvae. Acute corticosterone exposure accelerated metamorphosis increased survival in infected larvae. Interactions

  13. The role of postdeployment social factors in linking deployment experiences and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology among male and female veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Wang, Joyce M; Vaughn-Coaxum, Rachel A; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Vogt, Dawne

    2017-01-01

    The postdeployment social context is likely highly salient in explaining mental health symptoms following deployment. The aim of this study was to examine the role of postdeployment social factors (social support and social reintegration difficulty) in linking deployment-related experiences (warfare exposure, sexual harassment, concerns about relationship disruptions, and deployment social support) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in male and female veterans. A survey was administered to 998 potential participants (after accounting for undeliverable mail) who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Completed surveys were received from 469 veterans, yielding a response rate of 47%. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. For male and female veterans, deployment factors predicted later PTSD symptoms through postdeployment social support and social reintegration, with lower support and higher social reintegration difficulty both associated with higher PTSD symptomatology. While the final models for women and men indicated similar risk mechanisms, some differences in pathways were observed. Sexual harassment presented more of a risk for women, whereas lower social support was a greater risk factor for men. Postdeployment social factors appear to represent potentially important targets for interventions aiming to reduce the potential impact of stressful deployment experiences.

  14. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  15. Can high social capital at the workplace buffer against stress and musculoskeletal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians. Female laboratory technicians (n = 500) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0–10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain and the predictor variable was social capital. General linear models tested the association of the 3 types of social capital (predictor variables) with stress and pain (mutually adjusted outcome variables). Analyses were controlled for age, lifestyle (body mass index, smoking), seniority, and working hours per week. For stress as outcome, moderate and high bonding social capital were different from low social capital with −2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.33 to −0.76) and −4.56 (95% CI −5.84 to −3.28) points on the Perceived Stress Scale of 0 to 42, respectively. Similarly, moderate and high bridging social capital were different from low social capital with −1.50 (95% CI −2.76 to −0.24) and −4.39 (95% CI −5.75 to −3.03), respectively. For linking, only high social was significantly different from low with −2.94 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.60). None of the 3 types of social capital was associated with musculoskeletal pain. Higher levels of social capital at the workplace appear to buffer against stress, but not against

  16. Parental Stress and Social Support of Caregivers of Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.

  17. Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Evelyne; Légeron, Patrick; Roy, Stéphane; Chemin, Isabelle; Lauer, Françoise; Nugues, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Graded exposure to feared social situations (either in vivo or by imagining the situations) is fundamental to obtain an improvement of the anxious symptoms. Virtual reality (VR) may be an alternative to these standard exposure techniques and seems to bring significant advantages by allowing exposures to numerous and varied situations. Moreover studies have shown that human subjects are appropriately sensitive to virtual environments. This chapter reports the definition of a VR-based clinical protocol and a study to treat social phobia using virtual reality techniques. The virtual environments used in the treatment reproduce four situations that social phobics feel the most threatening: performance, intimacy, scrutiny and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors when coping with social situations, with the aim of reducing her or his anxiety in the corresponding real life situations. Some studies have been carried out using virtual reality in the treatment of fear of public speaking, which is only a small part of the symptomatology of most of social phobic patients. The novelty of our work is to address a larger group of situations that the phobic patients experience with high anxiety. In our protocol, the efficacy of the virtual reality treatment is compared to well established and well validated group cognitive-behavioral treatment.

  18. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  19. Social stress induces high intensity sleep in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Pragt, Bertrand J.; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of social stress on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in rats. Animals were subjected to a single social defeat by introducing them in the cage of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. The animals responded to the social conflict by a sharp increase in EEG slow-wave activity

  20. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  1. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  2. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Alexandra J; Hunse, Anastasia M

    2017-06-30

    Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to either a therapy dog (TD, n = 31) or a no-dog control (C, n = 30) group. The stress response was measured by electrodermal activity (EDA) in response to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed pet attitude, general stress levels, and affect. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that increase in EDA was significantly more pronounced in the C group than in the TD group ( p stress response in university students, which has implications for the promotion of a viable stress management program on university campuses.

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents researches and experiments performed in collaboration with a psychiatrist in order to validate and improve the use of virtual reality in social phobia psychotherapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are strongly based on the exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. Virtual reality seems to be appropriate for such exposures as it allows for on-demand reproduction of reality. The idea has been validated for the treatment of various phobias but is more delicate in the case o...

  5. Peripheral and central effects of repeated social defeat stress: monocyte trafficking, microglial activation, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, B F; Jarrett, B L; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-03-19

    The development and exacerbation of depression and anxiety are associated with exposure to repeated psychosocial stress. Stress is known to affect the bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems leading to elevated levels of stress mediators including glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines and increased trafficking of proinflammatory immune cells. Animal models, like the repeated social defeat (RSD) paradigm, were developed to explore this connection between stress and affective disorders. RSD induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increases bone marrow production and egress of primed, GC-insensitive monocytes, and stimulates the trafficking of these cells to tissues including the spleen, lung, and brain. Recently, the observation that these monocytes have the ability to traffic to the brain perivascular spaces and parenchyma have provided mechanisms by which these peripheral cells may contribute to the prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with RSD. The data that have been amassed from the RSD paradigm and others recapitulate many of the behavioral and immunological phenotypes associated with human anxiety disorders and may serve to elucidate potential avenues of treatment for these disorders. Here, we will discuss novel and key data that will present an overview of the neuroendocrine, immunological and behavioral responses to social stressors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of social stress on time perception and psychophysiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedger, Kathryne; Necka, Elizabeth A; Barakzai, Anam K; Norman, Greg J

    2017-05-01

    Time perception is a fundamental component of everyday life. Although time can be measured using standard units, the relationship between an individual's experience of perceived time and a standard unit is highly sensitive to context. Stressful and threatening stimuli have been previously shown to produce time distortion effects, such that individuals perceive the stimuli as lasting for different amounts of time as compared to a standard unit. As a highly social species, humans are acutely sensitive to social stressors; however, time distortion effects have not been studied in the context of social stress. We collected psychophysiological (electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography) and time perception data before, during, and after a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for 42 participants. Based on prior theories and evidence from the time perception literature, we hypothesized that experiencing a stressful event would result in time distortion. This hypothesis was supported by the data, with individuals on average reproducing short and long duration negative and positive stimuli as lasting longer after experiencing social stress, t(41) = -3.55, p = .001, and t(41) = -4.12, p social stress. These findings are in line with some other studies of time distortion, and provide evidence for the interoceptive salience model of time perception. Implications for mechanisms of time distortion are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder among flood victims: Testing a multiple mediating model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lijuan; Zhen, Rui; Yao, Benxian; Zhou, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    A total of 187 flood victims from Wuhu, a Chinese city affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete self-report measures of traumatic exposure, feelings of safety, fear, posttraumatic negative cognition, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The results found that traumatic exposure could directly predict posttraumatic stress disorder. Besides, traumatic exposure had indirect prediction on posttraumatic stress disorder through three ways, including a one-step path of negative self-cognition, a two-step path from feelings of safety to fear, and a three-step path from feelings of safety to negative self-cognition via fear. Implications and future directions are correspondingly discussed.

  8. High-risk diagnosis, social stress, and parent-child relationships: A moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t[92]=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress exposure and generation: A conjoint longitudinal model of body dysmorphic symptoms, peer acceptance, popularity, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the bidirectional (conjoint) longitudinal pathways linking adolescents' body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms with self- and peer-reported social functioning. Participants were 367 Australian students (45.5% boys, mean age=12.01 years) who participated in two waves of a longitudinal study with a 12-month lag between assessments. Participants self-reported their symptoms characteristic of BDD, and perception of peer acceptance. Classmates reported who was popular and victimized in their grade, and rated their liking (acceptance) of their classmates. In support of both stress exposure and stress generation models, T1 victimization was significantly associated with more symptoms characteristic of BDD at T2 relative to T1, and higher symptom level at T1 was associated with lower perceptions of peer acceptance at T2 relative to T1. These results support the hypothesized bidirectional model, whereby adverse social experiences negatively impact symptoms characteristic of BDD over time, and symptoms also exacerbate low perceptions of peer-acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of maternal stress and perinatal fluoxetine exposure on behavioral outcomes of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryanova, V; Meunier, S J; Vecchiarelli, H A; Hill, M N; Dyck, R H

    2016-04-21

    Women of child-bearing age are the population group at highest risk for depression. In pregnant women, fluoxetine (Flx) is the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of depression. While maternal stress, depression, and Flx exposure have been shown to effect neurodevelopment of the offspring, separately, combined effects of maternal stress and Flx exposure have not been extensively examined. The present study investigated the effects of prenatal maternal stress and perinatal exposure to the SSRI Flx on the behavior of male mice as adults. C57BL/6 dams exposed to chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic (E) day 4 to E18 and non-stressed dams were administered Flx (25 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water from E15 to postnatal day 12. A separate control group consisted of animals that were not exposed to stress or Flx. At 12 days of age, brain levels of serotonin were assessed in the male offspring. At two months of age, the male offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal stress (PS), perinatal Flx, PS and Flx, or neither PS or Flx, went through a comprehensive behavioral test battery. At the end of testing brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in the frontal cortex of the offspring. Maternal behavior was not altered by either stress or Flx treatment. Treatment of the mother with Flx led to detectible Flx and NorFlx levels and lead to a decrease in serotonin levels in pup brains. In the adult male offspring, while perinatal exposure to Flx increased aggressive behavior, prenatal maternal stress decreased aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the combined effects of stress and Flx normalized aggressive behavior. Furthermore, perinatal Flx treatment led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in male offspring. PS led to hyperactivity and a decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal cortex regardless of Flx exposure. Neither maternal stress or Flx altered offspring performance in tests of cognitive

  11. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-str...

  12. Heart rate variability is associated with psychosocial stress in distinct social domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serotonin Coordinates Responses to Social Stress-What We Can Learn from Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backström, Tobias; Winberg, Svante

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction is stressful and subordinate individuals are often subjected to chronic stress, which greatly affects both their behavior and physiology. In teleost fish the social position of an individual may have long-term effects, such as effects on migration, age of sexual maturation or even sex. The brain serotonergic system plays a key role in coordinating autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. Social subordination results in a chronic activation of the brain serotonergic system an effect, which seems to be central in the subordinate phenotype. However, behavioral effects of short-term acute activation of the serotonergic system are less obvious. As in other vertebrates, divergent stress coping styles, often referred to as proactive and reactive, has been described in teleosts. As demonstrated by selective breeding, stress coping styles appear to be partly heritable. However, teleost fish are characterized by plasticity, stress coping style being affected by social experience. Again, the brain serotonergic system appears to play an important role. Studies comparing brain gene expression of fish of different social rank and/or displaying divergent stress coping styles have identified several novel factors that seem important for controlling aggressive behavior and stress coping, e.g., histamine and hypocretin/orexin. These may also interact with brain monoaminergic systems, including serotonin.

  14. The influence of social support and perceived stress on response time inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phibbs, Sandi; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2017-11-24

    Lack of social support and high levels of stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive aging. In this study we examined the relationships between these two risk factors and response time inconsistency (RTI), or trial-to-trial variability in choice response time tasks. RTI is an early indicator of declining cognitive health, and examining the influence of modifiable psychosocial risk factors on RTI is important for understanding and promoting cognitive health during adulthood and old age. Using data from a community sample study (n = 317; M age = 49, range = 19-83), we examined the effects of social support, including size of network and satisfaction with support, global perceived stress, and their interactions on RTI. Neither size of network nor satisfaction with support was associated with RTI independent of perceived stress. Stress was positively associated with increased RTI on all tasks, independent of social support. Perceived stress did not interact with either dimension of social support to predict RTI, and perceived stress effects were invariant across age and sex. Perceived stress, but not social support, may be a unique and modifiable risk factor for normal and pathological cognitive aging. Discussion focuses on the importance of perceived stress and its impact on RTI in supporting cognitive health in adulthood and old age.

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  16. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  17. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  18. The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. -- Highlights: ► The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined. ► Previous studies measured human exposure to pollution by fixed monitoring stations. ► This study measured actual personal exposure by mini sensors. ► High level of subjective social load and noise increase HRV. ► Low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. -- The research focuses on the effects of environmental factors; noise, subjective social stress, thermal load and CO on Heart Rate Variability

  19. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronjak, S; Gavrilovic, L

    2006-06-01

    Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days) and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4 degrees C, 2 h), were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(3H-methyl)-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to 3H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18%) and hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39%) in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  20. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronjak S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4ºC, 2 h, were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(³H-methyl-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to ³H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18% and hippocampal dopamine (about 20% stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39% in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20% as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  1. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety...

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  4. Social media literacy protects against the negative impact of exposure to appearance ideal social media images in young adult women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Natalie C; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2018-05-25

    Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (M age  = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (M age  = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only. Social media literacy was assessed prior to image exposure and body satisfaction measured before and after exposure. A negative effect of ideal image exposure on body satisfaction was observed in both women and men. In women only, commercial-social media literacy moderated the negative effect of exposure, independent of internalization or body comparison. Inclusion of social media literacy skills in prevention interventions is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent escalation of alcohol consumption by mice exposed to brief episodes of social defeat stress: suppression by CRF-R1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Andrew, Peter M; Auld, John G; Burk, Kelly C; Hwa, Lara S; Zhang, Eric Y; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2018-06-01

    Episodic bouts of social stress can precede the initiation, escalation, or relapse to disordered alcohol intake. Social stress may engender neuroadaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in extrahypothalamic stress circuitry to promote the escalation of alcohol intake. We aimed to (1) confirm a pattern of escalated drinking in socially defeated mice and to (2) test drugs that target distinct aspects of the HPA axis and extrahypothalamic neural substrates for their effectiveness in reducing murine, stress-escalated drinking. Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were socially defeated by resident Swiss-derived males for ten consecutive days receiving 30 bites/day. Ten days after the final defeat, cohorts of B6 mice received continuous or intermittent access to 20% EtOH (w/v) and water. After 4 weeks of drinking, mice were injected with weekly, systemic doses of the CRF-R1 antagonist, CP376395; the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone; the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone; or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Prior to drug treatments, defeated mice reliably consumed more EtOH than non-defeated controls, and mice given alcohol intermittently consumed more EtOH than those with continuous access. CP376395 (17-30 mg/kg) reduced continuous, but not intermittent EtOH intake (g/kg) in socially defeated mice. Mifepristone (100 mg/kg), however, increased drinking by defeated mice with intermittent access to alcohol while reducing drinking during continuous access. When administered finasteride (100 mg/kg) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg), all mice reduced their EtOH intake while increasing their water consumption. Mice with a history of episodic social defeat stress were selectively sensitive to the effects of CRF-R1 antagonism, suggesting that CRF-R1 may be a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders in individuals who escalate their drinking after exposure to repeated bouts of psychosocial stress. Future studies will clarify

  6. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  7. Stress, Social Support, and Depression: A Test of the Stress-Buffering Hypothesis in a Mexican Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Andrade, Flavia C. D.; Wiley, Angela R.; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Edwards, Laura L.; Aradillas-Garcia, Celia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social support as a potential moderator between stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican university applicants aged 16--21 years ("N" = 6,715; "M" age = 17.9 years; 55% female). In bivariate analyses, perceived stress was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and social support with lower…

  8. The impact of social stress on self-esteem and paranoid ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Bredenpohl, Marcel; Klenke, Julia; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2013-03-01

    Vulnerability-stress models propose that social stress triggers psychotic episodes in high risk individuals. Previous studies found not only stress but also a decrease in self-esteem to precede the formation of delusions. As evidence for causal conclusions has not been provided yet, the present study assessed the direct impact of social stress on paranoid beliefs using an experimental design and considered a decrease in self-esteem as a mediator and the proneness to psychosis and paranoia as moderators of the effect. A nonclinical population sample (n = 76) was randomly assigned to an experimental (EG) or a control group condition (CG). In the EG, participants were excluded during a virtual ball game (Cyberball) by the other two players and received a negative feedback after performing a test. The CG was included in the game and received a neutral feedback. Before and after the experimental conditions, emotions, self-esteem and paranoid beliefs were assessed using state-adapted questionnaires. After the social stress induction, the EG reported a higher increase in subclinical paranoid beliefs compared to the CG. The impact of social stress on paranoid ideation was mediated by a decrease in self-esteem and moderated by proneness to paranoia. Individuals who felt distressed by paranoid thoughts at baseline were more likely to react with an increase in paranoid ideation under social stress. The results need to be confirmed in a patient sample to draw conclusions about the processes involved in the formation of delusions in clinically relevant stages. The impact of social stress on symptom formation and self-esteem is discussed in terms of recent models of symptom formation and interventions in psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxic stress history and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in a social stress task: Genetic and epigenetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Hannah E; Ahmed, Sarah; Moore, Celia L; Hunter, Richard G

    2018-02-21

    Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test. Additional measures included perceived status, social support, background activity of HPA axis, and genetic variants in aspects of the stress response system. Participants (n = 90) answered questions about historical and ongoing stress, provided a DNA sample to examine genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic marks, and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which three saliva samples were collected to assess HPA function. Individuals who reported high levels of childhood adversity had a blunted salivary cortisol response to the TSST. Childhood adversity, discrimination experiences, and FKBP5 genotype were found to predict pretest cortisol levels. Following up on recent observations that the glucocorticoid receptor directly interacts with the mitochondrial genome, particularly the NADH dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) gene, individuals who reported high childhood adversity were also found to have higher percent methylation across six CpG sites upstream of MT-ND6. These findings suggest multiple contributions across psychological, genetic, epigenetic, and social domains to vulnerability and resilience in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Further study to examine how these multiple contributors affect developmental endpoints through integrated or independent pathways will be of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe, multimodal stress exposure induces PTSD-like characteristics in a mouse model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Eagle, Andrew L; George, Sophie A; Mulo, Kostika; Kohler, Robert J; Gerard, Justin; Harutyunyan, Arman; Hool, Steven M; Susick, Laura L; Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P; Liberzon, Israel; Conti, Alana C

    2016-04-15

    Appropriate animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed because human studies remain limited in their ability to probe the underlying neurobiology of PTSD. Although the single prolonged stress (SPS) model is an established rat model of PTSD, the development of a similarly-validated mouse model emphasizes the benefits and cross-species utility of rodent PTSD models and offers unique methodological advantages to that of the rat. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and describe a SPS model for mice and to provide data that support current mechanisms relevant to PTSD. The mouse single prolonged stress (mSPS) paradigm, involves exposing C57Bl/6 mice to a series of severe, multimodal stressors, including 2h restraint, 10 min group forced swim, exposure to soiled rat bedding scent, and exposure to ether until unconsciousness. Following a 7-day undisturbed period, mice were tested for cue-induced fear behavior, effects of paroxetine on cue-induced fear behavior, extinction retention of a previously extinguished fear memory, dexamethasone suppression of corticosterone (CORT) response, dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA expression, and prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. Exposure to mSPS enhanced cue-induced fear, which was attenuated by oral paroxetine treatment. mSPS also disrupted extinction retention, enhanced suppression of stress-induced CORT response, increased mRNA expression of dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and decreased prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. These data suggest that the mSPS model is a translationally-relevant model for future PTSD research with strong face, construct, and predictive validity. In summary, mSPS models characteristics relevant to PTSD and this severe, multimodal stress modifies fear learning in mice that coincides with changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, brain glucocorticoid systems, and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex

  11. Social housing and social isolation: Impact on stress indices and energy balance in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy P; Norvelle, Alisa; Choi, Dennis C; Walton, James C; Albers, H Elliott; Huhman, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological consequences of housing hamsters in social isolation versus in social groups. Male and female hamsters were housed singly or in stable groups of 5 for 4weeks after which they were weighed and trunk blood was collected. In addition, fat pads and thymus and adrenal glands were extracted and weighed. Serum and fecal cortisol were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Housing condition had no effect on serum or fecal cortisol, but socially housed hamsters displayed modest thymus gland involution. Socially housed females weighed more than did any other group, and socially housed females and males had more fat than did socially isolated hamsters. No wounding or tissue damage occurred in grouped hamsters. Overall, these data suggest that Syrian hamsters tolerate both stable social housing and social isolation in the laboratory although social housing is associated with some alteration in stress-related and bioenergetic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  13. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; McEwen, Bruce S; Russo, Scott J

    2018-01-01

    Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation) for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  14. Stressful life transitions and wellbeing: A comparison of the stress buffering hypothesis and the social identity model of identity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharso, Nurul F; Tear, Morgan J; Cruwys, Tegan

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis. Study 2 (N=79) was a longitudinal study that examined the adjustment of international students to university over the course of their first semester. Both studies found limited evidence for the buffering role of social support as predicted by the Stress Buffering Hypothesis; instead people who experienced a loss of social identities as a result of a stressor had a subsequent decline in wellbeing, consistent with the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. We conclude that stressful life events are best conceptualised as identity transitions. Such events are more likely to be perceived as stressful and compromise wellbeing when they entail identity loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  16. Can high social capital at the workplace buffer against stress and musculoskeletal pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced...... by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians.Female laboratory technicians (n = 500......) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0-10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain...

  17. Infertility Stress: The Role of Coping Strategies, Personality Trait, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.

  18. Altered Connexin 43 and Connexin 45 protein expression in the heart as a function of social and environmental stress in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Moffitt, Julia A; Henry, Matthew K; Firkins, Rachel; Senkler, Jonathan; McNeal, Neal; Wardwell, Joshua; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Dotson, Ashley; Schultz, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to social and environmental stressors may influence behavior as well as autonomic and cardiovascular regulation, potentially leading to depressive disorders and cardiac dysfunction including elevated sympathetic drive, reduced parasympathetic function, and ventricular arrhythmias. The cellular mechanisms that underlie these interactions are not well understood. One mechanism may involve alterations in the expression of Connexin43 (Cx43) and Connexin45 (Cx45), gap junction proteins in the heart that play an important role in ensuring efficient cell-to-cell coupling and the maintenance of cardiac rhythmicity. The present study investigated the hypothesis that long-term social isolation, combined with mild environmental stressors, would produce both depressive behaviors and altered Cx43 and Cx45 expression in the left ventricle of prairie voles - a socially monogamous rodent model. Adult, female prairie voles were exposed to either social isolation (n = 22) or control (paired, n = 23) conditions (4 weeks), alone or in combination with chronic mild stress (CMS) (1 week). Social isolation, versus paired control conditions, produced significantly (p Social isolation (alone) reduced (p social and environmental stress in the prairie vole.

  19. Mood and autonomic responses to repeated exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Ehlert, Ulrike; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew; La Marca, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    A group version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-G) was introduced as a standardized, economic and efficient tool to induce a psychobiological stress response simultaneously in a group of subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the TSST-G to repeatedly induce an affective and autonomic stress response while comparing two alternative protocols for the second examination. Healthy young male recruits participated twice in the TSST-G 10 weeks apart. In the first examination, the TSST-G consisted of a combination of mental arithmetic and a fake job interview (TSST-G-1st; n=294). For the second examination, mental arithmetic was combined with either (a) a defensive speech in response to a false shoplifting accusation (TSST-G-2nd-defence; n=105), or (b) a speech on a more neutral topic selected by the investigators (TSST-G-2nd-presentation; n=100). Affect ratings and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were determined immediately before and after the stress test, while heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured continuously. TSST-G-1st resulted in a significant increase of negative affect, HR, and sAA, and a significant decrease in positive affect and HRV. TSST-G-2nd, overall, resulted in a significant increase of HR and sAA (the latter only in response to TSST-G-2nd-defence) and a decrease in HRV, while no significant affect alterations were found. When comparing both, TSST-G-2nd-defence and -2nd-presentation, the former resulted in a stronger stress response with regard to HR and HRV. The findings reveal that the TSST-G is a useful protocol to repeatedly evoke an affective and autonomic stress response, while repetition leads to affective but not necessarily autonomic habituation. When interested in examining repeated psychosocial stress reactivity, a task that requires an ego-involving effort, such as a defensive speech, seems to be significantly superior to a task using an impersonal speech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  20. Social evaluative threat with verbal performance feedback alters neuroendocrine response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the

  2. Can green roofs reduce urban heat stress in vulnerable urban communities: A coupled atmospheric and social modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Woodruff, S.; Budhathoki, M.; Hamlet, A. F.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas provide organized, engineered, sociological and economical infrastructure designed to provide a high quality of life, but the implementation and management of urban infrastructure has been a continued challenge. Increasing urbanization, warming climate, as well as anthropogenic heat emissions that accompany urban development generates "stress". This rapidly increasing `urban stress' affects the sustainability of cities, making populations more vulnerable to extreme hazards, such as heat. Cities are beginning to extensively use green roofs as a potential urban heat mitigation strategy. This study explores the potential of green roofs to reduce summertime temperatures in the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the Chicago metropolitan area by combining social vulnerability indices (a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), and temperatures from mesoscale model. Numerical simulations using urbanized version the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to measure rooftop temperatures, a representative variable for exposure in this study. The WRF simulations were dynamically coupled with a green roof algorithm as a part of urban parameterization within WRF. Specifically, the study examines roof surface temperature with changing green roof fractions and how would they help reduce exposure to heat stress for vulnerable urban communities. This study shows an example of applied research that can directly benefit urban communities and be used by urban planners to evaluate mitigation strategies.

  3. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  4. Social stress response in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Goldstein, Tina R; Gratzmiller, Sarah M; Franzen, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models posit that stressors contribute to the onset and maintenance of bipolar disorder in adolescence through disruptions in stress physiology, but physiological response to stressors has not been evaluated in adolescents with bipolar illness. The present study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with bipolar disorder will have greater reactivity to a laboratory social stress task than healthy adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar illness (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 28) completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Task. Stress response was assessed using high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), salivary cortisol, and subjective stress. Multilevel models were used to test for group differences in resting-state physiology, and stress reactivity and recovery. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had greater reactivity in HF-HRV (z = 3.32), but blunted reactivity in MAP (z = -3.08) and cortisol (z = -2.60), during the stressor compared to healthy adolescents. They also had lower resting HF-HRV (z = -3.49) and cortisol (z = -2.86), and higher resting HR (z = 3.56), than healthy adolescents. These results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with disruptions in autonomic and endocrine response to stress during adolescence, including greater HF-HRV reactivity. Further research should evaluate whether these individual differences in stress physiology precede and predict the onset of mood episodes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Stress in Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…

  6. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F

    2013-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.

  7. Vigorous Physical Activity, Mental Health, Perceived Stress, and Socializing Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Nelson, Toben F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. Design A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Setting Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. Subjects A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Measures Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Analysis Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Conclusion Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions. PMID:23470187

  8. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen J F Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  10. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; van Gurp, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  11. Peer pressures: Social instability stress in adolescence and social deficits in adulthood in a rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.

  12. The Adverse Effects of Environmental Noise Exposure on Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Erwin; Steven, Sebastian; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Noise is a nonspecific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so-called nonauditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep, and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress. Chronic stress in turn is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, comprising increased blood pressure and dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and blood glucose, and activation of blood clotting factors, in animal models and humans. Persistent chronic noise exposure increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that aircraft noise exposure during nighttime can induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects and is even more pronounced in coronary artery disease patients. Importantly, impaired endothelial function was ameliorated by acute oral treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C, suggesting that excessive production of reactive oxygen species contributes to this phenomenon. More recently, we introduced a novel animal model of aircraft noise exposure characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to noise-dependent adverse oxidative stress-related effects on the vasculature. With the present review, we want to provide an overview of epidemiological, translational clinical, and preclinical noise research addressing the nonauditory, adverse effects of noise exposure with focus on oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 873–908. PMID:29350061

  13. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    OpenAIRE

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Fr?d?ric; Granon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads...

  14. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  15. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  17. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  18. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2018-01-01

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The reaction to social stress in social phobia: discordance between physiological and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbies, Elisabeth; Braeuer, David; Hoyer, Juergen; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Research on the biopsychological background of social phobia (SP) is scarce and inconsistent. We investigated endocrine and autonomic markers along with subjective responses to a standardized stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in SP patients and healthy controls (HC). We examined 88 patients with the primary diagnosis of SP as well as 78 age and sex comparable HCs with the TSST. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after the TSST for the assessment of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and prolactin. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded continuously. Scalp-near hair samples were collected for the assessment of long-term cortisol secretion. The self-reported stress response was measured with different state and trait scales. While self-reported anxiety was elevated in SP before, during, immediately after, and one week after the TSST, no significant differences in biological stress responses were observed between SP and HC. There was a trend for SP to show higher baseline stress markers. Also long-term cortisol deposition in hair remained unaltered. Our results suggest that the excessive self-reported stress in SP is not reflected by a respective biological stress response. Patients with SP apparently show neither an extreme form of focused fear reactivity nor excessive defensive impairment.

  20. Overprotective social support leads to increased cardiovascular and subjective stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zniva, Richard; Pauli, Paul; Schulz, Stefan M

    2017-02-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-enhancing social support helps individuals to perceive stressors as challenging rather than stressing. Overprotective support may reduce stress in the short-run but undermines autonomy, thus hampering stress-coping in the long run, particularly when social support is terminated. Heartrate, blood-pressure and ratings were examined in N=44 undergraduate students receiving autonomy support (calculation steps) or overprotection (solutions) from a close friend or no support for solving arithmetic tasks as well as during a subsequent stress-challenge (solving arithmetic tasks alone). Overprotection resulted in increased heartrate, diastolic blood-pressure, stress ratings, and decreased subjective control during stress-challenge. Autonomy support did not lead to unfavorable stress responding. The current findings are in line with assumptions derived from self-determination theory and indicate that autonomy support can help to prevent stress. Overprotection does not buffer stress and is associated with increased stress when discontinued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K

    2017-10-01

    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (pprevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Stress, Social Support, and Burnout Among Long-Term Care Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Erin L; Northrop, Lynn; Edelstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care nursing staff are subject to considerable occupational stress and report high levels of burnout, yet little is known about how stress and social support are associated with burnout in this population. The present study utilized the job demands-resources model of burnout to examine relations between job demands (occupational and personal stress), job resources (sources and functions of social support), and burnout in a sample of nursing staff at a long-term care facility (N = 250). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that job demands (greater occupational stress) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, more depersonalization, and less personal accomplishment. Job resources (support from supervisors and friends or family members, reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturing) were associated with less emotional exhaustion and higher levels of personal accomplishment. Interventions to reduce burnout that include a focus on stress and social support outside of work may be particularly beneficial for long-term care staff. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  4. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety.

  5. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  7. Early Life Trauma Exposure and Stress Sensitivity in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Damion J.; Ford, Julian D.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. Methods The sample included 213 2–4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. Results In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors h...

  8. Reported Exposure and Emotional Reactivity to Daily Stressors: The Roles of Adult-Age and Global Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age, but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between young and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in old adults, and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  9. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R

    2013-10-01

    This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

  12. Antioxidative stress responses in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor L. with cylindrospermopsin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rojas, Nelida Cecilia; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Cylindrospermopsin toxicity and oxidative stress have been examined in aquatic animals, however, only a few studies with aquatic plants have been conducted focusing on the potential for bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin. The oxidative stress effects caused by cylindrospermopsin on macrophytes have not yet been specifically studied. The oxidative stress response of Lemna minor L. with exposure to cylindrospermopsin, was therefore tested in this study. The hydrogen peroxide concentration together with the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) were determined after 24h (hours) of exposure to varying concentrations (0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 25μg/L) of cylindrospermopsin. Responses with longer exposure periods (48, 96, 168h) were tested only with exposure to 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the content of the carotenoids was determined as a possible non-enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism against cylindrospermopsin. The levels of hydrogen peroxide increased after 24h even at the lowest cylindrospermopsin exposure concentrations. Catalase showed the most representative antioxidant response observed after 24h and maintained its activity throughout the experiment. Catalase activity corresponded with the contents of hydrogen peroxide at 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. The data suggest that glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and the carotenoid content act together with catalase but are more sensitive to higher concentrations of cylindrospermopsin and after a longer exposure period (168h). The results indicate that cylindrospermopsin promotes oxidative stress in L. minor at concentrations of 2.5 and 25μg/L. However, L. minor has sufficient defence mechanisms in place against this cyanobacterial toxin. Even though L. minor exhibits the potential to managing and control cylindrospermopsin contamination in aquatic systems, further studies in tolerance limits to

  13. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  14. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  15. Trait anxiety mediates the effect of stress exposure on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression risk in cardiac surgery patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Lotte; Sep, Milou S; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Cornelisse, Sandra; Nierich, Arno P; van der Maaten, Joost; Rosseel, Peter M; Hofland, Jan; Dieleman, Jan M; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Joëls, Marian; van Dijk, Diederik; Hillegers, Manon H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are common after cardiac surgery. Lifetime stress exposure and personality traits may influence the development of these psychiatric conditions. METHODS: Self-reported rates of PTSD and depression and potential determinants (i.e.,

  16. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hartanto

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  18. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G M; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Controlling Social Stress in Virtual Reality Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006

  20. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  1. Stress, social support and psychosomatic symptoms in a deprived neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...

  2. Increased precipitation of spasms in an animal model of infantile spasms by prenatal stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Juan; Shang, Ning-Xiu; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) represent a serious epileptic syndrome, called West syndrome (WS) that occurs in the early infantile age. Although several hypotheses and animal models have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of IS, the pathophysiology of IS has not been elucidated. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis for IS under prenatal stress exposure (also called Zou's hypothesis) by correlating diverse etiologies and prenatal stresses with IS development. This research aims to determine the mechanism through which prenatal stress affects the offspring and establish the potential underlying mechanisms. Pregnant rats were subjected to forced swimming in cold water. Rat pups exposed to prenatal stress were administered with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exposure to prenatal stress sensitized the rats against development of NMDA-induced spasms. However, this phenomenon was altered by administering adrenocorticotropin. Prenatal stress exposure also altered the hormonal levels and neurotransmitter receptor expression of the developing rats as well as influenced the tissue structure of the brain. These findings suggest that maternal stress could alter the level of endogenous glucocorticoid, which is the basis of IS, and cerebral dysplasia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), inherited metabolic diseases, and other factors activated this disease in developmental brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1 LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC, life skills training (LST, or breathing awareness meditation (BAM. Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.

  4. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  5. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to chronic mild stress prevents kappa opioid-mediated reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ream eAl-Hasani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress increases the risk of drug abuse, causes relapse to drug seeking, and potentiates the rewarding properties of both nicotine and cocaine. Understanding the mechanisms by which stress regulates the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse provides valuable insight into potential treatments for drug abuse. Prior reports have demonstrated that stress causes dynorphin release, activating kappa-opioid receptors (KOR in monoamine circuits resulting in both potentiation and reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine conditioned place preference. Here we report that kappa-opioid dependent reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference is reduced when the mice are exposed to a randomized chronic mild stress regime prior to training in a conditioned place preference-reinstatement paradigm. The chronic mild stress schedule involves seven different stressors (removal of nesting for 24hr, 5min forced swim stress at 15°C, 8hr food and water deprivation, damp bedding overnight, white noise, cage tilt and disrupted home cage lighting rotated over a three-week period. This response is KOR-selective, because chronic mild stress does not protect against cocaine or nicotine drug-primed reinstatement. This protection from reinstatement is also observed following sub-chronic social defeat stress, where each mouse is placed in an aggressor mouse home cage for a period of 20 min over five days. In contrast, a single acute stressor resulted in a potentiation of KOR-induced reinstatement, similarly to previously reported. Prior studies have shown that stress alters sensitivity to opioids and prior stress can influence the pharmacodynamics of the opioid receptor system. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to different forms of stress may cause a dysregulation of kappa opioid circuitry and that changes resulting from mild stress can have protective and adaptive effects against drug relapse.

  7. Social group dynamics predict stress variability among children in a New Zealand classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Julie; Floyd, Bruce; Littleton, Judith; Trnka, Susanna; Mattison, Siobhan

    2018-03-27

    Previous research proposes stress as a mechanism for linking social environments and biological bodies. In particular, non-human primate studies investigate relationships between cortisol as a measure of stress response and social hierarchies. Because human social structures often include hierarchies of dominance and social status, humans may exhibit similar patterns. Studies of non-human primates, however, have not reached consistent conclusions with respect to relationships between social position and levels of cortisol. While human studies report associations between cortisol and various aspects of social environments, studies that consider social status as a predictor of stress response also report mixed results. Others have argued that perceptions of social status may have different implications for stress response depending upon social context. We propose here that characteristics of children's social networks may be a better predictor of central tendencies and variability of stress response than their perceptions of social status. This is evaluated among 24 children from 9.4 to 11.3 years of age in one upper middle-class New Zealand primary school classroom, assessed through observation within the classroom, self-reports during semi-structured interviews and 221 serial saliva samples provided daily over 10 consecutive school days. A synthetic assessment of the children's networks and peer-relationships was developed prior to saliva-cortisol analysis. We found that greater stability of peer-relationships within groups significantly predicts lower within-group variation in mid-morning cortisol over the two-week period, but not overall within-group differences in mean cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive adaptation to stress in adulthood after short-term social instability stress during adolescence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, A P N; Massoco, C O

    2017-05-01

    This study reports that short-term social instability stress (SIS) in adolescence increases passive-coping in adulthood in male mice. Short-term SIS decreased the latency of immobility and increased the frequency and time of immobility in tail suspension test. These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent stress can induce a passive adaptation to stress in adulthood, even if it is a short period of stress.

  9. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of stress and affiliation on social decision-making: Investigating the tend-and-befriend pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Engert, Veronika; Linz, Roman; Singer, Tania

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of psychosocial stress in Western societies is constantly on the rise. Its influence on social decision-making, however, remains poorly understood. Whereas, it is known that stress triggers psychological and physiological defense mechanisms, indications of such patterns in social decisions are ambivalent. We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced social decisions. We recruited 145 men, who were individually exposed to either a psychosocial stressor or a control condition, while primed with affiliation by interacting either with members of an in- or an out-group. We found that stressed participants were less trusting and engaged in less costly punishment compared to the non-stressed control group. Interacting with out-group members led to less reciprocity and more spiteful punishment. There was no interaction between stress and the affiliation conditions in any of the used social-decision-making paradigms. Lastly, while stress-reactive cortisol levels had no effect on trust behavior, higher baseline cortisol was correlated with greater trust. Our findings suggest that previous ambiguities in data reported on the influence of stress on social decisions, namely tend-and-befriend behavior may have arisen through critical social confounds in the induction of stress. When controlling for potential social confounds, stress may trigger fight-or-flight behavior as indicated by increased social anxiety. These findings highlight the considerable context-dependence of psychosocial stress and its effects on social behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The ties that bind: perceived social support, stress, and IBS in severely affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J M; Brasel, A M; Quigley, B M; Keefer, L; Krasner, S S; Powell, C; Katz, L A; Sitrin, M D

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels.

  13. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological stress response to loss of social influence and threats to masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2016-08-01

    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...

  17. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  18. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, R.A. de; Hendriks, L.; Becker, E.S.; Broekman, T.G.; Minnen, A. van

    2017-01-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of

  19. Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact.

  20. Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans: the role of social resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-12-01

    To (1) identify long-term trajectories of combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 in veterans with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) and (2) identify social predictors of these trajectories. A latent growth mixture modeling analysis on PTSD symptoms was conducted to identify PTSD trajectories and predictors. PTSD was defined according to DSM-III and assessed through the PTSD Inventory. Israeli male veterans with (n = 369) and without (n = 306) CSR were queried at 1, 2, and 20 years after war about combat exposure, military unit support, family environment, and social reintegration. For both study groups, we identified 4 distinct trajectories with varying prevalence across groups: resilience (CSR = 34.4%, non-CSR = 76.5%), recovery (CSR = 36.3%, non-CSR = 10.5%), delayed onset (CSR = 8.4%, non-CSR = 6.9%), and chronicity (CSR = 20.9%, non-CSR = 6.2%). Predictors of trajectories in both groups included perception of war threat (ORs = 1.59-2.47, P values ≤ .30), and negative social reintegration (ORs = 0.24-0.51, P values ≤ .047). Social support was associated with symptomatology only in the CSR group (ORs = 0.40-0.61, P values ≤ .045), while family coherence was predictive of symptomatology in the non-CSR group (OR = 0.76, P = .015) but not in the CSR group. Findings confirmed heterogeneity of long-term sequelae of combat, revealing 4 trajectories of resilience, recovery, delay, and chronicity in veterans with and without CSR. Symptomatic trajectories were more prevalent for the CSR group, suggesting that acute functional impairment predicts pathological outcomes. Predictors of symptomatic trajectories included perceived threat and social resources at the family, network, and societal levels. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Can high social capital at the workplace buffer against stress and musculoskeletal pain?: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-03-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians.Female laboratory technicians (n = 500) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0-10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain and the predictor variable was social capital. General linear models tested the association of the 3 types of social capital (predictor variables) with stress and pain (mutually adjusted outcome variables). Analyses were controlled for age, lifestyle (body mass index, smoking), seniority, and working hours per week.For stress as outcome, moderate and high bonding social capital were different from low social capital with -2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.33 to -0.76) and -4.56 (95% CI -5.84 to -3.28) points on the Perceived Stress Scale of 0 to 42, respectively. Similarly, moderate and high bridging social capital were different from low social capital with -1.50 (95% CI -2.76 to -0.24) and -4.39 (95% CI -5.75 to -3.03), respectively. For linking, only high social was significantly different from low with -2.94 (95% CI -4.28 to -1.60). None of the 3 types of social capital was associated with musculoskeletal pain.Higher levels of social capital at the workplace appear to buffer against stress, but not against musculoskeletal pain. Intervention studies should

  2. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  4. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired glucocorticoid-mediated HPA axis negative feedback induced by juvenile social isolation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Giorgia; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Biggio, Francesca; Muredda, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Paci, Elena; Follesa, Paolo; Concas, Alessandra; Porcu, Patrizia; Serra, Mariangela

    2018-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that socially isolated rats at weaning showed a significant decrease in corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, associated with an enhanced response to acute stressful stimuli. Here we shown that social isolation decreased levels of total corticosterone and of its carrier corticosteroid-binding globulin, but did not influence the availability of the free active fraction of corticosterone, both under basal conditions and after acute stress exposure. Under basal conditions, social isolation increased the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors, while it decreased that of mineralocorticoid receptors. After acute stress exposure, socially isolated rats showed long-lasting corticosterone, ACTH and corticotrophin releasing hormone responses. Moreover, while in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of group-housed rats glucocorticoid receptors expression increased with time and reached a peak when corticosterone levels returned to basal values, in socially isolated rats expression of glucocorticoid receptors did not change. Finally, social isolation also affected the hypothalamic endocannabinoid system: compared to group-housed rats, basal levels of anandamide and cannabinoid receptor type 1 were increased, while basal levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol were decreased in socially isolated rats and did not change after acute stress exposure. The present results show that social isolation in male rats alters basal HPA axis activity and impairs glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback after acute stress. Given that social isolation is considered an animal model of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, these data could contribute to better understand the alterations in HPA axis activity observed in these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social stress and population cycles: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Social stress is a population hypothesis that is invoked to explain the precipitous declines observed in population levels of such rodent species as Microtus pennsylvanicus. According to this hypothesis, stress is produced by the increase in aggressive contacts between animals in a growing population. Continued contacts produce profound hormonal and behavioral changes in these animals which lead to decreases in reproduction and viability. Several theoretical weaknesses of the hypothesis are raised. First, increases in density may not be positively correlated with the number of contacts. Animals may merely build more runways. Second, even if contacts do increase, they may not necessarily be aggressive in nature. Finally, confined populations which reach excessively high densities and for which contacts between animals must increase, fail to show a precipitous decline in numbers. In addition, a major methodological problem is revealed. Although researchers tend to causally connect social stress and precipitous population declines, most studies are correlational in nature. Of those studies that involve actual manipulations of populations, these manipulations are usually performed on confined populations that fail to exhibit the desired phenomonen. The difficulties associated with manipulating unconfined populations are discussed

  7. Stress and social support in caregivers of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Kalyane Câmara de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to describe the levels of stress and perceived social support for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP, as well as investigate the relationship between stress, social support, and variables related to caregivers, the environment and children, namely: the number of children, education level of caregivers, family income, behavior, and the child’s motor level. This study comprised 50 children with CP between 3 and 7.5 years old, their 50 caregivers, and 25 rehabilitation professionals who care for children in health institutions from the countryside of São Paulo state, Brazil. The following measuring instruments were used: the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy, the Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults, the Social Support Questionnaire, and a form identifying the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the following tests: Chi-square, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Odds Ratio. The results showed stress among the participating caregivers (66%, with predominance of the resistance phase (93.9% and psychological symptoms (69.7%, low perceived social support for caregivers, concomitant with an adequate satisfaction with the support received, as well as significant relationships of stress versus social support (p = 0.017 and education level versus social support (p = 0.037. The data allow analysis of the relationship between the variables investigated and about the impact of having a child with CP in the family regarding the physical, emotional and psychological well-being of caregivers, besides providing subsidies to think of strategies at different levels of care for families of children with disabilities.

  8. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  9. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  10. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  12. Depression, anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Allam, Farida; Salim, Samina

    2013-11-20

    In the present study, we have examined the behavioral and biochemical effect of induction of psychological stress using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (social defeat). At the end of the social defeat protocol, body weights, food and water intake were recorded, depression and anxiety-like behaviors as well as memory function was examined. Biochemical analysis including oxidative stress measurement, inflammatory markers and other molecular parameters, critical to behavioral effects were examined. We observed a significant decrease in the body weight in the socially defeated rats as compared to the controls. Furthermore, social defeat increased anxiety-like behavior and caused memory impairment in rats (PSocially defeated rats made significantly more errors in long term memory tests (Psocially defeated rats, when compared to control rats. We suggest that social defeat stress alters ERK1/2, IL-6, GLO1, GSR1, CAMKIV, CREB, and BDNF levels in specific brain areas, leading to oxidative stress-induced anxiety-depression-like behaviors and as well as memory impairment in rats. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prior stress exposure increases pain behaviors in a rat model of full thickness thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Jennifer E; McLean, Samuel A; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-12-01

    Thermal burns among individuals working in highly stressful environments, such as firefighters and military Service Members, are common. Evidence suggests that pre-injury stress may exaggerate pain following thermal injury; however current animal models of burn have not evaluated the potential influence of pre-burn stress. This sham-controlled study evaluated the influence of prior stress exposure on post-burn thermal and mechanical sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 20 min of inescapable swim stress or sham stress once per day for three days. Exposure to inescapable swim stress (1) increased the intensity and duration of thermal hyperalgesia after subsequent burn and (2) accelerated the onset of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after subsequent burn. This stress-induced exacerbation of pain sensitivity was reversed by pretreatment and concurrent treatment with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine. These data suggest a better understanding of mechanisms by which prior stress augments pain after thermal burn may lead to improved pain treatments for burn survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people.

  15. Deformation and stress in PMMA during hard X-ray exposure for deep lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, N.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns

  16. Neural Circuits via Which Single Prolonged Stress Exposure Leads to Fear Extinction Retention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R.; Staib, Jennifer M.; David, Nina P.; Keller, Samantha M.; DePietro, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions…

  17. Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, S.G.; Meuret, A.E.; Smits, J.A.J.; Simon, N.M.; Pollack, M.H.; Eisenmenger, K.; Shiekh, M.; Otto, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Social anxiety disorder ( SAD) is common and debilitating. Although exposure therapy is one of the most effective forms of psychotherapy for this disorder, many patients remain symptomatic. Fear reduction in exposure therapy is similar to extinction learning, and early clinical data with

  18. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  19. Virtual reality exposure using three-dimensional images for the treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Gebara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

  20. Ways of coping with stress and perceived social support in gynecologic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sema Dereli; Bal, Meltem Demirgöz; Beji, Nezihe Kzlkaya; Arvas, Macit

    2015-01-01

    Stress is commonly encountered among cancer patients and may be a challenge affecting immune system resistance. Social support may contribute positively to the health of cancer patients, playing a role in coping with stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether ways of coping are related to social support given to women with gynecologic cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional design in a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with 221 women with gynecologic cancer; the data were collected via 3 questionnaires, the first with sociodemographic and clinical features, the second with multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and the third with the scale of ways of coping with stress. Women with gynecologic cancer who were employed and declared their incomes as balanced and reported more years of education were more likely to perceive higher social support and to use the ineffective coping ways with stress at a lower rate (P perceived social support from family, friends, significant other, and total increases (P support from family members is the mainstay of coping with stress by women with gynecologic cancer. Nurses are indispensable in increasing social support required by women with gynecologic cancer. Well-trained clinical nurses via in-service programs should be experienced and aware of women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer in need of social support during hospital visits and provide necessary guidance.

  1. Media exposure and associated stress contribute to eating pathology in women with Anorexia Nervosa: Daily and momentary associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchell, James E; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether media exposure and media-induced stress contributed to eating disorder behaviors immediately and over the course of a day in women with anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on exposure to food, shape, or weight-related media, associated stress, and eating behaviors. Food, weight, or shape-related media exposure alone did not predict more frequent daily eating disorder behaviors. However, stress associated with media exposure was prospectively associated with a greater likelihood of binge eating and vomiting at the next assessment point. In addition, media-induced stress increased the probability of restrictive eating and fluid intake, vomiting, and laxative abuse across the day. Media-induced stress may contribute to increased eating disorder behaviors in women with AN, as women who saw a media image and reported this experience as stressful were more likely to engage in momentary binge eating or vomiting. Reducing stress associated with viewing media images could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention with disordered eating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:617-621). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  3. Stress and skin disease quality of life: the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T

    2018-04-01

    Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Job stress and family social behavior: the moderating role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L; Campos, Belinda

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of neuroticism in the associations between job stress and working adults' social behavior during the first hour after work with their spouse and school-age children. Thirty dual-earner families were videotaped in their homes on two weekday afternoons and evenings. An observational coding system was developed to assess behavioral involvement and negative emotion expression. Participants also completed self-report measures of job stressors and trait neuroticism. There were few overall associations between job stress and social behavior during the first hour adults were at home with their spouse and school-age children. However, significant moderator effects indicated that linkages between work experiences and family behavior varied for men who reported different levels of trait neuroticism, which captures a dispositional tendency toward emotional instability. Among men who reported high neuroticism, job stress was linked to more active and more negative social behavior. Conversely, for men reporting low neuroticism, job stress was related to less talking and less negative emotion. These patterns were not found for the women in the study. The findings suggest that when work is stressful, men who are higher on neuroticism (i.e., less emotionally stable) may show a negative spillover effect, whereas men who are lower on neuroticism (i.e., more emotionally stable) may withdraw from social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Stress, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…

  6. Childhood Trauma Exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Adult Functional Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…

  7. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Pina, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  8. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  9. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1β, TNSF10 and TNFα) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNFα in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  10. Social stress models in depression research: what do they tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouloff, Francis

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such an interest lies both on the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and on the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models bear important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat may have enduring psychoneuroendocrine effects, especially social avoidance and anhedonia, two behaviours relevant to human depression. Taken with the sensitivity of these behavioural outcomes to repeated antidepressant treatments, it has been proposed that the social defeat model might be an animal model of depression. The present survey is aimed at examining the limits of such an interpretation, focusing on methodological aspects and on the relevance of social defeat to the study of anxiety-related pathologies. PMID:23532563

  11. Post-quit stress mediates the relation between social support and smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Atem, Folefac; Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2016-06-01

    Social support interventions have demonstrated limited effectiveness for preventing smoking relapse. The stress-buffering hypothesis may be a useful framework by which to understand social support in smoking cessation interventions. The current study evaluated the interrelations among social support, stress, and smoking cessation in both moderation and mediation models. Participants (N=139) were enrolled in a smoking cessation study at the safety-net hospital in Dallas, Texas. During the week prior to a scheduled quit attempt, general social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) questionnaire and smoking-specific social support was measured via repeated smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Post-quit stress was repeatedly assessed via smartphone. Logistic regression analyses evaluated potential interaction effects of pre-quit social support and post-quit stress on the likelihood of achieving biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Mediation models were evaluated to determine if post-quit stress mediated the association between pre-quit social support and smoking cessation. Participants were predominantly Black (63.3%) and female (57.6%); and 55% reported an annual household income of social support did not significantly interact with post-quit stress to influence smoking cessation. However, post-quit stress did mediate associations between social support variables and smoking cessation. Findings indicated that social support impacts smoking cessation through its influence on post-quit stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults participating in cessation treatment. Increasing social support for the specific purpose of reducing stress during a quit attempt may improve smoking cessation rates in disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Oxytocin, a mediator of anti-stress, well-being, social interaction, growth and healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvnas-Moberg, Kerstin; Petersson, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The neuroendocrine and physiological systems related to pain and stress have long been subjected to study. More recently, the corresponding systems promoting anti-stress and restoration have also come into focus. It is not only important to investigate the mechanisms underlying disease but also to examine the physiological and psychological mechanisms which protect and heal the body and soul. The nonapeptide oxytocin, originally known to stimulate labour and milk ejection, appears to play an important role in this regard. Oxytocin can induce anti-stress-like effects such as reduction of blood pressure and cortisol levels. It increases pain thresholds, exerts an anxiolytic-like effect and stimulates various types of positive social interaction. In addition, it promotes growth and healing. Repeated exposure to oxytocin causes long-lasting effects by influencing the activity of other transmitter systems, a pattern which makes oxytocin potentially clinically relevant. Oxytocin can be released by various types of non-noxious sensory stimulation, for example by touch and warmth. Ingestion of food triggers oxytocin release by activation of vagal afferents. Most likely, oxytocin can also be released by stimulation of other senses such as olfaction, as well as by certain types of sound and light. In addition, purely psychological mechanisms may trigger the release of oxytocin. This means that positive interaction involving touch and psychological support may be health-promoting. The social interaction of daily life, as well as a positive environment, continuously activate this system. In addition, various types of psychotherapy involving transfer of support, warmth and empathy are likely to induce similar effects, which thus contribute to the positive effects of these kinds of therapies.

  13. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  14. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Maroun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  15. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Orli; Maroun, Mouna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI) and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience. PMID:18301720

  16. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  17. The stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kimberly S; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-11-01

    Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is 1 mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. One hundred eighty-eight participants completed a 1-day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. RESULTS indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Four-Month-Old Infants? Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    OpenAIRE

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...

  19. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  20. Trauma exposure and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress on somatic symptoms in civilian war victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Klaghofer, Richard; Müller, Julia; Martin-Soelch, Chantal

    2018-04-10

    It has been well documented that the exposure to war has a negative effect on the psychological health of civilian. However, little is known on the impact of war exposure on the physical health of the civilian population. In addition, the link between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study examined levels of somatic symptoms in the aftermath of war, and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms. Civilian war survivors (N = 142) from Kosovo were assessed for potentially traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Data were analyzed using mediation analyses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were categorized based on King's four factor model (Psychol Assessment. 10: 90-96, 1998). Participants reported on average more than 5 types of traumatic exposure. The cut-off indicative for PTSD was exceeded by 26.1% of participants. Symptom levels of PTSD were associated with somatic symptoms. The relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms was partly mediated by the active avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters of PTSD. Active avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms seem to play a key role in traumatized people suffering from somatic symptoms.

  1. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal stress has been linked to several adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, which may share a common pathophysiology with autism. We aimed to examine whether prenatal stress exposure after maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of autism later in life. METHODS: We...... compared with those in the unexposed group. RESULTS: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was not associated with an increased risk of autism in the offspring. The hazard ratios did not differ by the nature of the exposure (maternal relationship to the deceased or cause of death). The hazard...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  2. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: The role of interconnectedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M Doucerain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.

  3. Work Stress Adaptation: Roles of Gender, Social Support and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...

  4. Why are there lasting effects from exposure to stress during development? An analysis of current models of early stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, Lauren E

    2016-10-01

    The potential for stressful experiences in early life to cause lasting changes in phenotype is well documented, but the functional and evolutionary context of these changes is not well understood. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of lasting effects of stress exposure during gestation and early development; the purpose of this review is to discuss these hypotheses in the context of human and non-human animal research in the last three decades in order to (i) further dialogues between those approaching early stress from biomedical and evolutionary/ecological perspectives, (ii) outline strengths and limitations of current hypotheses, with respect to species and context-specific effects of exposure to stress in early development, and (iii) address recent evidence suggesting that stress in early development can have beneficial effects in adulthood. It is suggested that the hypotheses discussed are not mutually exclusive, but the applicability of each hypothesis will depend upon the environmental conditions and stability a species, or perhaps even an individual, experiences in their lifetime. Potential investigations to clarify applications of the current hypotheses are discussed, including longitudinal studies that span multiple developmental stages and investigations of species where measures of fitness are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. - Highlights: • Indoor and outdoor environments were classified by exposure to health concern. • Measurements taken by people provide better knowledge than fixed stations. • Social stress and noise are more stressing factors than Thermal load and CO. • The most stressful places are crowded ones like markets etc. • Short visit in green spaces are effective in reducing levels of stress.

  6. Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

  7. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  8. Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and risk-taking behavior in veterans of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlicky, Vlad; Solomon, Zahava; Benbenishty, Rami; Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has revealed heightened risk-taking behavior among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether the risktaking behavior is a direct outcome of the traumatic exposure or whether this relationship is mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms. The sample was comprised of 180 traumatized Israeli reserve soldiers, who sought treatment in the wake of the Second Lebanon War. Combat exposure was indirectly associated with risk-taking behavior primarily through its relationship with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results of the multivariate analyses depict the implication of posttraumatic stress symptoms in risk taking behavior, and the role of self-medication and of aggression in traumatized veterans.

  9. Adult vitamin D deficiency exacerbates impairments caused by social stress in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Natalie J; Zhou, Mei; Jhaveri, Dhanisha J; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. However, studies based on observational epidemiology cannot address questions of causality; they cannot determine if vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor leading to the adverse health outcome. The main aim of this study was to determine if AVD deficiency would exacerbate the effects of a secondary exposure, in this case social stress, in BALB/c mice and in the more resilient C57BL/6 mice. Ten-week old male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks, and the mice were further separated into one of two groups for social treatment, either Separated (SEP) or Social Defeat (DEF). SEP mice were placed two per cage with a perforated Plexiglas divider, whereas the DEF mice underwent 10days of social defeat prior to behavioural testing. We found that AVD-deficient mice were more vulnerable to the effects of social stress using a social avoidance test, and this was dependent on strain. These results support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate behavioural outcomes in mice vulnerable to stress, a finding that can help guide future studies. Importantly, these discoveries support the epidemiological link between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders; and has provided clues that can guide future studies related to unravelling the mechanisms of action linking adult vitamin D deficiency and adverse brain related outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of social support on occupational stress among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiegen; Ren, Xiaohua; Wang, Quanhai; He, Lianping; Wang, Jinquan; Jin, Yuelong; Chen, Yan; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Stress is a nonspecific reaction to everything the body needs. Although occupational stress exists in every occupation, it is seen with more frequency and intensity amongst those occupations related to human health. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and social support (SS) among hospital nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1144 hospital nurse in China. They were investigated with a self-administered questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress and social support. A validated version of the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R) was applied to evaluate occupational stress; SS was measured by nine questions. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the association between occupational stress and SS and adjusted for income, gender, marital status, working years, educational level, and profession. Of 1144 nurses, the majority age group was less than 30 years, and the mean age across participants was 31.8 years. Further correlation analysis indicated that score of ORQ and PSQ had a significant negative correlation with score of SS (Poccupational stress in hospitals nurse. We also should pay more attention to occupational stress of married and long working years nurse.

  11. Progesterone pretreatment increases the stress response to social isolation in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Damián, Juan Pablo; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, progesterone (P4) pretreatment increases anxiety and response to stressors. Social isolation is a stressor that generates physiological and behavioural stress responses in sheep. The aim of the study was to compare the stress response of anoestrous ewes previously treated or not with P4 to the social isolation test. Ten ewes received P4 treatment during 13 d (group P4-W) and another 10 remained untreated as controls (group Con). The ewes were individually isolated in a novel place during 10 min, 24 h after the end of P4 pretreatment and their behaviours were recorded. Cortisol and P4 concentrations as well as body surface temperature were recorded before and after the test. Ewes of the P4-W group presented higher cortisol levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after the social isolation and had greater area under the curve of cortisol compared to Con ewes (41,785%±4,156% vs. 25,682%±4,565% during 75 min). Progesterone and body surface temperature increased after social isolation, with no differences between P4-W and Con ewes. There were no differences in behavioural responses to social isolation. P4 pretreatment appears to augment the stress response to social isolation in anoestrous ewes.

  12. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.

  13. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M.; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    Background: Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanismand may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social

  14. Reaction of chickens to graduated length of exposure to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nvota, J.; Grom, A.; Faberova, A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of 60 day old chickens Arbor Acres 60 X Vantress to immobilization stress lasting 1/2, 1, 2, 4 hours and to application of ACTH, manifested by activity changes in the systems hypophysis-adrenal gland and hypophysis-thyroid gland were studied. The highest activity increase in the two neuro-endocrine systems of the chickens was found to occur after 1/2 hour exposure to stress. With prolonged stress the responses weakened and after 4 hours most of the values gradually regressed to their initial level. The responses of both systems were synchronized. Reactions of the chickens differed from those of laboratory rats in which an increased activity of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system coincided with attenuation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system.

  15. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: The role of interconnectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Marina M Doucerain; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Norman eSegalowitz; Andrew G Ryder; Andrew G Ryder

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...

  16. Social disparities in children's exposure to second hand smoke at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children's exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking...

  17. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  19. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  20. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L; Yoder, Aaron M; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K; Nguyen, Minh N; Shaikh, Raees A

    2016-12-21

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income ( p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  1. Differential effects of controllable stress exposure on subsequent extinction learning in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnat eHadad-Ophir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC, followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC, as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL, but not prelimbic (PL cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place.

  2. Social Support, Perceived Stress, and Markers of Heart Failure Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography

  3. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations b...

  4. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on social support and social conflict during hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, James I; Asvat, Yasmin; Lillis, Teresa A; Fung, Henry; Grosse, Johanna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2018-01-01

    Social support and its relationship to psychological distress are of interest in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as patients are dependent on caregivers pre-, during, and posttransplant.  Although social support is critical for managing stress and trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may erode social support and evoke conflict and abandonment within the support system. This study aimed to evaluate whether PTSS were associated with lower support and social conflict in a sample of patients undergoing HSCT. Prospective relationships between PTSS, perceived social support, and social conflict were assessed in 88 participants across the first three months of HSCT (T0 Baseline; T1 +30; T2 +60; T3 +90). When individuals experienced increase above their own average levels of PTSS, they reported concurrent increase in social conflict (p social support in the following month (p = .026). Results suggest PTSS during stem cell transplantation may evoke social conflict, but over time, the support system may recalibrate to be more supportive. Patients undergoing HSCT may benefit from family and social-level interventions that specifically target the incidence of interpersonal conflict as it unfolds during the initial stages of HSCT.

  5. Infectious Disease risks associated with exposure to stressful environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ichard T.; Smith, Morey; Sams, Clarence

    1993-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors asociated with space flight can increase the risk of infectious illness among crewmembers thereby adversely affecting crew health and mission success. Host defences can be impaired by multiple physiological and psychological stressors including: sleep deprivation, disrupted circadian rhythms, separation from family, perceived danger, radiation exposure, and possibly also by the direct and indirect effects of microgravity. Relevant human immunological data from isolated or stressful environments including spaceflight will be reviewed. Long-duration missions should include reliable hardware which supports sophisticated immunodiagnostic capabilities. Future advances in immunology and molecular biology will continue to provide therapeutic agents and biologic response modifiers which should effectively and selectively restore immune function which has been depressed by exposure to environmental stressors.

  6. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  7. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003 and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011 were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  8. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goods