WorldWideScience

Sample records for social setting type

  1. Two Types of Social Grooming discovered in Primitive and Modern Communication Data-Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide innovative social bonding methods known as social grooming. These have drastically decreased time and distance constraints of social grooming. Here we show two type social grooming (elaborate social grooming and lightweight social grooming) discovered in a model constructed by thirty communication data-sets including face to face, SNS, mobile phones, and Chacma baboons. This demarcation is caused by a trade-off between the number and strength of social re...

  2. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    , conceptual and formal models of social data, and an analytical framework for combining big social data sets with organizational and societal data sets. Three empirical studies of big social data are presented to illustrate and demonstrate social set analysis in terms of fuzzy set-theoretical sentiment...... automata and agent-based modeling). However, when it comes to organizational and societal units of analysis, there exists no approach to conceptualize, model, analyze, explain, and predict social media interactions as individuals' associations with ideas, values, identities, and so on. To address...... analysis, crisp set-theoretical interaction analysis, and event-studies-oriented set-theoretical visualizations. Implications for big data analytics, current limitations of the set-theoretical approach, and future directions are outlined....

  3. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid; Buus Lassen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    of Facebook or Twitter data. However, there exist no other holistic computational social science approach beyond the relational sociology and graph theory of SNA. To address this limitation, this paper presents an alternative holistic approach to Big Social Data analytics called Social Set Analysis (SSA......This paper argues that the basic premise of Social Network Analysis (SNA) -- namely that social reality is constituted by dyadic relations and that social interactions are determined by structural properties of networks-- is neither necessary nor sufficient, for Big Social Data analytics...

  4. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  5. The Impact of Individual Differences, Types of Model and Social Settings on Block Building Performance among Chinese Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children’s block building performance. Chinese preschoolers (N = 180 participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children’s block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.

  6. The Impact of Individual Differences, Types of Model and Social Settings on Block Building Performance among Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mi; Deng, Zhu; Meng, Zhaokun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Qi, Wenhui; Wang, Rui; Yin, Tingting; Ji, Menghui

    2018-01-01

    Children's block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children's block building performance. Chinese preschoolers ( N = 180) participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children's block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.

  7. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    -edge open source visual analytics libraries from D3.js and creation of new visualizations (ac-tor mobility across time, conversational comets etc). Evaluation of the dashboard consisting of technical testing, usability testing, and domain-specific testing with CSR students and yielded positive results.......This paper presents a state-of-the art visual analytics dash-board, Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), of approximately 90 million Facebook actions from 11 different companies that have been mentioned in the traditional media in relation to garment factory accidents in Bangladesh. The enterprise...

  8. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2015-01-01

    approach to computational social science mentioned above. The development of the dashboard involved cutting-edge open source visual analytics libraries (D3.js) and creation of new visualizations such as of actor mobility across time and space, conversational comets, and more. Evaluation of the dashboard......Current state-of-the-art in big social data analytics is largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by the social philosophical approach of relational sociology. This paper proposes and illustrates an alternate holistic approach to big social data...

  9. Communicating science in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  10. Communicating science in social settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  11. Social settings and addiction relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M A; Reischl, T M; Ramanthan, C S

    1995-01-01

    Despite addiction theorists' acknowledgment of the impact of environmental factors on relapse, researchers have not adequately investigated these influences. Ninety-six substance users provided data regarding their perceived risk for relapse, exposure to substances, and involvement in reinforcing activities. These three setting attributes were assessed in their home, work, and community settings. Reuse was assessed 3 months later. When controlling for confounding variables, aspects of the home settings significantly distinguished abstainers from reusers; perceived risk for relapse was the strongest predictor of reuse. Exposure to substances and involvement in reinforcing activities were not robust reuse indicators. The work and community settings were not significant determinants of reuse. These findings offer some initial support for the utility of examining social settings to better understand addiction relapse and recovery. Identification of setting-based relapse determinants provides concrete targets for relapse prevention interventions.

  12. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort

    2011-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  13. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  14. Soft sets combined with interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 and rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory and soft set theory are all mathematical tools dealing with uncertainties. The concept of type-2 fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh in 1975 which was extended to interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 by the authors.This paper is devoted to the discussions of the combinations of interval valued intuitionistic sets of type-2, soft sets and rough sets.Three different types of new hybrid models, namely-interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets of type-2, soft rough interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 and soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets of type-2 are proposed and their properties are derived.

  15. An emerging action science of social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  16. Settings in Social Networks : a Measurement Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinberger, Michael; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2003-01-01

    A class of statistical models is proposed that aims to recover latent settings structures in social networks. Settings may be regarded as clusters of vertices. The measurement model is based on two assumptions. (1) The observed network is generated by hierarchically nested latent transitive

  17. Setting research priorities for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, R; Snow, R; Daly, A C; Crowe, S; Matyka, K; Hall, B; Petrie, J

    2012-10-01

    Research priorities are often set by academic researchers or the pharmaceutical industry. The interests of patients, carers and clinicians may therefore be overlooked and research questions that matter may be neglected. The aims of this study were to collect uncertainties about the treatment of Type 1 diabetes from patients, carers and health professionals, and to collate and prioritize these uncertainties to develop a top 10 list of research priorities, using a structured priority-setting partnership of patients, carers, health professionals and diabetes organizations, as described by the James Lind Alliance. A partnership of interested organizations was set up, and from this a steering committee of 10 individuals was formed. An online and paper survey was used to identify uncertainties. These were collated, and the steering group carried out an interim priority-setting exercise with partner organizations. This group of uncertainties was then voted on to give a smaller list that went forward to the final priority-setting workshop. At this meeting, a final list of the top 10 research priorities was agreed. An initial 1141 uncertainties were described. These were reduced to 88 indicative questions, 47 of which went out for voting. Twenty-four were then taken forward to a final priority-setting workshop. This workshop resulted in a list of top 10 research priorities in Type 1 diabetes. We have shown that it is possible using the James Lind Alliance process to develop an agreed top 10 list of research priorities for Type 1 diabetes from health professionals, patients and carers. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  18. Profiling Customer Types in Luxury Retail Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tisovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of customer who buys luxury is continuing to evolve. This research investigates the value and service-dominant theory effects on the value co-creation process between a service provider and service consumer within the luxury retail environment. The goal of the paper is two-fold: first, to offer a new view on value co-creation and second, to suggest potential in-store target segments based on experiential drivers in order to improve value sharing within luxury stores for diverse luxury shoppers. In other words, the author noticed a gap between the existing writing and practice – customer involvement has become interactive, and not neglected. The paper, thus, introduces four groups of customers: Experts, Popular, Exclusive and Aspirational. The methodology used combines analyses of four value creation denominators within the luxury setting: actor’s role, aesthetics, networks and luxury brand with findings from secondary research to integrate into the existing writing in this field. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury and premium brands with the objective to offer insights on how to address, with higher precision, the types of clients visiting and shopping for luxury products.

  19. On a type of generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjoy Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a new class ofgeneralized closed sets in a topological space X, defined in terms of a grill G on X. Explicit characterization of such sets along with certain other properties of them are obtained. As applications, some characterizations of regular and normal spaces are achieved by use of the introduced class of sets.

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION REPORT Tella & daniel type set

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    WORLD JOURNAL VOL 2(NO2) 2007 www.sciecnceworldjournal.com. Tella & Daniel (2007) SWJ:28-30. Multisets and Inequalities. P age. 29. The powerset axiom. ∀ ∀ ∃. ∧∀. ∈ ↔ ⊆. z x y Set y. z z y. z x. ( ( ). (. )) . In other words, for every mset x , there is a set whose elements are exactly the msubsets of x . The set y is ...

  1. Detecting Corporate Social Media Crises on Facebook Using Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Iskou Sørensen, Jannie; Hussain, Abid

    2015-01-01

    social media crises using social set analysis-an approach to computational social based on associational sociology and set theory. Based on a conceptual and formal model of social data, we conduct social set analysis of the facebook wall data of four diferent Danish companies. Findings show...

  2. Women's anxiety about social and exercise settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vicki R; Finkenberg, Mel E

    2002-04-01

    This study involved a comparison of social physique anxiety, assessed through the application of a modified version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, with 28 women who were new members exercising at all-female facilities compared to 43 new female members exercising at coeducational facilities. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences in means between the groups. The scores of women attending all-female facilities were significantly more influenced by the sex of members when choosing a facility.

  3. Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the second iteration of the Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), a set theoretical visual analytics dashboard of big social data. In order to further demonstrate its usefulness in large-scale visual analytics tasks of individual and collective behavior of actors in social networks......, the current iteration of the Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) in version II builds on recent advancements in visualizing set intersections. The development of the SoSeVi dashboard involved cutting-edge open source visual analytics libraries (D3.js) and creation of new visualizations such as of actor mobility...

  4. Social inclusion in diverse work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren

    2015-01-01

    Het ervaren van sociale inclusie op het werk is essentieel voor het welbevinden en presteren van werknemers. Echter, terwijl inclusie relatief gemakkelijk te bewerkstelligen is wanneer collega’s demografisch gezien op elkaar lijken, is dit moeilijker wanneer collega's sterk van elkaar verschillen.

  5. Social inclusion in diverse work settings

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, W.S.

    2015-01-01

    Het ervaren van sociale inclusie op het werk is essentieel voor het welbevinden en presteren van werknemers. Echter, terwijl inclusie relatief gemakkelijk te bewerkstelligen is wanneer collega’s demografisch gezien op elkaar lijken, is dit moeilijker wanneer collega's sterk van elkaar verschillen. Dit proefschrift tracht een begrip te creëren van hoe inclusie in demografisch diverse werkomgevingen bewerkstelligd kan worden. Hiertoe is allereerst vastgesteld wat inclusie precies is en hoe dit ...

  6. Aumann Type Set-valued Lebesgue Integral and Representation Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Li

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, we shall firstly illustrate why we should discuss the Aumann type set-valued Lebesgue integral of a set-valued stochastic process with respect to time t under the condition that the set-valued stochastic process takes nonempty compact subset of d -dimensional Euclidean space. After recalling some basic results about set-valued stochastic processes, we shall secondly prove that the Aumann type set-valued Lebesgue integral of a set-valued stochastic process above is a set-valued stochastic process. Finally we shall give the representation theorem, and prove an important inequality of the Aumann type set-valued Lebesgue integrals of set-valued stochastic processes with respect to t , which are useful to study set-valued stochastic differential inclusions with applications in finance.

  7. Fuzzy-Set Based Sentiment Analysis of Big Social Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Computational approaches to social media analytics are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by the social philosophical approach of relational sociology. There are no other unified modelling approaches to social data that integrate...... the conceptual, formal, software, analytical and empirical realms. In this paper, we first present and discuss a theory and conceptual model of social data. Second, we outline a formal model based on fuzzy set theory and describe the operational semantics of the formal model with a real-world social data example...... from Facebook. Third, we briefly present and discuss the Social Data Analytics Tool (SODATO) that realizes the conceptual model in software and provisions social data analysis based on the conceptual and formal models. Fourth, we use SODATO to fetch social data from the facebook wall of a global brand...

  8. Institutional Complexity and Social Entrepreneurship: A Fuzzy-Set Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, PA; Kibler, E

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the local institutional complexity of social entrepreneurship. Building on a novel fuzzy-set analysis of 407 social entrepreneurs in the UK, the study identifies five configurations of local institutional forces that collectively explain the confidence of social entrepreneurs in successfully managing their business. The findings demonstrate that local authorities are a dominant condition; yet combinations of other complementary—more and less formalized—local institutions n...

  9. Measuring social exclusion in healthcare settings: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2018-02-02

    Social exclusion is a concept that has been widely debated in recent years; a particular focus of the discussion has been its significance in relation to health. The meanings of the phrase "social exclusion", and the closely associated term "social inclusion", are contested in the literature. Both of these concepts are important in relation to health and the area of primary healthcare in particular. Thus, several tools for the measurement of social exclusion or social inclusion status in health care settings have been developed. A scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to examine tools developed since 2000 that measure social exclusion or social inclusion. We focused on those measurement tools developed for use with individual patients in healthcare settings. Efforts were made to obtain a copy of each of the original tools, and all relevant background literature. All tools retrieved were compared in tables, and the specific domains that were included in each measure were tabulated. Twenty-two measurement tools were included in the final scoping review. The majority of these had been specifically developed for the measurement of social inclusion or social exclusion, but a small number were created for the measurement of other closely aligned concepts. The majority of the tools included were constructed for engaging with patients in mental health settings. The tools varied greatly in their design, the scoring systems and the ways they were administered. The domains covered by these tools varied widely and some of the tools were quite narrow in the areas of focus. A review of the definitions of both social inclusion and social exclusion also revealed the variations among the explanations of these complex concepts. There are several definitions of both social inclusion and social exclusion in use and they differ greatly in scope. While there are many tools that have been developed for measuring these concepts in healthcare settings, these

  10. Narratives of social justice: learning in innovative clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer Kirkham, Sheryl; Van Hofwegen, Lynn; Hoe Harwood, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The nursing profession has renewed its commitment to social and political mandates, resulting in increasing attention to issues pertaining to diversity, vulnerable populations, social determinants of health, advocacy and activism, and social justice in nursing curricula. Narratives from a qualitative study examining undergraduate nursing student learning in five innovative clinical settings (corrections, international, parish, rural, and aboriginal) resonate with these curricular emphases. Data were derived from focus groups and interviews with 65 undergraduate nursing students, clinical instructors, and RN mentors. Findings of this study reveal how students in innovative clinical placements bear witness to poverty, inequities, and marginalization (critical awareness), often resulting in dissonance and soul-searching (critical engagement), and a renewed commitment to social transformation (social change). These findings suggest the potential for transformative learning in these settings.

  11. Subshifts of finite type and self-similar sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kan; Dajani, Karma

    2017-02-01

    Let K\\subset {R} be a self-similar set generated by some iterated function system. In this paper we prove, under some assumptions, that K can be identified with a subshift of finite type. With this identification, we can calculate the Hausdorff dimension of K as well as the set of elements in K with unique codings using the machinery of Mauldin and Williams (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 309 811-29). We give three different applications of our main result. Firstly, we calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of points of K with multiple codings. Secondly, in the setting of β-expansions, when the set of all the unique codings is not a subshift of finite type, we can calculate in some cases the Hausdorff dimension of the univoque set. Motivated by this application, we prove that the set of all the unique codings is a subshift of finite type if and only if it is a sofic shift. This equivalent condition was not mentioned by de Vries and Komornik (2009 Adv. Math. 221 390-427, theorem 1.8). Thirdly, for the doubling map with asymmetrical holes, we give a sufficient condition such that the survivor set can be identified with a subshift of finite type. The third application partially answers a problem posed by Alcaraz Barrera (2014 PhD Thesis University of Manchester).

  12. Higher-order risk preferences in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Timo; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We study prudence and temperance (next to risk aversion) in social settings. Previous experimental studies have shown that these higher-order risk preferences affect the choices of individuals deciding privately on lotteries that only affect their own payoff. Yet, many risky and financially relevant decisions are made in the social settings of households or organizations. We elicit higher-order risk preferences of individuals and systematically vary how an individual's decision is made (alone or while communicating with a partner) and who is affected by the decision (only the individual or the partner as well). In doing so, we can isolate the effects of other-regarding concerns and communication on choices. Our results reveal that the majority of choices are risk averse, prudent, and temperate across social settings. We also observe that individuals are influenced significantly by the preferences of a partner when they are able to communicate and choices are payoff-relevant for both of them.

  13. Type 2-diabetes. Sociale relationer og sundhedsadfaerd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Anne Friis; Avlund, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that challenges the Danish health care system and health behaviour is important in connection with rehabilitation. Foreign research shows that social relations are associated with a healthy lifestyle, but this effect has not yet been examined...... to the recommendations for physical activity and diet. Only the association between functional network and diet remains significant when adjusted for the effects of co-variates. CONCLUSION: The study shows a need for the promotion of health behaviour among adult Danes with type 2 diabetes, and indicates that social...... thoroughly based on Danish data. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social relations and health behaviour among adult Danes with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and based on data from the report ''Sundheds- og Sygelighedsundersøgelsen...

  14. Social Work Student and Practitioner Roles in Integrated Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Richman, Erica Lynn; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; Lombardi, Brianna

    2018-06-01

    Social workers are increasingly being deployed in integrated medical and behavioral healthcare settings but information about the roles they fill in these settings is not well understood. This study sought to identify the functions that social workers perform in integrated settings and identify where they acquired the necessary skills to perform them. Master of social work students (n=21) and their field supervisors (n=21) who were part of a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded program to train and expand the behavioral health workforce in integrated settings were asked how often they engaged in 28 functions, where they learned to perform those functions, and the degree to which their roles overlapped with others on the healthcare team. The most frequent functions included employing cultural competency, documenting in the electronic health record, addressing patient social determinants of health, and participating in team-based care. Respondents were least likely to engage in case conferences; use Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment; use stepped care to determine necessary level of treatment; conduct functional assessments of daily living skills; use behavioral activation; and use problem-solving therapy. A total of 80% of respondents reported that their roles occasionally, often, very often, or always overlapped with others on the healthcare team. Students reported learning the majority of skills (76%) in their Master of Social Work programs. Supervisors attributed the majority (65%) of their skill development to on-the-job training. Study findings suggest the need to redesign education, regulatory, and payment to better support the deployment of social workers in integrated care settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled The Behavioral Health Workforce: Planning, Practice, and Preparation, which is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Health Resources and Services

  15. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  16. Social Studies Instruction in a Non-Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret M.

    Certain areas in the social studies can be effectively taught in a non-classroom setting. This experiment determined if, in a supermarket situation, consumer preferences (as measured in sales figures and augmented by questionnaire data) could be altered by the addition of nutritional information to the labels of sixteen items which had moderate…

  17. Type 2-diabetes. Sociale relationer og sundhedsadfaerd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Anne Friis; Avlund, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    with the official Danish recommendations for physical activity, diet, alcohol and smoking. Adjustments were made for sex, age, income, self-rated health, functional ability, stress and Body Mass Index. RESULTS: Social relations measured as civil status and functional network are positively associated with adherence...... to the recommendations for physical activity and diet. Only the association between functional network and diet remains significant when adjusted for the effects of co-variates. CONCLUSION: The study shows a need for the promotion of health behaviour among adult Danes with type 2 diabetes, and indicates that social...

  18. [Type of school, social capital and subjective health in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, V; Richter, M

    2012-11-01

    Social capital is increasingly acknowledged as a central determinant of health. While several studies among adults have shown the importance of social capital for the explanation of social inequalities in health, few comparable studies exist which focus on adolescents. The study examines the role of social capital in different social contexts for the explanation of health inequalities in adolescence. Data were obtained from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2006. The sample includes data of 4323 11-15-year-old students. To analyse the role of social capital in the contexts family, school, friends and neighbourhood for inequalities in self-rated health and psychosomatic complaints, logistic regression models were calculated. The socioeconomic position of the adolescents was measured by type of school. Adolescents from general schools reported higher prevalences of fair/poor self-rated health and repeated psychosomatic complaints than pupils from grammar schools. Social capital in all 4 contexts (family, school, friends, and neighbourhood) was associated with both health indicators, independent of gender. In the separate analysis the variables for social capital showed a comparable explanatory contribution and reduced the odds ratios of self-rated health by 6-9%. The contribution for psychosomatic complaints was slightly higher with 10-15%. The only exception was social capital among friends which showed no effect for both health indicators. In the joint analysis the variables for social capital explained about 15% to 30% of health inequalities by school type. The results show that, already in adolescence, inequalities in subjective health can be partly explained through socioeconomic differences in the availability of social capital. The settings family, neighbourhood and school provide ideal contexts for preventive actions and give the opportunity to directly address the high-risk group of students from

  19. Helly-type theorems for roughly convexlike sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh An

    2005-04-01

    For a given positive real number of γ, a subset M of an n-dimensional Euclidean space is said to be roughly convexlike (with the roughness degree γ) if x 0 , x 1 is an element of M and parallel x 1 - x 0 parallel > γ imply ]x 0 , x 1 [intersection M ≠ 0. In this paper, we present Helly-type theorems for such sets then solve an open question about sets of constant width raised by Buchman and Valentine and Sallee (author)

  20. Influence of Social Settings on Risky Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Hittner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relevance of social settings as predictors of risky sexual behavior. In a young adult sample (n = 324, M age = 20.2 years, we examined the association between frequency of attendance at five different settings and frequency of engaging in four risky sexual behaviors (i.e., unprotected intercourse when not drunk or high, unprotected intercourse when drunk or high, casual sex when not drunk or high, casual sex when drunk or high. Predictive associations were examined using negative binomial regression, and all analyses controlled for frequency of recent alcohol use and age at first use of alcohol. Greater attendance at fraternity/sorority parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high and drunk or high contexts, and more frequent casual sex for males in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at large private parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at bars without dance floors predicted more frequent intercourse for males in the drunk or high context. These findings highlight the importance of socializing habits in understanding risky sexual behavior.

  1. SET-C versus Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Crosby, Lori A.; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the effectiveness of fluoxetine, pill placebo and Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) for children and adolescents with social phobia. The results conclude that both fluoxetine and SET-C are effective for social phobia but SET-C is better for enhancing social skills.

  2. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Muraco, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. Design and Methods: We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. Results: We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Implications: Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. PMID:28087798

  4. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  5. Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet.  The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

  6. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Knowles MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using χ2 analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93% reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72% access the Internet with a phone. Nearly half (49% of participants accept friend requests from strangers, 42% send friend requests to strangers, and 55% of participants report meeting people from social media sites in person. Conclusion. Adolescents self-report engaging in a number of risky behaviors when they use social media. Teenagers’ use of social media is an additional behavior that requires attention and monitoring.

  7. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Megan; Lee, Sara Hirschfeld; O'Riordan, MaryAnn; Lazebnik, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using χ(2) analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93%) reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72%) access the Internet with a phone. Nearly half (49%) of participants accept friend requests from strangers, 42% send friend requests to strangers, and 55% of participants report meeting people from social media sites in person. Conclusion. Adolescents self-report engaging in a number of risky behaviors when they use social media. Teenagers' use of social media is an additional behavior that requires attention and monitoring.

  8. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Knowles MD; Sara Hirschfeld Lee MD; MaryAnn O’Riordan PhD; Rina Lazebnik MD

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using ?2 analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93%) reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72%) access the Internet with a p...

  9. Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    SeVi). The development of the dashboard involved cutting-edge open source visual analytics libraries (D3.js) and creation of new visualizations such as visualizations of actor mobility across time and space, conversational comets, and more. Evaluation of the dashboard consisted of technical testing, usability testing......Current state-of-the-art in big social data analytics is largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by the social philosophical approach of relational sociology. This paper proposes and illustrates an alternate holistic approach to big social data...

  10. Setting the Course: Strategies for Writing Digital and Social Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes how to establish social media guidelines and policies for colleges and universities effectively, based upon a field study of postsecondary education institutions representing 10 different countries. To further community interactions and social media involvement, this chapter will outline effective practical approaches for…

  11. Implementation of wind energy in the Netherlands: the importance of the social-institutional setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, Susanne; Vermeulen, Walter; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the differences in performance of the different types of wind power entrepreneurs now active on the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. The development of the market is divided into three successive market periods: Monopoly powers (1989-1995), Interbellum (1996-1997) and Free market (1998-2002). For each of these periods, the interdependency between various systemic conditions--technical, economic, institutional and social conditions--is analysed, with the focus on the relative importance of the institutional and social settings for market development. This interdependency is analysed using the implementation capacity concept. Implementation capacity is defined as the total of those systemic conditions and mutual interdependencies that influence the behaviour of wind power entrepreneurs. It indicates the feasibility for wind power entrepreneurs to adopt wind turbines. From the analysis it was concluded that no overall implementation capacity exists, and implementation capacities differ for entrepreneurial groups with different entrepreneurial features. With respect to the relative importance of institutional and social conditions, it became clear, that it is mainly these conditions that differentiate between the various entrepreneurial groups. The dynamic configuration of institutional and social conditions facilitates some and hinders other types of wind power entrepreneurs, and as a result determines the development and composition of the market. Finally, the analysis explains the changing roles of entrepreneurial groups throughout the 1990s

  12. New types of bipolar fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Yaqoob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The notion of bipolar fuzzy set was initiated by Lee (2000 as a generalization of the notion fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which have drawn attention of many mathematicians and computer scientists. In this paper, we initiate a study on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. By using the concept of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets (Yaqoob and Ansari, 2013, we introduce the notion of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroups (-hyperideals and bi--hyperideals and discuss some basic results on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. Furthermore, we define the bipolar fuzzy subset ,               and prove that if  ,       is a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H; then ,               is also a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H.

  13. Analysis of risk factors linked to social educator profession in different residential settings of Alicante Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Heliz Llopis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important professions in the field of intervention with underage at social risk that are cared for in different residential settings is, undoubtedly, that of the social educator. In that sense, although there are many professionals involved with these underage (psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, teachers, etc., social educators are the ones who, through the carrying out of functions specific to their profession, often work as the "front line" of action, given that they are the ones who are more in touch with the underage and therefore the most likely to be exposed to different variables that could eventually put them in a situation of risk of psycho-social problems related to their work. Hence, the task of identifying the risk variables related to the teaching profession becomes a key objective in order to prevent the occurrence of likely problems that could undermine their psychosocial health. Therefore, through this communication we intend to expose the results that we obtained with a sample of 50 educators who perform their work in different residential-type services in the province of Alicante.

  14. Public Issue Priority Formation: Media Agenda-Setting and Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Hua; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model to explain the public's issue priority by integrating media agenda-setting and social interaction. Finds that the public's issue priority was influenced by both media and social interaction. (RS)

  15. Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.

  16. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  17. Price-setting behaviour in the presence of social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a market with a profit-maximizing monopolistic firm. Utility-maximizing consumers either buy one unit of the good or none at all. The demand for the good is influenced by local social interactions. That is , the utility which a consumer derives from the consumption of the good depends

  18. Price-setting behavior in the presence of social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    We consider a market with a profit-maximizing monopolistic firm. Utility-maximizing consumers either buy one unit of the good or none at all. The demand for the good is influenced by local social interactions. That is, the utility which a consumer derives from the consumption of the good depends

  19. Social Responsibility in a Historical and Educational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Scientists must try hard to make themselves understood by a wider public, remember that science is not infallible and social issues are not always clear, and should develop sympathetic understanding of other people's views. A broad educational background is needed for science students to aid in accomplishment of these goals. (DF)

  20. Evaluation of a social skills program based on social learning theory, implemented in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Beth A; MacDonald, Douglas A; Donlon, Mark; Kuhn, Beth; McGovern, Katie; Friedman, Harris

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 647 Canadian children in kindergarten to Grade 3 (325 boys, 322 girls), the present study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of Skillstreaming (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2003), a widely known social skills program implemented to target the development of four skill sets, i.e., listening, following directions, problem-solving, and knowing when to tell. Results indicated significant postprogram improvements in all skills as well as in ratings of overall prosociality obtained from both classroom teachers and mental health staff, with medium to large effect sizes obtained from teachers' and mental health professionals' ratings, respectively. Additional analyses yielded significant but weak moderator effects of grade and preprogram prosocial functioning for teacher ratings but no consistent moderator effects for children's sex or school location (i.e., urban versus rural) regardless of rater.

  1. Teacher quality in a political and social setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical contributions and empirical data the article examines the relationship between educational paradigms in the school debate as well as their presence as tools for reflection and choice of action in teaching practice. Special attention is paid to the role of knowledge and skil...... as a vehicle for social emancipation. Finally, a few implications for the recent Danish teacher education reform are indicated....

  2. Sustained housing-type social buffering following social housing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Ishida, Aya; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    In social animals, recovery from the adverse effects of distressing stimuli is promoted by subsequent cohousing with a conspecific animal(s). This phenomenon has been termed housing-type social buffering. We previously found that social housing induced housing-type social buffering in fear-conditioned male rats. This buffering took the form of attenuated conditioned hyperthermia in response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Here, we assessed whether this social buffering is sustained even if the subject is housed alone after a period of social housing. When fear-conditioned subjects were housed alone during a 48-h period between conditioning and re-exposure to the auditory CS, they exhibited conditioned hyperthermia in response to the CS. However, conditioned hyperthermia was not observed when the 12-h period of social housing began 24 and 36h after conditioning during the 48-h period. This was not the case when the 12-h period of social housing began 0 and 12h after the conditioning. These results suggest that housing-type social buffering is sustained for 12h after the 12-h period of social housing. We next considered whether increasing the duration of social housing would extend the period of social buffering. We observed social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia 24 and 48, but not 96h after a 24-h period of social housing. These results suggest that social buffering was extended when the duration of social housing was increased. Taken together, our findings indicate that housing-type social buffering is sustained after a period of social housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequent Item set Mining of Big Data for Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Roshani Pardeshi; Prof. Madhu Nashipudimath

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a term for massive data sets having large, more varied and complex structure with the difficulties of storing, analyzing and visualizing for further processes or results. Bigdata includes data from email, documents, pictures, audio, video files, and other sources that do not fit into a relational database. This unstructured data brings enormous challenges to Bigdata.The process of research into massive amounts of data to reveal hidden patterns and secret correlations named as big ...

  4. Does Ownership Type Matter for Corporate Social Responsibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study examines how different types of owners relate to corporate social responsibility ( CSR). Research Findings/Insights: We use firm-level data for more than 600 European firms from 16 countries and 35 industries for 2005. We find that

  5. Social Network Types and Acute Stroke Preparedness Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Boden-Albala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Presence of informal social networks has been associated with favorable health and behaviors, but whether different types of social networks impact on different health outcomes remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of different social network types (marital dyad, household, friendship, and informal community networks with acute stroke preparedness behavior. We hypothesized that marital dyad best matched the required tasks and is the most effective network type for this behavior. Methods: We collected in-person interview and medical record data for 1,077 adults diagnosed with stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of each social network with arrival at the emergency department (ED within 3 h of stroke symptoms. Results: Adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, education, gender, transportation type to ED and vascular diagnosis, being married or living with a partner was significantly associated with early arrival at the ED (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.1, but no significant univariate or multivariate associations were observed for household, friendship, and community networks. Conclusions: The marital/partnership dyad is the most influential type of social network for stroke preparedness behavior.

  6. The Black Male Urban Barbershop as a Sex-Role Socialization Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clyde W., II

    1985-01-01

    Participant observation found that the barbershop studies perpetuated sex-role stereotypes, encouraged sexist attitudes toward women and, in general, was a sex-role socialization setting that promoted sex-role inequality. (GC)

  7. Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

    2013-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Attitudes on Gender Equality and Firms' Discriminatory Pay-Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Simon; Tuor Sartore, Simone N.; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between social attitudes on gender equality and firms' pay-setting behavior by combining information about regional votes relative to gender equality laws with a large data set of multi-branch firms and workers. The results show that multi-branch firms pay more discriminatory wages in branches located in regions with a higher social acceptance of gender inequality than in branches located in regions with a lower acceptance. The results are similar for different sub...

  9. A Review of Peer-Mediated Social Interaction Interventions for Students with Autism in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laci; O'Reilly, Mark; Kuhn, Michelle; Gevarter, Cindy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the use of peer-mediated interventions (PMI) to improve the social interaction skills of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in inclusive settings. The purpose of this review is to (a) identify the characteristics and components of peer-mediated social interaction interventions, (b) evaluate the effectiveness of PMI…

  10. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eSchulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI in primary health care (PHC suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place in this context. METHODS: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in nonmedical settings.RESULTS: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required.DISCUSSION: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organisational frameworks and professionals.

  11. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  12. Adopting a Social Marketing Mind-Set in School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Pat; Kelly, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    School social workers often conduct their business behind closed doors because much of their work is confidential. Even when they are not working in their offices, school social workers often blend into the fabric of the school culture, typically working behind the scenes and rarely taking credit for the valuable work they perform. However, if…

  13. Relationship between social network, social support and health behaviour in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: cross-sectional studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hempler, Nana F.; Joensen, Lene E.; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychosocial and behavioural aspects of diabetes may differ according to diabetes type. This study compared people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with respect to social relations (cohabitation status, contact with the social network and social support) and health behaviours (diet and physical activity). Furthermore, we examined whether potential differences in health behaviour between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were influenced by education level and social rel...

  14. Algebraic Specifications, Higher-order Types and Set-theoretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Hélène; Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    , and power-sets. This paper presents a simple framework for algebraic specifications with higher-order types and set-theoretic models. It may be regarded as the basis for a Horn-clause approximation to the Z framework, and has the advantage of being amenable to prototyping and automated reasoning. Standard......In most algebraic  specification frameworks, the type system is restricted to sorts, subsorts, and first-order function types. This is in marked contrast to the so-called model-oriented frameworks, which provide higer-order types, interpreted set-theoretically as Cartesian products, function spaces...... set-theoretic models are considered, and conditions are given for the existence of initial reduct's of such models. Algebraic specifications for various set-theoretic concepts are considered....

  15. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Social Context of First Birth Timing in a Rapidly Changing Rural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the influence of social context on the rate of first birth. Drawing on socialization models, I develop a theoretical framework to explain how different aspects of social context (i.e., neighbors), may affect the rate of first birth. Neighbors, who in the study setting comprise individuals’ immediate social context, have an important influence on the rate of first birth. To test my hypotheses, I leverage a setting, measures and analytical techniques designed to study the impact of macro-level social contexts on micro-level individual behavior. The results show that neighbors’ age at first birth, travel to the capital city and media exposure tend to reduce the first birth rate, while neighbors’ non-family work experience increases first birth rate. These effects are independent of neighborhood characteristics and are robust against several key variations in model specifications. PMID:27886737

  17. Three types of communication on internal social media:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the two...... studies it is proposed that it is possible to distinguish between three different types of communication arenas created by internal social media: A quiet arena, a knowledge sharing arena and a participatory communication arena. Internal social media does not in itself introduce participatory communication....... Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization....

  18. Influence of shelf life on the setting time of type IV gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, M. L.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Although expired materials can exhibit a deterioration in their properties, expired type IV gypsum can still be found on the market. In order to evaluate the influence of the shelf life on its setting time, two groups of type IV gypsum (GC Fuji rock EP) with different expiration dates were used in this research. The setting time tests were done in a mold using a Vicat Needle apparatus. The results of the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (pshelf life did influence the setting time of the type IV gypsum.

  19. Type synthesis for 4-DOF parallel press mechanism using GF set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Meng, Xiangdun; Guo, Weizhong

    2015-07-01

    Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity( GCC), kinematic pair complexity( KPC), and type complexity( TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.

  20. Aging and place in long-term care settings: influences on social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifas, Robin P; Simons, Kelsey; Biel, Barbara; Kramer, Christie

    2014-12-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative research study that examined how living in a long-term care (LTC) home influences the quality of residents' relationships with peers, family members, and outside friends. Semistructured interviews using a phenomenological approach were conducted with 23 residents of a LTC home. Thematic analysis was employed to illuminate residents' perspectives on the nature of social relationships in this setting. Four key themes were identified that highlight the role of place in social relationships. Residing in a LTC home influences the context of social interactions, impacts their quality and process, clusters individuals with health and functional declines that hinder socialization, and poses structural and cultural barriers that impede social interactions. Health and functional limitations posed the greatest challenge to socialization relative to characteristics of the facility itself. Residents' insights emphasize how personal characteristics influence community culture and the experience of place. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Empowering community settings: agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I

    2008-03-01

    The pathways and processes through which empowering community settings influence their members, the surrounding community and the larger society are examined. To generate the proposed pathways and processes, a broad range of studies of community settings were reviewed, in the domains of adult well-being, positive youth development, locality development, and social change. A set of organizational characteristics and associated processes leading to member empowerment across domains were identified, as well as three pathways through which empowering settings in each domain contribute to community betterment and positive social change. The paper concludes with an examination of the ways that community psychology and allied disciplines can help increase the number and range of empowering settings, and enhance the community and societal impact of existing ones.

  2. Physical activity and social support in adolescents: analysis of different types and sources of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.

  3. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  4. The impact on social relationships of moving from congregated settings to personalized accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; Bunting, Brendan; Keogh, Fiona; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne

    2017-01-01

    A natural experiment contrasted the social relationships of people with intellectual disabilities ( n = 110) before and after they moved from congregated settings to either personalized accommodation or group homes. Contrasts could also be drawn with individuals who had enduring mental health problems ( n = 46) and who experienced similar moves. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in each person's residence on two occasions approximately 24 months apart. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to determine significant effects. Greater proportions of people living in personalized settings scored higher on the five chosen indicators of social relationships than did persons living in grouped accommodation. However, multivariate statistical analyses identified that only one in five persons increased their social relationships as a result of changes in their accommodation, particularly persons with an intellectual disability and high support needs. These findings reinforce the extent of social isolation experienced by people with disabilities and mental health problems that changes in their accommodation only partially counter.

  5. Teaching Socially Valid Social Interaction Responses to Students with Severe Disabilities in an Integrated School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nientimp, Edward G.; Cole, Christine L.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated effects of procedure to teach appropriate social responses to adolescents with severe disabilities by employing ABA withdrawal design, replicated twice with two students, and AB design with third student. Results showed increases in correct responding and decreases in echolalia following intervention. Generalization of appropriate…

  6. Time and setting dependent instrument parameters and proofs of Bell-type inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Karl; Philipp, Walter

    2002-01-01

    We show that all proofs of Bell-type inequalities, as discussed in Bell's well known book and as claimed to be relevant to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type experiments, come to a halt when Einstein-local time and setting dependent instrument parameters are included.

  7. Typed Sets as a Basis for Object-Oriented Database Schemas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; de By, R.A.; Zicari, R.

    The object-oriented data model TM is a language that is based on the formal theory of FM, a typed language with object-oriented features such as attributes and methods in the presence of subtyping. The general (typed) set constructs of FM allow one to deal with (database) constraints in TM. The

  8. In pursuit of change: Conceptualizing the social work response to LGBTQ microaggressions in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hannah; MacKinnon, Kinnon Ross; Legge, Melissa Marie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of research on microaggressions targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) communities in recent years, there remains an insufficiency of theoretical literature in this area. In this article, we draw on the works of Michel Foucault to conceptualize the effects of microaggressive practices on LGBTQ people accessing health and other social services, and generate insight into strategies these groups use to resist these effects. We emphasize the need for social workers, particularly those in health care settings, to support these communities' ongoing attempts at challenging the effects of microaggression, and to this end, outline several implications of our analysis for social work practice.

  9. Social construction and materiality: the limits of indeterminacy in therapeutic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannamann, J W

    1998-01-01

    By drawing parallels between the courtroom testimony of a Christian Science practitioner and an intersession conversation between systemic family therapists, I critique the abstract idealism of language-centered social constructionism. I argue that social constructionist inquiry that highlights the indeterminacy of meaning without a corresponding emphasis on the responsive embodied practices of family members glosses over the material conditions shaping the politics of interaction. The implications of this problem are discussed as they relate to the setting of family therapy, where social construction theory is often used to guide practical interventions.

  10. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An ILP based memetic algorithm for finding minimum positive influence dominating sets in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian; Feng, Huibin

    2018-06-01

    The positive influence dominating set problem is a variant of the minimum dominating set problem, and has lots of applications in social networks. It is NP-hard, and receives more and more attention. Various methods have been proposed to solve the positive influence dominating set problem. However, most of the existing work focused on greedy algorithms, and the solution quality needs to be improved. In this paper, we formulate the minimum positive influence dominating set problem as an integer linear programming (ILP), and propose an ILP based memetic algorithm (ILPMA) for solving the problem. The ILPMA integrates a greedy randomized adaptive construction procedure, a crossover operator, a repair operator, and a tabu search procedure. The performance of ILPMA is validated on nine real-world social networks with nodes up to 36,692. The results show that ILPMA significantly improves the solution quality, and is robust.

  12. Online social networking sites-a novel setting for health promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Julika; Lindacher, Verena; Curbach, Janina

    2014-03-01

    Among adolescents, online social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook are popular platforms for social interaction and may therefore be considered as 'novel settings' that could be exploited for health promotion. In this article, we examine the relevant definitions in health promotion and literature in order to analyze whether key characteristics of 'settings for health promotion' and the socio-ecological settings approach can be transferred to SNS. As many of our daily activities have shifted to cyberspace, we argue that online social interaction may gain more importance than geographic closeness for defining a 'setting'. While exposition to positive references to risk behavior by peers may render the SNS environment detrimental to health, SNS may allow people to create their own content and therefore foster participation. However, those health promotion projects delivered on SNS up until today solely relied on health education directed at end users. It remains unclear how health promotion on SNS can meet other requirements of the settings approach (e.g. building partnerships, changing the environment). As yet, one should be cautious in terming SNS a 'setting'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments (RM/17/002-revised)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set (MSS). The MSS is defined for a general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. An MSS exists and, under minor continuity assumptions, it is also unique. The MSS

  14. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  15. How Do Social Networks Influence Learning Outcomes? A Case Study in an Industrial Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglajlic, Seid; Helic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the impact of implicit social networks to the learning outcome of e-learning participants in an industrial setting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a theoretical framework that allows the authors to measure correlation coefficients between the different affiliations that…

  16. An Examination of Women's Self-Presentation, Social Physique Anxiety, and Setting Preferences during Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated whether women experience self-presentational concerns related to rehabilitation settings and explored preferences for characteristics of the social and physical treatment environment in relation to women's Social Physique Anxiety (SPA). Methods. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted. In Study 1, female undergraduate students (n = 134) completed four questionnaires (Social Physique Anxiety Scale; three bespoke questionnaires assessing self-presentation in rehabilitation and social and physical environment preferences) with respect to hypothetical rehabilitation scenarios. Study 2 recruited injured women who were referred for physiotherapy (n = 62) to complete the same questionnaires regarding genuine rehabilitation scenarios. Results. Women with high SPA showed less preference for physique salient clothing than women with low SPA in both hypothetical (p = 0.001) and genuine settings (p = 0.01). In Study 2, women with high SPA also preferred that others in the clinic were female (p = 0.01) and reported significantly greater preference for private treatment spaces (p = 0.05). Conclusions. Self-presentational concerns exist in rehabilitation as in exercise settings. Results indicated inverse relationships between women's SPA and preference for the presence of men, physique-enhancing clothing, and open-concept treatment settings. Future studies to determine the effect of self-presentational concerns on treatment adherence are needed. PMID:28386484

  17. Defining Success for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Social Academic Behavior in Secondary General Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Stachniak, Catherine; Albright, Jordan; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Dorencz, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory, observation-based study sought to strengthen understanding of the development of social communication skills that facilitate academic success, particularly within general education settings. Sixteen middle and high school students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), all of whom participated in at least one period per day of core…

  18. Setting Priorities for Gerontological Social Work Research: A National Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Denise; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Chen, Li-Mei

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: An increasingly important task for all disciplines involved in aging research is to identify and prioritize areas for investigation. This article reports the results of a national Delphi study on setting research priorities for gerontological social work. Design and Methods: Delphi methodology, a structured process for eliciting and…

  19. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  20. Mental set and creative thought in social conflict : Threat rigidity versus motivated focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus

  1. African Dance Aesthetics in a K-12 Dance Setting: From History to Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sheila A.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the aesthetics of African-based dance through the elements of tradition, transformation, and social justice. A discussion of the aesthetics of African dances within Africa and throughout the African diaspora opens the doors to present these dances in a K-12 setting, to explore a…

  2. The effects of awarness of social dilemmas on advertising budget setting: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Riezebos, Rik

    2001-01-01

    In this study, which examines the dynamics involved in setting advertising budgets, the social dilemma theory was applied in an attempt to understand the interdependency problems of advertisers in their investment decisions. In an experiment, a budget decision was made for a company after a period

  3. The effects of a social media policy on pharmacy students' facebook security settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-11-10

    To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.

  4. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  5. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting A Psicologia Social brasileira no cenário internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is still present today. We then present the results of research conducted with 150 Brazilian social psychologists concerning the definition of social psychology, the academic training perspective, and the theories used in the conduct of research. The results point to the existence of several contradictions, since, among other matters, they highlight the fact that while most participants advocate research practices tied to a more sociological perspective, the definitions given indicate a more psychological view of social psychology.O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir a psicologia social que vem sendo desenvolvida no Brasil inserindo-a no cenário teórico-metodológico internacional. Para alcançar este objetivo, inicialmente apresentamos um breve relato histórico da fundação da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social e da Associação Latino Americana de Psicologia Social, fornecendo subsídios para o entendimento do embate político que envolveu o surgimento dessas duas organizações e que, de certa forma, ainda está presente na atualidade. Em seguida, apresentamos os resultados da pesquisa realizada com 150 psicólogos sociais brasileiros sobre a definição de psicologia social, sobre a perspectiva de formação e sobre as teorias utilizadas na atividade de pesquisa. Os resultados indicam a existência de algumas contradições, pois, dentre outros aspectos, destaca-se o fato que, embora a maioria dos participantes advogue uma prática de

  6. A Unified Formal Description of Arithmetic and Set Theoretical Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Tarau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We provide a "shared axiomatization" of natural numbers and hereditarily finite sets built around a polymorphic abstraction of bijective base-2 arithmetics. The "axiomatization" is described as a progressive refinement of Haskell type classes with examples of instances converging to an efficient implementation in terms of arbitrary length integers and bit operations. As an instance, we derive algorithms to perform arithmetic operations efficiently directly with hereditarily finite sets. The s...

  7. Relationship between social network, social support and health behaviour in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana F; Joensen, Lene E; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-02-29

    Psychosocial and behavioural aspects of diabetes may differ according to diabetes type. This study compared people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with respect to social relations (cohabitation status, contact with the social network and social support) and health behaviours (diet and physical activity). Furthermore, we examined whether potential differences in health behaviour between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were influenced by education level and social relations. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys consisting of people with type 2 diabetes (N = 1081) and type 1 diabetes (N = 2419) from a specialist diabetes clinic. Gender-stratified stepwise multiple regression models assessed differences by diabetes type and other variables of interest. Significant associations were found between diabetes type and social network, social support and health behaviour. No differences were observed regarding cohabitation status. People with type 2 diabetes were less physically active, less likely to follow recommended diet (men), had fewer contacts with family and friends and were less certain of counting on help in case of severe illness than people with type 1 diabetes. No impact of education level, social network and social support were observed concerning differences in health behaviours by diabetes type; however, in women, the association between physical activity and diabetes type was not significant after adjustment for social relations and education level. People with type 2 diabetes had less contact with the social network, less certainty about support in case of severe illness and fewer healthy behaviours than people with type 1 diabetes. It may be important to draw attention to differences in health behaviours and social relations between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in diabetes care, patient education and support initiatives.

  8. Relationship between social network, social support and health behaviour in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana F. Hempler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and behavioural aspects of diabetes may differ according to diabetes type. This study compared people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with respect to social relations (cohabitation status, contact with the social network and social support and health behaviours (diet and physical activity. Furthermore, we examined whether potential differences in health behaviour between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were influenced by education level and social relations. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys consisting of people with type 2 diabetes (N = 1081 and type 1 diabetes (N = 2419 from a specialist diabetes clinic. Gender-stratified stepwise multiple regression models assessed differences by diabetes type and other variables of interest. Results Significant associations were found between diabetes type and social network, social support and health behaviour. No differences were observed regarding cohabitation status. People with type 2 diabetes were less physically active, less likely to follow recommended diet (men, had fewer contacts with family and friends and were less certain of counting on help in case of severe illness than people with type 1 diabetes. No impact of education level, social network and social support were observed concerning differences in health behaviours by diabetes type; however, in women, the association between physical activity and diabetes type was not significant after adjustment for social relations and education level. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes had less contact with the social network, less certainty about support in case of severe illness and fewer healthy behaviours than people with type 1 diabetes. It may be important to draw attention to differences in health behaviours and social relations between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in diabetes care, patient education and support initiatives.

  9. Social cognition and interaction training for patients with stable schizophrenia in Chinese community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Roberts, David L; Xu, Baihua; Cao, Rifang; Yan, Min; Jiang, Qiongping

    2013-12-30

    Accumulated evidence suggests that Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is associated with improved performance in social cognition and social skills in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders. The current study examined the clinical utility of SCIT in patients with schizophrenia in Chinese community settings. Adults with stable schizophrenia were recruited from local community health institutions, and were randomly assigned to SCIT group (n = 22) or a waiting-list control group (n = 17). The SCIT group received the SCIT intervention plus treatment-as-usual, whereas the waiting-list group received only treatment-as-usual during the period of the study. All patients were administered the Chinese versions of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Eyes task, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) at baseline of the SCIT treatment period and at follow-up, 6 months after completion of the 20-week treatment period. Patients in SCIT group showed a significant improvement in the domains of emotion perception, theory of mind, attributional style, and social functioning compared to those in waiting-list group. Findings indicate that SCIT is a feasible and promising method for improving social cognition and social functioning among Chinese outpatients with stable schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Type Synthesis of Parallel Mechanisms with the First Class GF Sets and Two-Dimensional Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialun Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel design of parallel mechanisms plays a key role in the potential application of parallel mechanisms. In this paper, the type synthesis of parallel mechanisms with the first class GF sets and two-dimensional rotations is studied. The rule of two-dimensional rotations is given, which lays the theoretical foundation for the intersection operations of specific GF sets. Next, kinematic limbs with specific characteristics are designed according to the 2-D and 3-D axes movement theorems. Finally, several synthesized parallel mechanisms with the first class GF sets and two-dimensional rotations are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. Agenda Setting for Health Promotion: Exploring an Adapted Model for the Social Media Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation of best practice in health promotion is a robust theoretical base that informs design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions that promote the public's health. This study provides a novel contribution to health promotion through the adaptation of the agenda-setting approach in response to the contribution of social media. This exploration and proposed adaptation is derived from a study that examined the effectiveness of Twitter in influencing agenda setting among users in relation to road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. The proposed adaptations to the agenda-setting model to be explored reflect two levels of engagement: agenda setting within the social media sphere and the position of social media within classic agenda setting. This exploratory research aims to assess the veracity of the proposed adaptations on the basis of the hypotheses developed to test these two levels of engagement. To validate the hypotheses, we collected and analyzed data from two primary sources: Twitter activities and Saudi national newspapers. Keyword mentions served as indicators of agenda promotion; for Twitter, interactions were used to measure the process of agenda setting within the platform. The Twitter final dataset comprised 59,046 tweets and 38,066 users who contributed by tweeting, replying, or retweeting. Variables were collected for each tweet and user. In addition, 518 keyword mentions were recorded from six popular Saudi national newspapers. The results showed significant ratification of the study hypotheses at both levels of engagement that framed the proposed adaptions. The results indicate that social media facilitates the contribution of individuals in influencing agendas (individual users accounted for 76.29%, 67.79%, and 96.16% of retweet impressions, total impressions, and amplification multipliers, respectively), a component missing from traditional constructions of agenda-setting models. The influence of organizations on agenda setting is

  12. Agenda Setting for Health Promotion: Exploring an Adapted Model for the Social Media Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The foundation of best practice in health promotion is a robust theoretical base that informs design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions that promote the public’s health. This study provides a novel contribution to health promotion through the adaptation of the agenda-setting approach in response to the contribution of social media. This exploration and proposed adaptation is derived from a study that examined the effectiveness of Twitter in influencing agenda setting among users in relation to road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. Objective The proposed adaptations to the agenda-setting model to be explored reflect two levels of engagement: agenda setting within the social media sphere and the position of social media within classic agenda setting. This exploratory research aims to assess the veracity of the proposed adaptations on the basis of the hypotheses developed to test these two levels of engagement. Methods To validate the hypotheses, we collected and analyzed data from two primary sources: Twitter activities and Saudi national newspapers. Keyword mentions served as indicators of agenda promotion; for Twitter, interactions were used to measure the process of agenda setting within the platform. The Twitter final dataset comprised 59,046 tweets and 38,066 users who contributed by tweeting, replying, or retweeting. Variables were collected for each tweet and user. In addition, 518 keyword mentions were recorded from six popular Saudi national newspapers. Results The results showed significant ratification of the study hypotheses at both levels of engagement that framed the proposed adaptions. The results indicate that social media facilitates the contribution of individuals in influencing agendas (individual users accounted for 76.29%, 67.79%, and 96.16% of retweet impressions, total impressions, and amplification multipliers, respectively), a component missing from traditional constructions of agenda-setting models. The influence

  13. Reliability issues and solutions for coding social communication performance in classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Coggins, Truman E; Beilinson, Jill S; Donaldson, Amy L

    2006-10-01

    To explore the utility of time-interval analysis for documenting the reliability of coding social communication performance of children in classroom settings. Of particular interest was finding a method for determining whether independent observers could reliably judge both occurrence and duration of ongoing behavioral dimensions for describing social communication performance. Four coders participated in this study. They observed and independently coded 6 social communication behavioral dimensions using handheld computers. The dimensions were mutually exclusive and accounted for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified time frame. The technology allowed for coding frequency and duration for each entered code. Data were collected from 20 different 2-min video segments of children in kindergarten through 3rd-grade classrooms. Data were analyzed for interobserver and intraobserver agreements using time-interval sorting and Cohen's kappa. Further, interval size and total observation length were manipulated to determine their influence on reliability. The data revealed interval sorting and kappa to be a suitable method for examining reliability of occurrence and duration of ongoing social communication behavioral dimensions. Nearly all comparisons yielded medium to large kappa values; interval size and length of observation minimally affected results. Implications The analysis procedure described in this research solves a challenge in reliability: comparing coding by independent observers of both occurrence and duration of behaviors. Results indicate the utility of a new coding taxonomy and technology for application in online observations of social communication in a classroom setting.

  14. Three types of communication on internal social media:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the t....... Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization....

  15. Strong convergence of an extragradient-type algorithm for the multiple-sets split equality problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Luoyi

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new extragradient-type method to solve the multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP). Under some suitable conditions, the strong convergence of an algorithm can be verified in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Moreover, several numerical results are given to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  16. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  17. Social fear and social phobia types among community youth: differential clinical features and vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Stein, Murray B; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    To compare different social fears and social phobia subtypes with regard to clinical (age of onset, avoidance, impairment, comorbidities) and vulnerability factors (behavioural inhibition (BI), parental psychopathology and parental rearing) among community youth. Fears of 6 social situations and Social Phobia (SP), along with their clinical features, were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI) in a population-based sample of N = 3021 14-24 year olds that were followed up for 10 years. BI and parental rearing were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Parental psychopathology was assessed directly in parents via DIA-X/M-CIDI, supplemented by offsprings' family history reports. In the total sample, 20.0%, 11.6%, 11.7% reported fear of 1, 2, 3 or more social situations, respectively; rates were 24.2%, 18.7%, and 57.1% in SP-cases (6.6% of the total sample). Exploring the factorial structure indicated rather unidimensionality of social fears than mutual distinction of social fears by interaction vs. performance situations. Except for fear of taking tests and public speaking, social fears rarely occurred in isolation. Social fears of both interaction and performance situations were associated with severe avoidance (vs. fear of either situation; Odds Ratios, OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9) and impairment (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.6-4.9), and more comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (OR range 3.2-5.8, p > .001). Fear of interaction situations was associated with higher BI (vs. performance-related fears, OR range 1.2-2.1, p social fears differ in their clinical and vulnerability factors from performance-related social fears. The current DSM-IV specifier of "generalized" SP may fall short of adequately denoting these differences. Fear of taking tests appears to be conceptually and, possibly, etiologically distinct from other social fears, and may be better placed in another category (e.g., as a type of specific phobia

  18. Multipartite Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of settings and outcomes per site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a single general representation incorporating in a unique manner all Bell-type inequalities for a multipartite correlation scenario with an arbitrary number of settings and any spectral type of outcomes at each site. Specifying this general representation for correlation functions, we prove that the form of any correlation Bell-type inequality does not depend on spectral types of outcomes, in particular, on their numbers at different sites, and is determined only by extremal values of outcomes at each site. We also specify the general form of bounds in Bell-type inequalities on joint probabilities. Our approach to the derivation of Bell-type inequalities is universal, concise and can be applied to a multipartite correlation experiment with outcomes of any spectral type, discrete or continuous. We, in particular, prove that, for an N-partite quantum state, possibly, infinite dimensional, admitting the N{2 x ... x 2}-setting LHV description, the Mermin-Klyshko inequality holds for any two bounded quantum observables per site, not necessarily dichotomic

  19. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  20. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  1. Equipping Social Workers to Address Spirituality in Practice Settings: AModel Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is growing interest in incorporating clients’ spiritual beliefs and values into social work practice, several studies have shown that social workers lack the necessary training to address spiritual issues in a culturally competent manner. This paper addresses this need by providing an annotated spirituality training course for use in various settings. Topics or domains covered in the curriculum include ethics and values, research and theory on spirituality, the nation’s spiritual demographics, the cultures of major spiritual traditions, value conflicts, spiritual interventions, assessment approaches, and the rights of spiritual believers. A number of potential assignments are offered,which are designed to promote practitioner self-awareness, respect for spiritual diversity, and an enhanced ability to assess and operationalize spiritual strengths to ameliorate problems in practice settings.

  2. Using Social Robots in Health Settings: Implications of Personalization on Human-Machine Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Tam and Rajiv Khosla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the shortage of healthcare workers and a growing aging population, it is worthwhile to explore the applicability of new technologies in improving the quality of healthcare and reducing its cost. However, it remains a challenge to deploy such technologies in environments where individuals have limited knowledge about how to use them. Thus, this paper explores how the social robots designed for use in health settings in Australia have sought to overcome some of the limitations through personalization. Deployed in aged care and home-based care facilities, the social robots are person-centered, emphasizing the personalization of care with human-like attributes (e.g., human appearances to engage in reciprocal communication with users. While there have been debates over the advantages and disadvantages of personalization, this paper discusses the implications of personalization on the design of the robots for enhancing engagement, empowerment and enablement in health settings.

  3. Children's genuine participation and development of social capital in the school setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Thualagant, Nicole; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle

    participation is viewed as an integral part of social capital generation according to Putnam, which has been found beneficial for health and wellbeing, little is known regarding how social capital is generated in relation to children and drawing on children as active participants. Drawing on children’s......The concern of involving children in decision-making and activities related to their health and well-being in the school has increasingly becoming accepted politically as well as academically in line with the adoption of the UN Convention on the rights of the child. While formal and informal...... perspective and the concept of participation, the aims of this study are therefore to explore children’s experiences with their participation in everyday school situations and secondly, to contribute, theoretically, to the conceptualization of social capital in relation to children in the school setting...

  4. Ultrafuzziness Optimization Based on Type II Fuzzy Sets for Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudan Studiawan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is one of the processing techniques to provide high quality preprocessed image. Image vagueness and bad illumination are common obstacles yielding in a poor image thresholding output. By assuming image as fuzzy sets, several different fuzzy thresholding techniques have been proposed to remove these obstacles during threshold selection. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for thresholding image using ultrafuzziness optimization to decrease uncertainty in fuzzy system by common fuzzy sets like type II fuzzy sets. Optimization was conducted by involving ultrafuzziness measurement for background and object fuzzy sets separately. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image thresholding method had good performances for images with high vagueness, low level contrast, and grayscale ambiguity.

  5. The influence of storage duration on the setting time of type 1 alginate impression material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadina, A.; Triaminingsih, S.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Alginate is one of the most commonly used dental impression materials; however, its setting time is subject to change depending on storage conditions and duration. This creates problems because consumer carelessness can affect alginate shelf life and quality. In the present study, the setting times of two groups of type I alginate with different expiry dates was tested. The first group consisted of 11 alginate specimens that had not yet passed the expiry date, and the second group consisted of alginates that had passed the expiry date. The alginate powder was mixed with distilled water, poured into a metal ring, and tested with a polished rod of poly-methyl methacrylate. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the setting times of the alginate that had not passed the expiry date (157 ± 3 seconds) and alginate that had passed the expiry date (144 ± 2 seconds). These findings indicate that storage duration can affect alginate setting time.

  6. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  7. Mother-child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Ginsberg, E

    1991-08-01

    30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech.

  8. Goal setting with type 2 diabetes: a hermeneutic analysis of the experiences of diabetes educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Boyd, Angela; Ballejos, Miriam; Kynast-Gales, Susan A; Malemute, Charlene L; Armstrong Shultz, Jill; Vandermause, Roxanne K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explicate and interpret common experiences of diabetes educators (DEs) with patient goal setting for patients with type 2 diabetes in diabetes education. Transcripts (n = 10) from semi-structured interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to more deeply explore the accounts of DEs' goal setting with patients with type 2 diabetes. The overarching pattern that emerged was "Striking a Balance," which subsumed 4 subthemes: Applying Theoretical-Practical Principles When Setting Goals, Identifying Idealistic-Realistic Expectations, Creating Patient-Educator-Centered Plans, and Readying-Living With Goal Setting. The pattern, "Striking a Balance," revealed a common meaning of DEs as experiences requiring balance and nuance in goal setting with patients. The results of this study combined with the tenets of the self-determination theory can provide the DEs with real-life exemplars and a theoretical framework to encourage their patients to self-manage, increase intrinsic motivation, and improve adherence related to their lifestyle changes and glycemic control. DEs, as facilitators of change, can implement these changes with flexible and reciprocal activities with their patients. The DEs owned these activities and they are: "building the bond," "sharing the session," "readying for change," "sending them home," and "bringing them back."

  9. Effect of Crusher Type and Crusher Discharge Setting On Washability Characteristics of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahila, P.; Battacharya, S.

    2018-02-01

    Natural resources have been serving the life of many civilizations, among these coals are of prime importance. Coal is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 55% of the country’s energy need. Coal will continue as the mainstay fuel for power generation. Previous researches has been made about the coal feed size and coal type had great influence on the crushing performance of the same jaw crusher and amount of fines generated from a particular coal depends not only upon coal friability but also on crusher type. Therefore, it necessitates crushing and grinding the coal for downstream process. In this paper the effect of crusher type and crusher discharge setting on washability characteristics of same crushed non-coking coal has been studied. Thus four different crushers were investigated at variable parameters like discharge settings, different capacities and feed openings. The experimental work conducted for all crushers with same feed size and HGI (Hardgrove Grindability Index). Based on the investigation the results indicate that the four crushers which has been involved for the experimental work shows that the variation in not only the product size distribution and also reduction ratio. Maximum breakage has been occurred at coarsest size fraction of irrespective of crusher type and discharge setting.

  10. Contrast enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarasan Ezhilmaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel contrast image enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory is recommended in this work. The method of Hamacher T co-norm(S norm which generates a new membership function with the help of upper and lower membership function of type II fuzzy set. The finger print identification is one of the very few techniques employed in forensic science to aid criminal investigations in daily life, providing access control in financial security;-, visa related services, as well as others. Mostly fingerprint images are poorly illuminated and hardly visible, so it is necessary to enhance the input images. The enhancement is useful for authentication and matching. The fingerprint enhancement is vital for identifying and authenticating people by matching their fingerprints with the stored one in the database. The proposed enhancement of the intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory results showed that it is more effective, especially, very useful for forensic science operations. The experimental results were compared with non-fuzzy, fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy and type II fuzzy methods in which the proposed method offered better results with good quality, less noise and low blur features.

  11. Integration: valuing stakeholder input in setting priorities for socially sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Lee, Y; Thompson, P B; Bawden, R; Mench, J A

    2011-09-01

    Setting directions and goals for animal production systems requires the integration of information achieved through internal and external processes. The importance of stakeholder input in setting goals for sustainable animal production systems should not be overlooked by the agricultural animal industries. Stakeholders play an integral role in setting the course for many aspects of animal production, from influencing consumer preferences to setting public policy. The Socially Sustainable Egg Production Project (SSEP) involved the development of white papers on various aspects of egg production, followed by a stakeholder workshop to help frame the issues for the future of sustainable egg production. Representatives from the environmental, food safety, food retail, consumer, animal welfare, and the general farm and egg production sectors participated with members of the SSEP coordination team in a 1.5-d workshop to explore socially sustainable egg production. This paper reviews the published literature on values integration methodologies and the lessons learned from animal welfare assessment models. The integration method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop and its outcome are then summarized. The method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop can be used to obtain stakeholder input on sustainable production in other farm animal industries.

  12. Social value of a nutritional counselling and support program for breastfeeding in urban poor settings, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula L; Wainaina, Caroline W; Macharia, Teresia N; Wekesah, Frederick M; Wanjohi, Milka; Muriuki, Peter; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2018-04-02

    In Kenya, poor maternal nutrition, suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices and high levels of malnutrition have been shown among the urban poor. An intervention aimed at promoting optimal maternal infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) practices in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya was implemented. The intervention involved home-based counselling of pregnant and breastfeeding women and mothers of young children by community health volunteers (CHVs) on optimal MIYCN practices. This study assesses the social impact of the intervention using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach. Data collection was based on SROI methods and used a mixed methods approach (focus group discussions, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, quantitative stakeholder surveys, and revealed preference approach for outcomes using value games). The SROI analysis revealed that the MIYCN intervention was assessed to be highly effective and created social value, particularly for mothers and their children. Positive changes that participants experienced included mothers being more confident in child care and children and mothers being healthier. Overall, the intervention had a negative social impact on daycare centers and on health care providers, by putting too much pressure on them to provide care without providing extra support. The study calculated that, after accounting for discounting factors, the input ($USD 419,716) generated $USD 8 million of social value at the end of the project. The net present value created by the project was estimated at $USD 29.5 million. $USD 1 invested in the project was estimated to bring USD$ 71 (sensitivity analysis: USD$ 34-136) of social value for the stakeholders. The MIYCN intervention showed an important social impact in which mothers and children benefited the most. The intervention resulted in better perceived health of mothers and children and increased confidence of mothers to provide care for their children, while it

  13. The Effects of a Social Media Policy on Pharmacy Students’ Facebook Security Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105

  14. Predictors of at-risk intoxication in a university field setting: social anxiety, demographics, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Bowdring, Molly A; Geller, E Scott

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of alcohol consumption among university students were investigated in a downtown field setting with blood alcohol content (BAC) as the dependent variable. In total, 521 participants completed a brief survey and had their BAC assessed during April 2013. Between 10:00 pm and 2:00 am, teams of researchers recruited passersby at 3 heavy-drinking locations near a university campus. Before the BAC assessment, participants completed a questionnaire regarding their drinking intentions, drinking group, and social anxiety. The average BAC of drinking students was 0.107 g/dL, which was 0.033 g/dL higher than their intended BAC. Males and members of a Greek-life organization consumed significantly more alcohol than their demographic counterparts. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between social anxiety and BAC. University students achieve high levels of intoxication, often exceeding their intended BAC. Social anxiety may be an informative predictor of alcohol consumption in this setting.

  15. Using a descriptive social norm to increase vegetable selection in workplace restaurant settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Ursell, Amanda; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Recent work has shown that exposure to social norm messages may enhance the consumption of vegetables. However, the majority of this work has been conducted in laboratories, often with student populations. Little is known about whether this approach can be successfully used in other contexts. In this study, a poster featuring a message based on social norms was tested to examine whether it could increase and maintain the purchase of meals with vegetables in workplace restaurants. A pretest-posttest design with 3 phases was used in 3 workplace restaurants in the United Kingdom. The first 2 weeks formed the preintervention phase, the second 2 weeks the intervention phase, and the last 2 weeks the postintervention phase. During the intervention phase only, posters containing a social norm message relaying information about vegetable purchases of other diners were placed in each restaurant. The main outcome measure was the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables, which was analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Participants were judged to be male (57%), not overweight (75%), and under the age of 60 (98%). The intervention was positively associated with the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables: baseline versus intervention (60% vs. 64% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); intervention versus postintervention (64% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); and baseline versus postintervention (60% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .001). Social norm messages may increase the purchase of vegetables in workplace settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Human Rights: Its Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A; Mann, Mary; Restivo, Nichole; Mazany, Shellene; Chapple, Reshawna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study reported in this article was to explore the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice among students and supervisors in social work field settings. Data were collected from 35 students and 48 supervisors through an online survey system that featured two open-ended questions regarding human rights issues in their agency and human rights practice tasks. Responses suggest that participants encountered human rights issues related to poverty, discrimination, participation/self-determination/autonomy, violence, dignity/respect, privacy, and freedom/liberty. They saw human rights practice as encompassing advocacy, service provision, assessment, awareness of threats to clients' rights, and the nature of the worker-client relationship. These results have implications for the social work profession, which has an opportunity to focus more intently on change efforts that support clients' rights. The study points to the possibilities of expanding the scope of the human rights competency within social work education and addressing the key human rights issues in field education. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  17. The classification of idiopathic spasmodic torticollis: three types based on social adaptation and frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwase, H; Kato, M

    1997-12-01

    In this study, idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (ST) has been classfied into three types from the opinion of social adaptation and the differences of frustration tolerance. The three types were as follows: type I (overadaptive type), type II (maladaptive type), and type III (compatible type). Type I is a typical psychosomatic with high frustration tolerance. Type II is personality disorder with low frustration tolerance. In type III, frustration tolerance varies depending on social circumstances (i.e., different at home and at the office). In type I, the prognosis of ST is generally unfavorable, since it is associated with recurrence and prolongation of the symptoms. In type II, the prognosis of ST is generally favorable. However, type II patients experience relationship or social difficulties. One characteristic of type III is that the onset of symptoms is usually found in an older person because of proper use of frustration tolerance at home and at the office.

  18. Kill or Cure? Different Types of Social Class Identification Amplify and Buffer the Relation between Social Class and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated different types of social class identification as moderators of the negative relation between social class and mental health problems. Psychology undergraduates (N = 355) completed an online survey that included measures of social class, mental health and well-being, and three aspects of social class identification: importance of identity, salience of identity, and perceived self-class similarity. Perceived self-class similarity buffered the negative associat...

  19. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  20. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S B

    2017-12-28

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li + , Be + , and B + , in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B

  1. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li+, Be+, and B+, in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B field.

  2. Types of Workplace Social Support in the Prediction of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. Irene; Winskowski, Ann Marie; Engdahl, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Research on social support and job satisfaction has yielded mixed results, partly because studies have rarely examined different types of workplace social support, such as collegial support, task support, coaching, and career mentoring. This study identified the relative contributions of different types of social support to job satisfaction and…

  3. Evidence for emulation in chimpanzees in social settings using the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is still unclear which observational learning mechanisms underlie the transmission of difficult problem-solving skills in chimpanzees. In particular, two different mechanisms have been proposed: imitation and emulation. Previous studies have largely failed to control for social factors when these mechanisms were targeted. METHODS: In an attempt to resolve the existing discrepancies, we adopted the 'floating peanut task', in which subjects need to spit water into a tube until it is sufficiently full for floating peanuts to be grasped. In a previous study only a few chimpanzees were able to invent the necessary solution (and they either did so in their first trials or never. Here we compared success levels in baseline tests with two experimental conditions that followed: 1 A full model condition to test whether social demonstrations would be effective, and 2 A social emulation control condition, in which a human experimenter poured water from a bottle into the tube, to test whether results information alone (present in both experimental conditions would also induce successes. Crucially, we controlled for social factors in both experimental conditions. Both types of demonstrations significantly increased successful spitting, with no differences between demonstration types. We also found that younger subjects were more likely to succeed than older ones. Our analysis showed that mere order effects could not explain our results. CONCLUSION: The full demonstration condition (which potentially offers additional information to observers, in the form of actions, induced no more successes than the emulation condition. Hence, emulation learning could explain the success in both conditions. This finding has broad implications for the interpretation of chimpanzee traditions, for which emulation learning may perhaps suffice.

  4. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  5. Kill or cure? Different types of social class identification amplify and buffer the relation between social class and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Stuart, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The present research investigated different types of social class identification as moderators of the negative relation between social class and mental health problems. Psychology undergraduates (N = 355) completed an online survey that included measures of social class, mental health and well-being, and three aspects of social class identification: importance of identity, salience of identity, and perceived self-class similarity. Perceived self-class similarity buffered the negative association between social class and depressive symptoms. However, importance and salience of social class identity amplified the associations between social class and anxiety and life satisfaction. These findings contribute to a more sophisticated understanding of the way in which social identification may operate as a social cure.

  6. A new S-type eigenvalue inclusion set for tensors and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Ge; Wang, Li-Gong; Xu, Zhong; Cui, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new S -type eigenvalue localization set for a tensor is derived by dividing [Formula: see text] into disjoint subsets S and its complement. It is proved that this new set is sharper than those presented by Qi (J. Symb. Comput. 40:1302-1324, 2005), Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and Li et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015). As applications of the results, new bounds for the spectral radius of nonnegative tensors and the minimum H -eigenvalue of strong M -tensors are established, and we prove that these bounds are tighter than those obtained by Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and He and Huang (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:114, 2014).

  7. Why Context Matters: Social Inclusion and Multilingualism in an Austrian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Jessner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.

  8. Agenda Trending: Reciprocity and the Predictive Capacity of Social Networking Sites in Intermedia Agenda Setting across Topics over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Groshek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary converged media environment, agenda setting is being transformed by the dramatic growth of audiences that are simultaneously media users and producers. The study reported here addresses related gaps in the literature by first comparing the topical agendas of two leading traditional media outlets (New York Times and CNN with the most frequently shared stories and trending topics on two widely popular Social Networking Sites (Facebook and Twitter. Time-series analyses of the most prominent topics identify the extent to which traditional media sets the agenda for social media as well as reciprocal agenda-setting effects of social media topics entering traditional media agendas. In addition, this study examines social intermedia agenda setting topically and across time within social networking sites, and in so doing, adds a vital understanding of where traditional media, online uses, and social media content intersect around instances of focusing events, particularly elections. Findings identify core differences between certain traditional and social media agendas, but also within social media agendas that extend from uses examined here. Additional results further suggest important topical and event-oriented limitations upon the predictive capacit of social networking sites to shape traditional media agendas over time.

  9. Social Influences of Help-Seeking Behaviour Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee Lan; Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the influence of social networks such as family members, friends, peers, and health care providers toward the help-seeking behaviour (HSB) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the public and private primary care settings. In-depth interviews of 12 patients, 9 family members, and 5 health care providers, as well as 3 focus groups among 13 health care providers were conducted. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim for qualitative analysis. Social influences play a significant role in the help-seeking process; once diagnosed, patients source information from people around them to make decisions. This significant influence depends on the relationship between patients and social networks or the level of trust, support, and comforting feeling. Thus, the impacts on patients' help-seeking behavior are varied. However, the help-seeking process is not solely an individual's concern but a dynamic process interacting with the social networks within the health care system. © 2015 APJPH.

  10. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  11. SOCIAL MARKETING IN PROMOTING HEALTH BEHAVIOR: A ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conny Tjandra R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIncreasingly incidences of nutrition related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancers are becoming significant health burdens not only in western countries but it is also newly coming health problem in Asia, including Indonesia. To encounter this development in the future it is important to continually promote the diseases prevention actions through appropriate social marketing programs. For that purpose, understanding psychological set such as knowledge, belief, attitude and motivation to perform diseases prevention actions and their causal relationship is becoming more and more important. The most challenging issue is to perform social marketing programs that can successfully influence people future health behavior. Our study has aim to understand the relationship of some psychological factors in influencing behavior. The result of this study showed that in spite of controversial issues published in current studies, we found that inherent knowledge level influences motivation through a modulation of attitude variable.Keywords: eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, motivation, behavioral action, prevention, healthy eating habit.AbstrakMeningkatnya jumlah penyakit kronik yang berhubungan dengan gizi pangan seperti penyakit jantung koroner, kegemukan dan kanker merupakan masalah kesehatan yang utama bukan hanya di Negara barat saja melainkan juga terjadi di negara berkembang seperti Asia. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, perlu dikembangkan sistem pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan oleh setiap individu didalam masyarakat. Pendidikan dan penyuluhan kepada masyarakat terhadap pentingnya tindakan preventif seperti melalui “social marketing programs” yang digalakkan baik oleh pemerintah atau institusi kesehatan lainnya, sangatlah penting. Didalam social marketing, promosi tentang pencegahan semestinya dilakukan dengan terlebih dahulu mengetahui dan mengenal segala macam bentuk kebutuhan dasar, pengetahuan, sikap, kepercayaan

  12. Socially responsible medical education: innovations and challenges in a minority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Aurel; Bourgeois, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Distributed medical education sites help train, recruit and retain doctors, notably in rural and isolated areas, by providing education and training in these areas and adapting their curriculum to meet the host community's health needs. The Centre de Formation Médicale du Nouveau Brunswick (CFMNB; New Brunswick Medical Education Centre) was established by a partnership between two academic institutions, the Université de Sherbrooke (University of Sherbrooke), situated in the province of Quebec, and the Université de Moncton (University of Moncton), situated in the province of New Brunswick, in Canada. The CFMNB is specifically targeting a minority community (Acadians). Working to establish a high-quality medical education programme, the CFMNB has also set community objectives to meet not only the health needs of this population, but also its social and economic needs. This paper describes the overall objectives of this project, which are: to reduce the gap between community needs and academic institutional needs; to address ethno-cultural and language differences in a defined minority population, and to develop collaboration between the partners involved, including government and community entities which are often perceived as operating in isolation from one another. We also describe why and how the CFMNB developed community-focused objectives and the challenges that came with these innovations, and present lessons from the experience that may be relevant to other sites interested in the social responsibility of medical schools. The CFMNB has produced interesting work and innovations in the field of social responsibility and has encountered many challenges. Continuing interaction between medical education, health research and health services to better address the needs of the population has been established. The information obtained by this process has been used to build a strategic plan for the CFMNB in order to ensure that it is socially responsive and has

  13. The effects of types of social networks, perceived social support, and loneliness on the health of older people: accounting for the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona; Towers, Andy; Stevenson, Brendan

    2011-09-01

    To use an ecological model of ageing (Berkman, Glass, Brissette, & Seeman, 2000) which includes upstream social context factors and downstream social support factors to examine the effects of social networks on health. Postal survey responses from a representative population sample of New Zealanders aged 55 to 70 years (N = 6,662). Correlations and multiple regression analyses provided support for a model in which social context contributes to social network type, which affects perceived social support and loneliness, and consequent mental and physical health. Ethnicity was related to social networks and health but this was largely accounted for by other contextual variables measuring socioeconomic status. Gender and age were also significant variables in the model. Social network type is a useful way to assess social integration within this model of cascading effects. More detailed information could be gained through the development of our network assessment instruments for older people.

  14. A bilingual child learns social communication skills through video modeling-a single case study in a norwegian school setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  15. A social preference valuations set for EQ-5D health states in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed at deriving a preference valuation set for EQ-5D health states from the general Flemish public in Belgium. A EuroQol valuation instrument with 16 health states to be valued on a visual analogue scale was sent to a random sample of 2,754 adults. The initial response rate was 35%. Eventually, 548 (20%) respondents provided useable valuations for modeling. Valuations for 245 health states were modeled using a random effects model. The selection of the model was based on two criteria: health state valuations must be consistent, and the difference with the directly observed valuations must be small. A model including a value decrement if any health dimension of the EQ-5D is on the worst level was selected to construct the social health state valuation set. A comparison with health state valuations from other countries showed similarities, especially with those from New Zealand. The use of a single preference valuation set across different health economic evaluations within a country is highly preferable to increase their usability for policy makers. This study contributes to the standardization of outcome measurement in economic evaluations in Belgium.

  16. Textural properties of low-fat set-type yoghurt depending on mTG addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Darnay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine how 0.5-2 U/g non-inactivated mTG affects the pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation. Furthermore we wished to examine how the enzyme addition could change protein structure, gel strength and sensory characteristics by healthy low-fat set-type yoghurt product. Therefore commercial mTG enzyme preparation was added in different concentrations (0.5-2.0 U/g, in 0.5 U/g steps to 1.5 % bovine milk simultaneously with DVS starter culture. Our study revealed that enzyme dosage (0.5-2 U/g protein had no impact on pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation when manufacturing low-fat (1.5 % set-type yoghurt. The addition of mTG contributed to 38 % more whey retention with incorporation of β-casein, and caused 44 % higher gel strength up to a level of 1 U/g protein.

  17. Which Type of Social Capital Matters for Building Trust in Government? Looking for a New Type of Social Capital in the Governance Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghwan Myeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When the level of trust in government is low, government cannot effectively provide services, since the policy goals and the process of implementations are not fully understood by the people. This study hypothesizes that the level of trust in government may increase if the level of social capital increases. It also hypothesizes that the impact of social capital on the level of trust in government may differ depending on the type of social capital. The study examined the relationship between the level of trust in government and types of social capital, including bonding social capital and bridging social capital. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that bonding social capital shows a negative relationship with the level of trust in government, while a bridging social capital has a positive relationship with the level of trust in government. In addition, the study examined the variances of the perceptions of each group based on the degree of social cohesion on the level of trust in government by employing ANOVA. It showed that there are no significant differences in bonding social groups, while bridging social capital groups showed variances in their perception of the level of trust in government.

  18. Leniency programs and socially beneficial cooperation: Effects of type I errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study operationalizes the concept of hostility tradition in antitrust as mentioned by Oliver Williamson and Ronald Coase through erroneous law enforcement effects. The antitrust agency may commit type I, not just type II, errors when evaluating an agreement in terms of cartels. Moreover, firms can compete in a standard way, collude or engage in cooperative agreements that improve efficiency. The antitrust agency may misinterpret such cooperative agreements, committing a type I error (over-enforcement. The model set-up is drawn from Motta and Polo (2003 and is extended as described above using the findings of Ghebrihiwet and Motchenkova (2010. Three effects play a role in this environment. Type I errors may induce firms that would engage in socially efficient cooperation absent errors to opt for collusion (the deserved punishment effect. For other parameter configurations, type I errors may interrupt ongoing cooperation when investigated. In this case, the firms falsely report collusion and apply for leniency, fearing being erroneously fined (the disrupted cooperation effect. Finally, over-enforcement may prevent beneficial cooperation from starting given the threat of being mistakenly fined (the prevented cooperation effect. The results help us understand the negative impact that a hostility tradition in antitrust — which is more likely for inexperienced regimes and regimes with low standards of evidence — and the resulting type I enforcement errors can have on social welfare when applied to the regulation of horizontal agreements. Additional interpretations are discussed in light of leniency programs for corruption and compliance policies for antitrust violations.

  19. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump setting...

  20. Investigations in quantum games using EPR-type set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2006-04-01

    Research in quantum games has flourished during recent years. However, it seems that opinion remains divided about their true quantum character and content. For example, one argument says that quantum games are nothing but 'disguised' classical games and that to quantize a game is equivalent to replacing the original game by a different classical game. The present thesis contributes towards the ongoing debate about quantum nature of quantum games by developing two approaches addressing the related issues. Both approaches take Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type experiments as the underlying physical set-ups to play two-player quantum games. In the first approach, the players' strategies are unit vectors in their respective planes, with the knowledge of coordinate axes being shared between them. Players perform measurements in an EPR-type setting and their payoffs are defined as functions of the correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bimatrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, as for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. The second approach uses the result that when the predictions of a Local Hidden Variable (LHV) model are made to violate the Bell inequalities the result is that some probability measures assume negative values. With the requirement that classical games result when the predictions of a LHV model do not violate the Bell inequalities, our analysis looks at the impact which the emergence of negative probabilities has on the solutions of two-player games which are physically implemented using the EPR-type experiments.

  1. Epilepsy and secondary perceived stigma in a social setting: A night at the theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R

    2016-08-01

    Stigma impacts >50% of persons with epilepsy (PWE) and is a key factory in quality of life. Stigma can be both enacted (external factors) and felt (internal factors). In this article, felt/perceived stigma is more broadly defined as a combination of internal factors and perceptions of external factors. Secondary perceived stigma is felt/perceived stigma by a third party. A key, but often underappreciated, consideration in felt/perceived stigma may occur when a seemingly innocuous statement by a speaker is perceived as stigmatizing by the PWE and/or even by an unintended third party. This autobiographic short report addresses secondary perceived stigma in a social setting, the theater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Game Theoretic Approach for Modeling Privacy Settings of an Online Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Users of online social networks often adjust their privacy settings to control how much information on their profiles is accessible to other users of the networks. While a variety of factors have been shown to affect the privacy strategies of these users, very little work has been done in analyzing how these factors influence each other and collectively contribute towards the users’ privacy strategies. In this paper, we analyze the influence of attribute importance, benefit, risk and network topology on the users’ attribute disclosure behavior by introducing a weighted evolutionary game model. Results show that: irrespective of risk, users aremore likely to reveal theirmost important attributes than their least important attributes; when the users’ range of influence is increased, the risk factor plays a smaller role in attribute disclosure; the network topology exhibits a considerable effect on the privacy in an environment with risk.

  3. Influence of social motivation, self-perception of social efficacy and normative adjustment in the peer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera López, Mauricio; Romera Félix, Eva M; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario; Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) in Spanish adolescent students. The second objective sought to analyse the influence of social goals, normative adjustment and self-perception of social efficacy on social adjustment among peers. A total of 492 adolescents (54.1% females) attending secondary school (12-17 years; M = 13.8, SD = 1.16) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed. The validation confirmed the three-factor structure of the original scale: social development goals, social demonstration-approach goals and social demonstration-avoidance goals. The structural equation model indicated that social development goals and normative adjustment have a direct bearing on social adjustment, whereas the social demonstration-approach goals (popularity) and self-perception of social efficacy with peers and teachers exert an indirect influence. The Spanish version of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) yielded optimal psychometric properties. Having a positive motivational pattern, engaging in norm-adjusted behaviours and perceiving social efficacy with peers is essential to improving the quality of interpersonal relationships.

  4. Type D personality as a predictor of self-efficacy and social support in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yechang Shao,1,2 Honglei Yin,3 Chengsong Wan4 1School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, 4Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data.Results: Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001, total social support (P<0.001, subjective support (P<0.001, and support utilization (P=0.003, but similar level of objective support (P=0.314, compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001, controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor

  5. Setting the stage for social entrepreneurship : a systematic literature reiview on user entrepreneurship in relation to social entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, D.M.; Groen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the boundaries of the theories on user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship by examining the differences and analogies between them. This research was the first to explore the relationship between user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship and theorized about

  6. HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in various social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Bos, Arjan E R; Hoogendijk, Robert; Muris, Peter; Schaalma, Herman P

    2009-11-13

    Recent research has shown that experiences of stigmatization have an adverse impact on the psychological well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Most studies investigating this relationship employ an aggregate measure of stigma. Although this approach provides useful information about the psychological implications of HIV-related stigma in general, it neglects to acknowledge the possibility that some manifestations in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 667 PLWHA in the Netherlands. We examined participants' experiences of 11 manifestations of HIV-related stigma in six social settings. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine which setting-specific manifestations best predict psychological distress after controlling for marital status, education and health status. Three manifestations in family settings, namely receiving advice to conceal one's status, being avoided and being treated with exaggerated kindness, and one manifestation in healthcare settings, namely awkward social interaction, best predicted psychological distress in PLWHA. Manifestations of HIV-related stigma vary according to setting. Certain manifestations in specific social settings impact the psychological well being of PLWHA more than others. In this study, certain experiences of stigmatization with PLWHA's families and in healthcare settings were more strongly related to psychological distress than experiences occurring in other social settings. These findings suggest that stigma reduction interventions focusing on these influential settings may benefit the psychological well being of PLWHA.

  7. A Big Social Media Data Study of the 2017 German Federal Election Based on Social Set Analysis of Political Party Facebook Pages with SoSeVi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    We present a big social media data study that comprises of 1 million individuals who interact with Facebook pages of the seven major political parties CDU, CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens, Die Linke and AfD during the 2017 German federal election. Our study uses the Social Set Analysis (SSA) approach, which...... is based on the sociology of associations, mathematics of set theory, and advanced visual analytics of event studies. We illustrate the capabilities of SSA through the most recent version of our Social Set Analysis (SoSeVi) tool, which enables us to deep dive into Facebook activity concerning the election....... We explore a significant gender-based difference between female and male interactions with political party Facebook pages. Furthermore, we perform a multi-faceted analysis of social media interactions using gender detection, user segmentation and retention analysis, and visualize our findings...

  8. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    of Ageing” (3398 men) aged 50–91 years were followed until 2012/2013, after baseline assessment of depressive symptoms, social support, relational strain, and network size. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for relevant confounders...... behaviour, and body mass index the associations were attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher diabetes risk. This effect was not modified by any of the social variables. Conclusions People with stronger social relations are at lower risk...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of MILE Gene Expression Data Set Advances Discovery of Leukaemia Type and Subtype Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaj, Wojciech; Papiez, Anna; Polanski, Andrzej; Polanska, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Large collections of data in studies on cancer such as leukaemia provoke the necessity of applying tailored analysis algorithms to ensure supreme information extraction. In this work, a custom-fit pipeline is demonstrated for thorough investigation of the voluminous MILE gene expression data set. Three analyses are accomplished, each for gaining a deeper understanding of the processes underlying leukaemia types and subtypes. First, the main disease groups are tested for differential expression against the healthy control as in a standard case-control study. Here, the basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms is confirmed quantitatively and by literature references. Second, pairwise comparison testing is performed for juxtaposing the main leukaemia types among each other. In this case by means of the Dice coefficient similarity measure the general relations are pointed out. Moreover, lists of candidate main leukaemia group biomarkers are proposed. Finally, with this approach being successful, the third analysis provides insight into all of the studied subtypes, followed by the emergence of four leukaemia subtype biomarkers. In addition, the class enhanced DEG signature obtained on the basis of novel pipeline processing leads to significantly better classification power of multi-class data classifiers. The developed methodology consisting of batch effect adjustment, adaptive noise and feature filtration coupled with adequate statistical testing and biomarker definition proves to be an effective approach towards knowledge discovery in high-throughput molecular biology experiments.

  10. Social Work Involvement in Advance Care Planning: Findings from a Large Survey of Social Workers in Hospice and Palliative Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gary L; Cagle, John G; Christ, Grace H

    2017-03-01

    Few data are available describing the involvement and activities of social workers in advance care planning (ACP). We sought to provide data about (1) social worker involvement and leadership in ACP conversations with patients and families; and (2) the extent of functions and activities when these discussions occur. We conducted a large web-based survey of social workers employed in hospice, palliative care, and related settings to explore their role, participation, and self-rated competency in facilitating ACP discussions. Respondents were recruited through the Social Work Hospice and Palliative Care Network and the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the full sample of respondents (N = 641) and a subsample of clinical social workers (N = 456). Responses were analyzed to explore differences in ACP involvement by practice setting. Most clinical social workers (96%) reported that social workers in their department are conducting ACP discussions with patients/families. Majorities also participate in, and lead, ACP discussions (69% and 60%, respectively). Most respondents report that social workers are responsible for educating patients/families about ACP options (80%) and are the team members responsible for documenting ACP (68%). Compared with other settings, oncology and inpatient palliative care social workers were less likely to be responsible for ensuring that patients/families are informed of ACP options and documenting ACP preferences. Social workers are prominently involved in facilitating, leading, and documenting ACP discussions. Policy-makers, administrators, and providers should incorporate the vital contributions of social work professionals in policies and programs supporting ACP.

  11. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  12. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  13. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different types of theta rhythmicity are induced by social and fearful stimuli in a network associated with social memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-02-16

    Rhythmic activity in the theta range is thought to promote neuronal communication between brain regions. In this study, we performed chronic telemetric recordings in socially behaving rats to monitor electrophysiological activity in limbic brain regions linked to social behavior. Social encounters were associated with increased rhythmicity in the high theta range (7-10 Hz) that was proportional to the stimulus degree of novelty. This modulation of theta rhythmicity, which was specific for social stimuli, appeared to reflect a brain-state of social arousal. In contrast, the same network responded to a fearful stimulus by enhancement of rhythmicity in the low theta range (3-7 Hz). Moreover, theta rhythmicity showed different pattern of coherence between the distinct brain regions in response to social and fearful stimuli. We suggest that the two types of stimuli induce distinct arousal states that elicit different patterns of theta rhythmicity, which cause the same brain areas to communicate in different modes.

  15. Setting the top 10 research priorities to improve the health of people with Type 2 diabetes: a Diabetes UK-James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, S; Robb, P; Cowan, K; Daly, A; Shah, K; Farmer, A

    2018-07-01

    To describe processes and outcomes of a priority setting partnership to identify the 'top 10 research priorities' in Type 2 diabetes, involving people living with the condition, their carers, and healthcare professionals. We followed the four-step James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process which involved: gathering uncertainties using a questionnaire survey distributed to 70 000 people living with Type 2 diabetes and their carers, and healthcare professionals; organizing the uncertainties; interim priority setting by resampling of participants with a second survey; and final priority setting in an independent group of participants, using the nominal group technique. At each step the steering group closely monitored and guided the process. In the first survey, 8227 uncertainties were proposed by 2587 participants, of whom 18% were from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups. Uncertainties were formatted and collated into 114 indicative questions. A total of 1506 people contributed to a second survey, generating a shortlist of 24 questions equally weighted to the contributions of people living with diabetes and their carers and those of healthcare professionals. In the final step the 'top 10 research priorities' were selected, including questions on cure and reversal, risk identification and prevention, and self-management approaches in Type 2 diabetes. Systematic and transparent methodology was used to identify research priorities in a large and genuine partnership of people with lived and professional experience of Type 2 diabetes. The top 10 questions represent consensus areas of research priority to guide future research, deliver responsive and strategic allocation of research resources, and improve the future health and well-being of people living with, and at risk of, Type 2 diabetes. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  16. Variations in fresh fruit and vegetable quality by store type, urban-rural setting and neighbourhood deprivation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven; Smith, Dianna M; Taylor, Mathew; Dawson, John; Marshall, David; Sparks, Leigh; Anderson, Annie S

    2009-11-01

    Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural-urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban-rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban-rural classification. Scotland. Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items. The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.

  17. "Typing Back": Social Media as Space for Critical Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careless, Erin Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Social media applications such as Facebook and Twitter have become integrated into sociocultural practices for millions of people around the world, and are having an enduring impact on the field of adult education. As essentially free, virtually non-hierarchical tools that facilitate user-generated knowledge, these online spaces may be powerful…

  18. Social support and coping in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ramkisson

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Social support is important in helping the patient with diabetes cope with the disease and to improve adherence to treatment. Health care providers should take cognisance of psychosocial factors in the treatment regime of the patient. Family members should be educated about diabetes, the importance of adherence and long-term complications of the disease.

  19. Creating social policy to support women's agency in coercive settings: A case study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Many emphasise the need for policies that support women's agency in highly coercive settings, and the importance of involving target women in public deliberation to inform policy design. The Ugandan Marriage and Divorce Bill seeks to strengthen women's agency in marriage, but has faced many obstacles, including objections from many women themselves in public consultations. We explore key stakeholders' accounts of the difficulties facing the Bill's progress to date, through focus groups with 24 rural and urban men and women, interviews with 14 gender champions in government, non-governmental organisations and legal sectors, and 25 relevant media and radio reports. Thematic analysis revealed an array of representations of the way the Bill's progress was shaped by the public consultation process, the nature of the Ugandan public sphere, the understanding and manipulation of concepts such as 'culture' and 'custom' in public discourse, the impact of economic inequalities on women's understandings of their gendered interests and low women's trust in the law and the political process. We discuss the complexities of involving highly marginalised women in public debates about gender issues and highlight possible implications for conceptualising agency, gender and social change as tools for gender policy and activism in extreme inequality.

  20. Captive chimpanzee foraging in a social setting: a test of problem solving, flexibility, and spatial discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtycz, Laura M.; Ross, Stephen R.; Bonnie, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    In the wild, primates are selective over the routes that they take when foraging and seek out preferred or ephemeral food. Given this, we tested how a group of captive chimpanzees weighed the relative benefits and costs of foraging for food in their environment when a less-preferred food could be obtained with less effort than a more-preferred food. In this study, a social group of six zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could collect PVC tokens and exchange them with researchers for food rewards at one of two locations. Food preference tests had revealed that, for these chimpanzees, grapes were a highly-preferred food while carrot pieces were a less-preferred food. The chimpanzees were tested in three phases, each comprised of 30 thirty-minute sessions. In phases 1 and 3, if the chimpanzees exchanged a token at the location they collected them they received a carrot piece (no travel) or they could travel ≥10 m to exchange tokens for grapes at a second location. In phase 2, the chimpanzees had to travel for both rewards (≥10 m for carrot pieces, ≥15 m for grapes). The chimpanzees learned how to exchange tokens for food rewards, but there was individual variation in the time it took for them to make their first exchange and to discover the different exchange locations. Once all the chimpanzees were proficient at exchanging tokens, they exchanged more tokens for grapes (phase 3). However, when travel was required for both rewards (phase 2), the chimpanzees were less likely to work for either reward. Aside from the alpha male, all chimpanzees exchanged tokens for both reward types, demonstrating their ability to explore the available options. Contrary to our predictions, low-ranked individuals made more exchanges than high-ranked individuals, most likely because, in this protocol, chimpanzees could not monopolize the tokens or access to exchange locations. Although the chimpanzees showed a preference for exchanging tokens for their more-preferred food, they

  1. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  2. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of γ-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has in- creased over seven times since the previous analysis. β-turns (7153) and γ-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and ...

  3. Clinical assessment of depression and type 2 diabetes in Morocco: Economical and social components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Bensbaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. In Morocco, diabetes and depression are major public health problems, requiring improvement in their care. Diabetes and depression are associated with morbidity and early mortality. This association contributes to raising the risk of the complications that occur, while causing higher suffering to patients, as also an increased cost toward healthcare. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and identify the main risk factors for depression in this category of diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients and older than 18 years of age were recruited. The exclusion criteria included being type 1 diabetic, pregnant woman, hospitalized patients, a history of neurological disorders, such as, stroke, infectious episidodes, and history of psychiatric disorders. The individual patient data was collected through individual and confidential interviews lasting 30 minutes, at the end of the diabetology consultation, by the same diabetologist, trained to use the psychometric scales that were needed. The Moroccan-Arabic version of the Beck diagnostic scale of depression was used. Patients assessed with depressive disorders were reviewed in a specialized psychiatric consultation. The statistical analysis was achieved by using SPSS package (version 17. We retained a threshold P value of 0.05. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included adults with type 2 diabetes. The depression diagnosis was performed using the Arabic version of the Beck Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: We included 142 patients with type 2 diabetes, with an average age of 56.26 years. The prevalence of depression was 33.1%. The risk factors recognized for depression were, lack of social security, hypertension, and a history of type 2 diabetes of more than five years. Results and Conclusions: In this study, we

  4. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  5. The Impact of Media on Collaborative Learning in Virtual Settings: The Perspective of Social Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Wei; Min, Hui-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an alternative function of information sharing--social construction of meaning. Drawing on social construction, social interaction, and task closure theories, we explored the influence of both the media environment in which students are situated and the medium that group members choose to communicate with one another on the…

  6. Socially Responsible Public Procurement and Set-Asides: a Comparative Analysis of the US, Canada and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Cravero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement can be used to achieve goals other than purely economic ones. Such goals are often referred to as “social linkages”. A preference for social considerations has been gaining ground against the dominant best value for money (BVM paradigm over the past few decades. In the past, public procurement policies followed the principle of non-discrimination and free competition beyond national boundaries. Today considerations other than (purely economic BVM have become relevant in public procurement policy and practice. Examples of social linkages in public procurement are found in various countries, from the well-known ‘Affirmative Action Programs’ in the US that advance minorities, women, persons with disabilities and veterans,1 to specific set-aside programs made available to only less-competitive businesses, such as women-owned businesses, minority-owned businesses, businesses operating in economically disadvantaged areas, etc. Set-asides can be seen as social procurement linkages through the promotion of both supplier diversity and employment. The latter means that social use of public procurement can positively impact employment by providing opportunities to workers who are generally excluded from the labour market, while the former means that chances are given to less-competitive bidders. Set-aside programs have been widely developed in the US, which has a long tradition of set-aside contracts for special classes of small businesses, including small disadvantaged businesses, and in Canada where set-asides have been introduced for the development of Aboriginal businesses. However, the restriction of full and open competition that set-asides entail is frequently criticized by EU institutions. Despite this, the new European procurement framework also seems to have established set-asides as a means of providing economic opportunities to disadvantaged groups.

  7. Homotopy Types and Social Theory: Theoretical Foundations of Strategic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    extended through strategy, industry and/or good fortune. Its preservation is typically a salient priority, even for actors without a strong strategic...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 axiomatic methods, multiscale social interaction, cross-scale consequences REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...law, no person shall be subject to any oenalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB

  8. Physical and social activities mediate the associations between social network types and ventilatory function in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Leung, Edward M F; Chan, Trista Wai Sze

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the associations between social network types and peak expiratory flow (PEF), and whether these associations were mediated by social and physical activities and mood. Nine hundred twenty-four community-dwelling Chinese older adults, who were classified into five network types (diverse, friend-focused, family-focused, distant family, and restricted), provided data on demographics, social and physical activities, mood, smoking, chronic diseases, and instrumental activities of daily living. PEF and biological covariates, including blood lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and height and weight, were assessed. Two measures of PEF were analyzed: the raw reading in L/min and the reading expressed as percentage of predicted normal value on the basis of age, sex, and height. Diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks were hypothesized to have better PEF values compared with restricted networks, through higher physical and/or social activities. No relative advantage was predicted for family-focused networks because such networks tend to be associated with lower physical activity. Older adults with diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks had significantly better PEF measures than those with restricted networks. The associations between diverse network and PEF measures were partially mediated by physical exercise and socializing activity. The associations between friend-focused network and PEF measures were partially mediated by socializing activity. No significant PEF differences between family-focused and restricted networks were found. Findings suggest that social network types are associated with PEF in older adults, and that network-type differences in physical and socializing activity is partly responsible for this relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  10. Meal replacements for weight loss in type 2 diabetes in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is limited information on the effectiveness of meal replacements (MRs) as a weight-loss strategy in an unsupervised community setting. Aim. To evaluate the use of MR compared with a diet book for 6 months. Subjects and Methods. Obese subjects (n = 120) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the community in Adelaide, South Australia, and randomised to intervention or control. Subjects in the intervention were advised to consume 2 MR/day for 3 months and 1 MR/day for 3 months and follow the manufacturers' instructions from printed material and the website. Subjects in the control arm were given a commercially available diet book. Results. Consumption of 2 MR for 3 months and 1 MR for the subsequent 3 months led to weight loss of 5.5 kg (5%) and a 0.26% decrease in HbA1c while the diet book group had a weight loss of 3 kg (3%) (P = 0.027 for difference between groups) and a decrease in HbA1c of 0.15% (between group ns) in those who completed the 6-month study. On intention-to-treat (last observation carried forward) weight loss at 6 months was 3.4 kg in MR and 1.8 kg in control (P = 0.07). Decreases in HbA1c were 0.22% and 0.12%, respectively (P = ns). HDL cholesterol increased by 4% in MR and decreased by 1% in control (P = 0.004). Blood pressure decreased equally in both groups. There were reductions in fasting glucose in both groups at 6 months with no changes in LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations. Conclusion. MR confers benefits in HbA1C reduction and weight loss at 6 months in those who completed the study.

  11. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D; Jansen, Michelle A; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F; Lyle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts.

  12. Influence of contact definitions in assessment of the relative importance of social settings in disease transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty J Bolton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Realistic models of disease transmission incorporating complex population heterogeneities require input from quantitative population mixing studies. We use contact diaries to assess the relative importance of social settings in respiratory pathogen spread using three measures of person contact hours (PCH as proxies for transmission risk with an aim to inform bipartite network models of respiratory pathogen transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our survey examines the contact behaviour for a convenience sample of 65 adults, with each encounter classified as occurring in a work, retail, home, social, travel or "other" setting. The diary design allows for extraction of PCH-interaction (cumulative time in face-face conversational or touch interaction with contacts--analogous to the contact measure used in several existing surveys--as well as PCH-setting (product of time spent in setting and number of people present and PCH-reach (product of time spent in setting and number of people in close proximity. Heterogeneities in day-dependent distribution of risk across settings are analysed using partitioning and cluster analyses and compared between days and contact measures. Although home is typically the highest-risk setting when PCH measures isolate two-way interactions, its relative importance compared to social and work settings may reduce when adopting a more inclusive contact measure that considers the number and duration of potential exposure events. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneities in location-dependent contact behaviour as measured by contact diary studies depend on the adopted contact definition. We find that contact measures isolating face-face conversational or touch interactions suggest that contact in the home dominates, whereas more inclusive contact measures indicate that home and work settings may be of higher importance. In the absence of definitive knowledge of the contact required to facilitate transmission of various

  13. Toward an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Vivian; van den Bos, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theory of mind (ToM) accounts for social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional ToM accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of considering ToM and interactionism as mutually exclusive opponents, they should be integrated into a more comprehensive account of social cognition. We draw on dual process models of social cognition that contrast two different types of social cognitive processing. The first type (labeled Type 1) refers to processes that are fast, efficient, stimulus-driven, and relatively inflexible. The second type (labeled Type 2) refers to processes that are relatively slow, cognitively laborious, flexible, and may involve conscious control. We argue that while interactionism captures aspects of social cognition mostly related to Type 1 processes, ToM is more focused on those based on Type 2 processes. We suggest that real life social interactions are rarely based on either Type 1 or Type 2 processes alone. On the contrary, we propose that in most cases both types of processes are simultaneously involved and that social behavior may be sustained by the interplay between these two types of processes. Finally, we discuss how the new integrative framework can guide experimental research on social interaction. PMID:23087631

  14. Towards an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian eBohl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theory of mind accounts of social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional theory of mind accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of considering theory of mind and interactionism as mutually exclusive opponents, they should be integrated into a more comprehensive account of social cognition. We draw on dual process models of social cognition that contrast two different types of social cognitive processing. The first type (labelled Type 1 refers to processes that are fast, efficient, stimulus-driven, and relatively inflexible. The second type (labelled Type 2 refers to processes that are relatively slow, cognitively laborious, flexible, and may involve conscious control. We argue that while interactionism captures aspects of social cognition mostly related to Type 1 processes, theory of mind is more focused on those based on Type 2 processes. We suggest that real life social interactions are rarely based on either Type 1 or Type 2 processes alone. On the contrary, we propose that in most cases both types of processes are simultaneously involved and that social behaviour may be sustained by the interplay between these two types of processes. Finally, we discuss how the new integrative framework can guide experimental research on social interaction.

  15. Toward an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Vivian; van den Bos, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theory of mind (ToM) accounts for social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional ToM accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of considering ToM and interactionism as mutually exclusive opponents, they should be integrated into a more comprehensive account of social cognition. We draw on dual process models of social cognition that contrast two different types of social cognitive processing. The first type (labeled Type 1) refers to processes that are fast, efficient, stimulus-driven, and relatively inflexible. The second type (labeled Type 2) refers to processes that are relatively slow, cognitively laborious, flexible, and may involve conscious control. We argue that while interactionism captures aspects of social cognition mostly related to Type 1 processes, ToM is more focused on those based on Type 2 processes. We suggest that real life social interactions are rarely based on either Type 1 or Type 2 processes alone. On the contrary, we propose that in most cases both types of processes are simultaneously involved and that social behavior may be sustained by the interplay between these two types of processes. Finally, we discuss how the new integrative framework can guide experimental research on social interaction.

  16. Ariadne's Thread: Using Social Presence Indices to Distinguish Learning Events in Face-to-Face and ICT-Rich Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Colin; Henderson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on ancient Greek mythology, this article traces the learning experiences of 164 pre-service education students as they make the transition from a conventional face-to-face (f-2-f) learning environment to an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rich setting. Influenced by Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie,…

  17. Intervention workshop with youth worker professionals and social in- and exclusion of danish youth in educational settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tim Vikær; Kaas, Lise Aagaard

    This paper is part of the research project conducted by UCC on social communities and their relation to education among youth in institutional settings. A key objective of the research project is to investigate how professionals may cooperate to facilitate inclusive environments to ensure...

  18. Adolescents' sense-making of alcohol-related risks: The role of drinking situations and social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti

    2015-09-01

    The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Evaluating restoration in urban green spaces: Does setting type make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.; Jorgensen, A.; Wilson, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that natural settings are more effective in providing restoration from depleted emotional and cognitive resources than built settings. However, there is a lack of evidencebased guidelines on which options for urban green space design and management are most

  20. Evaluating restoration in urban green spaces : Does setting type make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Agnes E.; Jorgensen, Anna; Wilson, Edward R.

    A growing body of research suggests that natural settings are more effective in providing restoration from depleted emotional and cognitive resources than built settings. However, there is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on which options for urban green space design and management are most

  1. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease : The type D personality construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, I.A.L.; Versteeg, H.; Duijndam, S.N.C.; Graafmans, C.; Polak, P.; Denollet, J.K.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged

  2. Social Responsibility and Corporate Web Pages: Self-Presentation or Agenda-Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrock, Stuart L.; Leichty, Greg B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how corporate entities use the Web to present themselves as socially responsible citizens and to advance policy positions. Samples randomly "Fortune 500" companies, revealing that, although 90% had Web pages and 82% of the sites addressed a corporate social responsibility issue, few corporations used their pages to monitor…

  3. Evidence of Social Comparison in Mastery Goals in Natural Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Isabelle; Escribe, Christian; Dupeyrat, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of achievement goal theory typically posit social comparison to be associated with performance goals but not with mastery goals (C. Ames, 1992). Contrary to this postulate, there is some evidence that individuals who are experimentally induced to adopt mastery goals may also use social comparison (e.g., R. Butler, 1992). However, such…

  4. Shared fun is doubled fun : player enjoyment as a function of social setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajadhar, B.J.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Rowland, D.

    2008-01-01

    Although the social relevance of digital gaming has been discussed and investigated in cultural and sociological readings, social context has been largely neglected in terms of in-game player experience. In this paper we present a study in which player experience is empirically tested

  5. Effects of a Metacognitive Social Skill Intervention in a Rural Setting with At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Patti J.; Gillmor, Susan C.; Schuster, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Ten at-risk students in a rural high school completed a social skills program based on metacognitive strategies and aligned with social and emotional learning principles. The intervention's primary goal was to stimulate the development of metacognitive strategies for internal locus of control in the students, rather than attempting to change their…

  6. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  7. Analysis of insulin pump settings in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yu Ning; Korula, Sophy; Chan, Albert K; Heels, Kristine; Krass, Ines; Ambler, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    To characterize current insulin pump settings used in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to assess their relationship to glycemic control. This retrospective study included patients aged 18 yr old with T1DM >1 yr using a Medtronic pump device. Pump data including number of blood glucose (BG) tests per day, basal and bolus insulin parameters, carbohydrate ratio (CR), and insulin sensitivity factors (ISFs) were averaged over 14 d for statistical analyses. Anthropometric data and recent glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were recorded. A total of 292 patients (144 males and 148 females) were included in the study. Participants had a median age (interquartile range, IQR) of 12.9 yr (10.0-15.1 yr) and pump duration of 2.8 yr (1.5-4.2 yr). No significant differences in median HbA1c (IQR) were observed in preschool [n = 14; HbA1c 7.8% (7.3-8.3%)], prepubertal [n = 105; HbA1c 8.1% (7.7-8.9%)], and adolescent subjects [n = 173; HbA1c 8.4% (7.7-9.0%)]. Adolescents took significantly fewer boluses and BG tests per day compared with younger children (p insulin delivery was noted. Additionally, stronger carbohydrate cover and weaker corrections were used in real-life compared with theoretical 500 and 100 rules, respectively. Lower HbA1c was associated with higher number of daily boluses, greater number of BG tests per day, lower average CR/500 rule ratio, and higher average ISF/100 rule ratio adjusted for age (R(2) = 0.22; p 1). Insulin pump therapy requires continuous adjustments and glycemic targets are achieved by a minority. We believe this is the first study in pediatric cohort looking at association between CR and ISF with glycemic control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Types of Professional Interactions in Modern Russian Nannies: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobysheva T.V.,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of the crowd proposed by a Russian lawyer and public The article presents results of a social psychological study of professional interactions in modern Russian nannies. It provides the first ever descriptions of significant interactions between nannies, employers and children. Four types of professional interactions are identified empirically depending on work motivation of nannies. Nannies with an attitude of "the child's older friend" are focused on establishing a close psychological relationship with the child. Their professional interaction with the child can be defined as overprotective. "Nannies-intermediaries" are more aware of their employee status and avoid breaking the psychological distance both with the child and the parents. The choice of interaction strategies in nannies with a "neighbor babysitter" attitude is determined mostly by their desire to gain work experience in their free time. They generally prefer not to establish close relationships with the child. The most professional of all are nannies with an attitude of "servants". They know how to resolve conflicts between children, how to arrange game activities for children, and conform to the requirements set by the parents. However, nannies of this type are more likely to physically suppress the will of the child.

  9. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  10. A Geršgorin-type eigenvalue localization set with n parameters for stochastic matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoxiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A set in the complex plane which involves n parameters in [0, 1] is given to localize all eigenvalues different from 1 for stochastic matrices. As an application of this set, an upper bound for the moduli of the subdominant eigenvalues of a stochastic matrix is obtained. Lastly, we fix n parameters in [0, 1] to give a new set including all eigenvalues different from 1, which is tighter than those provided by Shen et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 447 (2014 74-87 and Li et al. (Linear and Multilinear Algebra 63(11 (2015 2159-2170 for estimating the moduli of subdominant eigenvalues.

  11. Optimum bolus wizard settings in insulin pumps in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A J B; Ostenfeld, A; Pipper, C B

    2016-01-01

    : Optimum insulin pump settings at pump initiation depend on both insulin requirements and use of the pump. Settings need to be individualized because the standardized calculation factors are not constant for children. There is a need to develop specific age- and insulin dose-dependent calculation factors.......AIM: To evaluate current insulin pump settings in an optimally regulated paediatric population using bolus wizard. METHODS: We used a retrospective study design to analyse data from 124 children on insulin pump therapy who had optimum HbA1c levels [

  12. What's on YOUR Facebook profile? Evaluation of an educational intervention to promote appropriate use of privacy settings by medical students on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jennifer M; White, Jonathan; Ross, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The rise of social media has led to growing concerns about the potential implications of 'unprofessional' postings by physicians and medical students on individuals, institutions, and the medical profession. Relevant and effective guidelines have been difficult to develop and enforce, and there is a need for students and physicians to consider how their online activities may be perceived in the context of their professional roles. The purpose of this project was to examine the Internet presence of a graduating Canadian medical school class by scanning students' public profiles on the social media site Facebook, incorporate this information into an educational activity addressing professionalism and social media, and evaluate the impact of this activity on student behavior. A systematic search for public Facebook profiles of each member of the class was conducted, and data were collected on the types of publicly visible material. These were presented as part of an educational session on social media and professionalism. One month later, the Facebook search was repeated. Of 152 students in the class, profiles were found for 121 (79.8%). The majority of students used appropriately restrictive privacy settings; however, a significant minority had publicly visible information, including comments, photographs, location, and status as a medical student. The educational innovation was well received with more than 90% of students agreeing that this topic was important and well addressed. A follow-up search found that many students had altered their privacy settings to make less information publicly available. A small but significant proportion of students share potentially unprofessional content on social media. An interactive educational intervention, which includes specific disclosure of how participants appear to others on social media, resulted in a significant change in student behavior.

  13. What's on YOUR Facebook profile? Evaluation of an educational intervention to promote appropriate use of privacy settings by medical students on social networking sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Walton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise of social media has led to growing concerns about the potential implications of ‘unprofessional’ postings by physicians and medical students on individuals, institutions, and the medical profession. Relevant and effective guidelines have been difficult to develop and enforce, and there is a need for students and physicians to consider how their online activities may be perceived in the context of their professional roles. The purpose of this project was to examine the Internet presence of a graduating Canadian medical school class by scanning students’ public profiles on the social media site Facebook, incorporate this information into an educational activity addressing professionalism and social media, and evaluate the impact of this activity on student behavior. Methods: A systematic search for public Facebook profiles of each member of the class was conducted, and data were collected on the types of publicly visible material. These were presented as part of an educational session on social media and professionalism. One month later, the Facebook search was repeated. Results: Of 152 students in the class, profiles were found for 121 (79.8%. The majority of students used appropriately restrictive privacy settings; however, a significant minority had publicly visible information, including comments, photographs, location, and status as a medical student. The educational innovation was well received with more than 90% of students agreeing that this topic was important and well addressed. A follow-up search found that many students had altered their privacy settings to make less information publicly available. Conclusions: A small but significant proportion of students share potentially unprofessional content on social media. An interactive educational intervention, which includes specific disclosure of how participants appear to others on social media, resulted in a significant change in student behavior.

  14. Rel8: demonstrating the feasibility of delivering an 8-week social skills program in a public mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Bronwyn; Terlich, Alissa; Lee, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    As community mental health services integrate recovery-oriented practices, treatments that focus on skills development and social integration are desirable. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of implementing "Rel8", an 8-week social skills training group adapted to suit a public community mental health setting. A retrospective audit was conducted of quantitative and qualitative data from four groups run between 2011 and 2013. Pre- and post-group measures were collected, assessing self-rated friendships and confidence with social skills and clinician-rated social skill performance. Qualitative feedback about group participation was also collected through use of a developed questionnaire. Analysis revealed significant improvements in participants' confidence with their social skills following group participation, with a trend also found for improved social skill performance. "Rel8", an adapted 8-week social skills training group, is a feasible program in the context of community mental health services. The program added to the recovery-centred practice of the community mental health service while also adding to the diversity of clinician skills for psychosocial-oriented practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. The relationship of parenting styles and social competency to Type A behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harralson, T L; Lawler, K A

    1992-10-01

    This study examined parenting styles, Type A behavior in parents and children, and social competence in children. Fifty 1st-6th grade children, parents, and their teachers participated. Type A behavior in parents was associated with a controlling style of parenting, but not with pressuring the child to achieve. Parenting styles of achievement pressure and high control were related to impatient and aggressive behaviors in children, as measured by the MYTH, a teacher-scored Type A behavior instrument. In addition, impatience and aggressiveness in the children were negatively correlated with the child's social competency and ability to function in school. Parenting practices, Type A behavior, and social competency in children may play important roles in the origins of detrimental components of Type A behavior, such as impatience and aggression.

  16. $L^{p}$-square function estimates on spaces of homogeneous type and on uniformly rectifiable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Steve; Mitrea, Marius; Morris, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The authors establish square function estimates for integral operators on uniformly rectifiable sets by proving a local T(b) theorem and applying it to show that such estimates are stable under the so-called big pieces functor. More generally, they consider integral operators associated with Ahlfors-David regular sets of arbitrary codimension in ambient quasi-metric spaces. The local T(b) theorem is then used to establish an inductive scheme in which square function estimates on so-called big pieces of an Ahlfors-David regular set are proved to be sufficient for square function estimates to hold on the entire set. Extrapolation results for L^p and Hardy space versions of these estimates are also established. Moreover, the authors prove square function estimates for integral operators associated with variable coefficient kernels, including the Schwartz kernels of pseudodifferential operators acting between vector bundles on subdomains with uniformly rectifiable boundaries on manifolds.

  17. The role of the hospice social worker in the nursing home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, D F

    1994-01-01

    Data and case examples from two major metropolitan hospice programs are examined in order to arrive at a definition of the hospice social worker's role in the nursing home, and how it differs from that of the hospice social worker in home care. The nursing home population tends to be older, frailer, and with poorer mental status, making them less available to "talk therapies". The nursing home environment itself needs to be assessed as a significant part of the patient/family system. Social work interventions may focus on the patient, the family, the nursing home staff, or any combination of these elements. The hospice social worker on a nursing home team may do less counseling with patients, but the role draws on diverse other skills such as groupwork, negotiation, education, and advocacy.

  18. Welfare, social justice, and equality in educational settings in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Sirpa; Odenbring, Ylva; Steen-Olsen, Tove Herborg

    2013-01-01

    © Universitetsforlaget 2013. This is the authors' accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. The final publication is available at https://www.idunn.no/np/2013/04/welfare_social_justice_and_equality_in_educational_settin

  19. Social support and amphetamine-type stimulant use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Mao, Yuchen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Existing research has suggested a positive role of social support in reducing drug use among female sex workers (FSWs). However, there is limited research on the role of social support in amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use among FSWs in China. This study explored the present situation of ATS use among FSWs in Guangxi, China and examined the associations of different types of social support from different sources with ATS use. A sample of 1022 FSWs was recruited from 56 commercial sex venues in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. Bivariate comparison was used to compare demographic characteristics and source of emotional or tangible social support across frequency of ATS use among FSWs. The relationship between social support and ATS use was examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression models controlling for the potential confounding effects of demographic variables. The multiple ordinal logistic regression indicated that FSWs who were from younger age groups (aOR = 10.88 for age group workers for tangible support (aOR = 1.17). Different types of social support from different sources can be either positively or negatively associated with ATS use among FSWs, therefore, the future intervention efforts should differentiate and target different types and different sources of social support in response to the living and work conditions of FSWs.

  20. 'Setting the guinea pigs free': towards a new model of community-led social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J; Henry, L

    2009-09-01

    To offer the opportunity to discuss the positive contribution of co-production approaches in the field of social marketing. Recognizing the ever-evolving theoretical base for social marketing, this article offers a brief commentary on the positive contribution of co-production approaches in this field. The authors outline their own move towards conceptualizing a community-led social marketing approach and describe some key features. This developing framework has been influenced by, and tested through, the Early Presentation of Cancer Symptoms Programme, a community-led social marketing approach to tackle health inequalities across priority neighbourhoods in North East Lincolnshire, UK. A blend of social marketing, community involvement and rapid improvement science methodologies are drawn upon. The approach involves not just a strong focus on involving communities in insight and consultation, but also adopts methods where they are in charge of the process of generating solutions. A series of monthly and pre/post measures have demonstrated improvements in awareness of symptoms, reported willingness to act and increases in presentation measured through service referrals. Key features of the approach involve shared ownership and a shift away from service-instigated change by enabling communities 'to do' through developing skills and confidence and the conditions to 'try out'. The approach highlights the contribution that co-production approaches have to offer social marketing activity. In order to maximize potential, it is important to consider ways of engaging communities effectively. Successful approaches include translating social marketing methodology into easy-to-use frameworks, involving communities in gathering and interpreting local data, and supporting communities to act as change agents by planning and carrying out activity. The range of impacts across organisational, health and social capital measures demonstrates that multiple and longer

  1. On three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid on cantor sets in spherical Cantor type co-ordinate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the systems of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on Cantor sets without the external force involving the fractal heat-conduction problem vial local fractional derivative. The spherical Cantor type co-ordinate method is used to transfer the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation from the Cantorian co-ordinate system into the spherical Cantor type co-ordinate system.

  2. Effects of Type of Coping Response, Setting, and Social Context on Reactions to Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Janet; Braden-Maguire, Jane; Patt, Ivy; Goodrich, Carl; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates at a multicultural university (MU) and a historically black university (HBU) read scenarios in which a student was sexually harassed by a professor or workplace supervisor. Participants rated the victim's behavior. HBU students considered the harasser not guilty significantly more often than MU students, but considered the harasser…

  3. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  4. Types of drinkers and drinking settings: an application of a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubayi, Anuj; Greenwood, Priscilla; Wang, Xiaohong; Castillo-Chávez, Carlos; Gorman, Dennis M; Gruenewald, Paul; Saltz, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    US college drinking data and a simple population model of alcohol consumption are used to explore the impact of social and contextual parameters on the distribution of light, moderate and heavy drinkers. Light drinkers become moderate drinkers under social influence, moderate drinkers may change environments and become heavy drinkers. We estimate the drinking reproduction number, R(d) , the average number of individual transitions from light to moderate drinking that result from the introduction of a moderate drinker in a population of light drinkers. Ways of assessing and ranking progression of drinking risks and data-driven definitions of high- and low-risk drinking environments are introduced. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, via a novel statistical approach, are conducted to assess R(d) variability and to analyze the role of context on drinking dynamics. Our estimates show R(d) well above the critical value of 1. R(d) estimates correlate positively with the proportion of time spent by moderate drinkers in high-risk drinking environments. R(d) is most sensitive to variations in local social mixing contact rates within low-risk environments. The parameterized model with college data suggests that high residence times of moderate drinkers in low-risk environments maintain heavy drinking. With regard to alcohol consumption in US college students, drinking places, the connectivity (traffic) between drinking venues and the strength of socialization in local environments are important determinants in transitions between light, moderate and heavy drinking as well as in long-term prediction of the drinking dynamics. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Social welfare and the Affordable Care Act: is it ever optimal to set aside comparative cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Duncan; Peacock, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    The creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) under the Affordable Care Act has set comparative effectiveness research (CER) at centre stage of US health care reform. Comparative cost analysis has remained marginalised and it now appears unlikely that the PCORI will require comparative cost data to be collected as an essential component of CER. In this paper, we review the literature to identify ethical and distributional objectives that might motivate calls to set priorities without regard to comparative cost. We then present argument and evidence to consider whether there is any plausible set of objectives and constraints against which priorities can be set without reference to comparative cost. We conclude that - to set aside comparative cost even after accounting for ethical and distributional constraints - would be truly to act as if money is no object. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test.

  7. Social capital and young adolescents' perceived health in different sociocultural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Marjan; Buka, Stephen L; Kaplan, Charles; McKenzie, Kwame; Van Os, Jim

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a cross-national study to examine the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation, social capital and child health in two countries and multiple ethnic groups. For our analysis we used data from (1) the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), USA and (2) the Maastricht Quality of Life study (MQoL), the Netherlands. Both the PHDCN and the MQoL collected data on objective neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation, subjective neighbourhood social capital (i.e. informal social control, ISC, social cohesion and trust, SC&T), and children's perceived health. For the present analyses, 11- and 12-year olds were selected. Multilevel analyses were conducted using both neighbourhood level and individual-level data. Lower socioeconomic deprivation scores and higher levels of ISC as well as SC&T were associated with higher levels of children's perceived health, in both Maastricht and the Chicago Hispanic subsample, but not in the Chicago non-Hispanic samples. The results suggest that associations between the wider social environment and health outcomes vary across different populations and cross-national contexts.

  8. Social dancing in the care of persons with dementia in a nursing home setting: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo-Bengtsson, L; Ekman, S L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenomenon of social dancing in the care of persons with dementia in a nursing home setting. Social dancing is an activity that has taken place once a month regularly during the last 10 years at a nursing home in Stockholm. The period of data collection for this study was the year 1995. At the time of the investigation, the subjects were in special units for persons with dementia. The analysis is based on the data contained in five 45-minute video tapes. All videotapes were analysed based on Husserl's philosophy and Giorgi's method of phenomenological analysis. The results suggested that dance music was a good stimulus for making social contacts. The earlier-trained social patterns, old social habits, and general rules seemed to awaken to life in the persons with dementia. It was important that the caregivers showed individual creativity, spontaneity, and supportive nursing care. Social dancing at the nursing home was found in this study to be very positive and successful for patients with dementia.

  9. Iterative methods for nonlinear set-valued operators of the monotone type with applications to operator equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1989-06-01

    The fixed points of set-valued operators satisfying a condition of monotonicity type in real Banach spaces with uniformly convex dual spaces are approximated by recursive averaging processes. Applications to important classes of linear and nonlinear operator equations are also presented. (author). 33 refs

  10. Understanding Constructions of Danish-ness using Heterogeneous Types of Sources across Historical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Ydesen, Christian

    -state construct ‘disturbing/disquieting behavior’, delinquency, and misbehavior and how these constructions are made into a category that activates educational and other interventions. Using a comparative outlook between the two historical settings the purpose is to understand 1) the boundaries of legitimate...

  11. Estimating the generation interval of influenza A (H1N1) in a range of social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Beest, Dennis E; Wallinga, Jacco; Donker, Tjibbe; van Boven, Michiel

    2013-03-01

    A proper understanding of the infection dynamics of influenza A viruses hinges on the availability of reliable estimates of key epidemiologic parameters such as the reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate, and generation interval. Often the generation interval is assumed to be similar in different settings although there is little evidence justifying this. Here we estimate the generation interval for stratifications based on age, cluster size, and social setting (camp, school, workplace, household) using data from 16 clusters of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in the Netherlands. Our analyses are based on a Bayesian inferential framework, enabling flexible handling of both missing infection links and missing times of symptoms onset. The analysis indicates that a stratification that allows the generation interval to differ by social setting fits the data best. Specifically, the estimated generation interval was shorter in households (2.1 days [95% credible interval = 1.6-2.9]) and camps (2.3 days [1.4-3.4]) than in workplaces (2.7 days [1.9-3.7]) and schools (3.4 days [2.5-4.5]). Our findings could be the result of differences in the number of contacts between settings, differences in prophylactic use of antivirals between settings, and differences in underreporting.

  12. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  13. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  14. The social justice roots of the Mentors in Violence Prevention model and its application in a high school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson; Heisterkamp, H Alan; Fleming, Wm Michael

    2011-06-01

    The social justice roots and theory of the Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model is presented, followed by an empirical study examining the influence of MVP in high school settings. Findings reveal students exposed to the MVP model are more likely to see forms of violence as being wrong and are more likely to take actions to intervene than students not exposed to the program. Findings support the premises on which MVP is founded.

  15. Agenda trending: reciprocity and the predictive capacity of social networking sites in intermedia agenda setting across topics over time

    OpenAIRE

    Groshek, Jacob; Groshek, Megan Clough

    2013-01-01

    In the contemporary converged media environment, agenda setting is being transformed by the dramatic growth of audiences that are simultaneously media users and producers. The study reported here addresses related gaps in the literature by first comparing the topical agendas of two leading traditional media outlets (New York Times and CNN) with the most frequently shared stories and trending topics on two widely popular Social Networking Sites (Facebook and Twitter). Time-series analyses of t...

  16. Using personal goal setting to promote the social inclusion of people with intellectual disability living in supported accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, R; Collins, S

    2010-02-01

    The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.

  17. Social Work Practice in a Rural Health Care Setting: Farm Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Judith A.; Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman

    1993-01-01

    Literature review addresses the status of farm families; farm stresses and their effects; dysfunctional family relationships; and the unique attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of rural culture toward social service intervention. By implementing coordinated service programs and initiating new legislation that addresses rural health care issues,…

  18. A data set for social diversity studies of GitHub teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilescu, B.N.; Serebrenik, A.; Filkov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Like any other team oriented activity, the software development process is effected by social diversity in the programmer teams. The effect of team diversity can be significant, but also complex, especially in decentralized teams. Discerning the precise contribution of diversity on teams'

  19. Latin American critical ('Social') epidemiology: new settings for an old dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilh, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Epidemiology's role as the 'diagnostic' arm of public health has submitted epidemiological reasoning and practice to the crossfire of oppositional social values and demands. In Latin America, the visible signs of extreme social and political authoritarianism and inequity, as well as the growing unfairness of the World economy, inspired a culture of social critique and a corresponding academic reform movement, which nurtured a profound social awareness among health scientists. Aims The authors' aim is to call attention to the need to overcome this scientific North/South divide. An imperative, at a moment when the demolition of health standards under the pressures of global economic acceleration and 'unhealthy health policies,' confront us all with the common challenge of cross-fertilizing the strengths of academic traditions from both South and North. The present paper offers a fresh perspective from the South about the relevance of progressive Latin American public health (termed 'collective health') by highlighting a number of its hard scientific contributions which, unfortunately, remain almost unknown to mainstream medical and public health researchers outside Latin America. An armed form of structural greed has now placed the world on the brink of destruction. At the same time, however, fresh winds blow in the continent. This paper is an invitation to confront the menacing forces producing our unhealthy societies and an opportunity to form fraternal partnerships on the intercultural road to a better world, where only an epidemiology of dignity and happiness will make sense.

  20. Behavioral Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism across Multiple Social Situations and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Regester, April; Mulloy, Austin; Rispoli, Mandy; Botout, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a behavioral intervention for a 9-year-old girl with selective mutism. The intervention consisted of role play and video self-modeling. The frequency of spoken initiations, responses to questions, and communication breakdowns was measured during three social situations (i.e., ordering in a restaurant, meeting new adults, and playing…

  1. Top dogs have set the agenda for peace: international social position and peace attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; van der Veer, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Everybody agrees that peace is good, but not on how to achieve it. The Y2K study contained many questions on peace proposals, as well as on prospects for East/West and North/South peace. It ranked these proposals by popularity and studied how the social positions of the 1967 respondents and their

  2. Dialogic Pedagogies in Educational Settings for Active Citizenship, Social Cohesion and Peacebuilding in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Many educational programmes in societies affected by armed conflict aim to promote dialogic engagement as a fundamental aim and pedagogy for social reconstruction. Despite supporting government policies, classrooms show very little or no evidence of dialogic practices where learners (co-)construct knowledge with peers and engage in critical and…

  3. Social Skills, Problem Behaviors and Classroom Management in Inclusive Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Esra G.; Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine preschool teachers' classroom management skills and investigate the relationships between teachers' classroom management skills and inclusion students' social skills and problem behaviors. Relational screening model was used as the research method. Study group consisted of 42 pre-school teachers working in Kocaeli…

  4. The Impact of Social Integration Interventions and Job Coaches in Work Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Janis G.; Linneman, Dan; Rusch, Frank R.; Cimera, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated effects of two intervention strategies (contextual and coworker) on the social interactions and integration with peers of five workers with mental retardation. Neither intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of interactions; however, it appeared that the presence of a job coach suppressed interaction rates.…

  5. Public Opinions and Use of Various Types of Recreational Infrastructure in Boreal Forest Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Gundersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.

  6. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation.

  7. A urinary peptide biomarker set predicts worsening of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscioni, S. S.; de Zeeuw, D.; Hellemons, M. E.; Mischak, H.; Zuerbig, P.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Reinhard, H.; Persson, F.; Lajer, M.; Rossing, P.; Lambers Heerspink, H. J.

    Microalbuminuria is considered the first clinical sign of kidney dysfunction and is associated with a poor renal and cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetes. Detection of patients who are prone to develop micro- or macroalbuminuria may represent an effective strategy to start or optimise

  8. Combining different types of scale space interest points using canonical sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, F.M.W.; Denton, T.; Shokoufandeh, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.

    2007-01-01

    Scale space interest points capture important photometric and deep structure information of an image. The information content of such points can be made explicit using image reconstruction. In this paper we will consider the problem of combining multiple types of interest points used for image

  9. Setting the optimal type of equipment to be adopted and the optimal time to replace it

    OpenAIRE

    Albici, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical models of equipment’s wear and tear, and replacement theory aim at deciding on the purchase selection of a certain equipment type, the optimal exploitation time of the equipment, the time and ways to replace or repair it, or to ensure its spare parts, the equipment’s performance in the technical progress context, the opportunities to modernize it etc.

  10. A fuzzy chance-constrained programming model with type 1 and type 2 fuzzy sets for solid waste management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolin; Ma, Chi; Wan, Zhifang; Wang, Kewei

    2017-06-01

    Effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is critical for urban planning and development. This study aims to develop an integrated type 1 and type 2 fuzzy sets chance-constrained programming (ITFCCP) model for tackling regional MSW management problem under a fuzzy environment, where waste generation amounts are supposed to be type 2 fuzzy variables and treated capacities of facilities are assumed to be type 1 fuzzy variables. The evaluation and expression of uncertainty overcome the drawbacks in describing fuzzy possibility distributions as oversimplified forms. The fuzzy constraints are converted to their crisp equivalents through chance-constrained programming under the same or different confidence levels. Regional waste management of the City of Dalian, China, was used as a case study for demonstration. The solutions under various confidence levels reflect the trade-off between system economy and reliability. It is concluded that the ITFCCP model is capable of helping decision makers to generate reasonable waste-allocation alternatives under uncertainties.

  11. Social support and self-management behaviour among patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, M. L.; Bøgelund, M.; Almdal, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between structural and functional social support and patient activation, diabetes-related emotional distress, perceived diabetes care, self-management behaviour and HbA 1c levels among patients with Type2 diabetes. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were...... emotional distress, negative assessment of care, less health-promoting eating habits and less frequent foot examinations. Conclusions Good social support is significantly associated with health-promoting behaviours and well-being among patients with Type2 diabetes. However, HbA 1c levels are higher...... for cohabitant persons, indicating barriers for social support. Intervention research is needed to investigate the causal relationship between social networks and health-promoting behaviours. This knowledge should be used in clinical practice when targeting and designing education, support and care for patients...

  12. Social Categories are Natural Kinds, not Objective Types (and Why it Matters Politically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types.” An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting oppression and marginalization have found this ontological category so attractive: objective types have the ontological credentials to secure the reality (and thus political representation of social categories, and yet they do not impose exclusionary essences that also naturalize and legitimize social inequalities. This essay argues that, from the perspective of these political goals of fighting oppression and marginalization, the category of objective types is in fact a Trojan horse; it looks like a gift, but it ends up creating trouble. I argue that objective type classifications often lack empirical adequacy, and as a result they lack political adequacy. I also provide, and in reference to the normative goals described above, several arguments for preferring a social ontology of natural kinds with historical essences.

  13. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in a Clinic Setting: The WellRx Pilot in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Will; Bleecker, Molly; Norris, Jeffrey; McCalmont, Kate; Ianakieva, Veneta; Ianakieva, Dessislava; Kaufman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that the social determinants of health have a larger influence on health outcomes than health care, there currently is no structured way for primary care providers to identify and address nonmedical social needs experienced by patients seen in a clinic setting. We developed and piloted WellRx, an 11-question instrument used to screen 3048 patients for social determinants in 3 family medicine clinics over a 90-day period. Results showed that 46% of patients screened positive for at least 1 area of social need, and 63% of those had multiple needs. Most of these needs were previously unknown to the clinicians. Medical assistants and community health workers then offered to connect patients with appropriate services and resources to address the identified needs. The WellRx pilot demonstrated that it is feasible for a clinic to implement such an assessment system, that the assessment can reveal important information, and that having information about patients' social needs improves provider ease of practice. Demonstrated feasibility and favorable outcomes led to institutionalization of the WellRx process at a university teaching hospital and influenced the state department of health to require managed care organizations to have community health workers available to care for Medicaid patients. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Social workers' perceptions of barriers to interpersonal therapy implementation for treating postpartum depression in a primary care setting in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Barak, Adi; Posmontier, Barbara; Glasser, Saralee; Cinamon, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in social work often neglects to include evaluation of application barriers. This qualitative study examined social workers' perspectives of provider- and organisational-related barriers to implementing a brief eight-session interpersonal therapy (IPT) intervention, a time-limited EBP that addresses reducing depressive symptoms and improving interpersonal functioning. Implementation took place in a primary care setting in Israel and was aimed at treating women who have postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. Using purposeful sampling, 25 primary care licensed social workers were interviewed between IPT training and implementation regarding their perceived barriers to implementing IPT in practice. Data analysis was facilitated using a phenomenological approach, which entails identifying the shared themes and shared experiences of research participants regarding barriers to implementing IPT. Three themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: Perceived lack of flexibility of IPT intervention in comparison with more familiar methods social workers previously applied, specifically regarding the number of sessions and therapeutic topics included in the IPT protocol; insecurity and hesitance to gain experience with a new method of intervention; and organisational barriers, including difficulties with referrals, the perception of HMOs as health facilities not suitable for therapy, and time constraints. Addressing perceived barriers of social workers toward implementing EBPs, such as IPT for postpartum depression, during the training phase is crucial for enabling appropriate implementation. Future training should include examining practitioners' attitudes toward implementation of EBPs, as part of standardised training protocols. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Social Trust and Types of Classroom Activities: Predictors of Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the role of social trust and types of classroom activities as some probable significant predictors of language learning motivation on a sample of 200 Iranian EFL upper-intermediate learners who have been selected randomly. Consequently, the participants completed three questionnaires, Language Learning Motivation Inventory, Classroom and school Community Inventory, and Classroom Activities Inventory, the reliability and validity of each have been checked previously. After running Multiple Regression through SPSS Software, the results revealed that social trust and types of classroom activities accounted for 16.7% of the variance in language learning motivation. Although each of them had a unique impact on language learning motivation, "Deep Language Use" as one of the types of classroom activities had a greater contribution to English as a foreign language learning motivation (002< .05, outweighing social trust as a more important predictor, (.005 < .05. Finally, pedagogical implications along with suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  16. Social variations in fetal growth in a Russian setting: an analysis of medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grjibovski, Andrej M; Bygren, Lars O; Svartbo, Boo; Magnus, Per

    2003-10-01

    The study examines variations in fetal growth by maternal social circumstances in a Russian town. All pregnant women registered at the antenatal clinics in 1999 in Severodvinsk (north-west Russia) and their live born infants comprised the study base (n=1399). Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to quantify the effect of socio-demographic factors on birthweight and the ponderal index (PI). A clear gradient of birthweight in relation to mothers' education was revealed. Babies of the most educated mothers were 207 g (95% CI, 55, 358) heavier than babies of mothers with basic education. The average weight of those born to mothers with secondary and vocational levels of education was 172 g (95% CI, 91, 253) and 83 g (95% CI, 9, 163) lower compared with infants born to mothers with a university level of education after adjustment for age, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, marital status, maternal occupation, length of gestation, and sex of the baby. Maternal education also influenced the PI. Further studies should focus on the mechanisms of the coherence of maternal education and fetal growth. To ensure that all parts of the society benefit equally from economic and social reforms, social variations in pregnancy outcomes should be monitored during the time of transition.

  17. The effects of social networks on choice set dynamics : results of numerical simulations using an agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from the analysis of daily activity patterns to the analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we address one type of dynamics: the formation and adaptation of location choice sets under influence of dyad relationships

  18. Identification of a core set of rhizobial infection genes using data from single cell-types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Song eChen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression studies on nodulation have varied in their scale from entire root systems to dissected nodules or root sections containing nodule primordia. More recently efforts have focused on developing methods for isolation of root hairs from infected plants and the application of laser-capture microdissection technology to nodules. Here we analyze two published data sets to identify a core set of infection genes that are expressed in the nodule and in root hairs during infection. Among the genes identified were those encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enzymes including Chalcone-O-Methyltransferase which is required for the production of the potent Nod gene inducer 4’,4-dihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone. A promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic hairy roots for two genes encoding Chalcone-O-Methyltransferase isoforms revealed their expression in rhizobially infected root hairs and the nodule infection zone but not in the nitrogen fixation zone. We also describe a group of Rhizobially Induced Peroxidases whose expression overlaps with the production of superoxide in rhizobially infected root hairs and in nodules and roots. Finally, we identify a cohort of co-regulated transcription factors as candidate regulators of these processes.

  19. Predictors of At-Risk Intoxication in a University Field Setting: Social Anxiety, Demographics, and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C.; Bowdring, Molly A.; Geller, E. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determinants of alcohol consumption among university students were investigated in a downtown field setting with blood alcohol content (BAC) as the dependent variable. Participants: In total, 521 participants completed a brief survey and had their BAC assessed during April 2013. Methods: Between 10:00 pm and 2:00 am, teams of…

  20. Gestalt Therapy in a Social Psychiatric Setting: The 'Oil & Water' Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    In this case study of a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed adolescents, evaluative data demonstrated that Gestalt Therapy was neither designed nor intended for use in an institutional setting with severely disturbed young adolescents, with people of lower socioeconomic status or of low verbal skill and intelligence. (Author/SJL)

  1. Parameters in fractional laser assisted delivery of topical anesthetics: Role of laser type and laser settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Arne A; Nieboer, Marilin J; Kezic, Sanja; de Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2018-05-07

    Efficacy of topical anesthetics can be enhanced by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers. However, little is known about the role of parameters such as laser modality and laser density settings in this technique. Aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with two different ablative fractional laser modalities, a CO 2 laser and an Er:YAG laser, and to assess the role of laser density in ablative fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia. In each of 15 healthy subjects, four 10 × 10 mm test regions on the back were randomized to pretreatment (70-75 μm ablation depth) with CO 2 laser at 5% density, CO 2 laser at 15% density, Er:YAG laser at 5% density or Er:YAG laser at 15% density. Articaine hydrochloride 40 mg/ml + epinephrine 10 μg/ml solution was applied under occlusion to all four test regions. After 15 minutes, a pass with the CO 2 laser (1,500 μm ablation depth) was administered as pain stimulus to each test region. A reference pain stimulus was given on unanesthetized skin. The main outcome parameter, pain, was scored on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) after each pain stimulus. Median VAS scores were 1.50 [CO 2 5%], 0.50 [CO 2 15%], 1.50 [Er:YAG 5%], 0.43 [Er:YAG 15%], and 4.50 [unanesthetized reference]. VAS scores for all pretreated test regions were significantly lower compared to the untreated reference region (P laser pretreated regions. However, VAS scores were significantly lower at 15% density compared to 5% density for both for the CO 2 laser (P laser (P laser was considered slightly more painful than pretreatment with Er:YAG laser by the subjects. Fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia is effective even with very low energy settings and an occlusion time of only 15 minutes. Both the CO 2 laser and the Er:YAG laser can be used to assist topical anesthesia although the CO 2 laser pretreatment is experienced as more painful. In our study settings, using articaine

  2. The characteristics of the activity generated in a forum type informatics setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Antonio Trujillo Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research (Trujillo, 2004 analyses situations of exchange of arguments, questions, synthesis and other types ofcontribution within an instrument that has a “forum” type design used in a partial distance / partial face-to-face course onBioclimatic Architecture. The objective was to identify and understand didactic aspects that should be used in a forumtype technological mediation so that a group of students could interact with the purpose of constructing a significantknowledge with respect to a learning object.The results showed that at the beginning of the forum, the questions asked were essentially of an explorative nature inorder to determine what the exact objective was. By the end more historical feedback was being received and there wasmore verification and relating of the different interventions. Interventions on regulation predominated, mainly betweenteacher and students, and to a much lesser extent between the students themselves. It was also shown that the processesof student interaction were very teacher-orientated and essentially tended to respond to the proposals guided by theteacher intervention. However, there were plenty of contributions that were indirectly stimulated by the otherinterventions

  3. A degenerate primer MOB typing (DPMT method to classify gamma-proteobacterial plasmids in clinical and environmental settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Alvarado

    Full Text Available Transmissible plasmids are responsible for the spread of genetic determinants, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence traits, causing a large ecological and epidemiological impact. Transmissible plasmids, either conjugative or mobilizable, have in common the presence of a relaxase gene. Relaxases were previously classified in six protein families according to their phylogeny. Degenerate primers hybridizing to coding sequences of conserved amino acid motifs were designed to amplify related relaxase genes from γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. Specificity and sensitivity of a selected set of 19 primer pairs were first tested using a collection of 33 reference relaxases, representing the diversity of γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. The validated set was then applied to the analysis of two plasmid collections obtained from clinical isolates. The relaxase screening method, which we call "Degenerate Primer MOB Typing" or DPMT, detected not only most known Inc/Rep groups, but also a plethora of plasmids not previously assigned to any Inc group or Rep-type.

  4. Incident Type 2 Diabetes Risk is Influenced by Obesity and Diabetes in Social Contacts: a Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sridharan; Pachucki, Mark C; Chang, Yuchiao; Porneala, Bianca; Fox, Caroline S; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and diabetes family history are the two strongest risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prior work shows that an individual's obesity risk is associated with obesity in social contacts, but whether T2D risk follows similar patterns is unknown. We aimed to estimate the relationship between obesity or diabetes in an individual's social contacts and his/her T2D risk. We hypothesized that obesity and diabetes in social contacts would increase an individual's T2D risk. This was a retrospective analysis of the community-based Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). FOS participants with T2D status, height and weight, and at least one social contact were eligible for this study (n = 4797 at Exam 1). Participants' interpersonal ties, cardiometabolic and demographic variables were available at eight exams from 1971 to 2008, and a T2D additive polygenic risk score was measured at the fifth exam. Primary exposures were T2D (fasting glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L or taking diabetes medications) and obesity status (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) of social contacts at a prior exam. Primary outcome was incident T2D in participants. Incident T2D was associated with having a social contact with diabetes (OR 1.32, p = 0.004) or with obesity (OR 1.21, p = 0.004). In stratified analyses, incident T2D was associated with diabetes in siblings (OR 1.64, p = 0.001) and obesity in spouses (OR 1.54, p = 0.0004). The associations between diabetes and obesity in social contacts and an individual's incident diabetes risk were stronger in individuals with a high diabetes genetic risk score. T2D and obesity in social contacts, particularly siblings and spouses, were associated with an individual's risk of incident diabetes even after accounting for parental T2D history. Assessing risk factors in an individual's siblings and spouses can inform T2D risk; furthermore, social network based lifestyle interventions involving spouses and siblings might be a novel T2D prevention approach.

  5. Association of Social Support and Medication Adherence in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linni; Wu, Shaomin; Zhao, Shuliang; Zhou, Huixuan; Zhang, Shengfa; Gao, Min; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Weijun; Tian, Donghua

    2017-12-06

    The prevalence of diabetes is steadily increasing in China. When diabetes is uncontrolled, it generates dire consequences for health and well-being. Numerous studies have shown that health outcomes were associated with social support and medication adherence. Previous study confirmed that social support was associated with medication adherence in patients with heart failure, HIV diseases, and first-episode psychosis. However, the relationship between social support and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is remains unclear. This study aims to examine whether social support is associated with medication adherence in patients with T2DM. This study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). In Beijing, a systematic random sample of 412 patients with T2DM over 18 years was recruited at baseline, and demographic characteristics, clinical data and their assessment of social support were collected from medical records and self-reported questionnaires. 330 of these patients completed a self-report measure of medication adherence at the sixth month after baseline data collection. Regression analysis showed that social support presented a positive effect on medication adherence, additionally, support utilization and the subscale of social support exhibited a significantly strong influence on medication adherence in patients with T2DM. Although medication adherence was influenced by multiple factors, this finding confirmed that social support must be recognized as a core element in interventions aimed at improving in the management of patients with T2DM.

  6. Social inclusion as a therapeutic and educational factor in a music therapy setting

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive approaches for children with special needs are applied in both the fields of music therapy and (music) education. In practice, inclusive music therapy groups consist only of children with special needs, whereas an inclusive kindergarten group for example may consist of typical and non-typical children, yet not in an actual therapy setting. Both practices hold explicit benefits for typical and non-typical children, however mutually exclusive of one another. The aim of the study is to...

  7. Quantifying social contacts in a household setting of rural Kenya using wearable proximity sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kiti, Moses C.; Tizzoni, Michele; Kinyanjui, Timothy M.; Koech, Dorothy C.; Munywoki, Patrick K.; Meriac, Milosch; Cappa, Luca; Panisson, André; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro; Nokes, D. James

    2016-01-01

    Close proximity interactions between individuals influence how infections spread. Quantifying close contacts in developing world settings, where such data is sparse yet disease burden is high, can provide insights into the design of intervention strategies such as vaccination. Recent technological advances have enabled collection of time-resolved face-to-face human contact data using radio frequency proximity sensors. The acceptability and practicalities of using proximity devices within the ...

  8. Social work role in developing and managing employee assistance programs in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Z; Hirsch, S; Zaske, K

    1991-01-01

    The hospital setting presents special needs for an Employee Assistance Program and special complications for sponsorship, development, and maintenance. What has been learned, how certain problems can be solved or avoided, how responsibility and accountability can be negotiated are presented by a team that has successfully established such a program at a large metropolitan medical center. In addition to successes, some unsolved problems are identified for further study.

  9. A robot sets a table: a case for hybrid reasoning with different types of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Masoumeh; Pecora, Federico

    2016-09-01

    An important contribution of AI to Robotics is the model-centred approach, whereby competent robot behaviour stems from automated reasoning in models of the world which can be changed to suit different environments, physical capabilities and tasks. However models need to capture diverse (and often application-dependent) aspects of the robot's environment and capabilities. They must also have good computational properties, as robots need to reason while they act in response to perceived context. In this article, we investigate the use of a meta-CSP-based technique to interleave reasoning in diverse knowledge types. We reify the approach through a robotic waiter case study, for which a particular selection of spatial, temporal, resource and action KR formalisms is made. Using this case study, we discuss general principles pertaining to the selection of appropriate KR formalisms and jointly reasoning about them. The resulting integration is evaluated both formally and experimentally on real and simulated robotic platforms.

  10. Gauging the cosmic acceleration with recent type Ia supernovae data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Hermano; Gomes, Syrios; Busti, Vinicius C.

    2018-04-01

    We revisit a model-independent estimator for cosmic acceleration based on type Ia supernovae distance measurements. This approach does not rely on any specific theory for gravity, energy content, nor parametrization for the scale factor or deceleration parameter and is based on falsifying the null hypothesis that the Universe never expanded in an accelerated way. By generating mock catalogs of known cosmologies, we test the robustness of this estimator, establishing its limits of applicability. We detail the pros and cons of such an approach. For example, we find that there are specific counterexamples in which the estimator wrongly provides evidence against acceleration in accelerating cosmologies. The dependence of the estimator on the H0 value is also discussed. Finally, we update the evidence for acceleration using the recent UNION2.1 and Joint Light-Curve Analysis samples. Contrary to recent claims, available data strongly favor an accelerated expansion of the Universe in complete agreement with the standard Λ CDM model.

  11. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  12. The impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke: combining types and referents of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Salgueiro, M Fátima; Silva, Sílvia A; De Vries, H

    2009-11-01

    Theory and research suggest that the intention to smoke is the main determinant of smoking initiation and emphasizes the role of cognitive and social factors on the prediction of the intention to smoke. However, extended models such as the I-Change and results from published studies reveal inconsistencies regarding the impact of social influence on the intention to smoke. Possible explanations for this may be the definition and measurement of the constructs that have been used. The current study was designed with two main goals: (i) to test a measurement model for social influence, combining different types of social influence (subjective norms, perceived behaviour, and direct pressure) with various referents of influence (parents, siblings, peers, and teachers); (ii) to investigate the impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke, controlling for smoking behaviour. LISREL was used to test these models. The sample includes 3,064 Portuguese adolescents, with a mean age of 13.5 years, at the beginning of the seventh school grade. The hypothesized measurement model of social influence was supported by results and explained 29% of the variance of the intention to smoke. A more extended model, including attitude and self-efficacy, explained 55% of the variance of the intention to smoke. Perceived behaviour of peers, parental norms, and perceived behaviour of parents were the social influence factors with impact on adolescent intention to smoke. Results suggest that different referents exert their influence through distinct types of social influence and recommend further work on the definition and measurement of social influence.

  13. The Management of Social Phobia Ýn Residual-Type Schizophrenia with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Þimþek Kaygusuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  14. Pilot Integration of HIV Screening and Healthcare Settings with Multi- Component Social Network and Partner Testing for HIV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Michael F; Ruffner, Andrew H; Ancona, Rachel M; Hart, Kimberly W; Kues, John R; Barczak, Christopher M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2017-11-23

    Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. The study aimed to evaluate pilot implementation of multi-component, multi-venue TNT in conjunction with HIV screening by a healthcare setting. Our urban, academic health center implemented a TNT program in collaboration with the local health department for five months during 2011. High-risk or HIV positive patients of the infectious diseases clinic and emergency department HIV screening program were recruited to access social and partner networks via compensated peer-referral, testing of companions present with them, and partner notification services. Contacts became the next-generation index cases in a snowball recruitment strategy. The pilot TNT program yielded 485 HIV tests for 482 individuals through eight generations of recruitment with five (1.0%; 95% CI = 0.4%, 2.3%) new diagnoses. Of these, 246 (51.0%; 95% CI = 46.6%, 55.5%) reported that they had not been tested for HIV within the last 12 months and 383 (79.5%; 95% CI = 75.7%, 82.9%) had not been tested by the existing ED screening program within the last five years. TNT complements population screening by more directly targeting high-risk individuals and by expanding the population receiving testing. Information from existing healthcare services could be used to seed TNT programs, or TNT could be implemented within healthcare settings. Research evaluating multi-component, multi-venue HIV detection is necessary to maximize complementary approaches while minimizing redundancy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. The relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagherian Sararoudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type D personality is based on two global and stable personality traits, including negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in post myocardial infarction (MI patients. Methods: One hundred seventy six consecutive patients following MI admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU of nine hospitals in Isfahan, Iran from April to September 2006 were selected based on the inclusive and exclusive criteria. The patients completed the Persian version of type D personality scale and the Persian version of multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Also, demographic and medical questionnaire was completed for each patient. Chi-squared test, t-test and MANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that 35.8% patients (35.8 % were classified as type D. The results of MANOVA showed that type D patients were significantly different from non-type D patients (F = 8.72, p = 0.0001 on MSPSS scores and on all dimensions including family subscale (F = 11.52, p = 0.001, friends subscale (F= 16.16, p = 0.0001 and significant others subscale (F = 5.04, p = 0.026. Conclusions: Type D personality substantially affects the way MI patients perceive availability of social support from different sources including family, friends, and significant others. One implication of this finding may be to develop tailor-made interventions for MI patients with type D.

  16. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  17. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise.

  18. [Three types of brand name loyalty strategies set up by drug manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    PréMont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-11-01

    The recent restructuring of the pharmaceutical industry has led to three new types of promotional strategies to build patient loyalty to brand name drugs: loyalty through rebates, patient support, and compassion programs. Loyalty through rebates seeks to keep patients on a brand name drug and prevent their switch to the generic equivalent. Loyalty through patient support provides aftersales services to help and support patients (by phone or home visits) in order to improve adherence to their treatments. Finally, compassion programs offer patients access to drugs still awaiting regulatory approval or reimbursement by insurers. When and if the approval process is successful, the manufacturer puts an end to the compassion program and benefits from a significant cohort of patients already taking a very expensive drug for which reimbursement is assured. The impact of these programs on public policies and patients' rights raises numerous concerns, among which the direct access to patients and their health information by drug manufacturers and upward pressure on costs for drug insurance plans.

  19. Setting a generalized functional linear model (GFLM for the classification of different types of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Flores

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify the DNA sequences of healthy and malignant cancer respectively. For this, supervised and unsupervised classification methods from a functional context are used; i.e. each strand of DNA is an observation. The observations are discretized, for that reason different ways to represent these observations with functions are evaluated. In addition, an exploratory study is done: estimating the mean and variance of each functional type of cancer. For the unsupervised classification method, hierarchical clustering with different measures of functional distance is used. On the other hand, for the supervised classification method, a functional generalized linear model is used. For this model the first and second derivatives are used which are included as discriminating variables. It has been verified that one of the advantages of working in the functional context is to obtain a model to correctly classify cancers by 100%. For the implementation of the methods it has been used the fda.usc R package that includes all the techniques of functional data analysis used in this work. In addition, some that have been developed in recent decades. For more details of these techniques can be consulted Ramsay, J. O. and Silverman (2005 and Ferraty et al. (2006.

  20. Giant elephantiasis neuromatosa in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    PONTI, GIOVANNI; PELLACANI, GIOVANNI; MARTORANA, DAVIDE; MANDEL, VICTOR DESMOND; LOSCHI, PIETRO; POLLIO, ANNAMARIA; PECCHI, ANNARITA; DEALIS, CRISTINA; SEIDENARI, STEFANIA; TOMASI, ALDO

    2016-01-01

    Elephantiasis neuromatosa (EN) can arise from a plexiform neurofibroma of the superficial and deep nerves developing from a hyperproliferation of the perineural connective tissue infiltrating adjacent fat and muscles. To date, the clinical association between EN and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has been poorly defined, particularly with regard to the role of lymphatic alterations and the consequent lymphedema. The present study reports the clinical and biomolecular features of EN in a NF1 patient with the clear clinical diagnostic criteria of multiple cafè-au-lait macules, neurofibromas, EN, a positive family history and a novel NF1 germline c.1541_1542del mutation. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) highlighted marked dermal backflow in the affected limb, hypertrophy of the ipsilateral inguinal and external iliac lymph nodes, and a bilateral lower limb lymph flow delay. These data support the hypothesis that an extensive hyperproliferative process involving perineural connective, limb soft tissues, bones and the lymphatic system can be responsible for EN in NF1 patients, on the basis of adipocyte metaplasia triggered by lymphostasis and lymphedema, and bone overgrowth and gigantism caused by chronic hyperemia. LS and magnetic resonance imaging can be efficacious tools in the diagnosis and clinical characterization of the early onset of the disease. PMID:27284375

  1. Holistic approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a family setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Sandra N; Unachukwu, Chioma N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive metabolic disorder with several complications that affect virtually all the systems in the human body. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The management of T2DM is multifactorial, taking into account other major modifiable risk factors, like obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. A multidisciplinary team is essential to maximize the care of individuals with DM. DM self-management education and patient-centered care are the cornerstones of management in addition to effective lifestyle strategies and pharmacotherapy with individualization of glycemic goals. Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach when implemented. Individuals with DM and their family members usually share a common lifestyle that, not only predisposes the non-DM members to developing DM but also, increases their collective risk for CVD. In treating DM, involvement of the entire family, not only improves the care of the DM individual but also, helps to prevent the risk of developing DM in the family members.

  2. Holistic approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a family setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori SN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra N Ofori, Chioma N Unachukwu Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, progressive metabolic disorder with several complications that affect virtually all the systems in the human body. Type 2 DM (T2DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The management of T2DM is multifactorial, taking into account other major modifiable risk factors, like obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. A multidisciplinary team is essential to maximize the care of individuals with DM. DM self-management education and patient-centered care are the cornerstones of management in addition to effective lifestyle strategies and pharmacotherapy with individualization of glycemic goals. Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach when implemented. Individuals with DM and their family members usually share a common lifestyle that, not only predisposes the non-DM members to developing DM but also, increases their collective risk for CVD. In treating DM, involvement of the entire family, not only improves the care of the DM individual but also, helps to prevent the risk of developing DM in the family members. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, multifactorial management

  3. Digital Agenda-Setting:Measuring mainstream and social media influence during the UK 2015 election campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Martin John Edwards; Ramsay, Gordon Neil

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the setting up and managing of ‘Election Unspun’, an experimental news content analysis project, and its main findings. In the end, the project collected every tweet from more than 3,000 political actors and influencers, analysed the national newspapers’ coverage and websites of ITV News, Sky News and Channel 4 News and the UK versions of the Huffington Post and Buzzfeed Politics during the 2015 general election campaign in the UK. It concludes that, despite the plethora o...

  4. A agenda setting: os meios de comunicação como construtores da realidade social

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Rhayssa Fernandes; Temer, Ana Carolina Rocha Pessôa

    2015-01-01

    v. 18, n. 1, p. 192-207, jan./jun. 2015. Este artigo aborda os estudos dos Efeitos em Longo Prazo, com enfoque naqueles que envolvem a Agenda Setting. A corrente trata sobre os efeitos da mídia e foi desenvolvida pelos pesquisadores Maxwell McCombs e Donald Shaw. As pesquisas tiveram início no final dos anos 60 durante as eleições presidenciais nos Estados Unidos e se desenvolveram, tendo como pressuposto central a afirmação que os meios de comunicação de massa são capazes de definir temas...

  5. The Impact of Readily Detected- and Underlying Attributes on Social Integration in Cross-Cultural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2003-01-01

    The benefits and drawbacks of homogeneity and heterogeneity have been debated at length. Whereas some researchers assert that heterogeneity is beneficial for groups that are engaged in complex problem solving, the other researchers emphasize the potential costs associated with diversity. The inconsistency is a result of the incomplete measurement of diversity and focus one or two types of diversity. Most research concentrates on the readily detected/visible characteristics, making the assumpt...

  6. Factor structure of the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema measure of social climate in a UK medium-security setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Sophia A; Freestone, Mark; Duller, Rachel; Bouman, Marisa; Taylor, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment-related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high-security national health services and German medium-security and high-security services. We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium-security hospital settings. The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium-security mental health service as part of a service-wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. The three-factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium-security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high-security hospital data, with three exceptions--'patient cohesion' according to the patients and 'therapeutic hold' according to staff and patients. Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium-security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high-security and medium-security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. How Does the Type of Task Influence the Performance and Social Regulation of Collaborative Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Santiago Roger; López-Aymes, Gabriela; Acuña-Castillo, Silvia T.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of the type of collaborative task (elaboration of concept map vs elaboration of expository summary) on the performance and on the level of collaboration achieved by Mexican university students in the multimedia learning of a social sciences content (Communication Psychology). Likewise, the processes of social…

  8. An exploration of adolescents' decisions to abstain or refrain from alcohol consumption in Australian social settings: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrad, Sue; de, Charlotte; Aylward, Paul; Wiechula, Rick

    2015-10-01

    A significant number of Australian adolescents consume alcohol, with almost two thirds of them doing so at risky levels. This is continuing to increase despite recent National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines stipulating that no alcohol is the safest option. Measures initiated to reduce and prevent alcohol consumption by adolescents have limited effectiveness. Consumption of alcohol by Australian adolescents is a national concern because of the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on adolescents' social, physical and neurological development, as well as other short- and long-term health risks, and the negative impact of alcohol-related violence and injury on the community. Understanding adolescents' decisions to abstain or refrain from alcohol consumption may provide valuable insights to assist in dealing with this significant social and health issue, more particularly about the mechanisms used by adolescents or their ability to make decisions about resisting or abstaining from alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in their social setting(s). The review aimed to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on the decisions made or mechanisms used by adolescents who abstain or refrain from consuming alcohol in any social setting where alcohol is available. Adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years who reside in Australia.The phenomenon of interest was abstinence from or resistance to alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in social situations.This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to,designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and exploratory studies. A three-step search strategy was used. An initial search to identify keywords only was undertaken in Medline and CINAHL. This was followed by an expanded search using all identified keywords and index terms specific to each included database. The reference lists of included papers were then searched for

  9. Types and Outcome of Fetal Urinary Anomalies in Low Resource Setting Countries: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Hend; Hemida, Reda; Nabil, Hanan; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in the developing countries have a poor prognosis due to limited experience in antenatal and postnatal management. A 3-year retrospective study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013. The following data were collected and analyzed: maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings. Final diagnosis after birth, the performed surgeries, follow-up data, as well as survival at one year were also analyzed. The mean age of the included patients was 28 years (range 20-35 years). The mean parity was 1.7 (range 0-4). The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks (range 15-36 weeks). Consanguinity was reported in 10 cases (24.4 %). There were 25 males and 16 females. Bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest type (19.5 %). The anomalies of kidneys and urinary tract in our cases were associated with other anomalies in 8 cases (19.5 %). Oligohydramnios was detected in bilateral renal agenesis and posterior urethral valve. Surgical interference during the first 6 months was performed in 6 cases; pyeloplasty for unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis was performed in 5 cases; and excision of solitary renal cyst performed in one case. By the end of the first year, two of the three cases with chronic renal disease, who were under peritoneal dialysis, died, and three cases who had undergone pyeloplasty were lost to follow-up. Among the 41 cases with antenatally diagnosed renal and urinary malformations; bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest anomaly (19.5 %). There were high rates of induction of abortion, IUFD, and neonatal deaths. The poor outcome may be due to lack of experience in performing invasive therapeutic fetal procedures.

  10. Characterisation of aggression in Huntington's disease: rates, types and antecedents in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anahita; Sewell, Katherine; Fisher, Caroline A

    2017-10-01

    To systematically review aggression in an inpatient Huntington's cohort examining rates, types and antecedents. Although the prevalence of aggression in Huntington's disease is high, research into this problematic behaviour has been limited. Few studies have investigated the nature of aggressive behaviour in Huntington's disease or antecedents that contribute to its occurrence. A systematic, double-coded, electronic medical file audit. The electronic hospital medical records of 10 people with Huntington's disease admitted to a brain disorders unit were audited for a 90-day period using the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified for Neurorehabilitation framework, yielding 900 days of clinical data. Nine of 10 clients exhibited aggression during the audit period. Both verbal (37·1%) aggression and physical aggression were common (33·8%), along with episodes of mixed verbal and physical aggression (15·2%), while aggression to objects/furniture was less prevalent (5·5%). The most common antecedent was physical guidance with personal care, far exceeding any other documented antecedents, and acting as the most common trigger for four of the nine clients who exhibited aggression. For the remaining five clients, there was intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents. In Huntington's sufferers at mid- to late stages following disease onset, particular care should be made with personal care assistance due to the propensity for these procedures to elicit an episode of aggression. However, given the degree of intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents observed in the present study, individualised behaviour support plans and sensory modulation interventions may be the most useful in identifying triggers and managing aggressive episodes. Rates of aggression in Huntington's disease inpatients can be high. Knowledge of potential triggers, such as personal care, is important for nursing and care staff, so that attempts can be

  11. Culture, types of social withdrawal, and children's beliefs: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-06-01

    Cultural norms and values provide guidance for children to judge and evaluate specific behavioural characteristics including shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance. The perceptions and attitudes of children, in turn, determine how they exhibit and regulate their behaviours and how they respond to peers' behaviours in social interactions. Investigation of children's beliefs across societies may shed some light on the processes in which culture is involved in shaping the display and developmental significance of different types of social withdrawal. To achieve a better understanding of the role of children's beliefs in mediating cultural influence on development, it will be important to examine how children's beliefs about withdrawn behaviours are associated with patterns of social interactions and relationships in various circumstances. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Contribution of modifiable risk factors for hypertension and type-2 diabetes in Peruvian resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the local burden of non-communicable diseases including within-country heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to characterise hypertension and type-2 diabetes profiles across different Peruvian geographical settings emphasising the assessment of modifiable risk factors. Analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study baseline assessment was conducted. Cardiometabolic outcomes were blood pressure categories (hypertension, prehypertension, normal) and glucose metabolism disorder status (diabetes, prediabetes, normal). Exposures were study setting and six modifiable factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, leisure time and transport-related physical activity levels, TV watching, fruit/vegetables intake and obesity). Poisson regression models were used to report prevalence ratios (PR). Population attributable risks (PAR) were also estimated. Data from 3238 participants, 48.3% male, mean age 45.3 years, were analysed. Age-standardised (WHO population) prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 24% and 16%, whereas for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes it was 18% and 6%, respectively. Outcomes varied according to study setting (pdiabetes. PAR showed that obesity was an important determinant for hypertension (15.7%) and type-2 diabetes (23.9%). There is an evident heterogeneity in the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes within Peru. Prehypertension and prediabetes are highly prevalent across settings. Our results emphasise the need of understanding the epidemiology of cardiometabolic conditions to appropriately implement interventions to tackle the burden of non-communicable diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Social integration and the quality of life of schizophrenic patients in different types of complementary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisse, M; Kallert, T W

    2000-12-01

    Following reunification in Germany in 1990 the new states in the Federal Republic faced the task of restructuring and rebuilding the structures of complementary care for the chronically mentally ill. First and foremost, residential facilities had to be established that would correspond to and meet the currently high need for de-hospitalization by making different types of care and care concepts available. Five groups of patients with chronic schizophrenic psychoses (N = 245 patients) who live in different types of psychiatric care facilities (psychiatric nursing home, social therapeutic hostel, sheltered community residence) or at home, either with or without a family network, were studied. In addition to the sociodemographic data, the psychopathology and the extent of social disabilities were also surveyed, as well as data on the living situation and the subjective quality of life with an emphasis on 'social relationships', 'recreation/leisure activities', and 'general independence'. The five groups differed with regard to various sociodemographic and disorder-related variables, particularly with regard to the extent of social disabilities. Especially relevant, however, are the differences among the patient groups in the extent of daily social life and recreational/leisure activities that are partially reflected in their statements on the subjective quality of life. Primarily for the two groups of home residents, but also in part for the patients living in sheltered community care, social contacts are more or less limited to the residential situation and patients are more or less otherwise socially isolated. This is due among other things to the fact that patients who have been hospitalized for long periods do not as a rule return to their prior area of residence; thus, the available compensatory mediation of relationships with the social environment does not suffice. Demands for the further development of complementary systems of psychiatric care derive from

  14. Social Spirals through Everyday Group Life: Settings and Group Styles in a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Citroni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday group life is generally neglected in the study of the ongoing shifts affecting voluntary associations. This paper is grounded on a comparative ethnography of three Milanese associations affected by transformations in forms of voluntary participation, repertoires of action, and in their relations with public institutions. The study focuses on group styles and settings to ascertain the role played by everyday group life in shaping the implications of these transformations for the production of inclusive outcomes by the observed associations. The author introduces three different results produced by the studied associations and account for them with the same overall argument, which focus on practices and spaces shaping everyday group life. The main findings illustrate that everyday group life works both as a filter through which transformations produce consequences and also as a site of autonomous elaboration through which associations’ outcomes are made and unmade.

  15. [The development of reagents set in the format of DNA-chip for genetic typing of strains of Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudova, E A; Markelov, M L; Dedkov, V G; Tchekanova, T A; Sadjin, A I; Kirdiyashkina, N P; Bekova, M V; Deviyatkin, A A

    2014-05-01

    The necessity of development of methods of genic diagnostic of cholera is conditioned by continuation of the Seventh pandemic of cholera, taxonomic variability of strains of Vibrio cholerae involved into pandemic and also permanent danger of delivery of disease to the territory of the Russian Federation. The methods of genic diagnostic of cholera make it possible in a comparatively short time to maximally minutely characterize strains isolated from patients or their environment. The article presents information about working out reagents set for genetic typing of agents of cholera using DNA-chip. The makeup of DNA-chip included oligonucleotide probes making possible to differentiate strains of V. cholerae on serogroups and biovars and to determine their pathogenicity. The single DNA-chip makes it possible to genetically type up to 12 samples concurrently. At that, duration of analysis without accounting stage of DNA separation makes up to 5 hours. In the progress of work, 23 cholera and non-cholera strains were analyzed. The full compliance of DNA-chip typing results to previously known characteristics of strains. Hence, there is a reason to consider availability of further development of reagents set and possibility of its further application in laboratories of regional level and reference centers.

  16. Actors, Settings, and Social Relations in Three Mid-Nineteenth-Century Mexican Periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amada Carolina Pérez Benavides

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper  analyzes  the literature  and illustrations of manners published  in three nineteenth-century Mexican  periodicals,  in order to reveal the role of these texts and images in the construction  of national  identity.  Following  this analytical line, the author  explores  how  the  viewpoint  of the  literature  of manners was born and the traits it acquired specifically during the 1850's, when the representation of Mexicans seems to have gone though its most  important transition:  from local and regional types to national archetypes.

  17. Social and cultural resources for the setting up and functioning of family enterprises in a small Bulgarian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a field of culture, the family enterprise shows that in the current European societies the economic operation does not proceed only from a purely rational point of view and that notwithstanding the common speaking of globalization, the local may be a prerequisite for successful economic development. My objective has been to show, proceeding from an example from a small Bulgarian town, that the family enterprise is a field of culture in which the observed phenomena are strongly influenced by the social inclusion of the enterprise and by its tie-up with the context of the urban environment. I shall investigate in what way local social and cultural resources are intensively used in the process of setting up and functioning of a family enterprise from the sphere of hoteldom and tourism in the town of Belogradchik. I intend to study whether these resources are conducive to the economic prosperity of the firm. Another research objective is to establish the manner of identification of the enterprise with the town, with the region and the local culture by way of the services provided (tourist and restaurant. I shall look for an answer to the question of how the enterprise’ working realm fits in the concrete cultural, historical and social context of the town.

  18. A systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howel Denise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic variations in health, including variations in health according to wealth and income, have been widely reported. A potential method of improving the health of the most deprived groups is to increase their income. State funded welfare programmes of financial benefits and benefits in kind are common in developed countries. However, there is evidence of widespread under claiming of welfare benefits by those eligible for them. One method of exploring the health effects of income supplementation is, therefore, to measure the health effects of welfare benefit maximisation programmes. We conducted a systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings. Methods Published and unpublished literature was accessed through searches of electronic databases, websites and an internet search engine; hand searches of journals; suggestions from experts; and reference lists of relevant publications. Data on the intervention delivered, evaluation performed, and outcome data on health, social and economic measures were abstracted and assessed by pairs of independent reviewers. Results are reported in narrative form. Results 55 studies were included in the review. Only seven studies included a comparison or control group. There was evidence that welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings results in financial benefits. There was little evidence that the advice resulted in measurable health or social benefits. This is primarily due to lack of good quality evidence, rather than evidence of an absence of effect. Conclusion There are good theoretical reasons why income supplementation should improve health, but currently little evidence of adequate robustness and quality to indicate that the impact goes beyond increasing income.

  19. [The medical social aspects of childhood traumatism accounting the family type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the Russian Federation the childhood traumatism is considered as one of progressing social dangers. The interest in studying the impact of family type on childhood morbidity formation is increased during last years. The family is a fundamental principle of mechanisms of public health formation. The questionnaire poll of parents of children suffered from traumas provides the data concerning the medical social risk factors impacting the level of childhood traumatism. The one of the most important prevention measures is the impact on the family.

  20. Competing perspectives during organizational socialization on the role of certified athletic trainers in high school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, James; Crews, Candice; Mitchell, Murray

    2005-01-01

    When certified athletic trainers (ATCs) enter a workplace, their potential for professional effectiveness is affected by a number of factors, including the individual's ability to put acquired knowledge, skills, and attitudes into practice. This ability may be influenced by the preconceived attitudes and expectations of athletes, athletes' parents, athletic directors, physical therapists, physicians, and coaches. To examine the perspectives of high school coaches and ATCs toward the ATC's role in the high school setting by looking at 3 questions: (1) What are coaches' expectations of ATCs during different phases of a sport season? (2) What do ATCs perceive their role to be during different phases of a season? and (3) How do coaches' expectations compare with ATCs' expectations? Qualitative research design involving semistructured interviews. High schools. Twenty high school varsity basketball coaches from 10 high schools in 2 states and the ATCs assigned to these teams. For the coaches, 12 questions focused on 3 specific areas: (1) the athletic training services they received as high school basketball coaches, (2) each coach's expectations of the ATC with whom he or she was working during various phases of the season, and (3) coaches' levels of satisfaction with the athletic training services provided to their team. For the ATCs, 17 questions focused on 3 areas: (1) the ATC's background, (2) the ATC's perceived duties at different phases of the basketball season and his or her relationship with the coach, and (3) other school factors that enhanced or interfered with the ATC's ability to perform duties. Three themes emerged. Coaches had limited knowledge and understanding of ATCs' qualifications, training, professional preparation, and previous experience. Coaches simply expected ATCs to be available to complement their roles. Positive communication was identified as a critical component to a good coach-ATC relationship. Although all participants valued good

  1. A Proposal to Speed up the Computation of the Centroid of an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Celemin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new algorithms that speed up the centroid computation of an interval type-2 fuzzy set. The algorithms include precomputation of the main operations and initialization based on the concept of uncertainty bounds. Simulations over different kinds of footprints of uncertainty reveal that the new algorithms achieve computation time reductions with respect to the Enhanced-Karnik algorithm, ranging from 40 to 70%. The results suggest that the initialization used in the new algorithms effectively reduces the number of iterations to compute the extreme points of the interval centroid while precomputation reduces the computational cost of each iteration.

  2. Experiences of stigma and discrimination in social and healthcare settings among trans people living with HIV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, M; Wolton, A; Crenna-Jennings, W; Benton, L; Kirwan, P; Lut, I; Okala, S; Ross, M; Furegato, M; Nambiar, K; Douglas, N; Roche, J; Jeffries, J; Reeves, I; Nelson, M; Weerawardhana, C; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V

    2018-07-01

    The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 was a community led national survey investigating experiences of people living with HIV in the UK in the past 12 months. Participants aged 18 and over were recruited through over 120 cross-sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an anonymous online survey. Trans is an umbrella term which refers to individuals whose current gender identity is different to the gender they were assigned at birth. Trans participants self-identified via gender identity and gender at birth questions. Descriptive analyses of reported experiences in social and health care settings were conducted and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify sociodemographic predictors of reporting being treated differently to non-HIV patients, and being delayed or refused healthcare treatment in the past 12 months. 31 out of 1576 participants (2%) identified as trans (19 trans women, 5 trans men, 2 gender queer/non-binary, 5 other). High levels of social stigma were reported for all participants, with trans participants significantly more likely to report worrying about verbal harassment (39% vs. 23%), and exclusion from family gatherings (23% vs. 9%) in the last 12 months, compared to cisgender participants. Furthermore, 10% of trans participants reported physical assault in the last 12 months, compared to 4% of cisgender participants. Identifying as trans was a predictor of reporting being treated differently to non-HIV patients (48% vs. 30%; aOR 2.61, CI 1.06, 6.42) and being delayed or refused healthcare (41% vs. 16%; aOR 4.58, CI 1.83, 11.44). Trans people living with HIV in the UK experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, including within healthcare settings, which is likely to impact upon health outcomes. Trans-specific education and awareness within healthcare settings could help to improve service provision for this demographic.

  3. ATTAINMENT OF TREATMENT TARGETS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS FIRST ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE SETTING IN SUBURBAN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeeth Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide, particularly in Asian subcontinent and especially in India. The disease takes a toll on the health system of a country, especially the developing nations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the attainment of metabolic and anthropometric goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS i Informed consents were obtained. ii The study subjects were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluation at baseline by a dedicated diabetologist. iii These data were collected using a structured questionnaire and were analysed using EPI INFO (Ver 3.4.1. RESULTS A total of 350 cases were studied. Overall, 76.3% of patients could not achieve ADA A1c goal and 36.3% had very poor glycaemic control as evidenced by A1c >9%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increasing awareness of type 2 diabetes both among attending physicians and patients, attainment of treatment targets still is a challenge even at a tertiary care setting. The lifestyle and dietary habits may be a main contributing factor for this situation. More focus needs to be given to nutritional aspects and physical exercise in not only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also in apparently healthy individuals of the productive age group so that the disease can be delayed if not prevented.

  4. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Health as Submission and Social Responsibilities: Embodied Experiences of Javanese Women With Type II Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitaloka, Dyah; Hsieh, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    By examining women's experiences with type II diabetes, we explore how illness can provide resources to construct meanings of everyday life in Javanese culture. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants in Central Java, Indonesia, and adopted grounded theory for data analysis. We identified four themes that diabetes serves as resources for women in Indonesia to (a) normalize suffering, (b) resist social control, (c) accept fate, and (d) validate faith. We concluded by noting three unique aspects of Javanese women's illness management. First, through the performance of submission, our participants demonstrated spirituality and religiosity as essential elements of health. Second, diabetes empowers individuals in everyday suffering through two divergent processes: embracing submission and resisting control. Finally, diabetes provides opportunities for individuals within a social network to (re)negotiate social responsibilities. In summary, diabetes provides unique resources to empower our participants to obtain voices that they otherwise would not have had. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Social anxiety and emotion regulation flexibility: considering emotion intensity and type as contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Zachariae, Robert; Mennin, Douglas S

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder have often been considered inflexible in their emotion regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate emotion regulation flexibility in socially anxious individuals in response to two contextual factors, namely different levels of emotion intensity and emotion type. A daily diary approach was employed, investigating emotion regulation (i.e., experiential avoidance, expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal) in college students scoring high (N = 62; HSA) and low (N = 52; LSA) on social anxiety. Results revealed that HSAs were found to use more experiential avoidance than LSAs, especially at higher levels of negative intensity. The use of this emotion regulation strategy appeared to be driven by guilt, nervousness, and sadness. There were no between-group differences concerning the other strategies in response to varying levels of emotional intensity. Together, the results provide evidence for inflexible emotion regulation in HSAs, reflected in an unwillingness to experience negative emotions.

  7. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  8. Development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures SQN and EQN type in the transport code AZTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepe P, M.; Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M.; Del Valle G, E.

    2015-09-01

    The deterministic transport codes for analysis of nuclear reactors have been used for several years already, these codes have evolved in terms of the methodology used and the degree of accuracy, because at the present time has more computer power. In this paper, the transport code used considers the classical technique of multi-group for discretization energy, for space discretization uses the nodal methods, while for the angular discretization the discrete ordinates method is used; so that presents the development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures of SQ N type symmetrical with the same weight for each angular direction and these are compared with the quadratures of EQ N type. The two sets of numerical quadratures were implemented in the program AZTRAN to a problem with isotropic medium in XYZ geometry, in steady state using the nodal method RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec). The analyzed results correspond to the effective multiplication factor k eff and neutron angular flux with approximations from S 4 to S 16 . (Author)

  9. Construction of type-II QC-LDPC codes with fast encoding based on perfect cyclic difference sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-xiang; Li, Hai-bing; Li, Ji-bi; Jiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problems that the encoding complexity of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is high and the minimum distance is not large enough which leads to the degradation of the error-correction performance, the new irregular type-II QC-LDPC codes based on perfect cyclic difference sets (CDSs) are constructed. The parity check matrices of these type-II QC-LDPC codes consist of the zero matrices with weight of 0, the circulant permutation matrices (CPMs) with weight of 1 and the circulant matrices with weight of 2 (W2CMs). The introduction of W2CMs in parity check matrices makes it possible to achieve the larger minimum distance which can improve the error- correction performance of the codes. The Tanner graphs of these codes have no girth-4, thus they have the excellent decoding convergence characteristics. In addition, because the parity check matrices have the quasi-dual diagonal structure, the fast encoding algorithm can reduce the encoding complexity effectively. Simulation results show that the new type-II QC-LDPC codes can achieve a more excellent error-correction performance and have no error floor phenomenon over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with sum-product algorithm (SPA) iterative decoding.

  10. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M; Pinholt, M; Christensen, J J

    2018-03-23

    To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). Fifty-five VREfm isolates, previously characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), were included and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. To take peak reproducibility into account, ethanol/formic acid extraction and other steps of the protocol were conducted in triplicate. Twenty-seven spectra were generated per isolate, and spectra were visually inspected to determine discriminatory peaks. The presence or absence of these was recorded in a peak scheme. Nine discriminatory peaks were identified. A characteristic pattern of these could distinguish between the three major WGS groups: WGS I, WGS II and WGS III. Only one of 38 isolates belonging to WGS I, WGS II or WGS III was misclassified. However, ten of the 17 isolates not belonging to WGS I, II or III displayed peak patterns indistinguishable from those of the outbreak strain. Using visual inspection of spectra, MALDI-TOF MS typing proved to be useful in differentiating three VREfm outbreak clones from each other. However, as non-outbreak isolates could not be reliably differentiated from outbreak clones, the practical value of this typing method for VREfm outbreak management was limited in our setting. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ishikawa, K; Nagayama, M; Kon, M; Asaoka, K; Suzuki, K

    1998-02-01

    The effect of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement (aw-FSCPC) was investigated in a preliminary evaluation of aw-FSCPC containing drugs. Flomoxef sodium was employed as the antibiotic and was incorporated into the powder-phase aw-FSCPC at up to 10%. The setting time, consistency, wet diametral tensile strength (DTS) value, and porosity were measured for aw-FSCPC containing various amounts of flomoxef sodium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted for the identification of products. To evaluate the drug-release profile, set aw-FSCPC was immersed in saline and the released flomoxef sodium was determined at regular intervals. The spread area of the cement paste as an index of consistency of the cement increased progressively with the addition of flomoxef sodium, and it doubled when the aw-FSCPC contained 8% flomoxef sodium. In contrast, the wet DTS value decreased with increase in flomoxef sodium content. Bulk density measurement and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the set mass was more porous with the amount of flomoxef sodium contained in the aw-FSCPC. The XRD analysis revealed that formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from aw-FSCPC was reduced even after 24 h, when the aw-FSCPC contained flomoxef sodium at > or = 6%. Therefore, the decrease of wet DTS value was thought to be partly the result of the increased porosity and inhibition of HAP formation in aw-FSCPC containing large amounts of flomoxef sodium. The flomoxef sodium release from aw-FSCPC showed the typical profile observed in a skeleton-type drug delivery system (DDS). The rate of drug release from aw-FSCPC can be controlled by changing the concentration of sodium alginate. Although flomoxef sodium addition has certain disadvantageous effects on the basic properties of aw-FSCPC, we conclude that aw-FSCPC is a good candidate for potential use as a DDS carrier that may be useful in surgical operations.

  12. Approximation of a Common Element of the Fixed Point Sets of Multivalued Strictly Pseudocontractive-Type Mappings and the Set of Solutions of an Equilibrium Problem in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Isiogugu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong convergence of a hybrid algorithm to a common element of the fixed point sets of multivalued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in Hilbert spaces is obtained using a strict fixed point set condition. The obtained results improve, complement, and extend the results on multivalued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.

  13. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

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    Espinosa-Alarcón Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1 To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2 To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3 To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348. The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%, diverse without community participation (44.3%; widowed (32.0%; nonfriends-restricted (7.6%; nonfamily-restricted (4.0%. Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1. Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.

  14. Influence of Social Support on Treatment of Type II Diabetes in Yazd

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    A Zare Shahabadi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support can be defined as the interactive process through which emotional and instrumental support is obtained. Social support has been found to be a relevant factor in diabetes self-management. Diabetes refers to complex chronic metabolic conditions that are characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose if untreated. Diabetes is one of the biggest health care problems facing Yazd with regards to prevalence, cost, and the onus it places on patients and its high morbidity rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among social factors on the control and treatment of type II diabetes. Methods: The population under study included 4990 diabetes type II patients referring to Yazd Diabetes Research Center and a sample of 256 cases was selected by simple random sampling method through statistical society. This study was based on survey method and the instrument for collecting data was a questionnaire. Results: About 65.4% of the patients were women and 35.6 were men. The mean age of patients was 56 years. Significant correlations were found between perceived social support (r= 0.193, p= 0.001, positive reinforcing behaviors (r= 0.455, p= 0.000, and adherence to self-care activities. Misguided support behaviors did not show a significant correlation with adherence to self-care activities. A total of 25% of variance in self-care behavior can be explained by positive reinforcing behaviors and misguided support behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that by increasing the positive reinforcing behaviors and perceived social support and decreasing the misguided support behaviors, the diabetic patients can adhere better to self-care activities.

  15. Problems in diabetes managment in school setting in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesić, Maja D; Milenković, Tatjana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Zdravković, Vera; Jesić, Milos M; Bosnjović-Tucaković, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica; Vorguin, Ivana; Stanković, Sandra; Sajić, Silvija

    2016-03-01

    The obtained results show that not all children test blood glucose levels at school (50% of children in the 6-10-year-old age group and 67.3% in the age group over 11 years) and that not all children receive insulin at school (81.1% vs. 18.9%, and 57.7% vs. 42.3%, respectively). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 2.7% in children and 3.3% in adolescents. A high proportion of teachers did not have diabetes training. This brief report about problems in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at school in Serbia indicates what happens in the school setting and suggests how to improve control of this disease and facilitate the complete integration of children with diabetes at school. Children with type 1 diabetes typically spend one-third of the day in school and they should achieve the same level of diabetes management there as they do outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to identify problems in diabetes management in children with type 1 diabetes at school according to the perceptions reported by children and parents. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at nine public hospitals in Serbia with a cohort of 6-18-year old children/adolescents. The parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at school.

  16. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  17. The Commission’s internal conditions for social re-regulation: Market efficiency and wider social goals in setting the rules for financial services in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartlapp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is often considered as a prime example of a liberal regulatory state. We argue, however, that being limited to the regulatory policy does not prevent the European Commission from pursuing political aims going beyond market efficiency. We draw up two ideal-type perspectives of market regulation – being either efficiency or equality enhancing – that differ systematically in terms of rationale, degree of intervention, patterns of stakeholder access and conflict within the regulator. We trace these aspects in three financial services initiatives on the registration and supervision of reinsurers, equal treatment in financial services and the regulation of consumer credit. Our analyses suggest that there is scope for equality-enhancing re-regulation when proactive agents proceed decidedly on the basis of social-treaty concerns and frame regulatory beneficiaries as market participants as well as when they seek the redistribution of rights instead of resources.

  18. Goal specific social capital and job satisfaction Effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flap, Henk; Völker, Beate

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the question “To what extent can job satisfaction be explained as the revenue of social capital?” By conceiving someone’s social network as social capital we specify conditions under which social ties do lead to job satisfaction. We inquire into the idea of goal specificity of

  19. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study

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    Stoddart Kathleen M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social

  20. Enhancement and creation of secondary channel habitat: Review of project performance across a range of project types and settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J.; Lind, P.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary channels provide critical off-channel habitat for key life stages of aquatic species. In many systems, interruption of natural processes via anthropogenic influences have reduced the quantity of secondary channel habitat and have impaired the processes that help form and maintain them. Creation and enhancement of secondary channels is therefore a key component of stream rehabilitation, particularly in the Pacific Northwest where the focus has been on enhancement of habitat for ESA-listed salmonids. Secondary channel enhancement varies widely in scope, scale, and approach depending on species requirements, hydrology/hydraulics, geomorphologic setting, sediment dynamics, and human constraints. This presentation will review case studies from numerous secondary channel projects constructed over the last 20 years by different entities and in different settings. Lessons learned will be discussed that help to understand project performance and inform future project design. A variety of secondary channel project types will be reviewed, including mainstem flow splits, year-round flow through, seasonally activated, backwater alcove, natural groundwater-fed, and engineered groundwater-fed (i.e. groundwater collection galleries). Projects will be discussed that span a range of project construction intensities, such as full excavation of side channels, select excavation to increase flow, or utilizing mainstem structures to activate channels. Different configurations for connecting to the main channel, and their relative performance, will also be presented. A variety of connection types will be discussed including stabilized channel entrance, free-formed entrance, using bar apex jams to split flows, using `bleeder' jams to limit secondary channel flow, and obstructing the main channel to divert flows into secondary channels. The performance and longevity of projects will be discussed, particularly with respect to the response to sediment mobilizing events. Lessons

  1. Ultrasound monitoring of the influence of different accelerating admixtures and cement types for shotcrete on setting and hardening behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belie, N. de; Grosse, C.U.; Kurz, J.; Reinhardt, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    The possible use of ultrasound measurements for monitoring setting and hardening of mortar containing different accelerating admixtures for shotcrete was investigated. The sensitivity to accelerator type (alkaline aluminate or alkali-free) and dosage, and accelerator-cement compatibility were evaluated. Furthermore, a new automatic onset picking algorithm for ultrasound signals was tested. A stepwise increase of the accelerator dosage resulted in increasing values for the ultrasound pulse velocity at early ages. In the accelerated mortar no dormant period could be noticed before the pulse velocity started to increase sharply, indicating a quick change in solid phase connectivity. The alkaline accelerator had a larger effect than the alkali-free accelerator, especially at ages below 90 min. The effect of the alkali-free accelerator was at very early age more pronounced on mortar containing CEM I in comparison with CEM II, while the alkaline accelerator had a larger influence on mortar containing CEM II. The increase of ultrasound energy could be related to the setting phenomenon and the maximum energy was reached when the end of workability was approached. Only the alkaline accelerator caused a significant reduction in compressive strength and this for all the dosages tested

  2. Entrepreneurs in transitional Serbia - the context of management and socially accepted type of private enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of post-socialist transformation in Serbia included, among other things, a boost of selfemployed entrepreneurship looking to place themselves within a society. This phenomenon occurred within the complex conditions that included the past socialist heritage and egalitarian ideology, representing thus a potential a priori negative social attitudes towards private enterprise and entrepreneurs, as well as specific overall transition path that can be divided into two distinct and disparate stages. This particular context has influenced the complexity of the problem of entrepreneurship in this society. Therefore, this paper will firstly focus on the context and conditions of entrepreneurial business from the perspective of the very entrepreneurs; additionally, the paper will try to discern the socially accepted types of entrepreneurs, favoring the assumption that this type of economy, in principle, has been accepted, i.e., there is no social resistance. The discussion is based on analysis of newspaper articles that provide detailed written accounts, while the context of entrepreneurial business in transitional Serbia is based on data provided by the Union of Employers of Serbia, the Agency of Business Registers and reports of the National Agency for Regional Development of the Republic of Serbia.

  3. 'I call it the blame and shame disease': a qualitative study about perceptions of social stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jessica L; Ventura, Adriana; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-11-18

    While health-related stigma has been the subject of considerable research in other conditions (obesity and HIV/AIDS), it has not received substantial attention in diabetes. The aim of the current study was to explore the social experiences of Australian adults living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with a particular focus on the perception and experience of diabetes-related stigma. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. This study was conducted in non-clinical settings in metropolitan and regional areas in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants were recruited primarily through the state consumer organisation representing people with diabetes. All adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM living in Victoria were eligible to take part. Twenty-five adults with T2DM participated (12 women; median age 61 years; median diabetes duration 5 years). A total of 21 (84%) participants indicated that they believed T2DM was stigmatised, or reported evidence of stigmatisation. Specific themes about the experience of stigma were feeling blamed by others for causing their own condition, being subject to negative stereotyping, being discriminated against or having restricted opportunities in life. Other themes focused on sources of stigma, which included the media, healthcare professionals, friends, family and colleagues. Themes relating to the consequences of this stigma were also evident, including participants' unwillingness to disclose their condition to others and psychological distress. Participants believed that people with type 1 diabetes do not experience similar stigmatisation. Our study found evidence of people with T2DM experiencing and perceiving diabetes-related social stigma. Further research is needed to explore ways to measure and minimise diabetes-related stigma at the individual and societal levels, and also to explore perceptions and experiences of stigma in people with

  4. Self- and Social-Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes Management During Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J; Berg, Cynthia A; Mello, Daniel; Kelly, Caitlin S

    2018-03-21

    This paper aims to examine how self-regulation (i.e., cognition, emotion) and social-regulation (i.e., parents, friends, romantic partners) are interrelated risk and protective factors for type 1 diabetes management during late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Problems in cognitive (e.g., executive function) and emotional (e.g., depressive symptoms) self-regulation are associated with poorer management, both at the between- and within-person levels. Better management occurs when parents are supportive and when individuals actively regulate the involvement of others (e.g., seek help, minimize interference). Friends both help and hinder self-regulation, while research on romantic partners is limited. Facets of self- and social-regulation are important risk and protective factors for diabetes management during emerging adulthood. At this time when relationships are changing, the social context of diabetes may need to be regulated to support diabetes management. Interventions targeting those with self-regulation problems and facilitating self- and social-regulation in daily life may be useful.

  5. Type of Referral, Dialysis Start and Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in an International Integrated Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrón, Belén; Ostrowski, Janusz; Török, Marietta; Timofte, Delia; Orosz, Attila; Kosicki, Andrzej; Całka, Alicja; Moro, Daniela; Kosa, Dezider; Redl, Jenö; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Divino-Filho, Jose Carolino

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of dialysis. To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics. Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start. Modality information (80% of patients) and renal education (87%) were more frequent (pregression analysis, P start (p≤0.05) was associated with early referral, eGFR >8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%. Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.

  6. Type of Referral, Dialysis Start and Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in an International Integrated Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Marrón

    Full Text Available Integrated Care Settings (ICS provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT, offering at least both types of dialysis.To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics.Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start.Modality information (80% of patients and renal education (87% were more frequent (p8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%.Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: comparative prevalence according to two sets of diagnostic criteria in sub-Saharan Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengne Andre P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available definition criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS have similarities and inconsistencies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in a group of Cameroonians with type 2 diabetes, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria, and to assess the concordance between both criteria, and the implications of combining them. Methods We collected clinical and biochemical data for 308 patients with type 2 diabetes (men 157 at the National Obesity Center of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon. Concordance was assessed with the use of the Kappa statistic. Results Mean age (standard deviation was 55.8 (10.5 years and the median duration of diagnosed diabetes (25th–75th percentiles was 3 years (0.5–5.0, similarly among men and women. The prevalence of MS was 71.7% according to the IDF criteria and 60.4% according to NCEP-ATP III criteria. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men independently of the criteria used (both p  Conclusions The IDF and NCEP-ATP III criteria do not always diagnose the same group of diabetic individuals with MS and combining them merely increases the yield beyond that provided by the IDF definition alone. This study highlights the importance of having a single unifying definition for MS in our setting.

  8. Cohort Differences in Received Social Support in Later Life: The Role of Network Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanet, Bianca; Antonucci, Toni C

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to assess cohort differences in received emotional and instrumental support in relation to network types. The main guiding hypothesis is that due to increased salience of non-kin with recent social change, those in friend-focused and diverse network types receive more support in later birth cohorts than earlier birth cohorts. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam are employed. We investigate cohort differences in total received emotional and instrumental support in a series of linear regression models comparing birth cohorts aged 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, and 85-94 across three time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012). Four network types (friend, family, restricted, and diverse) are identified. Friend-focused networks are more common in later birth cohorts, restrictive networks less common. Those in friend-focused networks in later cohorts report receiving more emotional and instrumental support. No differences in received support are evident upon diverse networks. The increased salience of non-kin is reflected in an increase in received emotional and instrumental support in friend-focused networks in later birth cohorts. The preponderance of non-kin in networks should not be perceived as a deficit model for social relationships as restrictive networks are declining across birth cohorts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Smith, Joshua P.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between...

  10. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    2018-04-27

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntactic and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.

  11. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes in a Coastal Area of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathy, S; Lohidas, V; Paul, Nimitha; Anish, T S; Narayanan, Tinu; Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Varying prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes have been observed in different parts of the southern state of Kerala, India which is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition. Social patterning is evident in diabetes and therefore it was decided to undertake a study on estimating the prevalence of diabetes and associated social determinants. The adopted local self administration unit of the Medical College which is also the field practice area with a population of 25,096 was taken for the study. All the households in the area were visited and the details regarding self reported diabetes was collected after obtaining informed consent and analysis done by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of self reported diabetes in this coastal area was found to be low at 7.4%. Type 2 diabetes was also found to occur significantly earlier among the respondents belonging to the below poverty line. Age above 40 years (OR 2 95% CI 1.5-2.7, p=.000), marital status (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p=.006) presence of comorbidities (OR 635 95% CI 389-969, p=.000), more than 8 years of schooling (OR 0.64 95% CI 0.46-0.86, p=.004), living conditions as represented by presence of household source of drinking water(OR 1.4 95% CI 1.01-1.5) were found to be independent predictors. Though there was increasing trend of diabetes among the forward caste line families after backward logistic regression this disappeared leaving behind the proxy of socioeconomic status, household source of drinking water. Though, the state of Kerala is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition, coastal areas are still in the earlier phases of transition with low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Higher education and better living conditions are important social determinants of diabetes though further studies are necessary to delineate the impact of economic status and education.

  12. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging. PMID:24324434

  13. Tracking the cognitive, social and neuroanatomical profile in early neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind and empathy tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions, which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  14. Social and cultural elements associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Emmanuele Mercadillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (SCA2 is a rare genetic disorder producing cerebellar degeneration and affecting motor abilities. Neuroimaging studies also show neurodegeneration in subcortical and cortical regions related to emotional and social processes. From social neuroscience it is suggested that motor and social abilities can be influenced by particular cultural dynamics so, culture is fundamental to understand the effect of brain related alterations. Here we present the first analysis about the cultural elements related to the SCA2 disorder in 15 patients previously evaluated with neuroimaging and psychometric instruments, and their nuclear relationships distributed in six geographical and cultural regions in Mexico. Ethnographic records and photographic and video archives about the quotidian participant’s routine were obtained from the patients, their relatives and their caregivers. The information was categorized and interpreted taking into consideration cultural issues and patients’ medical files. Our analyses suggest that most of the participants do not understand the nature of the disease and this misunderstanding favors magic and non-medical explanations. Patients’ testimonies suggest a decrease in pain perception as well as motor alterations that may be related to interoceptive dysfunctions. Relatives’ testimonies indicate patients’ lack of social and emotional interests that may be related to frontal, temporal and cerebellar degeneration. In general, participants use their religious beliefs to deal with the disease and only a few of them trust the health system. Patients and their families are either openly rejected and ignored, tolerated or even helped by their community accordingly to different regional traits. We propose that ethnography can provide social representations to understand the patients’ alterations, to formulate neurobiological hypotheses, to develop neurocognitive interventions, and to improve the

  15. A Network-Aware Approach for Searching As-You-Type in Social Media (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Lagrée, Paul; Cautis, Bogdan; Vahabi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel approach for as-you-type top-$k$ keyword search over social media. We adopt a natural "network-aware" interpretation for information relevance, by which information produced by users who are closer to the seeker is considered more relevant. In practice, this query model poses new challenges for effectiveness and efficiency in online search, even when a complete query is given as input in one keystroke. This is mainly because it requires a joint exploration of ...

  16. A Network-Aware Approach for Searching As-You-Type in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lagrée , Paul; Cautis , Bogdan; Vahabi , Hossein

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present in this paper a novel approach for as-you-type top-k keyword search over social media. We adopt a natural "network-aware" interpretation for information relevance, by which information produced by users who are closer to the seeker is considered more relevant. In practice, this query model poses new challenges for effectiveness and efficiency in online search, even when a complete query is given as input in one keystroke. This is mainly because it requires a...

  17. Why Do Phylogenomic Data Sets Yield Conflicting Trees? Data Type Influences the Avian Tree of Life more than Taxon Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma; Kimball, Rebecca T; Pandey, Akanksha; Hosner, Peter A; Braun, Michael J; Hackett, Shannon J; Han, Kin-Lan; Harshman, John; Huddleston, Christopher J; Kingston, Sarah; Marks, Ben D; Miglia, Kathleen J; Moore, William S; Sheldon, Frederick H; Witt, Christopher C; Yuri, Tamaki; Braun, Edward L

    2017-09-01

    Phylogenomics, the use of large-scale data matrices in phylogenetic analyses, has been viewed as the ultimate solution to the problem of resolving difficult nodes in the tree of life. However, it has become clear that analyses of these large genomic data sets can also result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny. Here, we use the early divergences in Neoaves, the largest clade of extant birds, as a "model system" to understand the basis for incongruence among phylogenomic trees. We were motivated by the observation that trees from two recent avian phylogenomic studies exhibit conflicts. Those studies used different strategies: 1) collecting many characters [$\\sim$ 42 mega base pairs (Mbp) of sequence data] from 48 birds, sometimes including only one taxon for each major clade; and 2) collecting fewer characters ($\\sim$ 0.4 Mbp) from 198 birds, selected to subdivide long branches. However, the studies also used different data types: the taxon-poor data matrix comprised 68% non-coding sequences whereas coding exons dominated the taxon-rich data matrix. This difference raises the question of whether the primary reason for incongruence is the number of sites, the number of taxa, or the data type. To test among these alternative hypotheses we assembled a novel, large-scale data matrix comprising 90% non-coding sequences from 235 bird species. Although increased taxon sampling appeared to have a positive impact on phylogenetic analyses the most important variable was data type. Indeed, by analyzing different subsets of the taxa in our data matrix we found that increased taxon sampling actually resulted in increased congruence with the tree from the previous taxon-poor study (which had a majority of non-coding data) instead of the taxon-rich study (which largely used coding data). We suggest that the observed differences in the estimates of topology for these studies reflect data-type effects due to violations of the models used in phylogenetic analyses, some of which

  18. Opinions of patients with type 2 diabetes about responsibility, setting targets and willingness to take medication: a cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, K.J.; Tuytel, G.J.; Leeuw, R.R. de; Bensing, J.M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess opinions and their determinants of patients with type 2 diabetes about responsibility for managing their diabetes, setting treatment targets and willingness taking medication. METHODS: Questionnaire survey carried out in general practices and outpatient clinics across the

  19. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suira Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1. Females (p<0.01, homemakers (p<0.01, 61–70 age group (p=0.01, those without formal education (p<0.01, and people with lower social status (p<0.01 had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β=0.036, p=0.016, mode of treatment (β=0.9, p=0.047, no formal educational level (β=1.959, p=0.01, emotional representation (β=0.214, p<0.001, identity (β=0.196, p<0.001, illness coherence (β=-0.109, p=0.007, and consequences (β=0.093, p=0.049 as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  20. Goal specific social capital and job satisfaction Effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work

    OpenAIRE

    Flap, Henk; Völker, Beate

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the question “To what extent can job satisfaction be explained as the revenue of social capital?” By conceiving someone’s social network as social capital we specify conditions under which social ties do lead to job satisfaction. We inquire into the idea of goal specificity of social capital, which implies that a network with a given structure and content will have different impacts on various aspects of job satisfaction. If the content of the ties and the structure of th...

  1. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Sarah W; Thomas, Suzanne E; Smith, Joshua P; Miller, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g., the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between subjects in two studies--one involving socially anxious individuals (n=38) seeking treatment for addictions; the other (n=41) subjects with social anxiety and an alcohol use disorder, seeking treatment for social anxiety. Baseline severity scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for social anxiety were compared between the groups. No significant differences were found. For both groups, social anxiety was largely in the severe range. The results suggest that clinicians should attend to social anxiety symptom severity in patients with co-occurring social anxiety and addiction, regardless of the condition for which treatment is sought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association of Workplace Social Capital With Work Engagement of Employees in Health Care Settings: A Multilevel Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sumiko; Kawakami, Norito; Ando, Emiko; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsuno, Kanami; Kurioka, Sumiko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional multilevel association between unit-level workplace social capital and individual-level work engagement among employees in health care settings. The data were collected from employees of a Japanese health care corporation using a questionnaire. The analyses were limited to 440 respondents from 35 units comprising five or more respondents per unit. Unit-level workplace social capital was calculated as an average score of the Workplace Social Capital Scale for each unit. Multilevel regression analysis with a random intercept model was conducted. After adjusting for demographic variables, unit-level workplace social capital was significantly and positively associated with respondents' work engagement (P capital (P capital might exert a positive contextual effect on work engagement of employees in health care settings.

  3. Strategies to overcome type 1 diabetes-related social stigma in the Iranian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mehri Doosti; Abdoli, Samereh; Bijan, Iraj; Parvizy, Soroor; Fatemi, Naimeh Seyed; Amini, Massoud

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the strategies to overcome diabetes-related social stigma in Iran. This paper is part of an action research study which was designed in Iran in 2012 to plan and implement a program for overcoming diabetes-related stigma. Participants were people with type 1 diabetes, their family members, people without diabetes, and care providers in a diabetes center. Data collection was done through unstructured in-depth interviews, focus groups, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), and telephone interview. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis approach. Participants believed that it is impossible to overcome the stigma without community-based strategies. Community-based strategies include education, advocacy, contact, and protest. The anti-stigma strategies obtained in the study are based on the cultural context in Iran. They are extracted from statements of a wide range of people (with and without diabetes). However, during planning for stigma reduction, it is necessary to note that the effectiveness of social strategies varies in different studies and in different stigmatizing conditions and many factors are involved. These strategies should be implemented simultaneously at different levels to produce structural and social changes. It should be accepted that research on reducing health-related stigma has shown that it is very difficult to change beliefs and behavior. Evidence suggests that individuals and their families should be involved in all aspects of the program, and plans should be made according to the local conditions.

  4. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Mattias; Wahlqvist, Moa; Danermark, Berth; Dahlström, Örjan; Möller, Claes

    2018-05-28

    Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  5. Relationship between self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Tharek, Zahirah; Ramli, Anis Safura; Whitford, David L; Ismail, Zaliha; Mohd Zulkifli, Maryam; Ahmad Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah; Shafie, Asrul A; Jayaraman, Thevaraajan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy has been shown to be positively correlated with self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, such evidence is lacking in the Malaysian primary care setting. The objectives of this study were to i) determine the levels of self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting ii) determine the relationship between self-efficacy, self...

  6. The Effects of a Social Skills Training Package on Social Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Generalized Recess Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Ford, W. Blake; Battaglia, Allison A.; McHugh, Melissa B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a practice-ready, multimedia social skills program, on social engagements of elementary-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four children with ASD between the ages of 8 and 10 with current placements in inclusive public…

  7. [Can ICF core sets be helpful in preparing a social-medical expert report due to incapacity to work?--a first proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, M; Legner, R; Armbrust, W; Nowak, D; Cieza, A

    2015-04-01

    Social-medical expert reports from the German statutory pension insurance are essential for the German statutory pension regulatory authority to decide whether to grant services regarding participation as well as retirement pensions due to incapacity to work.The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the ICF Core Sets and other international approaches, such as the EUMASS Core Sets or ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation cover the content of the social-medical expert reports as well as to propose an approach how the ICF can be economically used by the social medicine practitioner when writing a social-medical expert report. A retrospective quantitative study design was used to translate a total of 294 social-medical expert reports from patients with low back pain (LBP) or chronic widespread pain (CWP) into the language of the ICF (linking) by 2 independent health professionals and compare the results with the ICF Core Sets for specific health conditions and other international approaches. The content of social-medical expert reports was largely reflected by the condition specific brief ICF Core Sets, brief ICF Core Sets for vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS Core Sets. The weighted Kappa statistic for the agreement between the 2 health professionals who translated the expert reports were in CWP 0.69 with a bootstrapped confidence interval of 0.67-0.71 and in LBP 0.73 (0.71-0.74). The analyses show that the content of social-medical expert reports varies enormously. A combination of a condition specific brief ICF Core Set as well as vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS ICF Core Sets as well as all ICF-categories from the expert reports that were named at least in 50% of it can largely provide a basis for preparing expert reports. Within the scope of implementation the need for a specific ICF Core Set for expert reports of the German statutory pension insurance should be further analyzed and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  8. SOCIAL REABILITATION MODEL FOR TEENAGERS WITH DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IN CLOSED-TYPE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Moskvina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers educational practices in the closed-type institutions for teenagers with deviations in legal, intellectual and psychoemotional behavior, and reveals a social rehabilitation model for this category of teenagers. The model is based on A. V. Petrovsky’s concept of the three phases of personality development in adolescence – adaptation, individualization and integration. The author presumes that any deviation in a teenager’s behavior increases as the result of negative experience, developed and retained in asocial surroundings. The goal of teaching staff in closed-type institutions is to transform the trend of deviant behavior into the normal attitude of social adaptation. The author emphasizes a need for positive experience of passing the above phases in friendly atmosphere with adequate behavior patterns. Preventive work implies the priority changes – i.e. the prevalence of the future over the past, self-determination (revision of goals, meanings, and attitudes to a free choice, reorientation from ≪I don’t want, I can’t, I don’t have to≫ to the positive connotations of ≪I have to, I can, I want≫. The paper denotes the methods and ways of pedagogical facilitation, relating to different phases of educational process, and provides a technique for regular monitoring of personal behavior changes, including the key evaluation positions and scales. The paper is addressed to the teaching staff involved in rehabilitation of teenagers with deviant behavior.

  9. An evaluation of community pharmacy-based services for type 2 diabetes in an Indonesian setting: patient survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes is an emerging chronic disease in developing countries. Its management in developing countries is mainly hospital/clinic based. The increasing diabetes burden in developing countries provides opportunities for community pharmacists to deliver a range of services. Since the management of diabetes requires the patient’s own involvement, it is important to gain their views in order to develop pharmacy-based diabetes services. Studies on diabetes patients’ views have been limited to developed countries.Objectives. To investigate, within a developing country setting (Indonesia, current use of pharmacy services by type 2 diabetes patients, and to evaluate their views regarding community pharmacists’ roles, and the characteristics that influence their views.Methods. A questionnaire survey was conducted within 10 purposefully selected community pharmacies in Surabaya, Indonesia. Each pharmacy recruited approximately 20 patients seeking antidiabetic medications. Usage of pharmacy services was identified using binary responses (‘yes’/‘no’ and views on pharmacists’ roles were rated using Likert scales; an open-ended question was used to identify patient perceived priority roles. Logistic regression models were used to determine characteristics associated with patients’ views.Results. A total of 196 pharmacy patients with type 2 diabetes responded (58.3% response rate. Most patients used community pharmacies for dispensing (100% and education on how to use medications (79.6%. There were mixed views towards pharmacists providing services beyond dispensing. The highest priorities identified were from the ‘patient education’ domain: education on medications (i.e., directions for use (64.5%, storage (26.6%, common/important adverse effects (25.5%; and the ‘monitoring’ domain: monitoring medication compliance (37.3%. Patients with higher incomes or who were working were less supportive of these expanded services

  10. A decision making method based on interval type-2 fuzzy sets: An approach for ambulance location preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazim Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the best solution to deploy an ambulance in a strategic location is of the important variables that need to be accounted for improving the emergency medical services. The selection requires both quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Fuzzy set based approach is one of the well-known theories that help decision makers to handle fuzziness, uncertainty in decision making and vagueness of information. This paper proposes a new decision making method of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Simple Additive Weighting (IT2 FSAW as to deal with uncertainty and vagueness. The new IT2 FSAW is applied to establish a preference in ambulance location. The decision making framework defines four criteria and five alternatives of ambulance location preference. Four experts attached to a Malaysian government hospital and a university medical center were interviewed to provide linguistic evaluation prior to analyzing with the new IT2 FSAW. Implementation of the proposed method in the case of ambulance location preference suggests that the ‘road network’ is the best alternative for ambulance location. The results indicate that the proposed method offers a consensus solution for handling the vague and qualitative criteria of ambulance location preference.

  11. The incidence and types of medication errors in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Anene Agu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the incidence and types of medication errors, interventions and outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in selected HIV treatment centres in Nigeria.Of 69 health facilities that had program for active screening of medication errors, 14 were randomly selected for prospective cohort assessment. All patients who filled/refilled their antiretroviral medications between February 2009 and March 2011 were screened for medication errors using study-specific pharmaceutical care daily worksheet (PCDW. All potential or actual medication errors identified, interventions provided and the outcomes were documented in the PCDW. Interventions included pharmaceutical care in HIV training for pharmacists amongst others. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics and P0.05. The major medications errors identified were 26.4% incorrect ART regimens prescribed; 19.8% potential drug-drug interaction or contraindication present; and 16.6% duration and/or frequency of medication inappropriate. Interventions provided included 67.1% cases of prescriber contacted to clarify/resolve errors and 14.7% cases of patient counselling and education; 97.4% of potential/actual medication error(s were resolved.The incidence rate of medication errors was somewhat high; and majority of identified errors were related to prescription of incorrect ART regimens and potential drug-drug interactions; the prescriber was contacted and the errors were resolved in majority of cases. Active screening for medication errors is feasible in resource-limited settings following a capacity building intervention.

  12. Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support and adolescents' depressed mood

    OpenAIRE

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support, and boys’ and girls’ depressed mood. To address this aim, the present study (N = 910) developed a comprehensive model which (1) differs between specific types of Facebook use, (2) examines the mediating role of perceived online social support, and (3) takes adolescent users’ gender into account. Structural equation modeling showed that the h...

  13. Comparing Student and Teacher Perceptions of the Importance of Social Skills in a Self-Contained Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph John; Dobbins, Nicole; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Brown, Nancy; Higgins, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of social skills deemed appropriate for use in school is important for student success. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often fail to use these social skills, requiring intervention to facilitate their use. Results related to social skills interventions have been mixed; one suggested reason for this is the lack of…

  14. Social Attribution in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: An Exploratory Study in the Chinese Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Hu, Zhou-yi; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; McAlonan, Grainne M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine social attribution in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). A sample of 20 boys (9 with HFA and 11 with AS) and 20 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. All participated in two tasks measuring social attribution ability, the conventional Social Attribution Task…

  15. Gay-Straight Alliances vary on dimensions of youth socializing and advocacy: factors accounting for individual and setting-level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Marx, Robert A; Calzo, Jerel P; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2015-06-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8 % LGBQ; 69.9 % White; 70.1 % cisgender female), we found substantial variation among GSAs and youth in levels of socializing and advocacy. GSAs were more distinct from one another on advocacy than socializing. Using multilevel modeling, we identified group and individual factors accounting for this variability. In the socializing model, youth and GSAs that did more socializing activities did more advocacy. In the advocacy model, youth who were more actively engaged in the GSA as well as GSAs whose youth collectively perceived greater school hostility and reported greater social justice efficacy did more advocacy. Findings suggest potential reasons why GSAs vary in how they function in ways ranging from internal provisions of support, to visibility raising, to collective social change. The findings are further relevant for settings supporting youth from other marginalized backgrounds and that include advocacy in their mission.

  16. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) versus Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET) for distressed breast cancer survivors: evaluating mindfulness and social support as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E

    2017-06-01

    Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.

  18. Evaluating social media's capacity to develop engaged audiences in health promotion settings: use of Twitter metrics as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe G; Fagen, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    Use of social media in health promotion and public health continues to grow in popularity, though most of what is reported in literature represents one-way messaging devoid of attributes associated with engagement, a core attribute, if not the central purpose, of social media. This article defines engagement, describes its value in maximizing the potential of social media in health promotion, proposes an evaluation hierarchy for social media engagement, and uses Twitter as a case study to illustrate how the hierarchy might function in practice. Partnership and participation are proposed as culminating outcomes for social media use in health promotion. As use of social media in health promotion moves toward this end, evaluation metrics that verify progress and inform subsequent strategies will become increasingly important.

  19. [Work integration of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, G; Gazzoldi, T; Marandola, P; Fabris, F; Ferrari, M; Imbriani, M

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate job occupation results of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative, taking into consideration not only specific occupational risks' analysis and assessment, but also organisational, relational and psycho-social matters essential for their stable job occupation. The impaired workers involved were all those hired by a type-B social cooperative from Jan 1999 until Dec 2007, ie. 16 workers (M 8, F 8), equal to 40% of employees' total number. Every impaired worker has been submitted to preventive health surveillance in order to evaluate the degree of disability and residual job ability in relation to the job tasks suitable for him/her. In order to find available tasks which can be performed by disadvantaged workers, the personnel chart has been analyzed, and 10 of the 16 workers (equal to 62.5%) have been considered fit for the specific task without limitations. The other 6 (37.5%) have been considered capable of the specific task with limitations and/or prescriptions, and for 2 of them (12.5%) a tutorial supervision prescription was also necessary. Among those 6 workers with limitations and/or prescriptions, 4 were psychologically impaired (67%) and 2 were physically impaired (37%). The situation of these 16 impaired workers has been periodically verified and followed up for 8 years. Not only have the fifteen workers continued to perform the task initially considered suitable for their health status, but for some of them (5 workers), an increase in job performance, in both complexity and shift duration, has been observed. Moreover, with the only exception of a psychologically impaired worker who did alternate between good comfort times and occasional disease acute phases, all other workers have shown good and stable gains in psychological and physical health conditions, performing requested tasks not only with efficiency, but also with commitment and motivation. All workers have shown a remarkable improvement in their ability to

  20. Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool: Exploring Personal and Professional Values with Female Muslim Social Work Students in an Intercultural Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Nicole F.; Capous-Desyllas, Moshoula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores a classroom project in which we used photovoice as a pedagogical tool to enhance personal and professional self-awareness among female, Muslim, social work students in an intercultural classroom setting located in the Arabian Gulf. We begin with an overview and discussion of arts-based approaches to education and then provide…

  1. Social comparisons in adults with type 2 diabetes: Patients' reasons for target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Cornell, Max; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-07-01

    To examine reasons for selecting a social comparison target (i.e. a specific other for relative self-evaluation), and their influence on affect and motivation for self-care, in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Adults with T2DM (n = 180, M A1c  = 7.6%) chose to read about one of four targets. Participants rated five reasons for their choice (strongly disagree - strongly agree), and rated affect and self-care motivation before and after reading. To boost confidence in my ability to manage diabetes was rated highest overall (ps motivation (p motivation only among those who chose better-off targets (p = 0.01). Patients' reasons for a particular comparison are associated with short-term changes in affect and self-care motivation, and warrant greater empirical and clinical attention.

  2. Experience of social role strain in Korean women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Wenzel, Jennifer A

    2013-06-01

    To expand our understanding of the experience of social role strain in the context of diabetes care among middle-aged married Korean women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes remains an international concern. There are special challenges experienced by middle-aged married women who may not prioritize self-care and disease management. These challenges may be heightened in certain cultures due to traditional female and family roles along with other social norms and values. Descriptive qualitative study. This qualitative descriptive study involves in-depth interviews conducted between January-February 2007 with ten middle-aged married Korean women purposively selected to represent both higher and lower levels of role strain as measured by the measure of role gratification and strain instrument from the companion study, which was conducted simultaneously. Korean women in this study reported 'resentment regarding previous role strain'. This psychosocial burden was heightened by a noted pattern of 'sacrificing self in favour of others', which complicated both their personal lives and their ability to take care of themselves physically. Added to this were feelings of guilt related to their diabetes and the requirements of day-to-day management expressed as, 'my diabetes makes me a liability'. The women's role-strain experience related to their diabetes was intertwined with their past and current daily life. Further explication and interventions to address and manage role strain could potentially improve women's disease management and overall quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Establishment of China’s New Type Rural Social Insurance Pension: A Process Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stepan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the processes and outcomes of the public policy reforms from 2002 to 2014, targeting income security among the elderly for a segment of the Chinese population that was increasingly marginalised throughout the 1990s: the rural population. The authors reconstruct the policy process from 2002 until 2014 that led to the establishment of the New Type Rural Social Insurance Pension and assess its impact on providing adequate and sustainable old-age income. One particular focus is the study of the influence of international actors. Yet, as key to the success of the initiative, the authors identify the decisive support of the central level leadership, which facilitated the process by announcing a new development model and providing earmarked transfers from the central government. Despite the improvements in the income security of elderly rural Chinese, questions remain about the Chinese pension system’s long-term sustainability and the influence of the system’s fragmentation on social mobility and equality.

  4. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-...

  5. The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates the insti......The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...... the institutional prerequisites if competitive electoral politics are to lead to better governance outcomes and greater social stability. Examining why these preconditions are largely lacking in the Arab world, this contribution investigates what could be done to redress these shortcomings....

  6. Beware of Selfies: The Impact of Photo Type on Impression Formation Based on Social Networking Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Nicole C; Feurstein, Markus; Kluck, Jan P; Meier, Yannic; Rother, Marius; Winter, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Users of social networking sites such as Facebook frequently post self-portraits on their profiles. While research has begun to analyze the motivations for posting such pictures, less is known about how selfies are evaluated by recipients. Although producers of selfies typically aim to create a positive impression, selfies may also be regarded as narcissistic and therefore fail to achieve the intended goal. The aim of this study is to examine the potentially ambivalent reception of selfies compared to photos taken by others based on the Brunswik lens model Brunswik (1956). In a between-subjects online experiment ( N = 297), Facebook profile mockups were shown which differed with regard to picture type (selfie vs. photo taken by others), gender of the profile owner (female vs. male), and number of individuals within a picture (single person vs. group). Results revealed that selfies were indeed evaluated more negatively than photos taken by others. Persons in selfies were rated as less trustworthy, less socially attractive, less open to new experiences, more narcissistic and more extroverted than the same persons in photos taken by others. In addition, gender differences were observed in the perception of pictures. Male profile owners were rated as more narcissistic and less trustworthy than female profile owners, but there was no significant interaction effect of type of picture and gender. Moreover, a mediation analysis of presumed motives for posting selfies revealed that negative evaluations of selfie posting individuals were mainly driven by the perceived motivation of impression management. Findings suggest that selfies are likely to be evaluated less positively than producers of selfies might suppose.

  7. Dynamics and control of infections on social networks of population types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Williams

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW and their male clients (MCF, injecting drug users (IDU and men who have sex with men (MSM. To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Here we develop a technique, based on the routine sampling of infection in linked population groups (a social network of population types, which shows how an HIV/AIDS epidemic in Can Tho Province of Vietnam began in FSW, was propagated mainly by IDU, and ultimately generated most cases among the female partners of MCF (FPM. Calculation of the case reproduction numbers within and between groups, and for the whole network, provides insights into control that cannot be deduced simply from observations on the prevalence of infection. Specifically, the per capita rate of HIV transmission was highest from FSW to MCF, and most HIV infections occurred in FPM, but the number of infections in the whole network is best reduced by interrupting transmission to and from IDU. This analysis can be used to guide HIV/AIDS interventions using needle and syringe exchange, condom distribution and antiretroviral therapy. The method requires only routine data and could be applied to infections in other populations. Keywords: Case reproduction number, R0, Social networks, Viet Nam, Epidemic control, Type reproduction number

  8. Types of social capital and mental disorder in deprived urban areas: a multilevel study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bertotti

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which individual and ecological-level cognitive and structural social capital are associated with common mental disorder (CMD, the role played by physical characteristics of the neighbourhood in moderating this association, and the longitudinal change of the association between ecological level cognitive and structural social capital and CMD.Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. We used a contextual measure of the physical characteristics of each neighbourhood to examine how the neighbourhood moderates the association between types of social capital and mental disorder. We analysed the association between ecological-level measures of social capital and CMD longitudinally.4,214 adults aged 16-97 (44.4% men were randomly selected from 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12.Structural rather than cognitive social capital was significantly associated with CMD after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, the two measures of structural social capital used, social networks and civic participation, were negatively and positively associated with CMD respectively. 'Social networks' was negatively associated with CMD at both the individual and ecological levels. This result was maintained when contextual aspects of the physical environment (neighbourhood incivilities were introduced into the model, suggesting that 'social networks' was independent from characteristics of the physical environment. When ecological-level longitudinal analysis was conducted, 'social networks' was not statistically significant after controlling for individual-level social capital at follow up.If we conceptually distinguish between cognitive and structural components as the quality and quantity of social capital respectively, the conclusion of this study is that the quantity rather than quality of social capital is important in relation to CMD at both the

  9. How Do Principals Practise Leadership for Social Justice in Diverse School Settings? A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Elson; Cheng, Annie Yan Ni

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Empirical research on leadership for social justice is in progress in many parts of the world. The purpose of this paper is to explore principals' school-leadership journeys in response to social-justice issues caused by specific contextual changes at times of uncertainty. It seeks to answer the following key questions: What…

  10. Instructor Experiences with a Social Networking Site in a Higher Education Setting: Expectations, Frustrations, Appropriation, and Compartmentalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce; French, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have suggested that the use of social networking sites in formal education may be a worthwhile endeavor. Toward this goal, emerging learning platforms have included social networking features. Nevertheless, empirical literature examining user experiences, and more specifically instructor experiences, with these tools…

  11. Social Media Use for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Educational Settings: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toofaninejad, Ehsan; Zaraii Zavaraki, Esmaeil; Dawson, Shane; Poquet, Oleksandra; Sharifi Daramadi, Parviz

    2017-01-01

    The pedagogical benefits of the social media may be most pronounced when they impact groups of learners who are at a disadvantage in conventional face-to-face contexts. Among such disadvantaged groups are the deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students who may experience new opportunities with the help of the social media. This paper stems from the…

  12. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a health, nutriotial and social problem for children up to 18 years of age.

    OpenAIRE

    FRIDRICHOVSKÁ, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Work specifies the problems of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 - of site for health, in nutrition and social problems. The theoretical part is characterized by diabetes mellitus type 1, its causes, symptoms, treatment with diet and takes into account the specific problems arising from this condition for age. The practical part comprises the results of the questionnaire survey, which focuses on the problems of diabetes mellitus type 1 in childhood, and the level of knowledge about diabe...

  13. Daily negative affect and smoking after a self-set quit attempt: The role of dyadic invisible social support in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Janina; Stadler, Gertraud; Ochsner, Sibylle; Rackow, Pamela; Knoll, Nina; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2015-11-01

    Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Social support and personal models of diabetes in relation to self-care and well-being in adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.

    1998-01-01

    , anxiety, perceived social support and personal models of diabetes. Perceived impact of diabetes, but not perceived seriousness, and peer support were significant predictors of depression. Family support was a significant predictor of all self-management measures. However, for dietary self......This study set out to examine whether peer support and illness representation mediates the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Seventy-four participants (12-18-years-old) with type I diabetes mellitus completed questionnaires assessing their self-management, depression...

  15. Distinguishing types of social withdrawal in children: Internalizing and externalizing outcomes of conflicted shyness versus social disinterest across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-04-01

    Little research has examined the effect of subtypes of social withdrawal on the development of psychopathology across childhood. Parents of 493 children (220 females) completed a measure of their child's conflicted shyness and social disinterest as well as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) when their child was age 3, and again at age 6. When children were age 9, parents completed the CBCL. From 3 to 6, conflicted shyness predicted increases in anxiety symptoms in boys and girls, and predicted depressive symptoms in boys. From 6 to 9, social disinterest predicted increases in anxiety symptoms in girls and boys, and predicted increases in depressive symptoms in boys. In addition, in boys, conflicted shyness at age 6 predicted increases in externalizing symptoms at age 9. Conflicted shyness appears to be particularly problematic in early to middle childhood, while social disinterest appears to be more maladaptive in later childhood, with some differences by gender.

  16. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild deficit in

  17. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype.This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability.Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the observed behavioral alterations.In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild

  18. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C.; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A.; Van der Harst, Johanneke E.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. Objective This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Methods Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. Results In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats

  19. Social factors in informal cancer caregivers: The interrelationships among social stressors, relationship quality, and family functioning in the CanCORS data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H

    2016-01-15

    Social and family factors can influence the health outcomes and quality of life of informal caregivers. Little is known about the distribution and correlates of such factors for caregivers of cancer patients. This study sought to fill this gap with data from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance consortium. Lung and colorectal cancer patients nominated an informal caregiver to participate in a caregiving survey. Caregivers reported their sociodemographic and caregiving characteristics, social stress, relationship quality with the patient, and family functioning. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations were used to assess the distribution of caregivers' social factors. Multivariable linear regressions assessed the independent correlates of each social factor. Most caregivers reported low to moderate levels of social stress and good relationship quality and family functioning. In multivariable analyses, older age was associated with less social stress and better family functioning but worse relationship quality, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) up to 0.40 (P quality but worse family functioning (effect sizes ≤ 0.16, P quality. Finally, social factors were important independent correlates of one another. The results indicate the importance of personal and caregiving-related characteristics and the broader family context to social factors. Future work is needed to better understand these pathways and assess whether interventions targeting social factors can improve health or quality-of-life outcomes for informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:278-286. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Physical activity, social network type, and depressive symptoms in late life: an analysis of data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    To clarify whether physical activity among older Americans is associated with depressive symptoms, beyond the effects of social network type, physical health, and sociodemographic characteristics. The analysis used data from a sub-sample, aged 65–85, from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (N=1349). Hierarchical regressions examined the respective effects of selected network types and extent of engagement in physical activity on depressive symptoms, controlling for physical health and sociodemographic background. The findings showed that physical activity was correlated inversely with late life depressive symptoms. However, when interaction terms for the selected social network types and the extent of physical activity were also considered, the main effect of social network on depressive symptoms increased, while that of physical activity was eliminated. The results show that older American adults embedded in family network types are at risk of limited physical activity. However, interventions aimed to increase their engagement in physical activity might help to reduce depressive symptoms within this group.

  1. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Predictors of "Liking" Three Types of Health and Fitness-Related Content on Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Lim, Megan S C

    2015-08-21

    Adolescence and young adulthood are key periods for developing norms related to health behaviors and body image, and social media can influence these norms. Social media is saturated with content related to dieting, fitness, and health. Health and fitness-related social media content has received significant media attention for often containing objectifying and inaccurate health messages. Limited research has identified problematic features of such content, including stigmatizing language around weight, portraying guilt-related messages regarding food, and praising thinness. However, no research has identified who is "liking" or "following" (ie, consuming) such content. This exploratory study aimed to identify demographics, mental health, and substance use-related behaviors that predicted consuming 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content-weight loss/fitness motivation pages (ie, "fitspiration"), detox/cleanse pages, and diet/fitness plan pages-among young social media users. Participants (N=1001; age: median 21.06, IQR 17.64-24.64; female: 723/1001, 72.23%) completed a cross-sectional 112-question online survey aimed at social media users aged between 15-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine which characteristics predicted consuming the 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content. A total of 378 (37.76%) participants reported consuming at least 1 of the 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content: 308 (30.77%) fitspiration pages, 145 (14.49%) detox pages, and 235 (23.48%) diet/fitness plan pages. Of the health and fitness-related social media content consumers, 85.7% (324/378) identified as female and 44.8% (324/723) of all female participants consumed at least 1 type of health and fitness-related social media content. Predictors of consuming at least one type of health and fitness-related social media content in univariable analysis included female gender (OR 3.5, 95% CI

  3. Type D personality, illness perception, social support and quality of life in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying

    2017-02-01

    The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p social support (r = -0.24, p illness perceptions, social support and QoL in CAPD patients. The worse illness perceptions and lower social support level therefore represent possible mechanisms to explain the link between Type D and poor QoL in CAPD patients.

  4. Social media in the health-care setting: benefits but also a minefield of compliance and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Richard E; McNeese, Libra G; Feld, Lauren D; Feld, Andrew D

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, the rising use of social media has revolutionized health care as well as other businesses. It allows large groups of people to create and share information, ideas, and experiences through online communications, and develop social and professional contacts easily and inexpensively. Our Gastroenterology organizations, among others, have embraced this technology. Although the health-care benefits may be many, social media must be viewed through a legal lens, recognizing the accompanying burdens of compliance, ethical, and litigation issues. Theories of liability and risk continue to evolve as does the technology. Social media usage within the medical community is fraught with potential legal issues, requiring remedial responses to meet patients' needs and comply with current laws, while not exposing physicians to medical malpractice and other tort risks.

  5. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we coll...

  6. Socially Responsible Public Procurement and Set-Asides: a Comparative Analysis of the US, Canada and the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Cravero

    2017-01-01

    Public procurement can be used to achieve goals other than purely economic ones. Such goals are often referred to as “social linkages”. A preference for social considerations has been gaining ground against the dominant best value for money (BVM) paradigm over the past few decades. In the past, public procurement policies followed the principle of non-discrimination and free competition beyond national boundaries. Today considerations other than (purely economic) BVM have become relevant in p...

  7. Transition Landscapes and Social Networks: Examining On-Gound Community Resilience and its Implications for Policy Settings in Multiscalar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Beilin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Community based natural resource management groups contribute to landscape scale ecological change through their aggregation of local ecological knowledge. However, the social networks at the heart of such groups remain invisible to decision makers as evidenced in funding cuts and strategic policy documents. Our research is a pilot study of the social networks in two peri-urban landscapes in Victoria, Australia. We describe the social network analysis undertaken with regard to natural resource management issues. The findings are assessed against the qualities of resilience: diversity, modularity, connectivity, and feedback loops. A social network analysis tool is discussed with participants to assess its usefulness on-ground and with agency staff involved in the project. We concluded that the sociograms are useful to the groups, however, the management of the tool itself is complex and calls for agency personnel to facilitate the process. Overall, the project did make visible the networks that contribute to a multiscalar social and ecological resilience in these landscapes, and in this regard, their use is of benefit to policy makers concerned with supporting networks that build social resilience.

  8. Types of prayer and depressive symptoms among cancer patients: the mediating role of rumination and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, John E; Rex Smith, Amy; Norris, Rebecca L; Canenguez, Katia M; Tracey, Elizabeth F; Decristofaro, Susan B

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association between different types of prayer and depressive symptoms--with rumination and social support as potential mediators--in a sample of predominantly White, Christian, and female ambulatory cancer patients. In a cross-sectional design, 179 adult cancer outpatients completed measures of prayer, rumination, social support, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Type and stage of cancer were collected from electronic medical charts. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with adoration prayer (r = -.15), reception prayer (r = -.17), thanksgiving prayer (r = -.29), and prayer for the well-being of others (r = -.26). In the path analysis, rumination fully mediated the link between thanksgiving prayer and depressive symptoms (β for indirect effect = -.05), whereas social support partially mediated the link between prayer for others and depressive symptoms (β for indirect effect = -.05). These findings suggest that unique mechanisms may link different prayer types to lower depressive symptoms among cancer patients.

  9. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for β-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other.

  10. Social orientation and diabetes-related distress in Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ikeda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence in cultural and social psychology suggests Eastern cultures' emphasis on harmony and connection with others and Western cultures' emphasis on self-direction and autonomy. In Eastern society, relational harmony is closely linked to people's well-being. The impact of this cultural and social orientation on diabetes-related distress was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes were surveyed by well-established questionnaire in Japan and in the United States, respectively. The association of personal values for interdependence, perceived emotional support, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID were analyzed. RESULTS: A positive correlation between interdependence and PAID (r = 0.18; P = 0.025 and a negative correlation between perceived emotional support and PAID (r = - 0.24; P = 0.004 were observed after adjustments for other factors in Japanese data (n = 149, but not in American data (r = 0.00; P = 0.990, r = 0.02; P = 0.917, respectively, n = 50. In Japanese data, the three-factor structure of PAID (negative feelings about total life with diabetes, about living conditions with diabetes, and about treatment of diabetes was identified, and interdependence showed significant positive correlations with the first and second factors and perceived emotional support showed significant negative correlations with all three factors of PAID. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that personal values for interdependence may be linked to the level of diabetes-related distress and that the distress may be relieved by perception of emotional support, especially in an interdependent cultural context.

  11. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervin, K. (Kristina); Page, C.M. (Christian Magnus); H.C.D. Aass (Hans Christian Dalsbotten); M.A.E. Jansen (Michelle); Fjeldstad, H.E. (Heidi Elisabeth); B.K. Andreassen (Bettina Kulle); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Nordeng, H. (Hedvig); Knudsen, G.P. (Gunn Peggy); P. Magnus (Per); W. Nystad (Wenche); Staff, A.C. (Anne Cathrine); J.F. Felix (Janine); R. Lyle (Robert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEpigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused

  12. Set-up and calibration of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassu, T.; Seeger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall simulation is one of the most prevalent methods used in soil erosion studies on agricultural land. In-situ simulators have been used to relate soil surface characteristics and management to runoff generation, infiltration and erosion, eg. the influence of different cultivation systems, and to parameterise erosion models. Laboratory rainfall simulators have been used to determine the impact of the soil surface characteristics such as micro-topography, surface roughness, and soil chemistry on infiltration and erosion rates, and to elucidate the processes involved. The purpose of the following study is to demonstrate the set-up and the calibration of a large indoor, nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) for soil erosion, surface runoff and rill development studies. This RS is part of the Kraijenhoff van de Leur Laboratory for Water and Sediment Dynamics in Wageningen University. The rainfall simulator consists from a 6 m long and 2,5 m wide plot, with metal lateral frame and one open side. Infiltration can be collected in different segments. The plot can be inclined up to 15.5° slope. From 3,85 m height above the plot 2 Lechler nozzles 460.788 are sprinkling the water onto the surface with constant intensity. A Zehnder HMP 450 pump provides the constant water supply. An automatic pressure switch on the pump keeps the pressure constant during the experiments. The flow rate is controlled for each nozzle by independent valves. Additionally, solenoid valves are mounted at each nozzle to interrupt water flow. The flow is monitored for each nozzle with flow meters and can be recorded within the computer network. For calibration of the RS we measured the rainfall distribution with 60 gauges equally distributed over the plot during 15 minutes for each nozzle independently and for a combination of 2 identical nozzles. The rainfall energy was recorded on the same grid by measuring drop size distribution and fall velocity with a laser disdrometer. We applied 2 different

  13. Relationship between perceived social support and self-care behavior in type 2 diabetics: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Siamak; Parham, Mahmoud; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective factors on the diabetic self-care. This study aimed to assess social support and its relationship to self-care in type 2 diabetic patients in Qom, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 325 diabetics attending the Diabetes Mellitus Association. Patients who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected using random sampling method. Data were collected by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, with hemoglobin A 1 C test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t -test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and linear regression test, using 0.05 as the critical significance level, provided by SPSS software. The mean and standard deviation of self-care and social support scores were 4.31 ± 2.7 and 50.32 ± 11.09, respectively. The mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1 C) of patients was 7.54. There was a significant difference between mean score of self-care behaviors and social support according to gender and marital status ( P social support significantly correlated ( r = 0.489, P > 0.001) and also predictive power of social support was 0.28. Self-care was significantly better in diabetics with HbA 1 C ≤7%. Patients who had higher HbA 1 C felt less, but not significant, social support. This study indicated the relationship between social support and self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetic patients. Interventions that focus on improving the social support and self-care of diabetic control may be more effective in improving glycemic control.

  14. Replication of the "Social Rituals and Mental Health: A Novel Approach to Early Intervention in Mental Illness" Project in an Iranian Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is a replication of a study designed by the University of Western Australia (UWA. The hypothesis examined is that the deteriorating mental functioning which occurs during early stages of mental illness are recognizable in the form of altered sensitivity to expected rituals and an altered ability to perform the rituals appropriately. The present study aimed to evaluate the cultural applicability and feasibility of the Social Rituals Interview Schedule (SRIS within the Iranian culture, and to assemble a culture-specific repertoire of social rituals in Iran. In addition, it aimed to examine the extent to which disturbances in everyday expected social rituals can be used for the early identification of individuals, families, and communities who have, or are at risk of soon developing, poor mental health. Methods: The SRIS domains of social rituals were discussed in an expert focus group discussion and during key informant interviews with mental health patients and their care-givers. Results: The concept of social rituals was acknowledged as being applicable and relevant in detecting early alterations in one's mental health condition. All domains of the SRIS were also confirmed as culturally applicable in the Iranian setting. A new domain named “Religious Rituals" was added to the domains already identified by UWA researchers as a significant and culturally sensitive domain of the social rituals in Iran. A culturally modified Farsi version of the SRIS -applicable and valid for use within the Iranian culture- was produced. Conclusion: Both the social rituals concept and the produced Farsi version of its Interview schedule were regarded as culturally applicable to provide a foundation for planning prospective tools for early recognition of mental health deterioration in Iranian settings.

  15. Global digital data sets of soil type, soil texture, surface slope and other properties: Documentation of archived data tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, B.; Rosenzweig, C.; Rind, D.

    1987-01-01

    The file structure and coding of four soils data sets derived from the Zobler (1986) world soil file is described. The data were digitized on a one-degree square grid. They are suitable for large-area studies such as climate research with general circulation models, as well as in forestry, agriculture, soils, and hydrology. The first file is a data set of codes for soil unit, land-ice, or water, for all the one-degree square cells on Earth. The second file is a data set of codes for texture, land-ice, or water, for the same soil units. The third file is a data set of codes for slope, land-ice, or water for the same units. The fourth file is the SOILWRLD data set, containing information on soil properties of land cells of both Matthews' and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) sources. The fourth file reconciles land-classification differences between the two and has missing data filled in.

  16. Needs and preferences for nutrition education of type 2 diabetic adults in a resource-limited setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W. Muchiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes self-management education is crucial in diabetes care. Education that is tailored to the needs of the patient is considered the most effective in improving health outcomes. Diet, a critical element of diabetes treatment, is reported as the most difficult to adhere to by both patients and health professionals. Tailored nutrition education (NE could benefit diabetic individuals with low socio-economic status, who are amongst those noted to have poor health outcomes. This qualitative interpretive phenomenological study aimed to explore and describe the NE needs of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to guide development of a tailored NE programme for resource-poor settings. Participants were 31 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients (convenience sample and 10 health professionals. Focus group discussions using semi-structured questions were held with the diabetics, and open-ended self-administered questionnaires were used with the health professionals. Data analysis was done using Krueger’s framework approach. Disease-related knowledge deficits and inappropriate self-reported dietary practices, including intake of unbalanced meals, problems with food portion control and unsatisfactory intake of fruits and vegetables, were observed. Recommendations for the NE programme included topics related to the disease and others related to diet. Group education at the clinic, a competent educator and comprehensive education were indicated by the patients. Participation of family and provision of pamphlets were aspects recommended by patients and health professionals. Barriers that could impact the NE included financial constraints, food insecurity, conflict in family meal arrangements and access to appropriate foods. Support from family and health professionals and empowerment through education were identified as facilitators to following dietary recommendations by both groups of participants. Knowledge deficits, inappropriate dietary

  17. Needs and preferences for nutrition education of type 2 diabetic adults in a resource-limited setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W. Muchiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes self-management education is crucial in diabetes care. Education that is tailored to the needs of the patient is considered the most effective in improving health outcomes. Diet, a critical element of diabetes treatment, is reported as the most difficult to adhere to by both patients and health professionals. Tailored nutrition education (NE could benefit diabetic individuals with low socio-economic status, who are amongst those noted to have poor health outcomes. This qualitative interpretive phenomenological study aimed to explore and describe the NE needs of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to guide development of a tailored NE programme for resource-poor settings. Participants were 31 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients (convenience sample and 10 health professionals. Focus group discussions using semi-structured questions were held with the diabetics, and open-ended self-administered questionnaires were used with the health professionals. Data analysis was done using Krueger’s framework approach. Disease-related knowledge deficits and inappropriate self-reported dietary practices, including intake of unbalanced meals, problems with food portion control and unsatisfactory intake of fruits and vegetables, were observed. Recommendations for the NE programme included topics related to the disease and others related to diet. Group education at the clinic, a competent educator and comprehensive education were indicated by the patients. Participation of family and provision of pamphlets were aspects recommended by patients and health professionals. Barriers that could impact the NE included financial constraints, food insecurity, conflict in family meal arrangements and access to appropriate foods. Support from family and health professionals and empowerment through education were identified as facilitators to following dietary recommendations by both groups of participants. Knowledge deficits, inappropriate dietary

  18. The Role of Perceived Social Norms in Rural Sanitation: An Explorative Study from Infrastructure-Restricted Settings of South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Josef; Kolomazníková, Jana; Humňalová, Helena

    2017-07-17

    The perception of social sanitation norms (PSSNs) around unacceptability of open defecation has been a key aspect of recent sanitation interventions. However, underlying mechanisms through which "reconstructed" PSSNs affect sanitation outcomes have been a black box. This explorative cross-sectional study examines direct and indirect links between PSSNs and sanitation safety using data from structured interviews and observations in 368 households in rural South Ethiopia. In addition to a positive association between PSSNs and sanitation safety, we propose and examine the following two mechanisms: First, we confirm a potentially adverse feedback of PSSNs on future sanitation safety by enhancing the emotional satisfaction with current sanitation practice (satisfaction independent of the functionality of sanitation facilities). Second, inspired by the social amplification/attenuation of risk framework, we demonstrate that PSSNs work as a "social filter" that can amplify or attenuate the effects of other variables targeted in sanitation interventions such as perceived health-related and non-health risks and benefits associated with open defecation and private latrine ownership, respectively, and factual hygiene and sanitation knowledge. These findings imply that PSSNs are not only important per se, but they are also important instrumentally because sanitation outcomes depend upon the capacity of social influences to shape the perception of sanitation risks and benefits and sanitation-related awareness in desirable ways. The mechanisms outlined in this paper as well as the sustainability of sanitation outcomes depend on whether and how social sanitation norms are internalized.

  19. An Experimental Study of Embodied Interaction and Human Perception of Social Presence for Interactive Robots in Public Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith; Vlachos, Evgenios

    2018-01-01

    The human perception of cognitive robots as social depends on many factors, including those that do not necessarily pertain to a robot’s cognitive functioning. Experience Design offers a useful framework for evaluating when participants interact with robots as products or tools and when they regard...... them as social actors. This study describes a between-participants experiment conducted at a science museum, where visitors were invited to play a game of noughts and crosses with a Baxter robot. The goal is to foster meaningful interactions that promote engagement between the human and robot...... in a museum context. Using an Experience Design framework, we tested the robot in three different conditions to better understand which factors contribute to the perception of robots as social. The experiment also outlines best practices for conducting human-robot interaction research in museum exhibitions...

  20. Using Peer-Mediated LEGO® Play Intervention to Improve Social Interactions for Chinese Children with Autism in an Inclusive Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Zheng, Qunshan; Lee, Gabrielle T

    2018-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer-mediated LEGO® play intervention on improving social skills for children with ASD in an inclusive preschool in China. Three boys with ASD and 13 typically developing children participated in this study. A multiple-probe across participants design was used. The intervention consisted of LEGO® construction activities incorporated with peer-mediated strategies for one child with ASD and two typically developing peers. The intervention sessions were conducted two sessions per week with a total of 28-31 sessions for each participant. Results indicated that all three children with ASD increased their social initiations and responses following the completion of the intervention. Social validity was also obtained.

  1. Improving risk factor management for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of healthcare interventions in primary care and community settings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Mark E

    2017-08-04

    Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major international health problem. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, specifically targeting patients with poorly controlled T2DM, which seek to improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in primary care settings.

  2. Behaviour in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: cognition, executive function, attention, emotion, and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Annukka; Howie, Emma; Trump, Dorothy; Huson, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to pull together the findings from research into behavioural systems and attention in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify areas that need further study. Relevant papers were identified through searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE) and manual searches through reference lists. In total, 5746 articles were identified and 57 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesized using the narrative approach, as the studies varied considerably in terms of participants and measures. The results of the review showed that intelligence, academic skills, visuospatial skills, social competence, and attention are impaired in children with NF1. Evidence of deficits in memory, motor functioning, language, and executive functions was less clear. Research has made marked progress in outlining the behavioural phenotype of NF1. However, although the general areas of impairment are becoming better known, the exact nature of the impairment is still not understood in many areas of behaviour. Care needs to be taken with the way in which behavioural constructs are defined and measured, and the variability of problems in NF1 is a particular challenge. Nevertheless, research is steadily moving towards comprehensive understanding of behaviour in children with NF1. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  3. The Impact of Social Referencing on Social Acceptance of Children with Disabilities and Migrant Background: An Experimental Study in Primary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Gerullis, Anita; Gebhardt, Markus; Schwab, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This computer-based study evaluates whether teacher feedback can have an effect on the acceptance of children with and without disabilities in inclusive, special and regular schools. The social acceptance of four children shown in photo vignettes (child with Down Syndrome, child in a wheelchair, child with migrant background and child with no…

  4. Gay-Straight Alliances Vary on Dimensions of Youth Socializing and Advocacy: Factors Accounting for Individual and Setting-Level Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Marx, Robert A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2015-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8% LGBQ; ...

  5. Use of a brief standardized screening instrument in a primary care setting to enhance detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes toward Using Social Networking Sites in Educational Settings with Underperforming Latino Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith E.; Curwen, Margie Sauceda; Howard, Nicol R.; Colón-Muñiz, Anaida

    2015-01-01

    The researchers examined the online social networking attitudes of underperforming Latino high school students in an alternative education program that uses technology as the prime venue for learning. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was used to cross-check multiple sources of data explaining students' levels of comfort with utilizing…

  7. With Us or Against Us: Simulated Social Touch by Virtual Agents in a Cooperative or Competitive Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kolkmeier, Jan; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bickmore, Timothy; Marsella, Stacy; Sidner, Candance

    In this paper we examine how simulated social touch by a virtual agent in a cooperative or competitive augmented reality game influences the perceived trustworthiness, warmth and politeness of the agent. Before and after the game, participants interact with two agents whereby one agent touches the

  8. The Use of an Educational Social Networking Site for English Language Learning beyond the Classroom in a Japanese University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study describes an attempt of using an educational social networking platform, which is called Edmodo, for English language learning outside classrooms at tertiary level. Considering the notion of communicative competence, the instructor incorporated Edmodo into his English classes as a project which is a formal assignment. In the project,…

  9. A Study of Social Cognitive Theory: The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities and Collective Teacher Efficacy in International School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    In "Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control" (1997), Albert Bandura writes, "Teachers operate collectively within an interactive social system rather than as isolates" (p. 243). Bandura's attention to the existence of the communal systems that exist in schools is an appreciation shared by many educational reformers, especially those who advocate…

  10. Resistance in Action Learning: Struggling with Self-Efficacy and the Social Self--and What about the Set Advisor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This account of practice explores the concept of resistance in action learning. Resistance is conceptualized as an attempt of self-protection that is manifested in action learners' struggles with their sense of self-efficacy and their social Self. These struggles are an inherent part of the action learning process and may elicit defensive…

  11. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling--A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    "Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…

  12. Social implications of leprosy in the Netherlands - stigma among ex-leprosy patients in a non-endemic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, R.; van Brakel, W.H.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, leprosy is a rare and non-endemic disease, still occurring as an 'import disease'. Moreover a considerable group of people affected by leprosy, originating mainly from the former Dutch colonies, suffer from neuropathic complications. This study investigates the social

  13. Social implications of leprosy in the Netherlands--stigma among ex-leprosy patients in a non-endemic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Brakel, W.H. Van; Vries, H.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, leprosy is a rare and non-endemic disease, still occurring as an 'import disease'. Moreover a considerable group of people affected by leprosy, originating mainly from the former Dutch colonies, suffer from neuropathic complications. This study investigates the social

  14. Social implications of leprosy in the Netherlands--stigma among ex-leprosy patients in a non-endemic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Roos; van Brakel, Wim H.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, leprosy is a rare and non-endemic disease, still occurring as an 'import disease'. Moreover a considerable group of people affected by leprosy, originating mainly from the former Dutch colonies, suffer from neuropathic complications. This study investigates the social

  15. Measuring social attention and motivation in autism spectrum disorder using eye-tracking: Stimulus type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Parish-Morris, Julia; McVey, Alana; Rump, Keiran M; Sasson, Noah J; Herrington, John D; Schultz, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments that have been related to deficits in social attention, including diminished gaze to faces. Eye-tracking studies are commonly used to examine social attention and social motivation in ASD, but they vary in sensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that the ecological nature of the social stimuli would affect participants' social attention, with gaze behavior during more naturalistic scenes being most predictive of ASD vs. typical development. Eighty-one children with and without ASD participated in three eye-tracking tasks that differed in the ecological relevance of the social stimuli. In the "Static Visual Exploration" task, static images of objects and people were presented; in the "Dynamic Visual Exploration" task, video clips of individual faces and objects were presented side-by-side; in the "Interactive Visual Exploration" task, video clips of children playing with objects in a naturalistic context were presented. Our analyses uncovered a three-way interaction between Task, Social vs. Object Stimuli, and Diagnosis. This interaction was driven by group differences on one task only-the Interactive task. Bayesian analyses confirmed that the other two tasks were insensitive to group membership. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that, unlike the other two tasks, the Interactive task had significant classification power. The ecological relevance of social stimuli is an important factor to consider for eye-tracking studies aiming to measure social attention and motivation in ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The relation of emotion recognition and social behavioral problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Cecilia; Boon, Maartje; Veenstra, Wencke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show cognitive and behavioral problems (Martin et al., 2011). Huijbregts et al. (2010) investigated cognitive problems in children with NF1 focusing on social information processing. They found that bottom-up as well as top-down processes

  17. Invading Public Spaces: Exploring the Effects of Media Type and Social Prompts on Learning Outcomes in an Interactive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Edward; Erickson, Sarah; Borrett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    A 2 × 2, fully-crossed, quasi-experimental design was employed to determine if type of media (rich media vs. lean media) and social prompting (presence of prompts vs. absence of prompts) would differentially impact learning outcomes for patrons interacting with an aquatic invasive species exhibit. Results indicated that the lean-media condition…

  18. Validity of the Acti4 method for detection of physical activity types in free-living settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemland, Ingunn; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Christiansen, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    and hip performed one semi-standardised and two non-standardised sessions (outside and inside aircraft) with different levels of movement complexity during working hours. The sensitivity for identifying different activity types was 75.4-99.4% for the semi-standardised session, 54.6-98.5% outside...

  19. Robust Approximation to Adaptive Control by Use of Representative Parameter Sets with Particular Reference to Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to adaptive optimal control in the presence of model parameter calculation difficulties. This has wide application in a variety of biological and biomedical research and clinical problems. To illustrate the techniques, the approach is applied to the development and implementation of a practical adaptive insulin infusion algorithm for use with patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). METHODS: Fifty-five VREfm isolates...

  1. The Social Ecological Model and Physical Activity Interventions for Hispanic Women With Type 2 Diabetes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Patricia Davern

    2017-05-01

    Hispanic women are less physically active and have higher rates of type 2 diabetes (DM2) when compared with other population groups. This review uses the social ecological model as a framework to identify the individual and social environmental factors associated with successful physical activity (PA) interventions for Hispanic women with DM2. Research questions include (a) Which social ecological levels have been applied to PA interventions? (b) Which individual and social environmental intervention strategies are associated with successful PA outcomes? Database searches using CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus for the years 2000 to 2015 identified 10 studies; with 6 using quasi-experimental study designs and 4 using randomized controlled designs. Inclusion criteria were Hispanic/Latina women with DM2, ≥70% women, PA interventions, measures of PA, and quantitative designs. Future research should focus on a combination of intervention levels, and DM2 programs should place a greater emphasis on PA intervention strategies.

  2. Variations in Social Network Type Membership Among Older African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-07-01

    This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership. Four network typologies were identified: optimal (high social integration, low negative interaction), family-centered (high social integration within primarily the extended family network, low negative interaction), strained (low social integration, high negative interaction), and ambivalent (high social integration and high negative interaction). Findings for race and age and race and education interactions indicated that the effects of education and age on typology membership varied by race. Overall, the findings demonstrate how race interacts with age and education to influence the probability of belonging to particular network types. A better understanding of the influence of race, education, and age on social network typologies will inform future research and theoretical developments in this area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The ToMenovela – A photograph-based stimulus set for the study of social cognition with high ecological validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike C. Herbort

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of i cognitive and ii affective ToM, iii emotional reactivity, and iv complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman’s basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and disgust, Ekman & Friesen, 1975. Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations. Two or more of eight main characters with distinct biographies and personalities are depicted on each scene picture.To obtain an initial evaluation of the stimulus set and to pave the way for future studies in clinical populations, normative data on each stimulus of the set was obtained from a sample of 61 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy participants (31 female, 30 male; mean age 26.74 +/- 5.84, including a visual analog scale rating of Ekman’s basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and disgust and free-text descriptions of the content. The ToMenovela is being developed to provide standardized material of social scenes that are available to researchers in the study of social cognition. It should facilitate experimental control while keeping ecological validity high.

  4. An Interdisciplinary Approach Between Medical Informatics and Social Sciences to Transdisciplinary Requirements Engineering for an Integrated Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Jan; Böckmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Requirements engineering of software products for elderly people faces some special challenges to ensure a maximum of user acceptance. Within the scope of a research project, a web-based platform and a mobile app are approached to enable people to live in their own home as long as possible. This paper is about a developed method of interdisciplinary requirements engineering by a team of social scientists in cooperation with computer scientists.

  5. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Results. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to “like” weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on “shisha fact” than “current affairs” statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers. Conclusions. Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth.

  6. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. The "ShishAware" campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to "like" weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on "shisha fact" than "current affairs" statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents) and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers). Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth.

  7. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  8. Rule learning in autism: the role of reward type and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E J H; Webb, S J; Estes, A; Dawson, G

    2013-01-01

    Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concrete reinforcement, suggesting an underlying difficulty in forming conceptual connections. Learning abstract rules about social stimuli remained challenging through late childhood, indicating the importance of testing executive functions in both social and non-social contexts.

  9. Social and psychological climate of educational institution as a measure of consistency of leadership style and type of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kotlyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe process and results of a study conducted on the basis of state educational institutions of Moscow (a secondary school and a school with advanced study of foreign languages. We demonstrate the possibility of using the analysis of social and psychological environment as an indicator of leadership style consistency and type of organizational culture of educational institution. We revealed an educational trend that the real organizational culture with a predominance of one type of its elements, the desired profile will tend to the mixed type. We mapped out a plan for further research on the topic.

  10. Beta-and gamma-turns in proteins revisited: a new set of amino acid turn-type dependent positional preferences and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, K; Rajkumar, S

    2000-06-01

    The number of beta-turns in a representative set of 426 protein three-dimensional crystal structures selected from the recent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of gamma-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has increased over seven times since the previous analysis. Beta-turns (7153) and gamma-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and potentials. Compared with previous results, the preference for proline, methionine and tryptophan has increased and the preference for glutamine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for beta-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other interactions involving the turns. Where main-chain hydrogen bonds of the type NH(i + 3) --> CO(i) were not observed for some beta-turns, other main-chain hydrogen bonds or solvent interactions were observed that possibly stabilize such beta-turns. A number of unexpected isolated beta-turns with proline at i + 2 position were also observed. The NH(i + 2) --> CO(i) hydrogen bond was observed for almost all gamma-turns. Nearly 20% classic gamma-turns and 43% inverse gamma-turns are isolated turns.

  11. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Dynamics and control of infections on social networks of population types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian G; Dye, Christopher

    2017-10-26

    Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Here we develop a technique, based on the routine sampling of infection in linked population groups (a social network of population types), which shows how an HIV/AIDS epidemic in Can Tho Province of Vietnam began in FSW, was propagated mainly by IDU, and ultimately generated most cases among the female partners of MCF (FPM). Calculation of the case reproduction numbers within and between groups, and for the whole network, provides insights into control that cannot be deduced simply from observations on the prevalence of infection. Specifically, the per capita rate of HIV transmission was highest from FSW to MCF, and most HIV infections occurred in FPM, but the number of infections in the whole network is best reduced by interrupting transmission to and from IDU. This analysis can be used to guide HIV/AIDS interventions using needle and syringe exchange, condom distribution and antiretroviral therapy. The method requires only routine data and could be applied to infections in other populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  14. A cultural setting where the other-race effect on face recognition has no social-motivational component and derives entirely from lifetime perceptual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Reynolds, Katherine J; Irons, Jessica L; McKone, Elinor

    2015-11-01

    Competing approaches to the other-race effect (ORE) see its primary cause as either a lack of motivation to individuate social outgroup members, or a lack of perceptual experience with other-race faces. Here, we argue that the evidence supporting the social-motivational approach derives from a particular cultural setting: a high socio-economic status group (typically US Whites) looking at the faces of a lower status group (US Blacks) with whom observers typically have at least moderate perceptual experience. In contrast, we test motivation-to-individuate instructions across five studies covering an extremely wide range of perceptual experience, in a cultural setting of more equal socio-economic status, namely Asian and Caucasian participants (N = 480) tested on Asian and Caucasian faces. We find no social-motivational component at all to the ORE, specifically: no reduction in the ORE with motivation instructions, including for novel images of the faces, and at all experience levels; no increase in correlation between own- and other-race face recognition, implying no increase in shared processes; and greater (not the predicted less) effort applied to distinguishing other-race faces than own-race faces under normal ("no instructions") conditions. Instead, the ORE was predicted by level of contact with the other-race. Our results reject both pure social-motivational theories and also the recent Categorization-Individuation model of Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, and Sacco (2010). We propose a new dual-route approach to the ORE, in which there are two causes of the ORE-lack of motivation, and lack of experience--that contribute differently across varying world locations and cultural settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: a need for diabetes-specific social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensen LE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lene E Joensen,1 Tine Filges,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, 2Filges Analysis, Hellerup, Denmark Aim: To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer support were explored and tested. Workshops and group and individual interviews were performed. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze data, supplemented with theory-based interpretive analysis. Results: Adults with type 1 diabetes found peer support highly relevant to reduce a burdensome feeling of diabetes-specific loneliness. Peer support showed potential to create diabetes-specific social capital not only by creating reciprocal social support between peers but also, more importantly, by creating space for genuine trust and a feeling of communality. There was a widespread feeling of the pervasive impact of diabetes on daily life and thus the relevance of discussing all aspects of life. However, participants perceived peer support as particularly relevant in relation to big changes in life, for example, in family life, at work, or through treatment events such as getting an insulin pump. Conclusion: Peer support programs focusing on creating and establishing diabetes-specific social capital using participatory approaches seem highly relevant among adults with type 1 diabetes. Content, methods, and effects of peer support need further exploration in collaboration with adults with type 1 diabetes. Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, adult, psychosocial support systems, patient preferences, peer support, diabetes-specific social capital, diabetes-specific loneliness

  16. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, R.W.; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2016-01-01

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  17. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  18. Correlation between cognitive impairment and depressive mood of Thai elderly with type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Trongsakul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increases with age.1 More than 80% of people with diabetes live in low-and middle-income countries.2 Diabetes care is important in lowering blood glucose level and maintaining a good metabolic control in order to help prevent complication of diabetes. For successful diabetes self-management, individuals must commit to lifelong daily self-care tasks such as adhering to diet, exercise, medication regimens and checking blood glucose level. The coordination of these tasks often requires complex cognitive functioning.3

  19. Effects of Regular Classes in Outdoor Education Settings: A Systematic Review on Students' Learning, Social and Health Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Spengler, Sarah; Dettweiler, Ulrich; Mess, Filip

    2017-05-05

    Participants in Outdoor Education Programmes (OEPs) presumably benefit from these programmes in terms of their social and personal development, academic achievement and physical activity (PA). The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies about regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs, to categorise and evaluate reported outcomes, to assess the methodological quality, and to discuss possible benefits for students. We searched online databases to identify English- and German-language peer-reviewed journal articles that reported any outcomes on a student level. Two independent reviewers screened studies identified for eligibility and assessed the methodological quality. Thirteen studies were included for analysis. Most studies used a case-study design, the average number of participants was moderate (mean valued (M) = 62.17; standard deviation (SD) = 64.12), and the methodological quality was moderate on average for qualitative studies (M = 0.52; SD = 0.11), and low on average for quantitative studies (M = 0.18; SD = 0.42). Eight studies described outcomes in terms of social dimensions, seven studies in learning dimensions and four studies were subsumed under additional outcomes, i.e., PA and health. Eleven studies reported positive, one study positive as well as negative, and one study reported negative effects. PA and mental health as outcomes were underrepresented. Tendencies were detected that regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs can promote students in respect of social, academic, physical and psychological dimensions. Very little is known concerning students' PA or mental health. We recommend conducting more quasi-experimental design and longitudinal studies with a greater number of participants, and a high methodological quality to further investigate these tendencies.

  20. Effects of Regular Classes in Outdoor Education Settings: A Systematic Review on Students’ Learning, Social and Health Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Spengler, Sarah; Dettweiler, Ulrich; Mess, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Background: Participants in Outdoor Education Programmes (OEPs) presumably benefit from these programmes in terms of their social and personal development, academic achievement and physical activity (PA). The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies about regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs, to categorise and evaluate reported outcomes, to assess the methodological quality, and to discuss possible benefits for students. Methods: We searched online databases to identify English- and German-language peer-reviewed journal articles that reported any outcomes on a student level. Two independent reviewers screened studies identified for eligibility and assessed the methodological quality. Results: Thirteen studies were included for analysis. Most studies used a case-study design, the average number of participants was moderate (mean valued (M) = 62.17; standard deviation (SD) = 64.12), and the methodological quality was moderate on average for qualitative studies (M = 0.52; SD = 0.11), and low on average for quantitative studies (M = 0.18; SD = 0.42). Eight studies described outcomes in terms of social dimensions, seven studies in learning dimensions and four studies were subsumed under additional outcomes, i.e., PA and health. Eleven studies reported positive, one study positive as well as negative, and one study reported negative effects. PA and mental health as outcomes were underrepresented. Conclusion: Tendencies were detected that regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs can promote students in respect of social, academic, physical and psychological dimensions. Very little is known concerning students’ PA or mental health. We recommend conducting more quasi-experimental design and longitudinal studies with a greater number of participants, and a high methodological quality to further investigate these tendencies. PMID:28475167

  1. A web-based study of the relationship of duration of insulin pump infusion set use and fasting blood glucose level in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson Perrin, Alysa J; Guzzetta, Russell C; Miller, Kellee M; Foster, Nicole C; Lee, Anna; Lee, Joyce M; Block, Jennifer M; Beck, Roy W

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of infusion set use duration on glycemic control, we conducted an Internet-based study using the T1D Exchange's online patient community, Glu ( myGlu.org ). For 14 days, 243 electronically consented adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) entered online that day's fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, the prior day's total daily insulin (TDI) dose, and whether the infusion set was changed. Mean duration of infusion set use was 3.0 days. Mean FBG level was higher with each successive day of infusion set use, increasing from 126 mg/dL on Day 1 to 133 mg/dL on Day 3 to 147 mg/dL on Day 5 (P<0.001). TDI dose did not vary with increased duration of infusion set use. Internet-based data collection was used to rapidly conduct the study at low cost. The results indicate that FBG levels increase with each additional day of insulin pump infusion set use.

  2. On the effective atomic number and electron density: A comprehensive set of formulas for all types of materials and energies above 1 keV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Thind, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive and consistent set of formulas is given for calculating the effective atomic number and electron density for all types of materials and for all photon energies greater than 1 keV. The are derived from first principles using photon interaction cross sections of the constituent atom....... The theory is illustrated by calculations and experiments for molecules of medical and biological interest, glasses for radiation shielding, alloys, minerals and liquids....

  3. Effect of fortification with various types of milk proteins on the rheological properties and permeability of nonfat set yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Serra, M; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2009-01-01

    Yogurt base was prepared from reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) with 2.5% protein and fortified with additional 1% protein (wt/wt) from 4 different milk protein sources: SMP, milk protein isolate (MPI), micellar casein (MC), and sodium caseinate (NaCN). Heat-treated yogurt mixes were fermented at 40 degrees C with a commercial yogurt culture until pH 4.6. During fermentation pH was monitored, and storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Yield stress (sigma(yield)) and permeability of gels were analyzed at pH 4.6. Addition of NaCN significantly reduced buffering capacity of yogurt mix by apparently solubilizing part of the indigenous colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in reconstituted SMP. Use of different types of milk protein did not affect pH development except for MC, which had the slowest fermentation due to its very high buffering. NaCN-fortified yogurt had the highest G' and sigma(yield) values at pH 4.6, as well as maximum LT values. Partial removal of CCP by NaCN before fermentation may have increased rearrangements in yogurt gel. Soluble casein molecules in NaCN-fortified milks may have helped to increase G' and LT values of yogurt gels by increasing the number of cross-links between strands. Use of MC increased the CCP content but resulted in low G' and sigma(yield) at pH 4.6, high LT and high permeability. The G' value at pH 4.6 of yogurts increased in the order: SMP = MC yogurt. Practical Application: In yogurt processing, it is common to add additional milk solids to improve viscosity and textural attributes. There are many different types of milk protein powders that could potentially be used for fortification purposes. This study suggests that the type of milk protein used for fortification impacts yogurt properties and sodium caseinate gave the best textural results.

  4. Moderation of effects of AAC based on setting and types of aided AAC on outcome variables: an aggregate study of single-case research with individuals with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Rispoli, Mandy J; Mason, Rose Ann; Hong, Ee Rea

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential moderating effects of intervention setting and type of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on outcome variables for students with autism spectrum disorders. Improvement rate difference, an effect size measure, was used to calculate aggregate effects across 35 single-case research studies. Results indicated that the largest effects for aided AAC were observed in general education settings. With respect to communication outcomes, both speech generating devices (SGDs) and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) were associated with larger effects than other picture-based systems. With respect to challenging behaviour outcomes, SGDs produced larger effects than PECS. This aggregate study highlights the importance of considering intervention setting, choice of AAC system and target outcomes when designing and planning an aided AAC intervention.

  5. Interaction between Social/Psychosocial Factors and Genetic Variants on Body Mass Index: A Gene-Environment Interaction Analysis in a Longitudinal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Ware, Erin B; He, Zihuai; Kardia, Sharon L R; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A

    2017-09-29

    Obesity, which develops over time, is one of the leading causes of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, hundreds of BMI (body mass index)-associated genetic loci identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) only explain about 2.7% of BMI variation. Most common human traits are believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Past studies suggest a variety of environmental features that are associated with obesity, including socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. This study combines both gene/regions and environmental factors to explore whether social/psychosocial factors (childhood and adult socioeconomic status, social support, anger, chronic burden, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms) modify the effect of sets of genetic variants on BMI in European American and African American participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In order to incorporate longitudinal phenotype data collected in the HRS and investigate entire sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within gene/region simultaneously, we applied a novel set-based test for gene-environment interaction in longitudinal studies (LGEWIS). Childhood socioeconomic status (parental education) was found to modify the genetic effect in the gene/region around SNP rs9540493 on BMI in European Americans in the HRS. The most significant SNP (rs9540488) by childhood socioeconomic status interaction within the rs9540493 gene/region was suggestively replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) ( p = 0.07).

  6. Interaction between Social/Psychosocial Factors and Genetic Variants on Body Mass Index: A Gene-Environment Interaction Analysis in a Longitudinal Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, which develops over time, is one of the leading causes of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, hundreds of BMI (body mass index-associated genetic loci identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS only explain about 2.7% of BMI variation. Most common human traits are believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Past studies suggest a variety of environmental features that are associated with obesity, including socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. This study combines both gene/regions and environmental factors to explore whether social/psychosocial factors (childhood and adult socioeconomic status, social support, anger, chronic burden, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms modify the effect of sets of genetic variants on BMI in European American and African American participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS. In order to incorporate longitudinal phenotype data collected in the HRS and investigate entire sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within gene/region simultaneously, we applied a novel set-based test for gene-environment interaction in longitudinal studies (LGEWIS. Childhood socioeconomic status (parental education was found to modify the genetic effect in the gene/region around SNP rs9540493 on BMI in European Americans in the HRS. The most significant SNP (rs9540488 by childhood socioeconomic status interaction within the rs9540493 gene/region was suggestively replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA (p = 0.07.

  7. A quality improvement project using statistical process control methods for type 2 diabetes control in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, David; Douglas, Kate; Goldberg, Vera; Martinez, Boris; Garcia, Pablo; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is a key strategy for improving diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports on a diabetes QI project in rural Guatemala whose primary aim was to improve glycemic control of a panel of adult diabetes patients. Formative research suggested multiple areas for programmatic improvement in ambulatory diabetes care. This project utilized the Model for Improvement and Agile Global Health, our organization's complementary healthcare implementation framework. A bundle of improvement activities were implemented at the home, clinic and institutional level. Control charts of mean hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and proportion of patients meeting target HbA1C showed improvement as special cause variation was identified 3 months after the intervention began. Control charts for secondary process measures offered insights into the value of different components of the intervention. Intensity of home-based diabetes education emerged as an important driver of panel glycemic control. Diabetes QI work is feasible in resource-limited settings in LMICs and can improve glycemic control. Statistical process control charts are a promising methodology for use with panels or registries of diabetes patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Beneficial Effects of Two Types of Personal Health Record Services Connected With Electronic Medical Records Within the Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisan; Kim, James G Boram; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Kiwhan; Kim, Byungjun; Kim, Sukwha; Kim, Jeongeun

    2017-11-01

    Healthcare consumers must be able to make decisions based on accurate health information. To assist with this, we designed and developed an integrated system connected with electronic medical records in hospitals to ensure delivery of accurate health information. The system-called the Consumer-centered Open Personal Health Record platform-is composed of two services: a portal for users with any disease and a mobile application for users with cleft lip/palate. To assess the benefits of these services, we used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, assigning participants to the portal (n = 50) and application (n = 52) groups. Both groups showed significantly increased knowledge, both objective (actual knowledge of health information) and subjective (perceived knowledge of health information), after the intervention. Furthermore, while both groups showed higher information needs satisfaction after the intervention, the application group was significantly more satisfied. Knowledge changes were more affected by participant characteristics in the application group. Our results may be due to the application's provision of specific disease information and a personalized treatment plan based on the participant and other users' data. We recommend that services connected with electronic medical records target specific diseases to provide personalized health management to patients in a hospital setting.

  9. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L

    2015-05-01

    We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shaping the Social: design of a settings-based intervention study to improve well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in Danish vocational schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Holmberg, Teresa; Johansen, Christoffer; Stock, Christiane; Laursen, Bjarne; Zinckernagel, Line; Øllgaard, Anne Louise; Ingholt, Liselotte

    2015-06-20

    The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were selected to either implement the intervention or continue with normal practice for comparison. In the baseline survey conducted 2011-2012, 2,329 students from four intervention schools and 3,371 students from six comparison schools answered a computer-based questionnaire during class, representing 73% and 81% of eligible students, and 22% of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing appropriate evaluation strategies. To address difficulties in implementing settings-based interventions, as highlighted in prior research, the strategy was to involve intervention schools in the development of the intervention. Baseline differences will be included in the effectiveness analysis, so will the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. ISRCTN57822968. Date of registration: 16/01/2013.

  11. Medication adherence among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary healthcare setting in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Adisa R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess adherence to medication among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes, ascertain the level of glycemic control, and evaluate patients’ opinions on probable reasons for non-adherence with a view to identify areas of intervention to improve adherence.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at a 900-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between June and August, 2009. Out of 140 consented patients, 114 (81.4% properly responded to the validated and pre-tested data collection tool and these were subsequently considered for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Means and proportions were compared using student t-test and chi-square or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate, with p<0.05 considered statistical significant.Results: Approximately sixty percent of the patients were adjudged adherent with prescribed medication. Out of 58.8% of the cohort who gave their recent fasting plasma glucose (FPG values, 59.7% had FPG above 110mg/dL. The mean FPG for patients was 139.05 (SD=70.5mg/dL, males and females significantly differed in their mean FPG, 146.55 (SD=85.0mg/dL versus 133.33 (SD=57.6mg/dL respectively (p=0.032. Also, the mean FPG values for adherent patients, 137.09 (SD=59.3mg/dL was lower than their non-adherent counterparts, 143.92 (SD=87.6 mg/dL, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.095. Financial constraint (34.4% was the major barrier to optimal adherence with medication. A significant association exist between genders and opinions on physician’s mode of approach during patient-physician interaction as a contributory factor for non-adherence (p=0.038.Conclusion: Medication adherence of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients is considerable. However, the relatively high level of adherence did not appear to have significantly impacted on patients’ glycemic status due to a substantial number who had plasma glucose above the

  12. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations.

  13. Networks as a Type of Social Entrepreneurship to Advance Population Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-01-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks ra...

  14. Response to antiretroviral therapy of HIV type 1-infected children in urban and rural settings of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiime, Victor; Kayiwa, Joshua; Kiconco, Mary; Tamale, William; Alima, Hillary; Mugerwa, Henry; Abwola, Mary; Apilli, Eunice; Ahimbisibwe, Fred; Kizito, Hilda; Abongomera, George; Namusoke, Asia; Makabayi, Agnes; Kiweewa, Francis; Ssali, Francis; Kityo, Cissy; Colebunders, Robert; Mugyenyi, Peter

    2012-12-01

    From 2006 to 2011, a cohort study was conducted among 1000 children resident in urban and rural settings of Uganda to ascertain and compare the response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among urban versus rural children and the factors associated with this response. Clinical, immunological, and virological parameters were ascertained at baseline and weeks 24, 48, 96, and 144 after ART initiation. Adherence to ART was assessed at enrollment by self-report (SR) and pill counts (PC). Overall, 499/948 (52.6%) children were resident in rural areas, 504/948 (53.1%) were male, and their mean age was 11.9±4.4 years (urban children) and 11.4±4.1 years (rural children). The urban children were more likely to switch to second-line ART at a rate of 39.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 28.2-56.4) versus 14.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 8.7-25.7), p=0.0038, develop any new WHO 3/4 events at 127/414 (30.7%) versus 108/466 (23.2%), p=0.012, and have a higher cumulative incidence of hospitalization of 54/449 (12.0%) versus 32/499 (6.4%), p=0.003, when compared to rural children. No differences were observed in mean changes in weight, height, CD4 count and percentage, and hemoglobin and viral load between urban and rural children. Adherence of ≥95% was observed in 88.2% of urban versus 91.3% of rural children by SR (p=0.130), and in 78.8% of urban versus 88.8% of rural children by PC (pART than urban children.

  15. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Street, Laura A; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Christensen, Dirk L

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one clinical review only. Other information obtained was age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, urine albumin-creatinine ratio, duration since diagnosis and medication. One hundred and one patients with DM (type 1 DM = 23, type 2 DM = 78) were included. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between RBG and HbA1c among the patients with type 2 DM (r = 0.73, P AUC = 0.80, SE = 0.05), RBG ≤7.5 mmol/l was determined as the optimal cut-off value for good glycaemic control (HbA1c blood glucose could possibly be used to assess glycaemic control among patients with type 2 DM in rural settings of sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ethics in practice: the state of the debate on promoting the social value of global health research in resource poor settings particularly Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Michael, Parker; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; English, Michael C

    2011-11-15

    Promoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate within academic bioethics literature seeking to define the benefits, the beneficiaries, and the scope of obligations for providing these benefits. Although this debate may be indicative of willingness at the international level to engage with the responsibilities of researchers involved in global health research, it remains unclear which forms of benefits or beneficiaries should be considered. International and local research ethics guidelines are reviewed here to delineate the guidance they provide. We reviewed documents selected from the international compilation of research ethics guidelines by the Office for Human Research Protections under the US Department of Health and Human Services. Access to interventions being researched, the provision of unavailable health care, capacity building for individuals and institutions, support to health care systems and access to medical and public health interventions proven effective, are the commonly recommended forms of benefits. The beneficiaries are volunteers, disease or illness affected communities and the population in general. Interestingly however, there is a divide between "global opinion" and the views of particular countries within resource poor settings as made explicit by differences in emphasis regarding the potential benefits and the beneficiaries. Although in theory benefit sharing is widely accepted as one of the means for promoting the social value of international collaborative health research, there is less

  17. Ethics in practice: the state of the debate on promoting the social value of global health research in resource poor settings particularly Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairumbi Geoffrey M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate within academic bioethics literature seeking to define the benefits, the beneficiaries, and the scope of obligations for providing these benefits. Although this debate may be indicative of willingness at the international level to engage with the responsibilities of researchers involved in global health research, it remains unclear which forms of benefits or beneficiaries should be considered. International and local research ethics guidelines are reviewed here to delineate the guidance they provide. Methods We reviewed documents selected from the international compilation of research ethics guidelines by the Office for Human Research Protections under the US Department of Health and Human Services. Results Access to interventions being researched, the provision of unavailable health care, capacity building for individuals and institutions, support to health care systems and access to medical and public health interventions proven effective, are the commonly recommended forms of benefits. The beneficiaries are volunteers, disease or illness affected communities and the population in general. Interestingly however, there is a divide between "global opinion" and the views of particular countries within resource poor settings as made explicit by differences in emphasis regarding the potential benefits and the beneficiaries. Conclusion Although in theory benefit sharing is widely accepted as one of the means for promoting the social

  18. Proper use of social media by health operators in the pediatric oncohematological setting: Consensus statement from the Italian Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Association (AIEOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Quarello, Paola; Bergadano, Anna; Veneroni, Laura; Bertolotti, Marina; Guadagna, Paola; Ricci, Angelo; Galdi, Andrea; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Social media are powerful means of communication that can also have an important role in the healthcare sector. They are sometimes seen with diffidence in the healthcare setting, partly because they risk blurring professional boundaries. This issue is particularly relevant to relations between caregivers and adolescent patients. The Italian Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Association created a multidisciplinary working group to develop some shared recommendations on this issue. After reviewing the literature, the working group prepared a consensus statement in an effort to suggest an analytical approach rather than restrictive rules. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The diversity and causality of welfare state reforms explored with fuzz-sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of fuzzy-sets into social science has potentially improved our ability to study diversity by means of the so-called partial memberships. As a consequence, social phenomena can be studied empirically as a matter of degree and not longer as fixed types. A fuzzy-set is a set with

  20. [Diabetes type 1 in young adults: The relationship between psycho-social variables, glycemic control, depression and anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsdottir, Fjola Katrin; Halldorsdottir, Hildur; Gudmundsdottir, Arna; Arnardottir, Steinunn; Smari, Jakop; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether psycho-social variables, for example social support and task- and emotion-oriented coping would predict psychological and physical well being among young adults with diabetes. Participants were 56 individuals in their twenties suffering from type 1 diabetes. Response rate was 78%. The participants came from the whole of Iceland, 64.3% from the Greater Reykjavík area and 33.9% from rural areas. One participant did not indicate his place of residence. Self-assessment scales were used to assess depression, anxiety, task-, avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping, social support and problems relating to diabetes. Additional information was obtained from patients' records concerning the results of blood glucose measurements (HbA1c). Good social support was related to less anxiety and depression and to less self-reported problems related to having diabetes. Emotion-oriented coping was related to not feeling well and task- oriented coping to feeling better. No relationship was found between psychosocial variables and blood glucose measurements and a limited relationship between self-reported problems related to having diabetes and these measurements. Social support and coping are strongly related to measurements of depression, anxiety and problems related to having diabetes in the present age group. The results indicate that it is very important to teach and strengthen usage, as possible, of task-oriented coping instead of emotion-oriented coping. The results also indicate that social support is highly important for young adults with diabetes type 1. It is clear that friends and family have to be more involved in the treatment and also more educated about the disease and the importance of giving the right kind of support.

  1. Therapeutic inertia in the management of hyperlipidaemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, F Y; Chen, C Xr; Lau, Y Y; Chan, K

    2016-08-01

    To study the prevalence of therapeutic inertia in lipid management among type 2 diabetic patients in the primary care setting and to explore associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study involving type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal lipid control followed up in all general out-patient clinics of Kowloon Central Cluster in Hong Kong from 1 October 2011 to 30 September 2013. Main outcome measures included prevalence of therapeutic inertia in low-density lipoprotein management among type 2 diabetic patients and its association with patient and physician characteristics. Based on an agreed standard, lipid control was suboptimal in 49.1% (n=9647) of type 2 diabetic patients who attended for a regular annual check-up (n=19 662). Among the sampled 369 type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal lipid control, therapeutic inertia was found to be present in 244 cases, with a prevalence rate of 66.1%. When the attending doctors' profiles were compared, the mean duration of clinical practice was significantly longer in the therapeutic inertia group than the non-therapeutic inertia group. Doctors without prior training in family medicine were also found to have a higher rate of therapeutic inertia. Patients in the therapeutic inertia group had longer disease duration, a higher co-morbidity rate of cardiovascular disease, and a closer-to-normal low-density lipoprotein level. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lack of family medicine training among doctors was positively associated with the presence of therapeutic inertia whereas patient's low-density lipoprotein level was inversely associated. Therapeutic inertia was common in the lipid management of patients with type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting. Lack of family medicine training among doctors and patient's low-density lipoprotein level were associated with the presence of therapeutic inertia. Further study of the barriers and strategies to overcome therapeutic inertia is needed to improve patient

  2. Long-term efficacy of liraglutide in Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. Aim: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Methods: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Dosage of liraglutide and other medications was adjusted according to clinical judgment. Results: 1 year data were available for 74 patients. Mean age was 50.9 ± 9.6 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 11.6 ± 6.3 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 8.9 ± 1.3% at baseline to 7.4 ± 1.2% at 1 year. Body weight significantly declined from 98.9 ± 16.0 kg at baseline to 93.8 ± 15.0 kg at 1 year. After an initial decline, subset of patients had an increase in mean HbA1c (n = 30/74 and mean body weight (n = 33/74 after 6 months of liraglutide initiation. Baseline HbA1c and baseline body weight were positively associated with a reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year, respectively. No major side effects occurred. Conclusion: Liraglutide treatment resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in HbA1c and body weight over 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Magnitude of reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year was positively associated with baseline HbA1c and baseline weight, respectively.

  3. The social determinants of health for people with type 1 diabetes that progress to end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen E; Gleadle, Jonathan M; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; McNaughton, Darlene A

    2015-12-01

    Self-management of type 1 diabetes over a lifetime is complex and challenging even in the best of circumstances, and the social environment can be a powerful determinant of health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify how social determinants of health can impact on the capacity of young people to manage their glycaemic control. The findings emerged from a constructivist grounded theory approach through an in-depth examination of life course events that were recounted through qualitative interviews. The rich descriptive detail obtained from this enquiry locates common experiences and the context in which concordance with therapies occurs and health behaviours develop. This qualitative study of young people with type 1 diabetes who have developed end-stage renal disease demonstrates that there are many factors beyond individual control that can contribute to health outcomes. The social determinants of childhood environment, education, socio-economic status, gender and the culture of public health can contribute to disengagement from treatment regimens and the health-care system and to the development of microvascular complications at a comparatively young age. These findings challenge the assumptions of health-care practitioners about individual responsibility and highlight the importance of considering how social determinants can shape lives, behaviours and health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychosocial implications of type 1 diabetes mellitus among children in India: an emerging challenge for social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kakkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the widespread childhood chronic illnesses, which is seldom talked about is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The discussion on T1DM is often missed because the emphasis is majorly on the adult DM or type 2 DM which is a lifestyle disorder. T1DM occurs at an early age and is a lifelong insulin deficiency. The treatment and the strict regime lead to numerous psychological and social repercussions for the child (patient and the caregivers. The implications vary from issues in family, at school, at social gatherings, often creating behavioural disorders. These implications further affect the patient’s health, DM self-care tasks, glycaemic control, and adherence to treatment. It is important to create awareness among people that chronic illness often causes negative psychological and social consequences but one needs to learn to cope with them. T1DM is not just about insulin shots and blood tests; but much beyond it. It requires proper understanding and support which has to be provided by professionals other than doctors. This paper looks at the prevalence of the disease, the implications for the child and the caregivers, and discusses T1DM as an emerging challenge for social work profession.

  5. Research Priority Setting for Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: It is obvious that, because of the lack of resources, we should devote our limited resources to priorities in order to reach an acceptable level of health. The objective of this study was to research priority setting for Pediatric Surgery Research Center; with the participation of all stakeholders.Material and Methods: This is a Health System Research (HSR project in order to apply governance and leadership issues with the participation of 41 people including faculty members in Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Medical University and the other pediatric specialists and health system stakeholders as well as the people associated with health system inside & outside the university. This was performed in 2010 using the Council on Health Research for Development COHRED( model with little change. Based on the model, at first the stakeholders were identified and the field situation of Pediatric Surgery was analyzed. Then, research areas and titles were specified and research priorities were set out by giving scores according to the criteria.Results: The seven obtained research areas in priority order are included pediatric trauma, pediatric cancers, pediatric urology diseases, undescended testicles in children, developmental genetics & congenital defects, emergency in children and application of laparoscopic surgery in children. Because each of the research areas is composed of multiple subareas, we managed to finally specify 43 research subareas as research priorities. These subareas included epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. They also included follow-up, complications, knowledge & attitudes of parents, quality of life, economy aspects and data bank for further research.Conclusion: In this project, research priorities were set out for Pediatric Surgery Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, with the participation of all the stakeholders

  6. Psychometric Properties of a Scale Designed to Measure Perceived Social Support in Chilean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salvador Ortiz Parada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the psychometric properties of the Zimet et al.’ Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM (n = 76 from Temuco City, Chile. The total scale shown appropriate levels of internal consistency (0,849. An exploratory factorial analysis, with Varimax rotation, was performed over the MSPSS measures. In agreement with the original Scale, three factors were obtained explaining 66,8% of the variance. These results suggest that MSPSS is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be applied to patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

  7. Social-Professional Networks in Long-Term Care Settings With People With Dementia: An Approach to Better Care? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Janet I; Long, Janet C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Dementia is a syndrome associated with stigma and social isolation. Forty-two percent of people with dementia in the United States and almost 40% in the United Kingdom live in assisted living and residential care facilities. Up to 90% of residents with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Currently psychotropic drugs are often used to manage BPSD, despite the drugs' limited efficacy and adverse effects. Even though psychosocial approaches are as effective as medical ones without side effects, their uptake has been slow. Social networks that investigate the structure of relationships among residents and staff may represent an important resource to increase the uptake of psychosocial approaches and facilitate improvements in care. To conduct a systematic review of social network studies set in long-term care (LTC), including residents with dementia, and identify network factors influencing the care available to residents. Peer-reviewed articles across CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from January 1994 to December 2014 inclusive, using PRISMA guidelines. Studies included those examining social networks of residents or staff in LTC. Nine articles from studies in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia met search criteria. Resident networks had few social connections. One study proposed that residents with high centrality be encouraged to welcome new residents and disseminate information. The high density in 2 staff network studies was associated with the cooperation needed to provide care to residents with dementia. Staff's boundary-spanning led to higher-status nurses becoming more involved in decision-making and problem-solving in one study. In another, the outcome was staff treating residents with more respect and actively caring for them. These studies suggest interventions using a network approach may improve care services in LTC. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  8. Organizational influences and quality-of-life issues during the professional socialization of certified athletic trainers working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal bond; the challenge is dealing with a bureaucratic structure and balancing one's professional and

  9. Social Interaction and Types of Play in Mixed-Age and Same-Age Groups in Early-Childhood Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Lesnik, Petra

    This study compared the social interaction and types of symbolic play found in mixed-age and same-age preschool groups. The sample included 8 groups of 14 to 20 children, which were naturally formed and had been operating since the beginning of the school year. The four same-age groups included a group of 3- to 4-year-olds, a group of 4- to…

  10. Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Howell, Sue; Murphy, James

    2007-01-01

    Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.

  11. Association between expression of random gene sets and survival is evident in multiple cancer types and may be explained by sub-classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    One of the goals of cancer research is to identify a set of genes that cause or control disease progression. However, although multiple such gene sets were published, these are usually in very poor agreement with each other, and very few of the genes proved to be functional therapeutic targets. Furthermore, recent findings from a breast cancer gene-expression cohort showed that sets of genes selected randomly can be used to predict survival with a much higher probability than expected. These results imply that many of the genes identified in breast cancer gene expression analysis may not be causal of cancer progression, even though they can still be highly predictive of prognosis. We performed a similar analysis on all the cancer types available in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), namely, estimating the predictive power of random gene sets for survival. Our work shows that most cancer types exhibit the property that random selections of genes are more predictive of survival than expected. In contrast to previous work, this property is not removed by using a proliferation signature, which implies that proliferation may not always be the confounder that drives this property. We suggest one possible solution in the form of data-driven sub-classification to reduce this property significantly. Our results suggest that the predictive power of random gene sets may be used to identify the existence of sub-classes in the data, and thus may allow better understanding of patient stratification. Furthermore, by reducing the observed bias this may allow more direct identification of biologically relevant, and potentially causal, genes. PMID:29470520

  12. Unpacking Cultural Variations in Social Anxiety and the Offensive-Type of Taijin Kyofusho Through the Indirect Effects of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Self-Construals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Biru; Lacroix, Franca; Sasaki, Jun; Peng, Yunshi; Wang, Xia; Ryder, Andrew,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents two studies that aim to unpack cultural variations in general social anxiety and the offensive-type of \\emph{Taijin Kyofusho} (OTKS) -- a type of social anxiety characterized by the extreme fear of offending others. Cultural variations in the expression and manifestation of social anxiety are well established; however, the mechanisms underpinning this relation are unclear. The present studies use the Parallel Multiple Mediation Model to study how so...

  13. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    within the private sphere, such as social network/support, seem equally important for middle aged women's health status. These findings ought to have important policy implications and also to be of major importance in a primary health care setting when meeting women who seek health care because of common symptoms.

  14. A system utilizing radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to monitor individual rodent behavior in complex social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Christopher L; Garner, Joseph P; Mench, Joy A

    2012-07-30

    Pre-clinical investigation of human CNS disorders relies heavily on mouse models. However these show low predictive validity for translational success to humans, partly due to the extensive use of rapid, high-throughput behavioral assays. Improved assays to monitor rodent behavior over longer time scales in a variety of contexts while still maintaining the efficiency of data collection associated with high-throughput assays are needed. We developed an apparatus that uses radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology to facilitate long-term automated monitoring of the behavior of mice in socially or structurally complex cage environments. Mice that were individually marked and implanted with transponders were placed in pairs in the apparatus, and their locations continuously tracked for 24 h. Video observation was used to validate the RFID readings. The apparatus and its associated software accurately tracked the locations of all mice, yielding information about each mouse's location over time, its diel activity patterns, and the amount of time it was in the same location as the other mouse in the pair. The information that can be efficiently collected in this apparatus has a variety of applications for pre-clinical research on human CNS disorders, for example major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder, in that it can be used to quantify validated endophenotypes or biomarkers of these disorders using rodent models. While the specific configuration of the apparatus described here was designed to answer particular experimental questions, it can be modified in various ways to accommodate different experimental designs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detecting Motor Impairment in Early Parkinson's Disease via Natural Typing Interaction With Keyboards: Validation of the neuroQWERTY Approach in an Uncontrolled At-Home Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Gallego, Teresa; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J; Butterworth, Ian; Matarazzo, Michele; Montero-Escribano, Paloma; Puertas-Martín, Verónica; Gray, Martha L; Giancardo, Luca; Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro

    2018-03-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and one of the most common forms of movement disorder. Although there is no known cure for PD, existing therapies can provide effective symptomatic relief. However, optimal titration is crucial to avoid adverse effects. Today, decision making for PD management is challenging because it relies on subjective clinical evaluations that require a visit to the clinic. This challenge has motivated recent research initiatives to develop tools that can be used by nonspecialists to assess psychomotor impairment. Among these emerging solutions, we recently reported the neuroQWERTY index, a new digital marker able to detect motor impairment in an early PD cohort through the analysis of the key press and release timing data collected during a controlled in-clinic typing task. The aim of this study was to extend the in-clinic implementation to an at-home implementation by validating the applicability of the neuroQWERTY approach in an uncontrolled at-home setting, using the typing data from subjects' natural interaction with their laptop to enable remote and unobtrusive assessment of PD signs. We implemented the data-collection platform and software to enable access and storage of the typing data generated by users while using their computer at home. We recruited a total of 60 participants; of these participants 52 (25 people with Parkinson's and 27 healthy controls) provided enough data to complete the analysis. Finally, to evaluate whether our in-clinic-built algorithm could be used in an uncontrolled at-home setting, we compared its performance on the data collected during the controlled typing task in the clinic and the results of our method using the data passively collected at home. Despite the randomness and sparsity introduced by the uncontrolled setting, our algorithm performed nearly as well in the at-home data (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] of 0.76 and

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Primary Care: Which Aspects Matter in Multimorbid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Community Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kamradt

    Full Text Available Knowledge about predictors of health-related quality of life for multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care could help to improve quality and patient-centeredness of care in this specific group of patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of several patient characteristics on health-related quality of life of multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a community setting.A cross-sectional study with 32 primary care practice teams in Mannheim, Germany, and randomly selected multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 495 was conducted. In order to analyze associations of various patient characteristics with health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index a multilevel analysis was applied.After excluding patients with missing data, the cohort consisted of 404 eligible patients. The final multilevel model highlighted six out of 14 explanatory patient variables which were significantly associated with health-related quality of life: female gender (r = -0.0494; p = .0261, school education of nine years or less (r = -0.0609; p = .0006, (physical mobility restrictions (r = -0.1074; p = .0003, presence of chronic pain (r = -0.0916; p = .0004, diabetes-related distress (r = -0.0133; p < .0001, and BMI (r = -0.0047; p = .0045.The findings of this study suggest that increased diabetes-related distress, chronic pain, restrictions in (physical mobility, female gender, as well as lower education and, increased BMI have a noteworthy impact on health-related quality of life in multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus seen in primary care practices in a community setting. The highlighted aspects should gain much more attention when treating multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life in Primary Care: Which Aspects Matter in Multimorbid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Community Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamradt, Martina; Krisam, Johannes; Kiel, Marion; Qreini, Markus; Besier, Werner; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about predictors of health-related quality of life for multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care could help to improve quality and patient-centeredness of care in this specific group of patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of several patient characteristics on health-related quality of life of multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a community setting. A cross-sectional study with 32 primary care practice teams in Mannheim, Germany, and randomly selected multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 495) was conducted. In order to analyze associations of various patient characteristics with health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index) a multilevel analysis was applied. After excluding patients with missing data, the cohort consisted of 404 eligible patients. The final multilevel model highlighted six out of 14 explanatory patient variables which were significantly associated with health-related quality of life: female gender (r = -0.0494; p = .0261), school education of nine years or less (r = -0.0609; p = .0006), (physical) mobility restrictions (r = -0.1074; p = .0003), presence of chronic pain (r = -0.0916; p = .0004), diabetes-related distress (r = -0.0133; p diabetes-related distress, chronic pain, restrictions in (physical) mobility, female gender, as well as lower education and, increased BMI have a noteworthy impact on health-related quality of life in multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus seen in primary care practices in a community setting. The highlighted aspects should gain much more attention when treating multimorbid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Relationship between self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharek, Zahirah; Ramli, Anis Safura; Whitford, David Leonard; Ismail, Zaliha; Mohd Zulkifli, Maryam; Ahmad Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Jayaraman, Thevaraajan

    2018-03-09

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be positively correlated with self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, such evidence is lacking in the Malaysian primary care setting. The objectives of this study were to i) determine the levels of self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting ii) determine the relationship between self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control iii) determine the factors associated with glycaemic control. This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and self-care behaviour levels were measured using previously translated and validated DMSES and SDSCA questionnaires in Malay versions, respectively. Glycaemic control was measured using HbA 1c. RESULTS: A total of 340 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The total mean (±SD) of self-efficacy and self-care behaviour scores were 7.33 (±2.25) and 3.76 (±1.87), respectively. A positive relationship was found between self-efficacy and self-care behaviour (r 0.538, P self-efficacy score was shown to be correlated with lower HbA 1c (r - 0.41, P self-efficacy scores (b - 0.398; 95% CI: -0.024, - 0.014; P diabetes (b 0.177; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.007; P self-efficacy was correlated with improved self-care behaviour and better glycaemic control. Findings of this study suggest the importance of including routine use of self-efficacy measures in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care.

  19. How to Set Up a Research Framework to Analyze Social-Ecological Interactive Processes in a Rural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Deconchat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research frameworks can be useful in providing answers to the environmental challenges facing rural environments, but concrete implementation of them remains empirical and requires better control. We present our practical experience of an interdisciplinary research project dealing with non-industrial private forestry in rural landscapes. The theoretical background, management, and methodological aspects, as well as results of the project, are presented in order to identify practical key factors that may influence its outcomes. Landscape ecology plays a central role in organizing the project. The efforts allocated for communication between scientists from different disciplines must be clearly stated in order to earn reciprocal trust. Sharing the same nested sampling areas, common approaches, and analytical tools (GIS is important, but has to be balanced by autonomy for actual implementation of field work and data analysis in a modular and evolving framework. Data sets are at the heart of the collaboration and GIS is necessary to ensure their long-term management and sharing. The experience acquired from practical development of such projects should be shared more often in networks of teams to compare their behavior and identify common rules of functioning.

  20. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Capotorti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can provide comprehensive responses to ecological and social needs in any metropolitan context. The approach, which is based on interdisciplinary principles of landscape ecology, ecosystem geography and dynamic plant sociology, has been adopted in the Municipality of Rome (Italy. The first step entails defining an ecological framework for forestation plans by means of the ecological land classification and assessment of landscape conservation status. The second step entails setting forestation priorities according to both ecological and social criteria. The application of the method proved to effectively select limited areas requiring intervention within an extensive metropolitan area. Furthermore, it provided responses to sustainability issues such as long-term maintenance of restored habitats, landscape perspective of planning, greening of urban agriculture, improvement in urban resilience, and cost-effective improvement in ecosystem services provision.

  1. Do emotions related to alcohol consumption differ by alcohol type? An international cross-sectional survey of emotions associated with alcohol consumption and influence on drink choice in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kathryn; Bellis, Mark A; Davies, Alisha R; Hughes, Karen; Winstock, Adam

    2017-11-20

    To examine the emotions associated with drinking different types of alcohol, explore whether these emotions differ by sociodemographics and alcohol dependency and whether the emotions associated with different drink types influence people's choice of drinks in different settings. International cross-sectional opportunistic survey (Global Drug Survey) using an online anonymous questionnaire in 11 languages promoted through newspapers, magazines and social media from November 2015 to January 2016. Individuals aged 18-34 years who reported consumption of beer, spirits, red and white wine in the previous 12 months and were resident in countries with more than 200 respondents (n=21 countries; 29 836 respondents). Positive and negative emotions associated with consumption of different alcoholic beverages (energised, relaxed, sexy, confident, tired, aggressive, ill, restless and tearful) over the past 12 months in different settings. Alcoholic beverages vary in the types of emotions individuals report they elicit, with spirits more frequently eliciting emotional changes of all types. Overall 29.8% of respondents reported feeling aggressive when drinking spirits, compared with only 7.1% when drinking red wine (pfeeling all emotions when drinking alcohol, apart from feelings of aggression. Respondents' level of alcohol dependency was strongly associated with feeling all emotions, with the likelihood of aggression being significantly higher in possible dependent versus low risk drinkers (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% CI 5.79 to 7.09; pfeeling the majority of positive and negative emotions also remained highest among dependent drinkers irrespective of setting. Understanding emotions associated with alcohol consumption is imperative to addressing alcohol misuse, providing insight into what emotions influence drink choice between different groups in the population. The differences identified between sociodemographic groups and influences on drink choice within different settings will

  2. Types and Influence of Social Support on School Engagement of Young Survivors of Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Anne-Marie; Jutras, Sylvie; Bigras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe and explore the influence of social support on the school engagement of young survivors of pediatric leukemia. Fifty-three young Quebecers, previously diagnosed and treated for leukemia, completed a questionnaire measuring their school engagement and participated in an interview focusing on the support offered…

  3. Social Relationships and Motivation in Secondary School: Four Different Motivation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Jagenow, Danilo; Drury, Kate; Hoferichter, Frances

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of individual differences in scholastic motivation, the present study examined if social relationships in school are equally important for motivation across a large sample of adolescent students. Based on past research as well as our preliminary findings, it was hypothesized that there would be four different…

  4. Different Types of Internet Use, Depression, and Social Anxiety: The Role of Perceived Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations of time spent on Internet activities for communication purposes (i.e., IM-ing) versus time spent on Internet activities for non-communication purposes (i.e., surfing) with depression and social anxiety, as well as the moderating role of perceived friendship quality in these associations.…

  5. A comparison of clinicians' access to online knowledge resources using two types of information retrieval applications in an academic hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sevgin; Cimino, James J; Koziol, Deloris E

    2013-01-01

    The research studied whether a clinician's preference for online health knowledge resources varied with the use of two applications that were designed for information retrieval in an academic hospital setting. The researchers analyzed a year's worth of computer log files to study differences in the ways that four clinician groups (attending physicians, housestaff physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses) sought information using two types of information retrieval applications (health resource links or Infobutton icons) across nine resources while they reviewed patients' laboratory results. From a set of 14,979 observations, the authors found statistically significant differences among the 4 clinician groups for accessing resources using the health resources application (Pinformation-seeking behavior of clinicians may vary in relation to their role and the way in which the information is presented. Studying these behaviors can provide valuable insights to those tasked with maintaining information retrieval systems' links to appropriate online knowledge resources.

  6. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  7. Application feasibility study of evaluation technology for long-term rock behavior. 2. Parameter setting of variable compliance type model and application feasibility study for rock behavior evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin; Noda, Masaru; Niunoya, Sumio; Hata, Koji; Matsui, Hiroya; Mikake, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    Creep phenomenon is one of the long-term rock behaviors. In many of rock-creep studies, model and parameter have been verified in 2D analysis using model parameter acquired by uniaxial compression test etc considering rock types. Therefore, in this study model parameter was set by uniaxial compression test with classified rock samples which were taken from pilot boring when the main shaft was constructed. Then, comparison between measured value and 3D excavation analysis with identified parameter was made. By and large, the study showed that validity of identification methodology of parameter to identify reproduction of measured value and analysis method. (author)

  8. Analysis of Tandem curves by set of cylindrical absorber layers and ionization chamber type pencil for evaluation of HVL in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    A Tandem system consists of the use of different energy dependent dosimeters, where the ratio of the responses of the calibration curves to energy provides the effective energy of the beam. The efficiency of this system is related to the uncertainties inherent in the dosimeter used and the degree of energy dependence of each set. The greater the slope of the Tandem curve the better will be the identification of values close to HVL making the system useful. In this work, the Tandem system consists of ionization chamber of the pencil type and cylindrical absorber layers of materials with different energetic dependencies, for application in computed tomography. (author)

  9. [Correspondence analysis on the types of social support and the role of the supporters towards people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lv, Jun; Cao, Wei-hua

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between types of social support and roles of supporters, on people living with HIV/AIDS, in rural areas of Henan province. A rural area from Henan province where the main route of HIV transmission was through blood collection was selected as the research site. Survivors registered in that area were randomly selected as subjects. Questionnaire on social support related to social network analysis paradigm was designed and face-to-face interview was used to collect information. Correspondence analysis method was adopted to analyze the relationship between types of social support and roles of social supporters. 204 questionnaires were sorted out with 2227 pairs of bind between types of social support and roles of social supporters analyzed. According to scatter plot of row and column points, our data showed that support from the spouses was mainly associated with caring for daily life and companionship for medical treatment on the patients. The research subjects stated that they would primarily discuss over the major issues or chat with their parents and children as they were the ones that they could trust the most. However, they would turn to their brothers, sisters or other relatives to borrow money or asking for other kinds of help. Non-relatives were the resources on social interaction, like going-out together or borrowing life necessities. Supporters with different social roles on HIV/AIDS issues, appeared to be corresponded to specific types of social support in rural areas of Henan province.

  10. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S

    2014-01-01

    clinical review only. Other information obtained was age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, urine albumin-creatinine ratio, duration since diagnosis and medication. RESULTS: One hundred and one patients with DM (type 1 DM = 23, type 2 DM = 78) were included. Spearman's rank......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one.......24-0.32, P AUC = 0.80, SE = 0.05), RBG ≤7.5 mmol/l was determined as the optimal cut-off value for good glycaemic control (HbA1c

  11. PROMOTING PSYCHO-SOCIAL-SPIRITUAL RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS THROUGH APLICATION ON SELF CARE MANAGEMENT MODUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus was a kind of incurable chronic disease that actually manageable. The global prevalence tends to increase due to less self management of the disease and the impact of it was severe health condition. There were so many interventions implemented but failed to give optimal improvement in patient’s condition and there are so many DM patients have insufficient ability to manage their own disease. Patients need to have knowledge, skills, and self confident to be able to manage their disease. Patient’s self-management depends on patient’s education, empowerment, and self monitoring in evaluating their self-care management. The purpose of this research was promoting patient’s psychological, social, and spiritual conditions through Self Care Management. Improvement in psychological, social, and spiritual conditions in patients with DM will lead to better level of blood glucose and HbA1C. Method: Patient newly diagnose with Type 2 DM at Puskesmas Kebonsari was selected with purposive sampling and divided into two groups. Each group contains 25 patients. Intervention group was given Self Diabetes Management Module. Before and after intervention patient was given Questionnaire. The data then analyzed using Student-T test, McNemar and Chi-Square. Result: The result of this research showed patient have constructive coping, increase interpersonal relation. Patients also have better acceptance about the disease and involve in its management. Discussion: Self Care Management Module promotes psychological, social, and spiritual conditions in patients with type 2 DM.

  12. Social Determinants of Health Are Associated with Markers of Renal Injury in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Laura A M; Clarke, Antoine; Sochett, Etienne; Daneman, Denis; Cherney, David Z; Reich, Heather N; Scholey, James W; Dunger, David B; Mahmud, Farid H

    2018-05-08

    To examine the relationship between the social determinants of health and markers of early renal injury in adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Renal outcomes included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-creatinine excretion ratio (ACR). Differences in urinary and serum inflammatory markers also were assessed in relation to social determinants of health. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg) as a measure of the social determinants of health, patient characteristics, ACR, eGFR, and renal filtration status (hyperfiltration vs normofiltration). Participants with T1D (n = 199) with a mean age of 14.4 ± 1.7 years and diabetes duration of 7.2 ± 3.1 years were studied. Mean eGFR was 122.0 ± 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Increasing marginalization was positively associated with eGFR (P social and biological determinants of health in adolescents with T1D. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

    2015-04-01

    This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.

  14. Balarabe and Watila TYPE SET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2015), 23(1): 51-54 ... Neurological examination was performed and computed tomography scan of the brain done. Blood samples were ..... Pediatric Neurology, 23: 252-255. Mochan, A.

  15. Rule Learning in Autism: The Role of Reward Type and Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E. J. H.; Webb, S. J.; Estes, A.; Dawson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concret...

  16. Predictors of Self-care among the Elderly with Diabetes Type 2: Using Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhaninejad, Vahidreza; Iranpour, Abedin; Shati, Mohsen; Tahami, Ahmad Naghibzadeh; Yousefzadeh, Gholamrezan; Fadayevatan, Reza

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases among the elderly and is also a very serious health problem. Adopting theory-based self-care behaviors is an effective means in managing such diseases. This study aimed to determine the predictors of diabetes self-care in the elderly in Kerman based on a social cognitive theory. In this cross-sectional study, 384 elderly diabetic patients who had referred to health screening centers in Kerman were chosen via cluster sampling. To collect information about self-care and its predictors, Toobert Glasgow's diabetes self-efficacy scale as well as a questionnaire was used which was based on social cognitive theory constructs. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis in SPSS software 17. Among the subjects, 67.37% (252) had poor self-care ability; 29.14% (109) had average ability, and 3.40% (13) enjoyed a proper level of self- care ability. There was a significant relationship between the constructs of the social cognitive theory (knowledge, self- efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, outcome expectancy and self-regulation) and the self-care score. Furthermore, the mentioned constructs could predict 0.47% of the variance of the self-care behaviors. self-care behaviors in this study were poor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an educational intervention based on cognitive theory constructs with the goal of properly managing diabetes in the elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic and social disparities in different types of examinations in undergraduate pre-clinical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen); F.N. Brommet; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMedical schools are increasingly faced with a more diverse student population. Generally, ethnic minority students are reported to underperform compared with those from the ethnic majority. However, there are inconsistencies in findings in different types of examinations. Additionally,

  18. Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Saffon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75 protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. Set-type yogurts were prepared from skim milk standardized to 15% (w/v total solids and 4.2% (w/v protein using different levels of powdered skim milk or freeze-dried protein aggregate. The use of the protein aggregate significantly modified yogurt texture, but did not affect the water-holding capacity of the gel. Confocal laser-scanning microscope images showed the presence of large particles in milk enriched with protein aggregate, which directly affected the homogeneity of the clusters within the protein matrix. Thiol groups were freed during heating of the protein aggregate suspended in water, suggesting that the aggregates could interact with milk proteins during heating.

  19. Social-ecological resources as mediators of two-year diet and physical activity outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A; Mackinnon, David P; Toobert, Deborah J

    2008-03-01

    In behavioral research directed at the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the challenge is to understand how interventions might facilitate long-term lifestyle changes. The Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP) is an intervention for postmenopausal women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes that has shown promising effects on outcomes that include increased physical activity and reduced fat consumption. The present study extended previous findings by evaluating diet-specific and activity-specific social-ecological resources as possible mediators of intervention effects over a 2-year period. Percent calories from saturated fat and caloric expenditure per week in all physical activities were assessed with self-report questionnaires. The MLP was successful in increasing participants' use of diet-specific and activity-specific family/friend and neighborhood resources. There was some evidence that changes in those resources mediated intervention effects on saturated fat consumption and physical activity outcomes. The experimental manipulation of mediators and the demonstrated mediational effects provided some support for the conclusion that social-ecological resources can contribute to improvements in healthful lifestyles for women with type 2 diabetes. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Impact of a goal setting and decision support telephone coaching intervention on diet, psychosocial, and decision outcomes among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine M; Miller, Carla K; Wills, Celia E

    2017-07-01

    Evaluate a 16-week decision support and goal-setting intervention to compare diet quality, decision, and diabetes-related outcomes to a control group. Adults with type 2 diabetes (n=54) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants completed one in-person motivational interviewing and decision support session followed by seven biweekly telephone coaching calls. Participants reported previous goal attempts and set diet- and/or physical activity-related goals during coaching calls. Control group participants received information about local health care resources on the same contact schedule. There was a significant difference between groups for diabetes empowerment (p=0.045). A significant increase in diet quality, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes empowerment, and a significant decrease in diabetes distress and depressive symptoms (all p≤0.05) occurred in the intervention group. Decision confidence to achieve diet-related goals significantly improved from baseline to week 8 but then declined at study end (both p≤0.05). Setting specific diet-related goals may promote dietary change, and telephone coaching can improve psychosocial outcomes related to diabetes self-management. Informed shared decision making can facilitate progressively challenging yet attainable goals tailored to individuals' lifestyle. Decision coaching may empower patients to improve self-management practices and reduce distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.