WorldWideScience

Sample records for social political religious

  1. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  2. Religious Education for Political Thinking and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    The curricular accommodation of religious education is almost always dissociated from the latter's political significance and the teaching of religious worldviews is often limited to serving social, (multi)culturalist and epistemological purposes. When RE is made relevant to political identity this occurs strictly within the confines of a liberal…

  3. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  4. NATIONAL-RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM AND POLITICAL TERROR OF NATIONALISTS AS THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE ETHNOGENESIS OF ARMENIAN ETHNICITY (ESSAY ON SOCIAL-POLITICAL HISTORY)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The author traces the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people and analyzes its content to demonstrate how organized national and religious extremism, political terror, and terrorism affected the vector and intensity of social modernization of Armenian ethnicity between the last quarter of the nineteenth and the late twentieth century.

  5. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  6. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  7. RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION AND SOCIAL DISTANCE BETWEEN RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how political, religious, and economic changes in Yogyakarta affect the formation of religious identity and social distance between different religious groups. The strengthening of religious identity in this area took place in the period of the Diponegoro War (1825-1830 when religious issues were used in the mobilization against the Dutch colonialist. Then, the spread of Christianity in Java at the end of 19th led to several tensions between missionaries and several Islamic organizations, but never developed into communal violence. In 1930s, the relation between religious groups remain harmonious due to the development of tolerant culture and pluralism. During the 1980s, the use of religious identity grew both in urban and rural areas in line with social processes of modernization. Da’wat activities on Campus (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus plays important roles in promoting religious life in urban areas. The 1998 political reform marked the rise of religious fundamentalist movements that to a certain degree contributes to social distance between religious groups.

  8. Religious Education and Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  9. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  10. The political downside of dual identity: group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-12-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of another relevant in-group--the religious community - especially if this in-group is not accepted by the wider society. Using a sample of 641 Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, dual ethno-national identity (Turkish-German/Turkish-Dutch) was examined in relation to religious Muslim identification and religious political mobilization. Dual identity was expected to be indirectly related to lower mobilization via decreased religious group identification. Further, this mediating process was predicted to be stronger for Turkish Muslims who perceived relatively high religious group discrimination. In both countries we found support for the mediating hypothesis, however, the moderating role of discrimination was confirmed only for the Netherlands. Turkish-Dutch identification was associated with lower support for religious political mobilization because of lower Muslim identification only for Turkish-Dutch participants who perceived high levels of discrimination. These findings indicate that a strong dual (ethno-national) identity can undermine minority members' support for political rights and actions on behalf of a third relevant in-group, and therefore qualify the social psychological benefits of the dual identity model. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.

  12. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  13. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  14. From Religious Diversity to Political Competition: The Differentiation Process of Pentecostalism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Silva Moreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing religious diversity in Brazil has more to do with a differentiation process within Pentecostalism itself than with the presence of very diverse religious groups. Starting with the analysis of such differentiation process, the article aims to discuss the need of terminological improvement and eventually the necessity of Keynesian rules adopted by the State to regulate ultraliberal religious markets. In unequal societies and religious markets such as those in Brazil, Pentecostal leaders’ greedy attitudes regarding their own adherents and aggressive intolerance against other religions’ followers are coherent with a functionalist religious market conception. In this view, highly aggressive strategies of some Pentecostal churches vis-à-vis other adversaries are seen as belonging to the normal functioning of a (neo-liberal self-regulated social subsystem. Therefore, reflections on religious diversity inspired on a market model assume neoliberal macro conditions (total deregulation and free competition as granted or desirable. Religious diversity would appear as the “natural” consequence of religious competition. However, put in Beckford’s terms, how can religious pluralism be achieved under terrible conditions of religious diversity? Intolerant attitudes of neo-Pentecostal leaders undermine the very bases of democracy and put the discussion on religious diversity and pluralism under new theoretical and political exigencies.

  15. Politics of religious minoritisation and glocalisation: notes towards a study of religious networks of transnational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanildo Burity

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a preliminary analytical framework for the study of one of the main forms of global expression of religious movements in the contemporary scenario and its specific impact on the public sphere: the involvement of networks of social and political activism at translocal, trasnational and global levels. This is done through the analysis of the relationship between religion and globalisation, with particular attention to Christian groups, stressing two sets of processes: first, the dynamics of visibility and latency within these experiences; and second, the convergence betweenprocesses of minoritisation and imbrication of local and global (which will be developed though the concept of glocalisation. The study will be conducted as a comparative analysis of existing networks between Brazil, Argentina and the United Kingdom. 

  16. Explaining Why More Americans Have No Religious Preference: Political Backlash and Generational Succession, 1987-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hout

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty percent of American adults claimed no religious preference in 2012, compared to 7 percent twenty-five years earlier. Previous research identified a political backlash against the religious right and generational change as major factors in explaining the trend. That research found that religious beliefs had not changed, ruling out secularization as a cause. In this paper we employ new data and more powerful analytical tools to: (1 update the time series, (2 present further evidence of correlations between political backlash, generational succession, and religious identification, (3 show how valuing personal autonomy generally and autonomy in the sphere of sex and drugs specifically explain generational differences, and (4 use GSS panel data to show that the causal direction in the rise of the “Nones” likely runs from political identity as a liberal or conservative to religious identity, reversing a long-standing convention in social science research. Our new analysis joins the threads of earlier explanations into a general account of how political conflict over cultural issues spurred an increase in non-affiliation.

  17. DYNAMIC SOCIAL INTEGRATION: SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF RELIGIOUS FOLLOWERS IN AMBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidin Ernas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The social dynamics in post-conflict Ambon, Maluku, 1999-2004, indicated that even though people were segregated in the ​​Islamic-Christian areas, gradually social integration began to occur naturally. The process of integration that occurred also gave birth to new values ​​and inclusive views that give hope to future peace building. Using the theory of social integration of dynamic adaptation of the Parsonian structural-functional classic paradigm and combined with a qualitative research model, this study successfully formulated several important findings. First, social integration occurred in the city of Ambon could run naturally through economic interactions, consensus on political balance and inclusive religious spirit. In addition, the presence of public spaces such as offices, schools, malls and coffee shops served as a natural integration medium that is increasingly important in the dynamics of the society. Second, the new social integration has created an increasingly important meaning that leads to a model of active harmony characterized by a process of the increasingly active social interaction between different religions, as well as strengthening pluralism and multiculturalism insight due to campaign by educational institutions and civil society groups. Third, this study also reminds us that although there has been a process of the increasingly positive social integration in Ambon city, people still need to be aware of the growth of radical religious ideologies at a certain level, and also of strengthening identity politics in the long run that will potentially give birth to primordial and ethnocentric attitudes that are harmful to the development of peace.

  18. The politics and anti-politics of social movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...

  19. Religious freedom and political correctness in United Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Artur Aleksiejuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in times that are particularly sensitive to issues such as freedom and are differentiated by strong aspirations for personal and societal freedom. One speaks of political-societal freedom, freedom of religion, artistic freedom and freedom to choose one’s own lifestyle. It would be possible to make a long list of the various kinds or manifestations of freedom, which modern individuals indentify in their lives. My essay considers the ways the law functions in regards to religious freedom in the context of the currently prevailing and implemented political visions in United Europe. Strictly speaking, this paper concerns the definition of place, which was assigned for religious convictions of citizens of the European Union and their role in shaping their personal and societal lives.

  20. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  1. Religious identification and politicization in the face of discrimination: support for political Islam and political action among the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Klein, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Taking an approach from religion as a social identity and using large-scale comparative surveys in five European cities, we investigate when and how perceived discrimination is associated with religious identification and politicization among the second generation of Turkish and Moroccan Muslims. We distinguish support for political Islam from political action as distinct forms of politicization. In addition, we test the mediating role of religious identification in processes of politicization. Study 1 estimates multi-group structural equation models of support for political Islam in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. In line with a social identity model of politicization and across nine inter-group contexts, Muslims who perceived more discrimination identified (even) more strongly as Muslims; and high Muslim identifiers were most ready to support political Islam. In support of a competing social stigma hypothesis, however, negative direct and total effects of perceived discrimination suggest predominant depoliticization. Using separate sub-samples across four inter-group contexts in Belgium, Study 2 adds political action tendencies as a distinct form of politicization. Whereas religious identification positively predicts both forms of politicization, perceived discrimination has differential effects: Muslims who perceived more discrimination were more weary of supporting political Islam, yet more ready to engage in political action to defend Islamic values. Taken together, the studies reveal that some Muslim citizens will politicize and others will depoliticize in the face of discrimination as a function of their religious identification and of prevailing forms of politicization. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Service Learning and Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the link between political socialization scholarship and service learning. States that information gleaned from socialization research on adolescents' political identities and beliefs can inform service learning, asserting that the relationship between political socialization and service learning needs to be encouraged. (CMK)

  3. Religious Identification and Modes of Civic and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Møballe, Svend

    are represented in public debate. It appears that the most politically active immigrants at the local and national levels and in the media are individuals who focus on issues related to Islam, or are considered to have Islamic affiliations. Danish policy of contradiction (that is formal openness and substantial....... For instance, not only was there a remarkable cut down in the number of immigrants entering the country, but there was also a decline in supporting immigrant population’s participation in civic areas. It seems that the scope, the content and the intensity of the debate, as well as the overall discursive...... and public debate, provide the religious and ethnic identification and participation with an attractive mode of civic and political participation among immigrants; whether these are newcomers or ‘old’ immigrants. There exists a rather substantial variation in the extent to which immigrant groups...

  4. Political Socialization: A Topical Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauen, Marsha; Harmon, Kathryn Newcomer

    1977-01-01

    Identifies four major areas of recent investigations: cross-cultural studies of political socialization, the focus on the interactive nature of the individual in the process of learning about politics, the need to examine the comparative impacts of the various agencies of political socialization, and methodological and conceptual refinements.…

  5. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  6. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  7. Politically Active Home Economists: Their Socialization to Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Connie J.

    1980-01-01

    A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)

  8. Religious and Political Conservatism and Beliefs About Same-Sex Parenting in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AimDuring the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs.MethodA total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years (M = 34; SD = 11, responded to one of three questionnaires that included a case vignette depicting a different-sex, a female same-sex, or a male same-sex couple wishing to adopt a child. Participants were then asked to evaluate whether the couple would be suitable to adopt a child, and whether they anticipated any social and emotional problems with the child.ResultsParticipants consistently anticipated more children’s social and emotional problems if they were adopted by a same-sex couple. Men evaluated same-sex couples less favourably than women, and even less so the male same-sex couple.ConclusionIt was found that both religious conservatism and right-wing political leaning were associated with more sexual prejudicial beliefs regarding same-sex couples.

  9. Critical Theory and Political Socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIK, Domonkos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.

  10. Social cohesion and civil law: marriage, divorce and religious courts

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Gillian; Doe, Christopher Norman; Gilliat-Ray, Sophie; Sandberg, Russell; Khan, Asma

    2011-01-01

    This Cardiff University study of religious courts and tribunals across the UK has been funded by the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Programme. The project, „Social Cohesion and Civil Law: Marriage, Divorce and Religious Courts‟, explores how religious law functions alongside civil law in England and Wales.\\ud The context, though not the catalyst, for our study, is the lecture given by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 2008 on the relationship between religious law - primarily though not exclusi...

  11. Political model of social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-12-27

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved.

  12. Political Education as a Means of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Weronika; Knobelsdorf, Wodzimierz

    1980-01-01

    This essay describes the dimensions of political socialization with systematic political education as a major component. Both promote individual acceptance of political norms--particularly where government and school systems are tightly linked. The authors argue that political socialization should promote effective citizenship rather than simply…

  13. Social Workers and Politics: Lessons from Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Leon

    1988-01-01

    Describes the workings of the political system as it is important to social workers. Discusses three significant issues in politics: (1) the role of money; (2) crises as pervasive political phenomena; and (3) the habituating nature of political participation. (ABL)

  14. Cyclical Evolution of Nursing Education and Profession in Iran: Religious, Cultural, and Political Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Pari; Mura, Aubin

    1995-01-01

    Nursing education in Iran has been influenced by cycles of religious and political change, including fluctuations in women's status, the modernization attempts of the Pahlavi Dynasty, and the shift from secular science-based education and health care back to a system based on religious and cultural principles in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (SK)

  15. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

    2012-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

  16. Exploring the Intersectionality of Bisexual, Religious/Spiritual, and Political Identities from a Feminist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eric M; Lytle, Megan C; Vaughan, Michelle D

    2013-07-01

    While there is a small but growing body of work that examines the religious and spiritual lives of bisexuals, there is a strong need for additional research that further explores the intersectionality of these distinct identities. Motivated by the feminist notions that the personal is political and that individuals are the experts of their own experiences (Unger, 2001), the specific aim of this study is to better understand the intersection of multiple identities experienced by bisexual individuals. Relying upon data collected by Herek, Glunt, and colleagues during their Northern California Health Study, in this exploratory study we examine the intersection of bisexual, religious/spiritual, and political identities by conducting an archival secondary analysis of 120 self-identified bisexual individuals. Among the significant findings, results suggest that higher LGB self-esteem scores and openness about sexual orientation correlated with higher levels of spirituality. Further, attraction to same sex partners was associated with perceiving sexual orientation as a choice, identifying as bisexual at a younger age, more likely to disclose one's sexual orientation, less likely to view religion as being socially important, and a higher score on the belief statement. We discuss the implications of these results and make suggestions for future research on the role of religion and spirituality in bisexual lives.

  17. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  18. Political mobilization of Dutch Muslims : religious identity salience, goal framing and normative constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phalet, Karen; Baysu, Gülseli

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question of when and for what purpose Muslims will act collectively in the political arena. The impact of religious identity salience, goal framing, and normative constraints on political mobilization was examined in two Muslim communities with different group positions in

  19. The Politics and Anti-Politics of Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book explores the nature, significance and consequences of the religious activism surrounding AIDS in Africa. While African religion was relatively marginal in inspiring or contributing to AIDS activism during the early days of the epidemic, this situation has changed dramatically. In order...... to account for these changes, contributors provide answers to pressing questions. How does the entrance of religion into public debates about AIDS affect policymaking and implementation, church-state relations, and religion itself? How do religious actors draw on and reconfigure forms of transnational...... connectivity? How do resource flows from development and humanitarian aid that religious actors may access then affect relationships of power and authority in African societies? How does religious mobilization on AIDS reflect contestation over identity, cultural membership, theology, political participation...

  20. Radical atheism and religious power: new atheist politics

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart McAnulla

    2012-01-01

    The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, ...

  1. Radical atheism and religious power: new atheist politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McAnulla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, in particular (i religion’s role in public decision-making; (ii the ability of religious groups to shape policy agendas; (iii the power of religion to create preferences that run counter to an individual’s true interests and, (iv the role of religion in constituting forms of subjectivity more generally. Focussing particularly on the role of atheism in the UK, the paper also considers the implications such thinking has had on atheist practice and activism. The paper also considers how defenders of religion have reacted to the challenges posed by new atheism. It is argued that religious groups and authors have largely focussed on defending the role of religious faith and the significance of God in people’s lives, rather than explicitly defending what new atheists consider to be the unfair institutional privilege accorded to some religious organisations.

  2. Political Reform, Socio-Religious Change, and Stability in the African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    research project This project proposed to analyze the socio- political factors affecting stability and instability in a set of six African countries...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0360 Political Reform, Socio-Religious Change, and Stability in the African Sahel Leonard Villalon UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA...STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS Political stability

  3. Political Islam and Religious Violence in Post-New Order Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Mughis Mudhoffir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to understand why religious violence increasingly occurs in post-New Order Indonesia. There are two dominant views in understanding this. First, the security approach that perceives the violence as a result of the emergent of “radical” agent of political Islam in the more open political space. In this regard, the state is considered weak because the iron hand as used by the authoritarian regime in the past New Orderhas disappeared. Thus, the strong security instruments are needed as a solution, such as the law on anti-terrorism and the police force of anti-terrorism (Densus 88. Second, the cultural approach views violence as caused by the inability of society to build the religious tolerance. Society is considered weak. Religious expression in the political arena is believedas the source of the emergent of intolerant acts. To conquer this, intensive inter-religious dialogues are required. The author argues that those two approaches are not adequate. The historical fact shows that the emergence of political Islam today is the result of the oscillated relationship between Islam and the authoritarian state during the New Order period. In addition, the Indonesian historical experience also clearly illustrates that the presence of political Islam is nothing but a form of response to the critical social-politicaleconomic situation. Political Islam does not appear in a vacuum, but it emerges from the crisis where another populist response from the left is absent.Tulisan ini berupaya memahami mengapa kekerasan agama meningkat di Indonesia pasca Orde Baru. Selama ini, ada dua pandangan dominan dalam memahami persoalan di atas. Pertama, pendekatan keamanan yang memandang kekerasan agama sebagai hasil dari munculnya agen Islam politik yang radikal dalam arena politik yang semakin terbuka. Dalam konteks ini, negara dianggap lemah karena kehilangan tangan besinya seperti yang sebelumnya digunakan oleh rezim otoriter

  4. The Effects of Denomination on Religious Socialization for Jewish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…

  5. When ingroups aren't "In": perceived political belief similarity moderates religious ingroup favoritism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlee Beth Hawkins

    Full Text Available Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal.

  6. When Ingroups Aren’t “In”: Perceived Political Belief Similarity Moderates Religious Ingroup Favoritism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Carlee Beth; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal. PMID:23251406

  7. Religião, política e cultura Religion, politics and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanildo A. Burity

    2008-11-01

    ,' 'acknowledgment' and 'dialogue' between lay and religious actors are thereby generated through the interconnecting of issues of national/ethnic/racial/gender/class/age identification and political demands. Such a scenario elicits thematic and theoretical repositionings from social scientists, which are identified and discussed in the text.

  8. Pluralism in political corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, J.; Kourula, A.

    2012-01-01

    Within corporate social responsibility (CSR), the exploration of the political role of firms (political CSR) has recently experienced a revival. We review three key periods of political CSR literature—classic, instrumental, and new political CSR—and use the Rawlsian conceptualization of division of

  9. Modernidade, Cultura e Religião na Ordem Política e Social do Japão (Modernity, Culture and Religion in the Political and Social Order of Japan - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n23p799

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Salgado de Sousa

    2011-10-01

    dominant. While in the west the transcendental dimension of Christianity exerted a strong influence in the creation of universal values in the light of which the sociopolitical reality was shaped, in Japan, Buddhism―the dominant religion throughout the feudal period―was never able to attain such hegemony and offer normative and universal values for the political and social order. In Japan the supreme value to which everything else should be subordinated is the political and social order of the nation. To be a faithful member of the social collectivity and contribute to the preservation of its harmony acquires a quasi-sacred value. Here resides the core essence of the religiosity of the Japanese people, often referred to as Nipponism. It was this cultural and religious matrix of an ethnocentric nature that enabled Japan to adopt many elements of western culture in order to modernize the nation and at the same time maintain its own cultural identity. Key words: Japan. Religion. Culture. Social Collectivity. Nipponism.  Dificilmente se encontrará um outro país que foi tão influenciado por outras culturas e civilizações como o Japão. De fato, os grandes pontos de viragem da sua história foram marcados pelo encontro com outras civilizações e culturas. Porém, as grandes mudanças que se operaram como resultado de influências exteriores nunca conseguiram pôr em questão as premissas básicas da cultura japonesa. Prevaleceu sempre um sistema de valores que carece de uma clara orientação transcendental e universalista. Enquanto no mundo ocidental a dimensão transcendental do cristianismo exerceu uma forte influência na criação de valores universais à luz dos quais se configurou a realidade sociopolítica, no Japão o budismo, a religião dominante durante o período feudal, nunca conseguiu alcançar tal hegemonia e oferecer princípios orientadores para a ordem politica e social. O valor supremo ao qual tudo o resto se deve subordinar é a ordem sociopol

  10. Nazi Education: A Case of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the German Nazi party arranged for the political socialization of German children through public education in the 1930s. Topics include philosophy of the Nazi party, political socialization of teachers, and teaching materials for Nazi education. Implications for education's role in politics are explored. (CH)

  11. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И А Щеглов

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  12. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    OpenAIRE

    И А Щеглов

    2008-01-01

    Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  13. Religious trends and social integration: Muslim minorities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I set out to describe religiosity and religious trends among the Dutch Muslim population, and to assess the influence of the social integration of Muslims in co-ethnic minority and majority social networks. Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands migrated from countries in which

  14. The Cultures of Social Class and Religious Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Although social class impacts the assumptions, values, and normative practices of Religious Education, the lack of public discourse on class diminishes awareness of and critical reflection on this impact. This article describes social class as a largely unarticulated and embodied performance of identity inflected through hierarchical practices of…

  15. The political responsibility of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Zamanillo Peral

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to try to recover a critical dialog between the politics and the social work. In this paper it argued that the politics is a dimension of the identity of the social work of which we cannot avoid. In this way, the politics and the social work, are doubly tied. On the one hand, the political power exercise corresponds to every citizen of the polis. And, on the other hand, the social work is narrowly tied to the social politics by means of its object of study. Our arguments it’s construct from a diagnosis of the social reality and professional that is held in this specific relationship. We claim to contribute with elements of analyses that help, not only to understand, but also answering politically as professionals of the social work and as citizen in the society.

  16. THE USE OF RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL RITUALS IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN MARTIAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main characteristics and trends inthe development of media power in the context of increasing its connection with the otherpowers in the society, especially with the political and ecclesiastic power. The developmentof communication technologies, especially during the last half of a century, has led to theimprovement and increase of the efficiency of communication functions at all levels,regardless of the distances between those who manage communication and the targetpublic. The sacerdotal and political powers of our days have taken over the results ofmass–media development in order to use them intensively in the attainment of their ownmission and strategies, seeking to be as successful as possible. An essential way forfulfilling the goals of political and ecclesiastic power is the intentional use of specificceremonies and rituals in the communication exchanges with the public. The “directors”and “screenwriters” involved in the organization of such spectacles and their mediacoverage all over the planet have so perfected this art that the powers receiving extensivemedia coverage have become seductive celebrities, increasingly capable of manipulation, foran increasingly wider public. The author taps into a comprehensive historical,philosophical, sociological and practical documentation in order to demonstrate theincrease in the functions of audiovisual, verbal and nonverbal communication in our days,and some perverse effects of this evolution.

  17. Social Media and Political Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Ito-Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utility of information and communication technologies (ICT becomes increasingly more essential in modern societies, and the new public space provided by ICT gives opportunities for people who previously did not have tools to be heard, to discuss, to meet and to start social movements, as happened in the case of «Occupy Wall Street» or «Arab Spring». Recently the similar phenomenon has been observed in Japan, a country with the existence of weak civil society, little interest of citizens to protest, and the lack of active social movements. Yet lately, new groups against the government appear taking advantage of the use of ICT, especially social networks. In this research we aim to study the impact, the application, and the advantages and disadvantages of social networks in these protest movements in order to increase better political education. The methodology to be used is case study (process-tracing method, analyzing data and information collected from various digital communication sources. After the study we conclude that the use of social networks contributes to the activation of Japanese civil society.

  18. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  19. The psychological advantage of unfalsifiability: the appeal of untestable religious and political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Campbell, Troy H; Kay, Aaron C

    2015-03-01

    We propose that people may gain certain "offensive" and "defensive" advantages for their cherished belief systems (e.g., religious and political views) by including aspects of unfalsifiability in those belief systems, such that some aspects of the beliefs cannot be tested empirically and conclusively refuted. This may seem peculiar, irrational, or at least undesirable to many people because it is assumed that the primary purpose of a belief is to know objective truth. However, past research suggests that accuracy is only one psychological motivation among many, and falsifiability or testability may be less important when the purpose of a belief serves other psychological motives (e.g., to maintain one's worldviews, serve an identity). In Experiments 1 and 2 we demonstrate the "offensive" function of unfalsifiability: that it allows religious adherents to hold their beliefs with more conviction and political partisans to polarize and criticize their opponents more extremely. Next we demonstrate unfalsifiability's "defensive" function: When facts threaten their worldviews, religious participants frame specific reasons for their beliefs in more unfalsifiable terms (Experiment 3) and political partisans construe political issues as more unfalsifiable ("moral opinion") instead of falsifiable ("a matter of facts"; Experiment 4). We conclude by discussing how in a world where beliefs and ideas are becoming more easily testable by data, unfalsifiability might be an attractive aspect to include in one's belief systems, and how unfalsifiability may contribute to polarization, intractability, and the marginalization of science in public discourse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Which Societies Provide a Strong Religious Socialization Context? Explanations Beyond the Effects of National Religiosity

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Tim; De Graaf, Nan Dirk; Schmidt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Religious socialization occurs within the immediate family as well as in the broader social context. Previous research has shown that parents religiosity matters less for the transmission of religious beliefs in devout than in secular nations, implying smaller costs of religious socialization. In this article we test which other societal factors affect the transmission of religious beliefs: anti-religious policies in formerly socialist countries, economic development, and income inequality. O...

  1. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  2. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  3. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  4. Religious and Non-religious Activity Engagement as Assets in Promoting Social Ties Throughout University: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-08-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed.

  5. Contemporary Limitations to Religious Solution to Social Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, cultural differences, political pressures, and plurality of values weaken the therapeutic strength of religion as it attends to social problems. Finally, this paper argues that religion as a social capital can reduce the menace of social problems if its institutions can be trusted by the people in the society. Key Words: ...

  6. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  7. Religious and political leadership in Brazil at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries – the case of Father Cícero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Agnieszka Siuda-Ambroziak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a very interesting place for academic research regarding religious and political leadership. It does not happen only due to the continuous supply of religious leaders, but also owing to their social and political influence. One of good examples of such leaders at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries is certainly Father Cicero, who, in spite of the problems connected with the disapproval of his activity on the part of the Vatican, is still regarded as a perfect example of both an outstanding politician and a non-canonized popular saint with the place of his earthly religious and political activity turned long ago into destination of pilgrimages and important popular religiosity shrines. Using the biographical method and coming out of the Weberian concepts of charismatic leadership, the author tries to explain the reasons behind his tremendous popularity and a conflict with the Catholic hierarchy, as well as to comment on the background of his cult in the context of social, economic and political changes taking place in Brazil during his lifetime.

  8. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party) through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistribut...

  9. The Religious Identities and Social Stucture of Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Šavija-Valha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.

  10. Political Socialization Research and Canadian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a review of the burgeoning field of Canadian political socialization research as it applies to children and youth, and considers some implications of recent findings for the Canadian studies curriculum. (Editor)

  11. Explaining the Relation between Religiousness and Reduced Suicidal Behavior: Social Support Rather than Specific Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Alee; Fiske, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Religiousness has been associated with decreased risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well characterized. The present study examined the roles of religious beliefs and social support in that relation. A survey measuring religiousness, social support, suicidal…

  12. The American School in the Political Socialization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehman, Lee H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the effects of schooling on the political socialization of American youth are reviewed. School-level and classroom-level attributes are related to four political socialization outcomes: political knowledge; political attitudes and values; attitudes toward political participation; and participation in political or quasi-political…

  13. Narratives of the gypsy awakening. Religious innovation, gypsy leadership and identity politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cantón-Delgado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are the largest ethnic minority in Europe (10-12 mill. From the 1950s they began to congregate in Pentecostal churches across the continent, spreading and increasing structure and influence rapidly, especially in France and Spain. This article provides new data to analyze ethnic and religious phenomenon in the process of rapid growth, of American/African-American origin, that among the Spanish gypsy population shows its own peculiarities: a self-managed movement, alien to the conventions of Rom activism, political identity and public policies to promote minorities, and led by gypsy ministers or supported on a new narrative on primitive Gypsyism with biblical justification.

  14. Political Socialization and Social Studies Education: Reassessing the Conventional Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1989-01-01

    Critically examines the political socialization research over the past 30 years as to method, sample, size, and results. Reassesses studies that have been most cited and those that have been ignored. Raises questions about political socialization that have not been addressed or have been inadequately addressed. (KO)

  15. Varieties of Religious Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Noah Olawoyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world.  Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism.  Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts.  It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types.  However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions.  Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary.  Each of these also has subdivision.

  16. The effects of name and religious priming on ratings of a well-known political figure, President Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary A; Guichard, AnaMarie C; An, JungHa

    2017-01-01

    Priming with race-typed names and religious concepts have been shown to activate stereotypes and increase prejudice towards out-groups. We examined the effects of name and religious word priming on views of a specific and well-known person, President Barack Obama. We predicted that politically conservative participants primed with President Obama's middle name (Hussein) would rate him more negatively and be more likely to view him as a Muslim than those not shown his middle name. We also examined whether conservatives primed with concrete religious words would rate President Obama more negatively and be more likely to view him as Muslim than those primed with other word types. Furthermore, we predicted that those who mis-identify President Obama as Muslim would rate him more negatively than would those who view him as Christian. The results provided mixed support for these hypotheses. Conservatives primed with President Obama's middle name rated him significantly more negatively than did those in the control condition. This effect was not found for politically liberal or moderate participants. Name priming did not significantly affect views of President Obama's religious affiliation. Although not statistically significant, conservatives primed with abstract religious words tended to rate President Obama more negatively than did those primed with other word types. Religious word priming significantly influenced views of President Obama's religious affiliation; interestingly, participants primed with abstract religious words were more likely to think President Obama is Muslim than were those primed with religious agent or non-religious words. As predicted, participants who thought president Obama was Muslim rated him significantly more negatively than did those who thought he was Christian. Overall, our results provide some evidence that ethnic name and religious word priming can significantly influence opinions, even with a well-known and specific person.

  17. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  18. Political, religious and occupational identities in context: placing identity status paradigm in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Hurry, Jane

    2008-04-01

    This study critically contrasts global identity with domain-specific identities (political, religious and occupational) and considers context and gender as integral parts of identity. In a cross-sectional survey, 1038 Greek Cypriot adolescents (449 boys and 589 girls, mean age 16.8) from the three different types of secondary schools (state, state technical and private) and from different SES completed part of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-2 (EOMEIS-2). The macro-context of Greek Cypriot society is used to understand the role of context in adolescents' identities. Results showed that Greek Cypriot young people were not in the same statuses across their global, political, religious and occupational identities. This heterogeneity in the status of global identity and of each identity domain is partially explained by differences in gender, type of school and SES (socio-economic status). The fact that identity status is found to be reactive to context suggests that developmental stage models of identity status should place greater emphasis on context.

  19. Creolising Political Identity and Social Scientific Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... 65-80. © Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2014 .... ongoing forms of cultural mixture were the radical and intensified nature ... Creole; the music one hears throughout the Caribbean or the Cajun food ... than casual cohabitation of social and political worlds, opportuni-.

  20. Social media, parties, and political inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines how social media have transformed politics in established democracies. Specifically, the authors examine the influence of the unique qualities of social media on the power balance between and within parties. They present a general theory as well as an in-depth case study of the

  1. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...

  2. Incorporating political socialization theory into baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S G

    1996-01-01

    Political socialization theory explains how an individual develops a political belief system. As the health care system undergoes dramatic changes, nursing faculty should use political socialization theory to enhance the education of student nurses. A political thread can be woven through the nursing curricula, and students can be socialized to the political role. The new generation of nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity. Political socialization theory can guide nursing faculty as knowledge of the political system and political skills are incorporated into nursing curricula.

  3. Organizational Politics, Social Network, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kang, Sora; Lee, Jongwon

    This research identifies the social relationship and structure among members as well as organization’s political inclination, through which, it also identifies the current status of knowledge management. The result shows that the socio-technological factors (individual, knowledge and IT factors) affect knowledge transfer and the knowledge transfer influences performance and that the members’ relationship based on the political inclination of the organization has a major moderating effect on the above two relation.

  4. National context, parental socialization, and religious belief: Results from 15 nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelley, J.; Graaf, N.D. de

    1997-01-01

    How much does a nation's religious environment affect the religious beliefs of its citizens? Do religious nations differfrom secular nations in how beliefs are passed on from generation to generation? To find out, we use data from the 1991 International Social Survey Programme collected in 15

  5. The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology : Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagha, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    De Libanese Shi'itische verzetsbeweging Hizbullah ondergaat een opzienbarende politieke en ideologische transformatie. Ten tijde van de stichting in 1978, door Libanese geestelijken en leiders en met Iranese steun, was Hizbullah vooral een islamitische beweging die zich verzette tegen sociale en

  6. Politics of faith: Transforming religious communities and spiritual subjectivities in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley McEwen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The enforcement of racial segregation during apartheid was aimed not only at regulating public spaces, residential areas and the workforce, but also at shaping the subjectivities of individuals who were socialised to see themselves through the lens of a white racial hierarchy. The ideology of white supremacy and superiority that informed apartheid policy was largely justified using Christonormative epistemologies that sought to legitimate the racial hierarchy as having basis in Holy Scripture and as an extension of God’s will. At the same time, apartheid policy fragmented religious communities, entrenching race as a central component of spiritual subjectivities. Twenty years after the end of apartheid, the legacy of apartheid continues to shape the lives and opportunities of all people living in South Africa, despite many gains made in working towards a non-racial, non-sexist democracy. While much scholarly attention has been paid to postapartheid contexts of work, residency and recreation, relatively little attention has been paid to spaces of worship. This is surprising, given that religious belief and practice are widespread in South Africa in the first instance, and that Christian belief, in particular, was so central to the social imaginary of apartheid, in the second. Thus, in efforts to transform society and advance social justice, it is imperative to consider diversity, difference and otherness from the perspective of, and in relation to, contemporary religious communities and contexts. This article will consider some of the factors shaping dynamics of diversity and difference within the context of religious communities in South Africa, over 20 years into democracy.

  7. Football in inter-war Northern Ireland: Ballymena Football and Athletic Club Limited - religious and political exclusivity or civic inclusivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, David; Garnham, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Historians have almost universally seen association football in the north of Ireland as a divisive influence. The impacts of sectarian and political tensions on the game have been stressed, alongside the extent to which this sport supposedly feeds into existing divisions. Much of the work carried out has concentrated on the last four decades, though even studies outside this period of widespread civil disorder have highlighted these problems. This paper uses the surviving records of the Ballymena Football and Athletic Club, the local press, census returns and other records to consider aspects of one particular Northern Irish club in the 1920s and 1930s. This short consideration of the players, supporters and shareholders suggests that at least in this case football was successful in bringing together and developing cooperation between men of widely differing political and religious views. While the club was a not a financial success, it was a social and sporting one. The evidence available suggests there was little exhibition of sectarian tension at any level.

  8. Beyond Essentialist and Functionalist Analyses of the "Politicisation of Religion": The Evolution of Religious Parties in Political Catholicism and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Baudner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about “politics and religion” has already rejected essentialist claims of fundamental differences in the impact of religion on politics in different cultures. This article will argue that political Islam in Turkey and political Catholicism in Italy and Germany adopted remarkably similar patterns of cross-class coalitions and policies for a “reconciliation of capitalism and democracy”. First, religious parties developed as mass integration parties which already encompassed cross-class coalitions. Second, in the aftermath of political and economic crises these parties transformed into catch-all parties with a pronounced neo-liberal agenda which was given a religious justification. Third, at the same time these parties continued to sponsor policies and organizations which cushioned and supplemented an uneven economic development. Fourth, the parties kept traditional family policies which helped attracting a significant female electorate. “Organized religion” provided religious parties with a potential electorate, ancillary organizations and ideological concepts; however, their role in this political evolution changed. The conclusion will discuss whether these findings can be generalized.

  9. Religious identity and social instability in Nigeria: Interogating social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of religion towards enhancing social stability cannot be over- emphasized. Emily Durkheim viewed religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices whose purpose is to maintain and foster social stability and cohesion by removing tension that can disrupt social order. He believed that a cohesive society ...

  10. Religious Soft Power as Accountability Mechanism for Power in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrie Steiner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This case study of the InterFaith Leaders’ Summit(s from 2005 to 2010 expands the concept of “soft power” as an accountability mechanism to include religious soft power. This article explores the theoretical validity of a Faith-Based Accountability Mechanism (FAM as a macro-level explanatory unit. The interfaith leaders exercise public reputational and peer accountability among their constituents in relation to the G8/G20 leaders. The theoretical validity of the dialogue process is not contingent on political leader responsiveness but is ascertained using a complex theoretical standard for assessing the legitimacy of global governance institutions against which observations are then gauged. The InterFaith Dialogue Mechanism is a specific illustration of a FAM that shows increasing compliance with the complex standard between 2005 and 2010. The Dialogue Mechanism FAM is a form of religious soft power that combines soft institution with soft technique. The next stage in the research is to identify specific characteristics of the FAM ideal type.

  11. Religious Musings de S. T. Coleridge: a theological and political interpretation for the romantic literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gavilán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The poem Religious Musings, a Desultory Poem, Written on the Christmas Eve of 1794 (1794-96 by Samuel Taylor Coleridge describes the French Revolution as a divine event that opens up the first stage of the Millennium. The active relationship between schemes of interpretation and categories that proceeds from literature and theology during in the late eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century is markedly important in order to analyze whereby romanticisms are constituted in Europe. In England, this connection has a distinctive feature since from the seventeenth century, the wars of religion, through government institutions –that is Parliament and the Crown- play a crucial role in politics. Coleridge’s later rejection of the millennial tradition of 1790’s literature, that which regards Revolution as a sign of the biblical prophesy’s fulfillment, occurs in time with the conservative turn of many poets that adhere to the high romanticism canon. Acknowledging the intensity of the link between the French Revolution and the rise of new forms of literary meanings, this article aims to look into the ways in which Religious Musings applies and elaborates upon theological concepts and subjects as a way of giving history a new significance.Keywords: literature – theology – revolution – history – romanticism.

  12. Superstition, religion and the political / Superstição, religião e o político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Despland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract/presentationAlthough a respected researcher of religion in both the European and North American intellectual scene, Michel Despland is to date still little known in Brazilian religion studies circles. Among his several publications, we name but a few: Kant on history and religion: with a translation of Kant's On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1973; The education of desire, Plato and the philosophy of religion (University of Toronto Press, 1985; Les hierarchies sont ebranlees, politiques et theologies au XIXe siècle, (Fides, 1998; Comparatisme et Christianisme: questions d'histoire et de methode (L'Harmattan, 2002. In the paper before us, which was presented during the 12th Symposium of the Brazilian Association for the History of Religions (2011, UFJF, Professor Despland starts from the anthropological premise that religion is “something people do”. Drawing on Spinoza’s work, Despland elects the category of “superstition” as the most adequate tool for the analysis of the religious realm, rather than, for instance, “the sacred”. The author’s immediate goal is first to understand Spinoza’s own construal of the religious and political realms in their interrelatedness – both in conceptual continuity and rupture with the Western/Christian traditions of political theology. He then proceeds to probe historically into the moral and social dimensions of religion as embedded both in its own institutions and in the ever growing third realm of civil society vis-à-vis the state. This discussion, enriched by the contribution of other important writers such as J.-J. Rousseau, A. de Tocqueville, B. Constant and C. Lefort, should serve as a test for his theoretical choices. Despland hopes to have shown, at the end, that a consideration of religion as inevitably rooted in human nature, together with the analysis of the particular historical configuration of the political and

  13. Political Diversity in Social and Personality Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2012-09-01

    A lack of political diversity in psychology is said to lead to a number of pernicious outcomes, including biased research and active discrimination against conservatives. We surveyed a large number (combined N = 800) of social and personality psychologists and discovered several interesting facts. First, although only 6% described themselves as conservative "overall," there was more diversity of political opinion on economic issues and foreign policy. Second, respondents significantly underestimated the proportion of conservatives among their colleagues. Third, conservatives fear negative consequences of revealing their political beliefs to their colleagues. Finally, they are right to do so: In decisions ranging from paper reviews to hiring, many social and personality psychologists said that they would discriminate against openly conservative colleagues. The more liberal respondents were, the more they said they would discriminate. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Social Media Use & Political engagement in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Schwartz, Sander Andreas; Rossi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    . » Younger Danes are more active and present on social media platforms than older generations. The generation between 20 and 39 years is most likely to use Facebook in order to discuss politics with strangers. » When specifically looking at how users understand their communication on Facebook, it turns out...... that many of them view their communication as private. Especially the social network Facebook is used for private communication, e.g. exchanging messages with close friends and family. » In general, it is not very common for Danish citizens to actively engage in political debates online with strangers......Main findings of the survey » Social media use is a daily practice in Denmark, however, frequency and type of use differ greatly. » Danes use social media primarily to read content; it is less frequently used for producing original content or for interacting with content produced by others...

  15. Positive Politeness & Social Harmony in Literary Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal F. Abbas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of politeness are not arbitrarily chosen by speakers in interaction. Instead, the choice of a strategy is constrained by a number of contextual features (socio-cultural variables, such as the relative power of the speakers, the social distance of the speakers and what the speakers happen to be negotiating at the time of speaking. This study focuses on the linguistic strategies of politeness, and more specifically on the positive politeness, as represented in fiction. The novel chosen is that of Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables- a novel in which the main character Anne Shirley tries her best to establish common grounds with others until she achieves friendly and social harmonious relationships with nearly everybody. To show the above point, Brown and Levinson’s (1987 theory of politeness is adopted to account for the linguistic strategies, in addition to some subsequent contribution provided by Spencer-Oatey (2002 to account for sociality rights and obligations. This model is chosen to explore the relation between language use and the social relationship of the speakers. A point of departure, and according to O’Driscoll (1996, Brown and Levinson’s hierarchy of politeness strategies allows attention to positive to cover more ground than that subsumed under positive politeness (super-strategy 2. That is why baldly on-record (super-strategy 1 is used to pay positive face. The analysis shows that most of Anne’s directives in this speech event, which are linguistic realizations of both super-strategy 1 and 2, are meant to establish common grounds to achieve friendly and harmonious relationships with others.

  16. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  17. Political Socialization, Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…

  18. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra Godman

    1996-01-01

    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  19. Gateway Political Behaviors: The Frequency and Consequences of Low-Cost Political Engagement on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Bode

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine to what extent engagement in easy political behaviors on social media occurs across the range of political interest, what predicts such engagement, and what effect such engagement may have on other political behaviors. It pits the idea that social media may activate the politically uninterested against the idea that social media is just another outlet for the politically interested to demonstrate their engagement. Analyzing survey data collected by the Pew Research Center, it concludes that many people, including the politically uninterested, do engage in easy political behaviors like liking and commenting on political content on social media. When they do, it can lead to greater political activity offline. However, those most likely to engage in easy political behaviors are also those who engage in harder political behaviors, offering support for both the interest and activation hypotheses.

  20. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  1. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  2. Beyond the Assumptions: Religious Schools and Their Influence on Students' Social and Civic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Graeme; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Gray, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Are religious schools fit to prepare students with the social competencies required for life in a pluralistic society, or do they offer a sheltered school experience, which deprives them of adequate socialization opportunities? This question has emerged in public discourse in response to the growing presence of religious schools in many western…

  3. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  4. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  5. Religious congregations and social justice participation: a multilevel examination of social processes and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R

    2013-12-01

    Religious congregations have potential to be mediating structures for social justice participation. However, research has yet to examine the specific social processes or leadership characteristics within congregations that may promote social justice participation. In this study, we use data from 176,901 participants nested within 1,938 congregations to test how social processes (i.e., religious attendance at worship services, extra-worship participation, bonding social capital, a congregational norm for justice) and leadership characteristics (i.e., leader modeling of justice, horizontal leadership style) predict personal social justice involvement through the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities sponsored by the congregation) as well as personal social justice involvement outside the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities not sponsored by the congregation). We use multilevel logistic regression to examine these social processes and leadership characteristics at both individual and congregational levels of analysis. Results showed distinct patterns of associations at individual and congregational levels of analysis and that different social processes and leadership characteristics predicted personal social justice participation through or outside the congregation. These findings reveal the importance of social processes and leadership characteristics in understanding how congregations may mediate social justice participation. Implications for community psychology research and practiced also are discussed.

  6. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  7. The Impact of Political Advertising through Social Networking Sites on Egyptians’ Political Orientations and Choices

    OpenAIRE

    khaled A. Gad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of political advertising through social networking sites on Egyptians’ political orientations and choices. The objective of this paper is to determine how Egyptians’ social networking sites users are interested in political promoting campaigns and how they deal with such campaigns. Also the paper measures the impact of these campaigns in influencing the current political events, the individuals’ political choices and orientations, and the extent to which they...

  8. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  9. Political and social aspects of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The political and social aspects of radiation technology are presented. The importance of radiation processing to economies dependent on the storage, transportation and sale of produce is emphasised. Efforts by pressure groups in Canada, to discredit food irradiation processes are discussed. Methods used to overcome objections to food irradiation and radiation technology by public information and education through the media are presented. (U.K.)

  10. Religion, popular culture and social media: the construction of a religious leader image on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana A. COMAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of religions on Internet and the importance of social media, research dedicated to religious leaders’ construction of symbolic image on social media, is hard to find. Starting from the 2013 Applebee’s social media crisis, which was triggered by a pastor, the present study investigates the frames and themes Facebook users employed in order to give meaning to the crisis, attribute responsibility, and more importantly, define the role of a religious leader in daily life. This study shows the existence on social media of an active religious literate public, a public clearly troubled in their religious faith and convictions by the non-Christian behavior of the pastor. This shows that in a post-secular society the religious imaginary is not only a “canopy” inherited and kept because of convenience, but a cultural frame of signification the real and a vector of dialogue in a (online micro and macro public sphere.

  11. The faces of God in America: Revealing religious diversity across people and politics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Conrad Jackson

    Full Text Available Literature and art have long depicted God as a stern and elderly white man, but do people actually see Him this way? We use reverse correlation to understand how a representative sample of American Christians visualize the face of God, which we argue is indicative of how believers think about God's mind. In contrast to historical depictions, Americans generally see God as young, Caucasian, and loving, but perceptions vary by believers' political ideology and physical appearance. Liberals see God as relatively more feminine, more African American, and more loving than conservatives, who see God as older, more intelligent, and more powerful. All participants see God as similar to themselves on attractiveness, age, and, to a lesser extent, race. These differences are consistent with past research showing that people's views of God are shaped by their group-based motivations and cognitive biases. Our results also speak to the broad scope of religious differences: even people of the same nationality and the same faith appear to think differently about God's appearance.

  12. Catachresis in Côte d’Ivoire: Female Genital Power in Religious Ritual and Political Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Grillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ivoirian women vehemently protest the violence and calamity of civil war by deploying an embodied rhetoric of ritual, appealing to the traditional religious concept of “Female Genital Power”. I propose that their imagistic resistance to the postcolonial state represents a catachresis, with a few interesting twists. Most salient is that what women reinscribe onto the political scene is not as a feature of the imperial culture but the concept-metaphors of indigenous religion, and especially the image of Woman as the source of moral and spiritual power from which proceeds all political, religious, and juridical authority. Whereas the logocentrism of the academy, and postcolonial theory in particular, leads to aporia, ritual remands scholars into the situation of the actual world, where women are actively engaged in self-representation that both defies projected depictions of them and rejects their absence from state conceptions of power.

  13. Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the project methodology and findings will be used in similar explorations in Egypt, ... and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies [Arabic language] ... There is no doubt that Canada is tying its future growth prospects to Asia.

  14. Religious Fundamentalism/Religious Modernism: Conceptual Adversaries or Ambivalent Phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GOLOVUSHKIN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view defining “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become confl uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.

  15. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  16. The philosophy and method of integrative humanism and religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...

  17. Construction of political identity within the globalization and social transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Ljiljana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on analysis of the role of historical, political social and cultural factors in creating the context of political identity formation processes in transition to adulthood. The author examines the postmodern social environment and its implications on political socialization. Certain characteristics, determined by processes of standardization and homogenization on global level, are identical in both developed and transitional societies in Europe. Increased individualization and reflexivity, as the major points of postmodern society, generate isolation, narcism, cinism, political apathy, social exclusion and marginalization. In the second part of the paper, the dynamic interaction of transitional and globalizing processes and the problem of value system reconstruction are questioned. Two types of social activism, participation in official political institutions and engagement in non-institutional politics, are considered, especially the participation of young generation in social, economic and political reforms in transitional societies.

  18. Learning to Be Canadian: Political Socialization in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, David

    1988-01-01

    Examines the concept of political socialization and the sources of distinctiveness in Canadian political life. Focuses on relations between French and English Canada, regional differences, governmental machinery, civic education, and media influences. (DB)

  19. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  20. Operational, Social, and Religious Influences upon the Army Chaplain Field Manual, 1926-1952

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nay, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The early formulation of the Army Chaplain Field Manual reveals the Army Chaplaincy struggling with individuals using the Army Chaplain Field Manual to further their social and religious beliefs upon other chaplains...

  1. the role of religious values in extending social protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The religious sector networks' direct financial contribution to welfare, relief and development ..... 18 This statement should be understood within the context that: ..... Transforming the present — Protecting the future: Consolidated report. Preto-.

  2. Cognitive dissonance between religious and secular social attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial finding of the study, which served as the basis for the exploration of cognitive dissonance between religious and secular behavioral norms, was revealed in a tendency of the majority of religious students to accept behavioral norms, attitudes and believes (concerning interpersonal relationships and reproduction-related ethical issues which are not supported by Orthodox Christian Church viewpoint and teachings. However, certain cognitive and value system consistency appeared to exist: the intensity of religiousness was related to lower degrees of secular norms approval. It has been found that religious and nonreligious subjects differ significantly in their preference of the strategy used to maintain balance between dissonant religious and secular attitudes- in 3 out of 4 issues considered in the study. Religious subjects most frequently chose relativism strategy, claiming that some specific exceptions from a general rule or standpoint do not necessarily depreciate it, while nonreligious subjects most frequently chose dualistic viewpoint that principally separated and restricted domains of reasoning on spiritual and worldly issues, making them psychologically irrelevant to one another.

  3. Fostering marginalized youths' political participation: longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.

  4. Engaging Adolescents in Politics: The Longitudinal Effect of Political Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelier, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a political socialization perspective, this study examined the development of political participation during adolescence and early adulthood. We explore the effect of parents, peers, school media, and voluntary associations on political participation. Self-reported data were collected from 3,025 Belgian adolescents at three points in…

  5. Secular and Religious Social Support Better Protect Blacks than Whites against Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2018-05-04

    Purpose: Although the protective effect of social support against depression is well known, limited information exists on racial differences in this association. The current study examined Black-White differences in the effects of religious and secular emotional social support on depressive symptoms in a national sample of older adults in the United States. Methods: With a longitudinal prospective design, the Religion, Aging and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004, followed 1493 Black ( n = 734) and White ( n = 759) elderly individuals (age 66 and older) for three years. Race, demographics (age and gender), socio-economics (education and marital status) and frequency of church attendance were measured at baseline in 2001. Secular social support, religious social support, chronic medical conditions and depressive symptoms [8- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)] were measured in 2004. Multiple linear regression models were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, secular and religious social support were both protective against depressive symptoms, net of all covariates. Race interacted with secular ( β = −0.62 for interaction) and religious ( β = −0.21 for interaction) social support on baseline depressive symptoms ( p social support on depressive symptoms was larger for Blacks ( β = −0.64) than Whites ( β = −0.16). Conclusion: We found Black—White differences in the protective effects of secular and religious social support against depressive symptoms. Blacks seem to benefit more from the same level of emotional social support, regardless of its source, compared to Whites.

  6. The State-Conspiracy Model of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Roger

    1980-01-01

    This essay reviews the political socialization literature and the assumptions underlying the theory that political socialization, formal and informal, is sponsored by the state to reinforce its stability and social order. The author argues that family influence and enlightened self-interest are strong, independent factors in personal political…

  7. The Place of Political Diversity within the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, Mitchell; Wiener, Diane R.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Smith, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines political ideology and its implications as a newer diversity variable within social work education. Responding to internal assessments and external critiques of social work education, the dynamics of how diverse political ideologies might manifest in 5 core course concentrations--human behavior in the social environment,…

  8. Cyclical evolution of nursing education and profession in Iran: religious, cultural, and political influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, P; Mura, A

    1995-01-01

    This article was written to gain some insight into the underlying social and/or cultural forces that have, over the centuries, influenced the development of nursing education and the nursing profession in Iran, one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. As a native of Iran deeply involved in the nursing profession and in many aspects of nursing education, I decided to review my many years of experience and observations in these fields in Iran to better understand how the noble profession evolved as it did in my native country. For the years following the Islamic Revolution of 1977 to 1979, I was forced to rely on information gathered from my professional colleagues. An extensive search of the literature yielded a better understanding of the very early years. Analysis of this data seemingly produced a potpourri of such basic issues as modes of education, cultural/religious states of consciousness, and the rights of women. These are not factors generally considered germane to the development of the nursing profession and nursing education, although the latter two have proven to be crucial issues in understanding the development and current status of nursing education and the nursing profession in Iran.

  9. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  10. The power of likes: Social media logic and political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communication – political actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...

  11. Buying an Afterlife: Mapping the Social Impact of Religious Beliefs through Consumer Death Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choosing to have a body embalmed, the choice of interment locations and type, including the selection of a particular casket, are all deeply intertwined with various understandings of the afterlife, and views of the body after death. Consumer choices in these cases are often determined by imagined embodiment, and are determined in part by non-rational consumer choices based on religious upbringing and belief. In turn, diasporic and religious identity can be reinforced and solidified through consumer choices that then fulfill religious imaginations of post-death embodiment. This article traces the relationship of two consumer death goods—embalming and caskets—in the contemporary United States, examining both the implicit and explicit relationships these products have with religious worldviews, mapping the social impact of religious beliefs on consumer death choices.

  12. Religious factors of social modernization/alternative modernization of orthodoxy in the context of M.Weber’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of religious factors modernization / alternative modernization Orthodoxy in the context of the theory of Max Weber, as well as defining features of the relationship between the state and the Orthodox Church in the context of the relations of domination Weber types of rationality and social action. The author in the context of the use of the conceptual apparatus of the theory of Max Weber concluded that the result of clashes and compromises between the religious ethic of ascetic and mystical mood of monasticism with the apparatus of state violence became associated with the position of religion in relation to the «world» practice of social escapism. Christianity, according to the researcher, provides the legitimacy of traditional authority, which uses a charismatic, as the Orthodox Church confirms its divine origin, even in the absence of policy charismatic qualities, due to which there is a profanation of charisma. Therefore, all politicians, from the time of the Byzantine Empire in the communist and today’s post-communist politicians, not only did not go to the elimination of the Church as a political force and as the ideology of the center, and converted the church into one of the feudal corporations and obedient ally in the implementation of political security functions in relation to society and increase the prestige of the regime and the state as a whole.

  13. Social media analysis during political turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakaki, Despoina; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; V Samaras, Christos; Pratikakis, Polyvios; Ioannidis, Sotiris; Fragopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Today, a considerable proportion of the public political discourse on nationwide elections proceeds in Online Social Networks. Through analyzing this content, we can discover the major themes that prevailed during the discussion, investigate the temporal variation of positive and negative sentiment and examine the semantic proximity of these themes. According to existing studies, the results of similar tasks are heavily dependent on the quality and completeness of dictionaries for linguistic preprocessing, entity discovery and sentiment analysis. Additionally, noise reduction is achieved with methods for sarcasm detection and correction. Here we report on the application of these methods on the complete corpus of tweets regarding two local electoral events of worldwide impact: the Greek referendum of 2015 and the subsequent legislative elections. To this end, we compiled novel dictionaries for sentiment and entity detection for the Greek language tailored to these events. We subsequently performed volume analysis, sentiment analysis, sarcasm correction and topic modeling. Results showed that there was a strong anti-austerity sentiment accompanied with a critical view on European and Greek political actions.

  14. Researching new social (political movements as protagonists of social engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a retrospective of the theoretical research of the sociologist Slobodan Antonic dedicated to evolution and strengthening of two important social (political movements: radical-feminist and -LGBT. Contesting the scientific-methodological basis of theories that 'explain' them, the author emphasizes the importance of the neoliberal ideological platform on which these theories and derived movements are based. At the same time, numerous dangers that social engineering for which their members plead for are pointed out. Regardless the radical changes of social consciousness, social values and power relations in the contemporary society for which these movements plead for, they actually represent pro-systematic movements that help in preservation of neoliberal capitalism with their demands.

  15. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  16. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  17. The Manipulation of Social, Cultural and Religious Values in Socially Mediated Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of how the Islamic State/Da’esh and Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia manipulate conflicting social, cultural and religious values as part of their socially mediated terrorism. It focusses on three case studies: (1 the attacks in Paris, France on 13 November 2015; (2 the destruction of cultural heritage sites in Iraq and Syria; and (3 the struggle between nationalist values and extreme Islamic values in Indonesia. The case studies were chosen as a basis for identifying global commonalities as well as regional differences in socially mediated terrorism. They are located in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The integrated analysis of these case studies identifies significant trends and suggests actions that could lessen the impact of strategies deployed by extremist groups such as Da’esh, al-Qaeda and Hizb ut-Tahrir. We discuss the broader implications for understanding various aspects of socially mediated terrorism.

  18. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  19. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  20. Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    documenting the practices that users of social media develop to influence the public sphere; ... political parties, and mass communication media) perceive and respond to citizen-based actions generated by social media. ... Related content ...

  1. SOCIAL THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS: The impact of social constructivism in international politics Alexander Wendt

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Marilene; University of California Santa Barbara

    2013-01-01

     Following the structure of Wendt’s book, I will present in this article the main arguments of his social theory, and then explain how Wendt applies them to international politics. This account will render a critique those points to the problems and promises of Wendt’s social constructivism. I argue that despite flaws in his constitutive approach, his focus on the domestic-international aspect of agency and its relation to structure (of the state system) renders a significant contribution to ...

  2. Rethinking Youth Political Socialization: Teenage Activists Talk Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hava R.; Taft, Jessica K.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws from the experiences and narratives of teenage activists throughout the Americas in order to add a needed dimension, that of peer political socialization, to the larger political and civic socialization literature. The authors argue that although the existing literature emphasizes the roles and responsibilities of adults in…

  3. Marketing Social Service Programs Using Political Campaign Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how human services agencies can use strategies and information technologies similar to those used in political campaigns to identify needs and attitudes for social services campaigns. Marketing for social services programs is described, and the use of computers for a political campaign and for a teenage pregnancy program is compared.…

  4. Third Space, Social Media and Everyday Political Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Scott; Graham, Todd; Jackson, Daniel; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn Sara

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research into online politics to date has primarily focused on what might be called formal politics or on how activists and social movements utilize social media to pursue their goals. However, in this chapter, we argue that there is much to be gained by investigating how

  5. In God we trust? Neural measures reveal lower social conformity among non-religious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchselvam, Ravi; Gopi, Yashoda; Kilekwang, Leonard; Harper, Jessica; Gross, James J

    2017-06-01

    Even in predominantly religious societies, there are substantial individual differences in religious commitment. Why is this? One possibility is that differences in social conformity (i.e. the tendency to think and behave as others do) underlie inclination towards religiosity. However, the link between religiosity and conformity has not yet been directly examined. In this study, we tested the notion that non-religious individuals show dampened social conformity, using both self-reported and neural (EEG-based ERPs) measures of sensitivity to others' influence. Non-religious vs religious undergraduate subjects completed an experimental task that assessed levels of conformity in a domain unrelated to religion (i.e. in judgments of facial attractiveness). Findings showed that, although both groups yielded to conformity pressures at the self-report level, non-religious individuals did not yield to such pressures in their neural responses. These findings highlight a novel link between religiosity and social conformity, and hold implications for prominent theories about the psychological functions of religion. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Struggle for Autonomy and Ethno-Religious Factor in Political Life of the People's Republic of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М С Хак

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of struggle for autonomy in the context of ethno-religious factor in the political life of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The historical roots and contemporary features of the conflict between the government and the representatives of Jumma peoples compactly inhabited in the Hill area bordered upon India and Burma named Chittagong Hill Tracts are investigated. The different conceptions, methods and mechanisms of settlement of the conflict are considered, the role of local as well as international factors in the achievement of political consensus are evaluated. The conclusion about a necessity of the subsequent searching of the most optimal tools and methods of solving of such deep-rooted conflicts is made.

  7. Religious Engagement and Attitudes to the Role of Religion in Society: Their Effect on Civic and Social Values in an Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chris Hin Wah; Kennedy, Kerry J.; Leung, Chi Hung; Hue, Ming Tak

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the impact of religious engagement (religious background, religious service attendance and religious activities participation) on adolescents' civic and social values. Attitudes towards the influence of religion on society were investigated as a possible mediator/moderator of religious engagement. A model based on Western…

  8. Religious institutions and the politics of access to basic services in displacement contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    This paper provides a study of religious institutions as service providers in contexts of crises and displacement. Religious institutions, as well as other non-state institutions, provide access to a vast range of resources and services (such as food, housing, clothes, counseling, money, and access...... to networks). In contexts of displacement access to basic services is formally regulated by one’s status (e.g. as refugee or national citizen) and by physical location (e.g. in settlements/camps or urban areas). The paper discusses what role religious institutions play when access to services provided...... by the state or the international humanitarian system is limited or non-existent and what kind of relations of exchange that is at stake. Empirically the project deals with Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda of which many pastors and members have refugee status. The paper analyses the range and categories...

  9. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  10. Responding to Bullying: Language Socialization and Religious Identification in Classes for Sikh Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from ethnography of communication and language socialization approaches, this paper examines classes on bullying held for Sikh middle school students at a Sikh religious institution in California. Sikh educational programs play an important role in socializing youth into Sikh teachings, practices, and community perspectives. Due to one…

  11. The Department of Boyacá on the basis of the political project of the regeneration 1886-1903. Thoughts from the political, administrative and religious views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liliana Monroy Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article pretends to analyze the project of nation in Colombia during the period of the Regeneration, taking the specific case of the Department of Boyacá. This was a project that pretended the consolidation of a modern state through the elements of power as the religion, the education and the language, which allowed organizing a new political – administrative system of a centralistic status, in other words, that through the constitution of 1886 a social order be imposed, establishing a strong State, moved by a central government. Through these elements, it will be explained how the change from a Sovereign State of Boyacá to a Political and Administrative Department happened, which lead to a series of reforms of an economical, political and social status, that next to the transition of a secular education to a confessional education, determined the destiny of the Department from a Political Project of the Regeneration.

  12. Social justice and religious participation: a qualitative investigation of Christian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; Rufa, Anne K

    2013-06-01

    This investigation examines how self-identified Christians in the Midwest U.S. understand and work for social justice, with a focus on their process of social justice development and the role of religious congregations in promoting social justice. Using a grounded theory analysis of 15 in-depth interviews, results indicated multiple understandings of social justice such as meeting basic needs, fixing social structures and systems to create equal distributions of resources, promoting human rights and dignity, and as a religious responsibility. Participants also described a process of social justice development facilitated by exposure to injustice, mentors, educating others, and the importance of finding a social justice community. Distinct personal barriers to social justice engagement were identified such as resources and negative emotions, whereas congregational leadership was important for congregational involvement. General frustration with congregations was expressed regarding low social justice engagement; however, participants balanced this frustration with hope for the positive potential of congregations to promote social justice. Together these findings show multifaceted understandings of social justice and a dynamic process of social justice development for these self-identified Christians. Implications for future research and partnership with religious individuals and congregations also are discussed.

  13. Plutonium: some political and social considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the next ten to 15 years there will be a worldwide increase of some three to four-fold in the number of nuclear reactors available for electrical generation. Many more nations will be going nuclear for the first time. The Swedish Research Institute reports that sometime in the early 1980's there will be each year between 7,000 and 12,000 shipments of nuclear materials between reactors and reprocessing plants. Such rapid development of the nuclear industry creates certain safety problems of which the public is well aware. Indeed, in view of the excellent safety record of reactor operation, the level of public concern may be exaggerated. On the other hand, there is a serious problem related to the nuclear fuel cycle that has not yet engaged the attention either of the public or of the nuclear community. This is the purposeful release engendered by terrorists or governments through the use of nuclear weapons. Political and social aspects of this problem are discussed

  14. The Professionalisation of Non-Denominational Religious Education in England: Politics, Organisation and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob; Doney, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In response to contemporary concerns, and using neglected primary sources, this article explores the professionalisation of teachers of Religious Education (RI/RE) in non-denominational, state-maintained schools in England. It does so from the launch of "Religion in Education" (1934) and the Institute for Christian Education at Home and…

  15. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  16. Religious pro-sociality? Experimental evidence from a sample of 766 Spaniards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Neuman, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between several personal religion-related variables and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator (DG), ultimatum (UG), and trust (TG) games. A large carefully designed sample of the urban adult population in Granada (Spain) is employed (N = 766). From participants' decisions in these games we obtain measures of altruism, bargaining behaviour and sense of fairness/equality, trust, and positive reciprocity. Three dimensions of religiosity are examined: (i) religious denomination; (ii) intensity of religiosity, measured by active participation at church services; and (iii) conversion out into a different denomination than the one raised in. The major results are: (i) individuals with "no religion" made decisions closer to rational selfish behaviour in the DG and the UG compared to those who affiliate with a "standard" religious denomination; (ii) among Catholics, intensity of religiosity is the key variable that affects social behaviour insofar as religiously-active individuals are generally more pro-social than non-active ones; and (iii) the religion raised in seems to have no effect on pro-sociality, beyond the effect of the current measures of religiosity. Importantly, behaviour in the TG is not predicted by any of the religion-related variables we analyse. While the results partially support the notion of religious pro-sociality, on the other hand, they also highlight the importance of closely examining the multidimensional nature of both religiosity and pro-social behaviour.

  17. Religious pro-sociality? Experimental evidence from a sample of 766 Spaniards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Brañas-Garza

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between several personal religion-related variables and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator (DG, ultimatum (UG, and trust (TG games. A large carefully designed sample of the urban adult population in Granada (Spain is employed (N = 766. From participants' decisions in these games we obtain measures of altruism, bargaining behaviour and sense of fairness/equality, trust, and positive reciprocity. Three dimensions of religiosity are examined: (i religious denomination; (ii intensity of religiosity, measured by active participation at church services; and (iii conversion out into a different denomination than the one raised in. The major results are: (i individuals with "no religion" made decisions closer to rational selfish behaviour in the DG and the UG compared to those who affiliate with a "standard" religious denomination; (ii among Catholics, intensity of religiosity is the key variable that affects social behaviour insofar as religiously-active individuals are generally more pro-social than non-active ones; and (iii the religion raised in seems to have no effect on pro-sociality, beyond the effect of the current measures of religiosity. Importantly, behaviour in the TG is not predicted by any of the religion-related variables we analyse. While the results partially support the notion of religious pro-sociality, on the other hand, they also highlight the importance of closely examining the multidimensional nature of both religiosity and pro-social behaviour.

  18. Role of Social Networks in Developing Religious and Social Values of the Students of the World Islamic Sciences & Education University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mosa, Nosiba Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the role of Social Networks in the social and religious values of The World Islamic Sciences & Education University students. The study applied the survey and descriptive Approach. The population of the study represents all BA students who enrolled in the first academic semester for the year 2014-2015. The sample of…

  19. Online Social Systems, Social Actions, and Politics: A Narrative Analysis of the Role of Social Media in Revolutionary Political Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Rozan Omar

    2017-01-01

    One of the demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution tweeted "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world," thus acknowledging and establishing the fundamental role of social media in the political unrest and revolution against the regime in Egypt. Information Systems (IS) have…

  20. Trends in Addressing Social Needs: A Longitudinal Study of Congregation-Based Service Provision and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Fulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.

  1. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  2. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  3. Iranian Religious and Political Influence in Persian Gulf Countries (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Игоревна Ильина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focuses on evolution of Iranian political influence in Persian Gulf countries. It examines theological and political aspects of such influence and its consequences for the region. The author analyses origins of the transnational Shia movements such as “Harakat ar-Risala” and “ad-Dawa” linked with traditional Shia institutions at Najaf and Kerbela, and its ambiguous relationships with post-revolution Iranian elite. In the same way, not all of Shias of Persian Gulf was “fascinated” by “Islamic revolution” in Iran and became admirers of R. Khomeini’s conception of “vilayat-e-faqih”. In addition, the author traces history of local political Shia movements, that are, in fact, more influential on domestic politics of Gulf countries that mythical “Iran’s hand”.

  4. Can Religious Expression and Sexual Orientation Affirmation Coexist in Social Work? A Critique of Hodge's Theoretical, Theological, and Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Bolen, Rebecca; Shepardson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Social work strives to be inclusive of all cultural groups and religious identities. However, a tension exists in the profession between freedom of religious expression and full acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. David Hodge and others claim social work is oppressive to evangelical Christians. This article critiques primarily Hodge's…

  5. Religiousness, social support and subjective well-being: An exploratory study among adolescents in an Asian atheist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Zhang, Baoshan; You, Xuqun; Alterman, Valeria; Li, Yongkang

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the relationships among religiousness, social support and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescent populations. This study tries to fill this gap. Using cluster sampling, we selected two groups: Group A, which included 738 Tibetan adolescents with a formal religious affiliation and represented adolescents from a religious culture, and Group B, which included 720 Han adolescents without a religious affiliation and represented adolescents from an irreligious culture. Structural equation modelling showed that only in Group A did social support mediate (partially) the relationship between religious experience and subjective well-being; furthermore, the results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that only in Group A did social support moderate the relationship between religious ideology and subjective well-being. Possible explanations for the discrepancies between the findings obtained in this study and those obtained in previous studies are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  7. Descriptions of euthanasia as social representations: comparing the views of Finnish physicians and religious professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhänkangas, Leila; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Utriainen, Terhi; Deliens, Luc

    2014-03-01

    In many western societies health professionals play a powerful role in people's experiences of dying. Religious professionals, such as pastors, are also confronted with the issues surrounding death and dying in their work. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the ways in which death-related topics, such as euthanasia, are constructed in a given culture are affected by the views of these professionals. This qualitative study addresses the ways in which Finnish physicians and religious professionals perceive and describe euthanasia and conceptualises these descriptions and views as social representations. Almost all the physicians interviewed saw that euthanasia does not fit the role of a physician and anchored it to different kinds of risks such as the slippery slope. Most of the religious and world-view professionals also rejected euthanasia. In this group, euthanasia was rejected on the basis of a religious moral code that forbids killing. Only one of the religious professionals - the freethinker with an atheist world-view - accepted euthanasia and described it as a personal choice, as did the one physician interviewed who accepted it. The article shows how the social representations of euthanasia are used to protect professional identities and to justify their expert knowledge of death and dying. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in Selected ... in this area; an institutional analysis of the care regimes; and a micro level quantitative ... (and girls and boys) within households assume responsibility for the physical ...

  9. Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ... the successful media-relations strategy, and the rewarding partnerships ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  10. Race, Class, and Religious Differences in the Social Networks of Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2012-01-01

    The study is a qualitative investigation of mothers' perspectives about and their role in negotiating and developing intergenerational closure across race, class, and religious differences and their management of children's diverse friendships. Black and White mothers (n = 25) of third graders were interviewed about social networks, children's…

  11. A Call for More Religious Education in the Secondary Social Studies Curriculum of Western Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Margaretta L.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of religion in public education remains contentious in many countries, including Canada. As multiple religions fill the public sphere, some religious education is necessary if Canadians are to understand each other. Social studies is seen as an appropriate subject to include such education given its foci on diversity and citizenship.…

  12. The role of religious values in extending social protection: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects critically on the role played by religious networks – in particular the African Independent Churches or African Initiated Churches (AICs) – in enhancing social protection by means of informal coping mechanisms in the South African context. It also examines various factors that contribute towards informal ...

  13. Measuring the Contribution of Roman Catholic Secondary Schools to Students' Religious, Personal and Social Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Roman Catholic schools have been part of the state-funded system of education in England and Wales since the 1850s. Currently, Roman Catholic schools provide places for around 10% of students attending state-maintained primary and secondary schools. The present study employed data collected during the 1990s to compare a range of religious, social,…

  14. Social Support, Religious Endorsement, and Career Commitment: A Study on Saudi Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Mohammad T; Islam, Mazharul M

    2018-01-10

    The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t -test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses' social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.

  15. Social Media and Socio-Political Change: An Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Pang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread adoption of social media in many Asian societies, these platforms are increasingly used in a variety of ways to promote civic and political aims but such uses are shaped by various stakeholders and contexts of use. In this special issue, four papers on Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and China-Australia present highly contextualized assessments of the role of social media in civic and political life in Asia.

  16. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SYMBOLS IN THE SOAP OPERA OF TUKANG BUBUR NAIK HAJI AT RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is a very influential media and important tool in capital accumulation. This study aims to reveal the use of Islamic and Betawi ethnic symbols, workers, and also the audiences of Tukang Bubur Naik Haji (TBNH soap opera at RCTI. This research used a political economy of communication perspective. The data were collected by using interview, observation, documentation, and literature study. The result shows that the religious symbols of Islam and Betawi culture have been exploited as comodity to be traded. Those symbols have been commercialized dan manipulated through the use of sensational, provocative, and hyperbole words or sentences to entertain audiences and to attract the advertisers. The hyper-comercialization and politicization of symbols caused the soap opera workers and Moslem audiences have been exploited.

  17. Social and Psycho-Political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansara, Soraia

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and…

  18. Social conflict and sacrificial rhetoric: Luther’s discursive intervention and the religious division of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Sacrifice’ is a religious term whose use extends far beyond the church door. People from all walks of life speak of ‘sacrifice’ when they want to evoke an irreducible conflict in the relations between self, family, and society. In America, hardly a speech goes by without political leaders insisting upon the necessity and virtue of sacrifice, but rarely will they clarify who is sacrificing what, and to whom. Indeed, this is not only an American phenomenon, as a number of recent texts examining ‘sacrifice’ as a term in various national discourses have shown. Such a political and economic deployment of a religious figure demands interpretation, for not only does the rhetoric of sacrifice span the globe, it constitutes a problem with a long genealogy. As a key moment in the Western segment of this genealogy, this article examines the way that Luther’s exegetical work rhetoricalized sacrifice, and, in doing so, constructed a new discursive position, the pastor as anti-sophist, or parrhesiast, in the religious division of labor.

  19. Social positions and political recruitment: a study of Brazilian senators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Codato

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses the methodology for the definition, classification, and measurement of social positions of the parliamentary political elite. We present some theoretical and methodological strategies for classifying the variable “occupation held prior to political career”, and suggest the use of more than one indicator for this measurement. We argue that a typology of both social and political characteristics of parliament members is the best way to grasp the transformations on the patterns of political recruitment throughout the 20th century. The first model we tested classified Brazilian senators elected between 1918 and 2010 among occupations conventionally used in studies on political elites. The second applied model seeks to change the coding of occupations so as to grasp this group’s sociopolitical transformations over time. We conclude with a new classification suggestion, which results from a typology sensitive to the varying values ascribed to professional occupations throughout history.

  20. A mathematics course for political and social research

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Will H

    2013-01-01

    Political science and sociology increasingly rely on mathematical modeling and sophisticated data analysis, and many graduate programs in these fields now require students to take a ""math camp"" or a semester-long or yearlong course to acquire the necessary skills. Available textbooks are written for mathematics or economics majors, and fail to convey to students of political science and sociology the reasons for learning often-abstract mathematical concepts. A Mathematics Course for Political and Social Research fills this gap, providing both a primer for math novices in the social s

  1. A social identification approach to the effects of religious disclosures in business communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caleb T

    2017-01-01

    This research expands on prior research into the effects of religious disclosures on interpersonal attraction by drawing from social identification theory to explain attributions stemming from religious disclosures in professionals' e-mail signature blocks. Participants (N = 268) were randomly exposed to one of three experimental conditions (a Christian, Islamic, or secular quotation in a signature block) and completed measures of social identification and perceptions of professionalism. Results indicate that, contrary to prior research, merely disclosing one's religion does not increase attributions; rather, attributions of a sender's professionalism are positively derived from the receiver's social identification with the sender's religion. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to social identity theory, as well as for professional practice in developing signature blocks as a means of self-presentation.

  2. The Bakayat SpokenText Tradition The Articulation of Religious Value and Social Discourse of Sasak Community in Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suyasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the bakayat spoken-text tradition of the Sasak people in Lombok. The tradition was used as media for preaching on Islamic day, customs and ceremonies, as well as appreciating the folk literature. Malay literary texts that contained religious values were articulated continuously in various social discourses by the community that owned this tradition. The impact of the globalization and the inclusion of various Islamic doctrines in Lombok have threatened the existence of the bakayat tradition and now most Sasak people especially the younger ones are not interested in this tradition. The background explained above has become the main reason why this study was conducted. Moreover, there were still a few studies which had investigated the bakayat tradition in-depth. This present study was focused on the history, structure, function, meaning, and articulation of the religious values and social discourse of the bakayat tradition bySasak people. This research used the descriptive analytical method. The data were analyzed using the interpretive qualitative method. The theories used in this study were the theory narratology proposed by Gerard Genette (1986, the theory of articulation proposed by Stuart Hall (1986, the theory of functions, and the theory of semiotics. The results of this study showed that the historical development ofthe Sasakbakayat tradition was characterized by the emergence of Islam in Lombok. It significantly contributed to the existence of bakayat. It was followed by the Islamic Malay literature which was used as the reading material in the bakayat tradition and the media for learning Islam. The historical development of the bakayat Sasak was explained in various aspects such as religious, cultural, political, and social aspects. The structure of the bakayat text was a form of the articulation in spoken style which involved the characteristics of the

  3. Using Social Constructionist Thinking in Training Social Workers Living and Working under Threat of Political Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence, such as war and terrorism. Uses a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a…

  4. Creolising Political Identity and Social Scientific Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... *Associate Professor of Political Science and Africana Studies. ... it therefore operated in multiple languages and insisted that theoretical work is necessarily .... antislavery organisations and of the Haitian Revolution offer a good ..... for consideration is its disposition toward the nature of symbolic life. The.

  5. 195 RELIGIOUS IDENTITY AND SOCIAL INSTABILITY IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    study is anchored upon is the Social Identity Theory. The study recommends ..... attracted much attention and worry today (and which is the main concern of the .... Burke & Stet, is the selective application of the accentuation effect, primarily to ...

  6. Islamic Education: A Principle to Develop Religious Society to Anticipate Negative Impact of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Solihin Nasrudin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze how the Islamic education is able to be the principle of inter-religious harmony to  anticipate  negative impact of social media use. Islam as a universal religion has proven its ability  to encourage the development of science and technology. Social media has emerged along with the development of information technology. The social media is able to facilitate  community to communicate and  to exchange information, but at the same time social media may also threat th...

  7. The relationship of religious involvement indicators and social support to current and past suicidality among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Hames, Jennifer L; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Elderly people, particularly those with major depression, are at the highest risk for suicide than any other age group. Religious involvement is associated with a range of health outcomes including lower odds of death by suicide. However, not much is known about the effects of religious involvement on suicidal ideation in the elderly or which aspects of religiosity are beneficial. This study examined the relative influence of various conceptualizations of religious involvement, above and beyond the protective effects of social support, on current and past suicidality among depressed older adults. Participants were 248 depressed patients, 59 years and older, enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. A psychiatrist assessed current suicidal ideation using the suicidal thoughts item from the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Past history of suicide attempts, four religious involvement indicators, social support indicators, and control variables were assessed via self-report. Church attendance, above and beyond importance of religion, private religious practices, and social support, was associated with less suicidal ideation; perceived social support partially mediated this relationship. Current religious practices were not predictive of retrospective reports of past suicide attempts. Church attendance, rather than other religious involvement indicators, has the strongest relationship to current suicidal ideation. Clinicians should consider public religious activity patterns and perceived social support when assessing for other known risk and protective factors for suicide and in developing treatment plans.

  8. Comparative Perspectives on Political Socialization and Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    2000-01-01

    Four books, published 1997-99, draw on diverse disciplines in 18 countries to examine the meaning of civic identity and the contributions of formal and informal institutions to it during late childhood and adolescence. The books move beyond a narrow view of outcomes and inputs of political socialization to encompass activist social movements and…

  9. Social and political amplification of technological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O.; Mushkatel, Alvin; Pijawka, K. David

    2004-01-01

    Using an industrial explosion in Henderson, Nevada, as a case study, this paper examines three main issues: the efficacy of a technological hazard event in amplifying otherwise latent issues, the extent to which the hazard event can serve as a focusing event for substantive local and state policy initiatives, and the effect of fragmentation of political authority in managing technological hazards. The findings indicate that the explosion amplified several public safety issues and galvanized the public into pressing for major policy initiatives. However, notwithstanding the amplification of several otherwise latent issues, and the flurry of activities by the state and local governments, the hazard event did not seem to be an effective focusing event or trigger mechanism for substantive state and local policy initiatives. In addition, the study provides evidence of the need for a stronger nexus between political authority, land-use planning and technological hazard management

  10. Religious Fragmentation, Social Identity and Conflict: Evidence from an Artefactual Field Experiment in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajeet Chakravarty

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study. While we find small but statistically significant results in line with our hypotheses in the Hindu sample, we find no statistically significant effects in the Muslim sample. This is in contrast to evidence from Chakravarty et al. (2016, who report significant differences in cooperation levels in prisoners' dilemma and stag hunt games, both in terms of village composition and identity. We attribute this to the fact that social identity may have a more powerful effect on cooperation than on conflict.

  11. Religious Fragmentation, Social Identity and Conflict: Evidence from an Artefactual Field Experiment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Surajeet; Fonseca, Miguel A; Ghosh, Sudeep; Marjit, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study. While we find small but statistically significant results in line with our hypotheses in the Hindu sample, we find no statistically significant effects in the Muslim sample. This is in contrast to evidence from Chakravarty et al. (2016), who report significant differences in cooperation levels in prisoners' dilemma and stag hunt games, both in terms of village composition and identity. We attribute this to the fact that social identity may have a more powerful effect on cooperation than on conflict.

  12. Religiosity, Religious Acceptance, Social Interaction, and Satisfaction with University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebpour, Ida; Reysen, Stephen; Gibson, Shonda; Hendricks, LaVelle

    2017-01-01

    We tested a mediated moderation model with the interaction of students' degree of religiosity and perception of the university environment as accepting of one's religion predicting satisfaction with the university mediated by positive social relations. When the university was perceived as accepting of one's religion (vs less accepting), greater…

  13. Politics 2.0: The Use of Social Networks in Argentinean Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romina Dominguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a doctoral thesis that analyzes the political use of the communication 2.0, specifically of Facebook and Twitter. The political agent chosen is the President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in the pre electoral period of the first Simultaneous Open and Compulsory Primary. It is important to mention that she is the first Argentinean president to use the social networks with electoral purposes in pursuit of her reelection, given that the development of these communicational tools is recent and previous presidents did not count with them. In order to analyze the use of social networks by the President in a pre-election period, political discourse was analyzed and compared the treatment of electoral information of three traditional mass media-La Nacion, Clarin and Página/12- and the political material, or management review published, shared and retweeted by the political agent chosen. The study found that the agent used its social networking times during the period. The electoral messages aimed to list the qualities of his first management through specific government measures without making campaign promises. Meanwhile, the media published a significant amount of notes linked to the President but was tiny references to electoral publications on social networks.

  14. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  15. Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: broad implications for health and social well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Ethnic conflict, political violence and wars that presently shape many parts of world have deep-seated structural causes. In poor and highly indebted countries, economic and environmental decline, asset depletion, and erosion of the subsistence base lead to further impoverishment and food insecurity for vast sectors of the population. Growing ethnic and religious tensions over a shrinking resource base often escort the emergence of predatory practices, rivalry, political violence, and internal wars. The nature of armed conflict has changed substantially over time and most strategic analysts agree that in the second half of the 20th century, contemporary wars are less of a problem of relations between states than a problem within states. Despite the growing number of armed conflicts and wars throughout the world, not enough attention has been paid to the local patterns of distress being experienced and the long-term health impact and psychosocial consequences of the various forms of political violence against individuals, communities, or specific ethnic groups. The short or long-term impact assessment on civilian populations of poor countries affected by war have been scarce, and studies focussing on experiences of collective suffering and trauma-related disorders among survivors are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature. The medicalization of collective suffering and trauma reflects a poor understanding of the relationships among critically important social determinants and the range of possible health outcomes of political violence.

  16. Political Socialization Media of Selayar Islands General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Gau Kadir; Nurlinah; Rahmatullah

    2017-01-01

    - This paper aims to identify the most influential political socialization media in shaping the political culture of maritime communities in the Selayar Islands District. The research method used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection methods in the form of surveys, interviews and document studies. Data analysis uses quantitative analysis in the form of cross-tabulation of data and qualitative analysis. The results showed that there was no significant...

  17. How Does Football Influence the Political System and Juridify Social Movements? Brazil, June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Schwartz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systems – political and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas

  18. The Political Socialization of Adolescent Children of Immigrants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413

  19. The Political Socialization of Adolescent Children of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation young adults. The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors.

  20. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CREATING POLITICAL AWARENESS AND MOBILIZING POLITICAL PROTESTS : A Focus on Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Ender

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, the internet penetration, social media production and consumption have increased dramatically all over the world. This increase has affected the politics in most parts of the world in many ways. Social media became a tool for politicians to carry out their political campaigns and for activists to create awareness on political issues and mobilize protests. Today almost in all social movements in the countries with high rate of internet access, the role of social media is b...

  1. Online Social Media and Political Awareness in Autoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    John Reuter; David Szakonyi

    2012-01-01

    Does online social media undermine authoritarianism? We examine the conditions under which online social networks can increase public awareness of electoral fraud in non-democracies. We argue that a given online social network will only increase political awareness if it is first politicized by elites. Using survey data from the 2011 Russian parliamentary elections, we show that usage of Twitter and Facebook, which were politicized by opposition elites, significantly increased respondents' pe...

  2. Managing for Political Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Andreas Georg; Rasche, Andreas; Palazzo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    in previous works on PCSR, including the influence of nationalism and fundamentalism, the role of various types of business organisations, the return of government regulation, the complexity of institutional contexts, the efficiency of private governance, the financialization and digitalization of the economy...... to the debate and outline the original economic and political context. The following section explores emerging changes in the institutional context relevant to PCSR and reconsiders some of the assumptions underlying Habermas’ thesis of the postnational constellation. This highlights some neglected issues...

  3. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julian M; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2016-07-01

    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of 're-enchantment' in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as 'Christian social workers' in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a 're-enchantment' in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice.

  4. Religión y capital social en La democracia en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Salas, Jaime

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article two ways of understanding religión in Democracy in America are exposed. The second of these is related to Putnam’s idea of social capital. Finally the idea of custom in Tocqueville is related to Ortega’s theory of belief.La intención del artículo consiste en mostrar las dos formas de desarrollar la religión en La democracia de América. La segunda se relaciona con la noción de capital social de Robert Putnam. Asimismo se asocia la doctrina de las costumbres con la noción de creencia en Ortega.

  5. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  6. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  7. Social Support, Religious Endorsement, and Career Commitment: A Study on Saudi Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Azim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS and perceived religious endorsement (PRE on career commitment (CC of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t-test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses’ social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.

  8. On the history of political diversity in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.

  9. Religiousness, social support and the use of antidepressants among the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Adriano Roberto Tarifa; Castro-Costa, Érico; Firmo, Josélia de Oliveira Araújo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether religiousness and social support were associated with the use of antidepressants among community-dwelling elders. The research involved 1,606 older adults who make up the cohort of Bambuí Project, a study on ageing and health. The dependent variable was the use of antidepressants in the last 90 days, and the exposures of interest were social support and religiousness. Logistic regression was used to test the associations and to estimate crude and adjusted Odds Ratio and their 95% confidence intervals. The chances of use of antidepressants were significantly lower among older people with higher level of religiosity (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.70), but none of the descriptors social support was associated with the event. In this population, it is possible that religion occupies a prominent role in the arsenal of health problems coping strategies, especially mental. Health professionals attending this particular segment of the population (elderly people with depressive disorders) should consider religiousness of patients when the proposed guidelines and treatment in coping with their mental suffering.

  10. Technology Retreats and the Politics of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fish

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines weeklong technology retreats in Silicon Valley. These retreats embody digital healthism, which I define as the discourse that promotes the self-regulation of digital consumption for personal health. I argue that the self-regulation advanced by digital healthism insufficiently addresses the politics of media refusal. Technology retreats channel frustrations about social media use into opportunities for personal and corporate growth instead of political activism. I consider how technology retreats might participate in a dialogue about the regulation of social media platforms and companies by states. Evidence for these claims come from ethnographic research with the founders of a technology retreat in Silicon Valley.

  11. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  12. The political context of social inequalities and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Shi, L

    2001-01-01

    This analysis reflects on the importance of political parties, and the policies they implement when in government, in determining the level of equalities/inequalities in a society, the extent of the welfare state (including the level of health care coverage by the state), the employment/unemployment rate, and the level of population health. The study looks at the impact of the major political traditions in the advanced OECD countries during the golden years of capitalism (1945-1980)--social democratic, Christian democratic, liberal, and ex-fascist--in four areas: (1) the main determinants of income inequalities; (2) levels of public expenditures and health care benefits coverage; (3) public support of services to families; and (4) the level of population health as measured by infant mortality. The results indicate that political traditions more committed to redistributive policies (both economic and social) and full-employment policies, such as the social democratic parties, were generally more successful in improving the health of populations. The erroneous assumption of a conflict between social equity and economic efficiency is also discussed. The study aims at filling a void in the growing health and social inequalities literature, which rarely touches on the importance of political forces in influencing inequalities.

  13. Pruning the news feed: Unfriending and unfollowing political content on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Bode

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media allow users some degree of control over the content to which they are exposed, through blocking, unfriending, or hiding feeds from other users. This article considers the extent to which they do so for political reasons. Survey data from Pew Research suggests that political unfriending is relatively rare, with fewer than 10% of respondents engaging in the practice. Analysis finds support for the idea that political unfriending is most common among those who talk about politics, those strongest in ideology, those that see the most politics in social media, and those that perceive the greatest political disagreement in their social networks. This suggests that social media are not exacerbating the political information gap as political information on social media is likely still reaching the least politically engaged, whereas the most politically engaged may opt out of political information within social media but still receive it elsewhere.

  14. The influence of social networking technologies on female religious veil-wearing behavior in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shakiba, Abbas; Kwok, Justin; Montazeri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Social networking technologies can influence attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Research on this topic has been conducted primarily among early adopters of technology and within the United States. However, it is important to evaluate how social media might affect people's behaviors in international settings, especially among countries with longstanding, government recommended, cultural and religious traditions and behaviors, such as Iran. This study seeks to assess whether Iranian women who have been using social networking technologies for a longer time (compared to those who have recently joined) would be less likely to cover themselves with a veil and be more comfortable publicly displaying pictures of this behavior on Facebook. Iranian females (N=253) were selected through snowball sampling from nongovernmental organizations in November 2011 and asked to complete a survey assessing their use of Facebook, concerns about not wearing a veil in Facebook pictures, and their actual likelihood of wearing a veil. Items were combined to measure lack of interest in wearing a veil. Length of time as a Facebook user was significantly associated with not wearing a veil (b=0.16, peducation, and frequency of using Facebook. Results also revealed a significant relationship such that older people were more likely to adhere to the religious behavior of wearing a veil (b=-0.45, ptechnologies can affect attitudes and behaviors internationally. We discuss methods of using social media for self-presentation and expression, as well as the difficulties (and importance) of studying use of technologies, such as social media, internationally.

  15. Changing politics of Canadian social policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, James J; Prince, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    ... in the 1990s. Globalization and the concomitant corporate mobility affect government's ability to regulate the distribution of wealth, while the increasing diversity of the population puts increasingly complex demands on an already overstressed system. Yet in the face of these constraints, the system still endures and is far from irrelevant. Some social progr...

  16. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...

  17. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  18. The English Catholic New Left: Battling the Religious Establishment and the Politics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Corrin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s there appeared in England a group of young university educated Catholics who sought to merge radical Catholic social teachings with the ideas of Karl Marx and the latest insights of European and American sociologists and literary theorists. They were known as the English Catholic New Left (ECNL. Under the inspiration of their Dominican mentors, they launched a magazine called Slant that served as the vehicle for publishing their ideas about how Catholic theology along with the Social Gospels fused with neo-Marxism could bring a humanistic socialist revolution to Britain. The Catholic Leftists worked in alliance with the activists of the secular New Left Review to achieve this objective. A major influence on the ECNL was the Marxist Dominican friar Laurence Bright and Herbert McCabe, O. P. Slant took off with great success when Sheed and Ward agreed to publish the journal. Slant featured perceptive, indeed at times brilliant, cutting-edge articles by the Catholic Left’s young Turks, including Terry Eagleton, Martin Redfern, Bernard Sharratt, and Angela and Adrian Cunningham, among others. A major target of the Slant project was the Western Alliance’s Cold War strategy of nuclear deterrence, which they saw to be contrary to Christian just war theory and ultimately destructive of humankind. Another matter of concern for the Slant group was capitalist imperialism that ravaged the underdeveloped world and was a major destabilizing factor for achieving world peace and social equality. Despite their failure to achieve a social revolution “baptized by Christianity,” the English Catholic New Left broke new ground in terms of showing how a traditional religion with a highly conservative and sometimes reactionary history had the capacity to offer new paths forward and remain an inspiration to progressive thinking Christians trying to navigate the shoals of a post-modern world.

  19. Religious Social Support and Hypertension Among Older North American Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemagne-Badal, Sherma J; Lee, Jerry W

    2016-04-01

    Seventh-day Adventists have been noted for their unique lifestyle, religious practices and longevity. However, we know little about how religion is directly related to health in this group. Specifically, we know nothing about how religious social support is related to hypertension. Using data from the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study, we carried out a cross-sectional study of 9581 and a prospective study of 5720 North American Seventh-day Adventists examining new 534 cases of hypertension occurring up to 4 years later. We used binary logistic regression analyses to examine study hypotheses. Of the religious social support variables, in both the cross-sectional and prospective study only anticipated support significantly predicted hypertension, but the relationship was mediated by BMI. There were no significant race or gender differences. The favorable relationships between anticipated support and hypertension appear to be mediated by BMI and are an indication of how this dimension of religion combined with lifestyle promotes good health, specifically, reduced risk of hypertension.

  20. Political Polarization in Social Media: Analysis of the "Twitter Political Field" in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hiroki; Nagayoshi, Kikuko

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the Internet is like a public sphere or an echo chamber. Among many forms of social media, Twitter is one of the most crucial online places for political debate. Most of the previous studies focus on the formal structure of the Twitter political field, such as its homophilic tendency, or otherwise limit the analysis to a few topics. In order to explore whether Twitter functions as an echo chamber in general, however, we have to investigate not only the...

  1. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Canikalp, Ebru; Unlukaplan, Ilter

    2017-01-01

    A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise ca...

  2. Politics without "Brainwashing": A Philosophical Defence of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Social justice education (SJE) is a ubiquitous, if inconsistently defined, component of contemporary education theory and practice. Recently, SJE has come under fire for being politically biased and even "brainwashing" children in the public education system. In a liberal democracy such as our own, it is important that state-sponsored…

  3. Role of the Knowledge in the Political Socialization of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses a thesis of the ambivalent structure of the knowledge and the political socialization, the school's knowledge and the political socialisation dilemma in recent circum­ stances. The adults socialize themselves in postsociali­stic transition for a new system of democracy in the independent state of Slovenia. The adults are cleaved between nostalgia for the past and neces­sity of (active adaptation in present. Our political culture has a low level because the knowledge was not consider as a value. A new democratic political culture already arises in the postsocialist countries. The knowledge, which we get through the social relationships and logical, critical thinking, has double structure: it is repetition and creativi­ty, the knowledge for power over extern, physic world and knowledge for human, psycho-social world, partialised and holistic knowledge. The adults, who are included in process of long-life education addes the Jack of school knowledge with learning of contemporary knowledge. In this way they resocialize themselves for accomplish­ ing of the complex tasks of the postsocialist socie­ty.

  4. Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in Latin America. Paradoxically, Latin America has some of the most stringent legal restrictions against and highest rates of abortion in the world. The co-existence of legal restrictions and unsafe abortions affects society unequally. While middle- and upper-class ...

  5. Self-esteem and in-group bias among members of a religious social category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J A

    2001-06-01

    In a sample of New Zealand university students, the author extended earlier research into the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup discrimination. He found no support for the hypothesis that social-category members (i.e., Christians) experience an elevation in the domain of self-esteem (i.e., religious self-esteem) judged as more relevant to the in-group after evaluations favoring the in-group. Regardless of whether the evaluation targets behaved positively or negatively, the respondents in the experimental condition evaluated in-group (Christian) targets more highly than out-group (Atheist) targets. After evaluations favoring the in-group, the respondents did not experience an elevation of religious self-esteem, global self-esteem, or mathematical self-esteem (judged as less relevant to the in-group).

  6. Social Politics: Social Media as a public sphere for Jamaican University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The growth of social media use in Jamaica has changed how people communicate with each other and how they participate in the democratic process. To date, minimal research has been done to ascertain the relationship between social media use and the political process, specifically with younger members of the population. Through a survey and focus group interviews, this dissertation seeks to identify whether Jamaican university students are using social media to participate in the political proc...

  7. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  8. Social and Political Consequences of Reza Shah’s Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mirdar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects and social and political consequences of the acquisition of land and property by Reza Khan have been addressed. The importance of the issue was due to the small amount of ownership of property and land, and consequently the change in the social and political relations of previous landowners and the replacement of Reza Khan's trusted individuals. The main issue of this research is the explanation of some social and political events in the field of land and property acquisition. In this regard, the role of taking possession of property in advancing Reza Khan's autocratic thoughts on the diminution of religion in social life, as well as the weakening of the power of the constitutional and opposition leaders of Reza Khan has been explained. The result of this study was the wide-ranging consequences of the acquisition of land and property in the social form of people's lives and the transformation of the social classes on the basis of Reza Khan's ambitious policies. This form of appropriation has changed the course of government and parliament besides it came to the end of a decade that led to the power and influence of the politician in favor of Reza Khan.

  9. Theoretical and hypothetical framework for research on political socialization process in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to sum up theoretical and hypothetical framework for empirical research of political socialization process in the family in Serbian society nowadays. The investigation focuses on two theoretical concepts, political socialization and generation as a sociological paradigm. Two methodological approaches are applied. First is interactive model of political socialization, based on analysis of relations between individual who is socialized, agents of political socialization, dominant political system and peripheral social sub-systems. The second one tests interactive relation of generation, lifecycle and effects of epoch. It is suitable for definition of certain historical periods with active role of political.

  10. Animal Ethics and Politics Beyond the Social Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Reynolds

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into three sections. First, I describe the wide plurality of views on issues of animal ethics, showing that our disagreements here are deep and profound. This fact of reasonable pluralism about animal ethics presents a political problem. According to the dominant liberal tradition of political philosophy, it is impermissible for one faction of people to impose its values upon another faction of people who reasonably reject those values. Instead, we are obligated to justify our political actions to each other using reasons that everyone can accept. Thus, in the second section I suggest that our condition of reasonable pluralism inspires us to turn toward some form of contractarianism. The social contract tradition emerged precisely as an attempt to think about how a society characterized by deep moral disagreement could nonetheless agree about the basic principles of justice. I will show, in this section, that although the social contract tradition would seem to contain the best tools for thinking about how to deal with moral disagreement, it fails to help us think through the important issues of animal ethics. In the concluding section, I suggest some ways in which political philosophy might move beyond contractarianism when thinking about this issue, including embracing an agonistic style of politics.

  11. Social Media Participation and Local Politics: A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Tambouris, Efthimios; Macintosh, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  12. Social Media Participation and Local Politics : A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Tambouris, Efthimios; Macintosh, Ann

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  13. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF AMERICAN YOUTH--A REVIEW OF RESEARCH WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATRICK, JOHN J.

    A REVIEW OF EXISTING RESEARCH WAS MADE ON THE TOPIC OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF AMERICAN YOUTH. THE AUTHOR POSED THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AS SUBTOPICS TO THE OVERALL RESEARCH REVIEW--(1) WHAT IS POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION, (2) WHAT DO YOUNG AMERICANS BELIEVE ABOUT POLITICS, (3) HOW DO YOUNG AMERICANS ACQUIRE POLITICAL BELIEFS, AND (4) HOW IMPORTANT…

  14. Patterns of rationality recurring inferences in science, social cognition and religious thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes an applied epistemological framework for investigating science, social cognition and religious thinking based on inferential patterns that recur in the different domains. It presents human rationality as a tool that allows us to make sense of our (physical or social) surroundings. It shows that the resulting cognitive activity produces a broad spectrum of outputs, such as scientific models and experimentation, gossip and social networks, but also ancient and contemporary deities. The book consists of three parts, the first of which addresses scientific modeling and experimentation, and their application to the analysis of scientific rationality. Thus, this part continues the tradition of eco-cognitive epistemology and abduction studies. The second part deals with the relationship between social cognition and cognitive niche construction, i.e. the evolutionarily relevant externalization of knowledge onto the environment, while the third part focuses on what is commonly defined as "irrational...

  15. Involving immigrant religious organizations in HIV/AIDS prevention: The role of bonding and bridging social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, ManChui R; Chin, John J; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant religious organizations in the United States are uniquely positioned to address critical issues beyond religion because of their moral, social and cultural prominence in community life. Increasingly, religious organizations have taken on a leadership role around health issues such as decreasing HIV/AIDS stigma and misinformation. However, there are barriers for some religious leaders and organizations in adopting new health programs, especially if the issue is seen as controversial. Our study examines how social network structures among religious members influence organizational acceptance of new information or controversial ideas, like HIV/AIDS. Using social network analysis methods on data from 2841 contacts in 20 immigrant Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches in New York City, we tested whether an immigrant religious organization's likelihood of being involved in HIV/AIDS activities was associated with the presence of bonding or bridging social capital. These two forms of social capital have been found to mediate the levels of exposure and openness to new ideas. We found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have lower levels of bonding social capital as indicated by members having fewer ties and fewer demographic attributes in common. We also found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have higher levels of bridging social capital as indicated by members having significantly more ties to people outside of their organization. Our study highlights the importance of looking beyond religion type and leadership attributes to social network structures among members in order to better explain organization-level receptiveness to HIV/AIDS involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social media - a political journalist’s friend or foe? - Political journalists’ opinions on how social media influence their job and possibilities to communicate with politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenback, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Developing technologies and social media platforms offer new ways of producing and receiving political content. The political elites need to follow, and update social media on a regular basis, and political messages are being blended into the world of entertainment and show business. At the same time, journalists have incorporated social media in their daily job and use social media platforms as working tools. This affects the interconnections between journalists and politicians, making their...

  17. SOCIAL ORDERS AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskressenski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Contemporary Political Science deals mainly with three major research fields (typology of social order within countries, existing and emerging regional identity and world order in international system, which are studied separately. This division is a product of the traditional, West-centric theories. The current article building upon achievements of the Russian school of Asian studies and new reality of the West and East proposes framework for complex approach towards political reality with due account of interdependence between global, regional and national levels.

  18. The Social Shaping of Technology: A New Space for Politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2003-01-01

    change. We identify a new perspective on political processes, with a broader focus on the political dimensions of technological decision-making, and a broader treatment of socio-technical space, maintaining a focus on inclusion and exclusion of actors, salient issues and how they are dealt...... effects, which are non-neutral and distributed, as the processes of shaping themselves have been. The chapter develops the notion of SST through socio-technical spaces. Here a heterogeneous set of elements, comprising of techniques, social actors, attribution of meanings, and problem definitions, etc...

  19. The effects of social media on political party perception and voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Peter; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; de Zeeuw, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine to what extent social media influences political party perception (PPP) and political voting behavior. Based on literature a conceptual model was developed which measures political interest, political trust, religion and the use of social media and their effects on PPP

  20. A Matter of Politics: The Effects of the Political Context on Social Work in Norway and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Tuastad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To which extent do dysfunctional political systems lead to everyday challenges for social workers? Moreover, how do social workers benefit from working in well-ordered democracies?  The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how the interplay between the political context and social work actually operates. Our main question is: How do accountability and state capacity levels affect daily social work? This interplay frequently becomes associated with levels of democracy and redistribution. We also draw attention to how social workers’ are dependent on the capacity of the state to implement policies. We compare social work and the political and legal contexts in two widely different polities – Norway and Bolivia. Our primary findings indicate that the effects of generally unfavourable political conditions permeate the possibilities for effective social work in previously unforeseen ways. Coordination problems, clientelism and political rivalry lead to everyday challenges on the ground, as many problems seem to reflect the overall institutional system and political culture. In well-ordered political systems, these problems are hardly an issue. In our concluding discussion, we address how the nature of the institutional system and political culture apparently might call for a differentiated approach towards reform strategies. For instance, progressive politicians, citizens and social workers advocating a policy transfer could face severe hindrances in polities, thus comprising weak state capacities.

  1. Albania: a nation of unique inter-religious tolerance and steadfast aspirations for EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Patrick Melady

    2013-01-01

    A historic, politic and social analysis of the Albanian case of religious tolerance and co-existence, necessary to understand the real western inspiration of the country and its democracy’s future, is the biggest contribution of this paper.

  2. The challenge of religious and language diversity in Burkina Faso formal education: students’ mobility and social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingrewaoga Bema Abdoul Hadi Savadogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the education of young Muslims in Burkina Faso through relevant literature analysis and the authors’ observations, highlighting the pathways of study in Arabic-speaking countries and the social dynamics around them. The central theme is associated with the more general debate about education and diversity, because it discusses, on the one hand, the educational hegemony of secular orientation carried out in French adopted by part of the society and made official by the nation-state; on the other hand, it stresses the movement of another part of society that continues to enroll their children in Muslim schools where teaching is conducted in Arabic or bilingual (French and Arabic. The study describes the sociopolitical contexts that constitute the institutions of Islamic education, emphasizing the importance of Franco-Arabic schools and new Muslim private universities from the non-public higher education network. Following this discussion, there is a debate about the contribution of these young graduated men and women (inside and outside the country to hold and maintain the educational system. This paper also highlights the political action of these groups that claims for citizenship through religious practices. We conclude by stressing the existence of the fundamental contribution of Islam, which remains a powerful space for the construction of social and interpersonal meanings even in post-colonial dynamics. This is the scenario in which the reconstruction of networks may be converted into an overall challenge for social occupational therapy to mediate conflicts emerging from the confrontation of values and social practices.

  3. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients’ religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients’ religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism. The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ2 test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions. A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of “nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency” (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of “postoperative, major surgery” (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay. This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU

  4. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  5. Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how performing formalized and improvised forms of praying changed the evoked BOLD response in a group of Danish Christians. Distinct from formalized praying and secular controls, improvised praying activated a strong response in the temporopolar region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. This finding supports our hypothesis that religious subjects, who consider their God to be ‘real’ and capable of reciprocating requests, recruit areas of social cognition when they pray. We argue that praying to God is an intersubjective experience comparable to ‘normal’ interpersonal interaction. PMID:19246473

  6. Political Correctness—Between Fiction and Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lichev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays political correctness (PC is blamed by its opponents because of a failed model of multiculturalism, an influx of migrants and the threat of terrorist acts. Obviously, a definition of tolerance given by UNESCO in 1995 has lost its meaning. In order to argue a possibility of a global ethos based on new understandings of PC, the authors refer to contemporary achievements of semiotics, hermeneutics and philosophical anthropology. We use a critical method developed in the hermeneutical tradition of P. Ricoeur, J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov and others. Criticism is directed at (1 paradoxes of postmodern philosophical attempts for justification the idea of political correctness; (2 the way of introducing new terminology, as on a language level it leads, not to inclusion, but to exclusion, of disadvantaged people because as E. Benveniste states, the third person is rather the non-person. The conclusion is that politically correct speech should be grounded on a basis which takes into account the three persons of verb conjugation. Similar philosophical and ethical ideas can be found in works of J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov, P. Ricoeur. An example is given for how these ideas can be implemented in the fields of film and art. This is one of the possible ways of overcoming the exclusion of disadvantaged people who are only named in politically correct terms, and not as participants, in social and political dialogue.

  7. Social Investment after Neoliberalism: Policy Paradigms and Political Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the 'social investment state' refocuses attention on the productive function of social policy eclipsed for some time by the emphasis on its social protection or compensation roles. Here we distinguish between different social investment strategies, the Nordic 'heavy' and the Liberal 'light', with particular reference to the inclusive growth approach adopted in Australia. In 2007, social democrats in Australia returned to government with a clear mandate to reject the labour market deregulation and other neoliberal policies of its predecessor, and to tackle entrenched social and economic disadvantage in Australian society. For the last five years, social investment and inclusive growth has been at the centre of the Australian social policy agenda. Against this background, the article examines and critically assesses the (re)turn to 'social investment' thinking in Australia during Labor's term in office (2007-13). Analysis focuses not just on what was actually achieved, but also on the constraining role of prevailing economic and political circumstances and on the processes that were used to drive social investment reform. In many ways, the article goes some way to exposing ongoing tensions surrounding the distinctiveness of 'social investment' strategies pursued by leftist parties within the (neo)liberal state.

  8. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  9. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei “Chris” Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4,556 US college students were surveyed immediately after Election 2012 to investigate what social media–related psychological and behavioral factors predicted their online political participation. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression results showed that online social capital, political self-efficacy, and Facebook group participation were positive predictors of online political participation, while social trust did not directly influence online political participation. General political use of Facebook and Twitter was a positive predictor of online political participation; however, extensive Facebook and Twitter use was a negative predictor. Implications for research and political practice are discussed.

  11. Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed. PMID:25364225

  12. What kind of political education we seek today?

    OpenAIRE

    Lafaye, Caroline Guibet

    2008-01-01

    Facing contemporary cultural and religious pluralism associated to the demands of recognition from minorities in multicultural societies, neither classical republicanism nor political liberalism gives satisfactory orientation to shape a political education accomodated to this social context. Education will contribute to social pacification and social compromises only if we elaborate a political education which takes into account and responds properly to the main actual political goal: living ...

  13. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  14. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  15. New religious movements and alternative religions in France: the use of digital media as a counter-strategy against social and legal exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Königstedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet is widely used internationally by individuals and groups who otherwise perceive and experience a lack of influence and even repression by authorities and whose opinions remain invisible in or are ignored by the mass media. The new media are a frequently-used means of expression in the political struggles of social and religious movements, especially as part of attempts to increase the number of supporters and to mobilise public opinion. The extent, of the usage as well as its degree of success, does vary and because of this variety, a comparative analysis can illuminate parts of the whole conflictuous configuration as well as the chances and limits of resistance and opposition via these media channels. Organisations which were chosen to be investigated here were the so-called ‘new religious movements’, or more precisely, the many forms of alternative religion in France who face significant levels of social and legal exclusion, while most of their members are themselves usually strongly committed to democracy and their identities as equal French citizens. Therefore, they choose to perform counter-actions which are within the law and act strategically, which makes them a special case compared to revolutionary political movements which may question the social order of the state as a whole. France, with its ‘anti-cult’ policy, has come to a unique standing within the Western world in this respect. Though religious freedom and state neutrality in relation to religious issues are constitutionally granted, a differentiation is made – and partially even legally enforced – between good religions and harmful ones which attempt to manipulate their adepts mentally. The debates are held in a constant dynamic between the struggling parties of ‘anti-cult’ movements and alternative religions. The exclusion of the latter from the mass media is revealed be one central means of hindering them from gaining approval within society

  16. Religious, Cultural, and Social Beliefs of Iranian Rural Women about Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Ghaderi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine religious, cultural, and social beliefs of healthy women about breast cancer in rural settings in Iran.Methods: In the present study, 16 in-depth interviews with health care leaders, social and religious experts and 11 focus group discussions were conducted with 79 women in the rural areas near the capital city of Tehran, Iran. Grounded theory model was used to analyze the data.Results: Some women believed that religious customs and rituals, such as praying, taking a vow, or going on a pilgrimage to a holy place, might have healing effects if performed in addition to seeking medical care medical care. Many believed that God intervenes in the entire course of any illness, from occurrence to cure. Although few had fatalistic views toward cancer, the majority believed that patients could try to change their destiny. With respect to the relationship between moral behavior and disease,  4  types  of  opinions  were  identified; good  people  suffer,  evil  people  get punished,  evil  people  do  not  suffer,  and  everything has  a  scientific  explanation. Participants believed that self-perception, their husbands, deficiencies in the health care system, and financial concerns influence breast cancer outcome.Conclusions: Our study showed that many participants were not aware of any available support in the healthcare system. They generally believed in the healing effect of prayers, only when it is sought in parallel with medical care.

  17. The Influence of Social Networking Technologies on Female Religious Veil-Wearing Behavior in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Abbas; Kwok, Justin; Montazeri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Social networking technologies can influence attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Research on this topic has been conducted primarily among early adopters of technology and within the United States. However, it is important to evaluate how social media might affect people's behaviors in international settings, especially among countries with longstanding, government recommended, cultural and religious traditions and behaviors, such as Iran. This study seeks to assess whether Iranian women who have been using social networking technologies for a longer time (compared to those who have recently joined) would be less likely to cover themselves with a veil and be more comfortable publicly displaying pictures of this behavior on Facebook. Iranian females (N=253) were selected through snowball sampling from nongovernmental organizations in November 2011 and asked to complete a survey assessing their use of Facebook, concerns about not wearing a veil in Facebook pictures, and their actual likelihood of wearing a veil. Items were combined to measure lack of interest in wearing a veil. Length of time as a Facebook user was significantly associated with not wearing a veil (b=0.16, pbehavior of wearing a veil (b=−0.45, pSocial networking technologies can affect attitudes and behaviors internationally. We discuss methods of using social media for self-presentation and expression, as well as the difficulties (and importance) of studying use of technologies, such as social media, internationally. PMID:24611768

  18. An Investigation of Social Capital and its Relationship with Religious Attitudes among the Students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Social capital is defined as norms and networks which provide conditions for participation in social activities in order to profit mutually. This study was designed to evaluate the social capital status of students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences and its relationship with religious attitudes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 500 students from Ardabil University of Medical Sciences during second half of the academic year 2014. Data were collected using demographic, social capital and religious attitudes questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS 22 using T-Test, Pearson correlation and ONOVA tests. Results: Total means score for social capital was 80.0±16. There was significant correlation between all dimensions of social capital (except for dimension of family and friends connections and religious attitudes status (p<0.05. Conclusion: Due to the influence of social capital and its relationship with the religious attitude, it can be a guide for reduction of concerns about the educated classes and increasing their social capital

  19. Social education politics in a Europe of inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bascuñan Cortés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse some indicators which allow us to understand the current state of social education politics in Europe, with special reference to Spain. Some European and Spanish social and educational policies which try to confront the challenges of the current financial crisis are also explained. Some deficiencies, failures and contradictions attached to the process of the construction of European citizenship are pointed out. Some key topics which seem to foresee a deeper social and democratic crisis apart from the economic one are tackled. It is explained how the new forms of inequality evidence the failure of some of the important declarations of intent and objectives of the European Union. The subjection of social and democratic aspects to neoliberal economy —i.e. the negation of ideologies— is questioned. To conclude, some key topics are proposed as the central axis through which it could be possible to redefine the content of social education politics in Europe and Spain and to set the bases of a new democratic European citizenship

  20. The Comparison of Attitudes Toward Infidelity and Religious Orientation in Facebook Social Network users and non-users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سیدهادی سیدعلی تبار

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare attitudes towards infidelity and religious orientation in users and non-users of Facebook social network. This research was basic in terms of purpose and casual-comparative in terms of data collection. The study population included all married men and women referring to consulting centers of Tehran. A sample of 280 people (109 users an-d 171 non-users were selected through convenience sampling. Attitude toward Infidelity Scale and Religious Orientation Scale were used to collect the data and analyzed with Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA. Results showed that internal religious orientation (P0.05. This study suggests that using Facebook does not have any impact on attitude toward infidelity singly, but it can cause differences in internal and external religious orientation among Facebook users.

  1. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  2. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  3. Cultural, Political, and Social Dimensions of Identity among Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Sedigh Sarvestani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As various Iranian theorists emphasis, challenge between tradition and modernity is among the most affective phenomena on Iranian identity. Thus, in the present study, different dimensions of Student’s identity have been evaluated regarding this challenge. According to the main hypothesis, student’s identity is a hybrid of traditional and modern elements. Each dimension of identity (either modern or traditional has been studied from the social, cultural, and political aspects. The study has been carried using questionnaire in 6 universities in Tehran –including University of Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, Allameh Tabatabaei, Sharif University of Technology, Al-Zahra, and University of Applied Science and Technology. Results show that in social and cultural aspects, modern elements of identity prevail, while in the political aspect it is the traditional elements that prevail. In another word, religion-politics blend and authoritarianism play crucial role in students’ identity rather than tendency to civil society. In addition, students’ identity is not simply a one-dimensional structure, but a bi-dimensional construction within which both modern and traditional elements are involved.

  4. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  5. Political socialization of the contemporary Russian intelligentsia: the experience of theoretical-methodological conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartumian Arushan Arushanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a typology of the concepts of political socialization of the Russian intelligentsia in the context of formation of modern political culture. The author substantiates the decisive role of the microenvironment in the relationship “person – politically organized society”; is actualized the thesis about the stable and homogeneous nature of the political system is actualized.

  6. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358507-08$15.00/0.

  7. Islamic Religious Leaders in Israel as Social Agents for Change on Health-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dar, Michal; Obeid, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Islamic religious leaders (IRLs) have the potential to influence health education, health promotion, and positive health outcomes among their own communities. This study aims to examine the role and effectiveness of Arab Muslim religious leaders, in Israel, as social agents for change on health-related issues, focusing on reduction in infant mortality, prematurity, and congenital malformations attributed to consanguineous marriage. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 127 IRLs, in 2012, to gain insights into practice, attitudes, and perceptions of IRLs toward their role as social agents for change on health-related issues. The results indicate that two-thirds (58%) of the surveyed IRLs have provided frequent advice on issues related to preventing infant mortality, congenital malformation, and prematurity over the past two years. Most IRLs indicated that they have keen interest in their communities' health matters (97%) and regard dealing with them as part of their job (85%). The study identified three enabling factors that had significant influence on the IRLs' attitude. These influences are: awareness and knowledge of the health issues, the perception that these issues and their impact on the community are part of their responsibility, and the empowerment they felt through the participation in the Ministry of Health (Northern Region Health Office) educational seminar series, in the year 2000. The main conclusion from this study indicates that IRLs are effective social agents for change and that the educational interventions can be a useful and effective strategy to encourage IRLs to cooperate with health providers and promote public health among their own communities.

  8. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  9. A SURVEY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON POLITICAL LEARNING AND SOCIALIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENNIS, JACK

    A GENERAL SURVEY WAS MADE OF RESEARCH AND LITERATURE IN THE FIELD OF POLITICAL LEARNING AND SOCIALIZATION, AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY WAS PREPARED. THE SURVEY WAS MADE TO PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF THE MAIN CURRENTS OF STUDY OF CHILDREN'S LEARNING OF POLITICAL CONCEPTS. THE SURVEY INCLUDED MAJOR SUBSTANTIVE PROBLEMS OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION RESEARCH--(1)…

  10. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  11. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  12. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...... that will be informative to the international science education research community.......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...

  13. Social epidemiology and political economy: ICU as point of convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions around epidemiology, economics and critical care are often in the mind of almost any healthcare professional. However, it is seldom realized that epidemiology and economy may converge -in spite of being apparently separated fields of study- in order to explain the present situation or future trends of a hospital or public health service. This essay briefly depicts how social epidemiology and political economy have developed and how both academic activities may find a common ground about the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, particularly to pose questions, to create possible research lines and feasible alternatives towards more efficient, effective and humane health services.

  14. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  15. Black Political Socialization and Political Change: The Black Panther Party Platform as a "Model" of Radical Political Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Leslie Burl

    1975-01-01

    Considers the potential impact of black revolutionary nationalism--cultural and military--upon the social patterns of black people, arguing that a racial, cultural, and military approach through black organizations with a highly developed system of communications holds the key to black salvation in America. (Author/JM)

  16. Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Malle, Bertram F.; Stallworth, Lisa M.; Sidanius, James; Pratto, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO), one's degree of preference for inequality among social groups, is introduced. On the basis of social dominance theory, it is shown that (a) men are more social dominance-oriented than women, (b) high-SDO people seek hierarchy-enhancing professional roles and low-SDO people seek hierarchy-attenuating roles, (c) SDO was related to beliefs in a large number of social and political ideologies that support group-based hierarchy (e.g., meritocracy and racism) and...

  17. The Role of Religiousness/Spirituality and Social Networks in Predicting Depressive Symptoms among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Park, So-Young; Roh, Soonhee; Koenig, Harold G; Yoo, Grace J

    2017-06-01

    This study (1) examined the effects of religiousness/spirituality and social networks as predictors of depressive symptoms in older Korean Americans and (2) compared the best predictors of depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 200 older Korean Americans residing in the New York City area in 2009. Best-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictors of depressive symptoms. Nearly 30% of older Korean participants reported mild or severe depressive symptoms. The best model fit for depressive symptoms involved four predictors: physical health status, religious/spiritual coping skills, social networks, and annual household income. Social networks and religious/spiritual coping skills contributed significantly to the variance of depressive symptoms. Adding additional variables to the model did not enhance predictive and descriptive power. Religiousness/spirituality and social networks are important for coping with life stress and may be useful in developing effective health care strategies in the management of depression among older Korean Americans. Health education and intervention could be framed in ways that strengthen such coping resources for this population. Future research is needed to best guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  18. Psychological Health and Meaning in Life: Stress, Social Support, and Religious Coping in Latina/Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…

  19. The Social Media Political Subject Is an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Karatzogianni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Any random sampling of a Facebook timeline or Twitter feed, to take the obvious examples, provides a prepackaged view of global politics. It is restrictive because we choose it to reflect our own pet subjects, groups, likes, and world interests. The lens is prejudiced to reflect our race, class, gender, sexuality, ideology, and affective positionality. We enter a social media world as many as 10 or 50 times a day that has ourselves as the center of the universe. This communication world is similar to an infant’s world: Someone else decides what we can see, what we can consume, what is that extra treat we can earn, if we are good: in social media terms, if we pay for it by reputational capital, or simply, if we spend enough money.

  20. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches to resea......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...

  2. Religious identification and interreligious contact in Indonesia and the Philippines: Testing the mediating roles of perceived group threat and social dominance orientation and the moderating role of context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Sterkens, C.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates three theoretical perspectives provided by social identity theory, realistic group conflict theory and social dominance theory to examine the relationship between religious identification and interreligious contact. It relies on a unique dataset collected among Christian and

  3. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Judging Political Hearts and Minds: How Political Dynamics Drive Social Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, James F M; Bajger, Allison T; Higgins, E Tory

    2015-08-01

    We investigated how judgments of political messengers depend upon what would benefit one's preferred candidate. In Study 1a, participants were asked to evaluate the warmth and competence of the writer of a pro- or anti-Obama political message for the 2012 presidential election (Obama/warm; Romney/competent). When judging the messages, warmth was emphasized by Democrats and competence by Republicans. Study 1b replicated these effects for messages about Romney as well. Study 2 examined the 2004 presidential election where perceptions of the party candidates' warmth and competence reversed (Bush/warm; Kerry/competent). There competence was emphasized by Democrats and warmth by Republicans. Study 3 showed that varying the warmth and competence of each party's prospective candidates for the 2016 election influences whether warmth or competence is emphasized by Democrats or Republicans. Thus, differences between Republicans and Democrats in emphasizing warmth or competence reflect a dynamic motivated cognition that is tailored to benefit their preferred candidate. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. The influence of cultural and religious orientations on social support and its potential impact on medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatah E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ernieda Hatah,1 Kien Ping Lim,1,2 Adliah Mohd Ali,1 Noraida Mohamed Shah,1 Farida Islahudin1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 2Pharmacy Department, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Social support can positively influence patients’ health outcomes through a number of mechanisms, such as increases in patients’ adherence to medication. Although there have been studies on the influence of social support on medication adherence, these studies were conducted in Western settings, not in Asian settings where cultural and religious orientations may be different. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cultural orientation and religiosity on social support and its relation to patients’ medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with chronic diseases in two tertiary hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. Patients who agreed to participate in the study were asked to answer questions in the following areas: 1 perceived group and higher authority cultural orientations; 2 religiosity: organizational and non-organizational religious activities, and intrinsic religiosity; 3 perceived social support; and 4 self-reported medication adherence. Patients’ medication adherence was modeled using multiple logistic regressions, and only variables with a P-value of <0.25 were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 300 patients completed the questionnaire, with the exception of 40 participants who did not complete the cultural orientation question. The mean age of the patients was 57.6±13.5. Group cultural orientation, organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity demonstrated significant associations with patients’ perceived social support (r=0.181, P=0.003; r=0.230, P<0.001; r=0.135, P=0.019; and r=0.156, P=0.007, respectively. In the medication adherence model

  6. La crisis del siglo XVII. Religión, Reforma y cambio social. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, E. (Enrique) de la

    2010-01-01

    Reseña de: Hugh Trevor-Roper, La crisis del siglo XVII. Religión, Reforma y cambio social, primera edición en castellano: Liberty-Fund/Katz, Argentina/España 2009, 488 pp. Traducida por Lilia Mosconi de la obra original de H.R. Trevor-Roper, The crisis of the seventeenth Century. Religion, the Reformation and social change & other essays, London/Melbourne-Toronto 1967, 487 pp.

  7. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People--The German Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Holger; Lange, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to social and political change the process of young citizens' political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which…

  8. Apathy or fear? The role of social workers in Zimbabwe's political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Social Work ... The silence by the majority of Zimbabwean social work practitioners in particular, in the wake of the socio-political challenges currently bedeviling the country is worrying. ... The monograph proposes a number of strategies to increase political efficacy and engagement among social workers.

  9. Mischaracterizing social psychology to support the laudable goal of increasing its political diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.

  10. The Role that Religious Festivities Have in Society and Ideology: Local Identity, Social Control and Instrument of Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Domene Verdú

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer the question: what role have religious and patroness festivities in society, now and throughout history? They belong to what is called popular religiosity, are utilitarian —because they were used as a solution to natural and epidemic calamities— and are mainly a symbol of local or regional identity. But besides this, they have always had a social and ideological role, which can be summarized as maintaining the established social order, mainly by making that a part of the population identifies itself with the Crown and the ruling aristocracy. The parallel between God, the Virgin and the saints with the kings, feudal lords and members of the nobility in general favored that the same attitudes of obedience and submission that common people had toward the religious figures, they also had them to the social ruling figures (the nobility, the clergy and the subsequent absolute monarchy. Therefore, religious festivities (Easter, Christmas, Kings and, especially, the patron-saints’ festivities were the most suitable cultural event to promote that the common people adopt these attitudes towards religious figures and, indirectly, also towards the civilian ones.

  11. The Social Media Paradox Explained: Comparing Political Parties’ Facebook Strategy Versus Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Political parties’ interaction strategy and practice on Facebook is the topic of this article. Political parties and individual politicians can use social media to bypass media and communicate directly with voters through websites and particularly social media platforms such as Facebook. But previous research has demonstrated that interaction on social media is challenging for political parties. This study examines the disparity between interaction strategy and online responsiveness and finds...

  12. Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcázar, Javier

    2017-09-01

    A faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call "political minimalism," in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies.

  13. Political engagement as an element of social recovery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstresser, Sara M; Brown, Isaac S; Colesante, Amy

    2013-08-01

    Taking a qualitative approach, this study sought to describe consumer attitudes toward political participation and the association between political engagement and social recovery. This study used data from seven focus groups of self-identified consumers of mental health services in the New York City area (N=52). Attitudes and behaviors related to voting and other forms of political engagement were identified and classified according to grounded theory, with a focus on the relationship between political engagement and broader social functioning, participation, and recovery. Participants described the symbolic meaning of voting and political participation in terms of connection to social inclusion versus exclusion. Participants described political participation as a component of empowerment for minority groups in general, including persons who use mental health services and those from racial-ethnic minority groups. Qualitative studies of the symbolic meanings of political participation are an important component of understanding the broad yet interconnected dimensions of social recovery.

  14. Does Religion Breed Trust? A Cross-National Study of the Effects of Religious Involvement, Religious Faith, and Religious Context on Social Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Ellen; van Ingen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have linked religiosity to social trust. Yet much of this relation remains insufficiently understood, which is partly due to the fact that religiosity is a multidimensional phenomenon. In this article, we identify several of those dimensions, including the integration in

  15. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  16. Representação social da religião em docentes-pesquisadores universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Geraldo José de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Terão os docentes-pesquisadores universitários uma representação social (RS da religião e das relações entre religião e ciência? Foram entrevistados cientistas avançados das áreas de ciências exatas, biológicas e humanas, da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, acerca das relações que estabelecem, ou não, entre ciência e religião. Os resultados mostraram inexistência de conflito consciente entre ciência e religião; pouca ou nenhuma intersecção entre ambas; rejeição tanto do caráter dogmático do cristianismo como das pretensões ilimitadas da ciência; respeito pelas religiões históricas e abertura para novas formas de religiosidade. Os resultados são discutidos com o conceito de RS, de Moscovici.

  17. Path Dependency and the Politics of Socialized Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; Marquardt, Susanne; Gauchat, Gordon; Reynolds, Megan M

    2016-06-01

    Rich democracies exhibit vast cross-national and historical variation in the socialization of health care. Yet, cross-national analyses remain relatively rare in the health policy literature, and health care remains relatively neglected in the welfare state literature. We analyze pooled time series models of the public share of total health spending for eighteen rich democracies from 1960 to 2010. Building on path dependency theory, we present a strategy for modeling the relationship between the initial 1960 public share and the current public share. We also examine two contrasting accounts for how the 1960 public share interacts with conventional welfare state predictors: the self-reinforcing hypothesis expecting positive feedbacks and the counteracting hypothesis expecting negative feedbacks. We demonstrate that most of the variation from 1960 to 2010 in the public share can be explained by a country's initial value in 1960. This 1960 value has a large significant effect in models of 1961-2010, and including the 1960 value alters the coefficients of conventional welfare state predictors. To investigate the mechanism whereby prior social policy influences public opinion about current social policy, we use the 2006 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP). This analysis confirms that the 1960 values predict individual preferences for government spending on health. Returning to the pooled time series, we demonstrate that the 1960 values interact significantly with several conventional welfare state predictors. Some interactions support the self-reinforcing hypothesis, while others support the counteracting hypothesis. Ultimately, this study illustrates how historical legacies of social policy exert substantial influence on the subsequent politics of social policy. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  18. The New Totalitarians: Social Identities and Radical Islamist Political Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the ideologically-driven grand political strategy of the Islamist extremists, which represents a totalitarian, transnational, and, in many versions, universalist social revolutionary movement...

  19. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Behaviors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.

  20. Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading…

  1. The Political Socialization of Youth: Exploring the Influence of School Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael H.; Roker, Debra

    1994-01-01

    Examined possible role of educational experience in political socialization by comparing political attitudes of girls (n=127) from similar family backgrounds attending either private or state schools. Found significant differences in political attitudes between two samples. Results led to formation of model of role of school in political…

  2. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  3. Social media: implications for everyday life, politics and human agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current saturation of digital devices in contemporary society, the boundaries between humans and machines have become increasingly blurred. This digitalization of everyday life both obscures and reminds us of the fact that identity, agency and power cannot be attributed to the individual or the machine alone: rather, they are the outcome of interactions and negotiations within a network of actors. Social media, such as Facebook, blogs, Twitter and YouTube, show clearly that the ‘meaning’ or ‘effect’ of digital technologies is formed through the practices in which they are used and the social relations and institutions that develop around them. This article presents views expressed during a panel discussion on the implications of social media for everyday life, politics and human agency at the Aboagora Symposium, held on 14th August 2013. The panel was organized as a dialogue between the participants and the discussion was structured around three questions, presented below. The participants in the panel were; Professor André Jansson (Karlstad University, Professor Susanna Paasonen (University of Turku and adjunct Professor Johanna Sumiala (University of Helsinki. The panel was chaired by Professor Mia Lövheim (Uppsala University.

  4. Talking Politics on Twitter: Gender, Elections, and Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. McGregor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As campaign discussions increasingly circulate within social media, it is important to understand the characteristics of these conversations. Specifically, we ask whether well-documented patterns of gendered bias against women candidates persist in socially networked political discussions. Theorizing power dynamics as relational, we use dialectic configurations between actors as independent variables determining network measures as outcomes. Our goal is to assess relational power granted to candidates through Twitter conversations about them and whether they change depending on the gender of their opponent. Based on more than a quarter of a million tweets about 50 candidates for state-wide offices during the 2014 US elections, results suggest that when a woman opposes a man, the conversation revolves around her, but she retains a smaller portion of rhetorical share. We find that gender affects network structure—women candidates are both more central and more replied to when they run against men. Despite the potential for social media to disrupt deeply rooted gender bias, our findings suggest that the structure of networked discussions about male and female candidates still results in a differential distribution of relational power.

  5. USING SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra-Ioana ANDRONICIUC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim at gaining insight into the Romanian president’s online campaign during the 2014 elections. Although there is a growing body of literature on online political campaigns in Western democracies, little research exists on using Social Media in an emergent economy like Romania. In order to take a closer look at the president’s online communication strategy, we conducted a content analysis on the posts published on the president’s official Facebook page over the two weeks leading up to Election Day. This study is the first of this kind and it indicates that president Iohannis used close-ended messages to control the speech, while reaching out to emotion to gain users’ support.

  6. Political participation as public pedagogy : The Educational Situation in Young People´s Political Conversations in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Maria; Andersson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that young people’s political participation in the social media can be considered ‘public pedagogy’. The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt’s expressive agonism. The political participation that takes place in the net community builds up an educational situation that involves central characteristics: co...

  7. Using social constructionist thinking in training social workers living and working under threat of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-10-01

    This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.

  8. Stability and crisis in social and political development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Stavchenko

    2015-03-01

    Determined that the balance and stability on the one hand, and the crisis loss of balance of power between the main actors, leading to instability of institutions, on the other hand, forming two potential «poles» that cause and «energy» of the political process, the vectors of its changes. This process affects the type of the country and its institutional organization. In general, the political crisis dysfunction manifested in political institutions, and is characterized by loss of legitimacy of institutional and substantive elements of the political system. Legitimacy can become leaders, political leaders, political leaders and even the basic law of the country (in the case of revolution, for example. The indicators serve as the political crisis of the political system parameters responsible for the restoration of the political system. Violations of system­parameters mean that in the looming crisis.

  9. Politics of Meaning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    By a politics of meaning I refer to the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions for experiencing meaning. I refer as well to the layers of visons, assumptions, presumptions and preconceptions that might construct something as being meaningful. By addressing different politics of meani...... of such factors. Politics of meaning can be analysed with reference to sexism, racism, instrumentalism, the school mathematics tradition, critical mathematics education, and the banality of expertise....

  10. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  11. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  12. Practicing Multicultural Education through Religiously Affiliated Schools and Its Implications for Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahur Rohman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Having varied ethnics, cultures, religions, or faiths, Indonesia is considered a multicultural nation in today’s world. This equity can be dangerous; but also can be advantageous if myriad interests of citizens are able to be nurtured through education, including religious schools. The research was conducted to explore multicultural practices in the State-owned Islamic High School (MAN 3 and the Catholic High School (SMA Stella Duce 2 in Yogyakarta Indonesia. Data was gathered via qualitative method by means of comparative study, aiming at seeking similarities and differences on promoting multicultural education values. Findings show similarities of teachers’ attitudes and characteristics as facilitator, accommodator, or assimilator whereas the differences include their leadership role in intrareligious dialog at MAN 3 and dialog leaders at SMA Stella Duce 2. Other issues include diverse understandings of religion and its perceived violence. The research formulates two categories of teacher as being multicultural-intrareligious pluralist and multicultural-intrareligious humanist. It also discusses implications on social change as a result of cultural interchange at those schools.

  13. The People Are Missing: Cramped Space, Social Relations, and the Mediators of Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Thoburn, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the place of social relations in Deleuze and Guattari’s figure of ‘cramped space’, a figure integral to their ‘minor politics’. Against social and political theories that seek the source of political practice in a collective identity, the theory of cramped space contends that politics arises among those who lack and refuse coherent identity, in their encounter with the impasses, limits, or impossibilities of individual and collective subjectivity. Cramped space, as D...

  14. UNDERSTANDING RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDONESIA: Theological, Structural and Cultural Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Salehudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.

  15. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  16. Political Socialization of Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: Conception and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Tal, Daniel; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Nasie, Meytal

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that…

  17. Political Socialization in the Family and Young People's Educational Achievement and Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large-scale survey of Norwegian youth, the study examines the relationships that the performance in key academic subjects and aiming for higher education have with political socialization at home. The more often adolescents aged 13-16 talk with parents about politics and social issues, the better their performance is and the more…

  18. "Political" Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    “Political” corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves businesses taking a political role to address “regulatory gaps” caused by weak or insufficient social and environmental standards and norms. The literature on political CSR focuses mostly on how large multinational corporations (MNCs) can

  19. IMPACT OF CIVILIZATIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE BIGGEST COUNTRIES ON THEIR SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to civilizational factors of the largest Asian states, which attract much academic attention around the world, India and China, and the infl uence of these factors and their peculiarities on social, political and economic development. The article is prepared as a discussion of two books prepared by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences: “Indian Civilization in the Globalizing World” and “Chinese Civilization in the Globalizing World”. The authors rely on comparative method to analyze civilizational codes of India and China, to define key peculiarities of cultural and political development of the both states, to speculate on their historical paths, political systems, religious and ideological factors in the context of civilizational codes. Moreover, the article discusses international environment and the level and trends of economic development. The authors draw a number of conclusion about similarities and differences in two ancient civilizations, as well as their modernization patterns.

  20. Following the voices? Effects of social endorsements on exposure to political content on social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Mothes, Cornelia

    New technologies have altered news use patterns of citizens worldwide. A particular prominent feature on social media platforms are social endorsements (i.e., recommendations, reactions, and popularity measures). Those newly available indicators may guide users’ news consumption in significant ways....... Extant research points to the capability of social endorsements to instigate user interest and to even counteract traditional effects of source credibility or partisanship. However, effects of endorsements have not yet been tested comprehensively in realistic exposure settings. This study explores...... effects of social endorsements on selective exposure to political news in an online-survey experiment (n=209) before the German federal election in 2017. In a closely mimicked Facebook newsfeed, participants were provided with news and entertainment posts in conjunction with various social cues. Under...

  1. La religión como currículo social: educación, valores e Islam en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Javier Llorent García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuando la religión se convierte en parte integrante de los debates políticos modernos, las ideas religiosas influyen en las decisiones y definiciones de conceptos como la educación, la participación en el mercado laboral, la estructura y función de la familia como unidad social y la igualdad. La integración y la inmigración pasan a primer plano a medida que el concepto de ciudadanía adquiere dimensiones culturalistas y moralizantes. Finalmente, religión, política y educación se interfieren en las áreas de la vida que pertenecen a la esfera privada y pública. Desde nuestra perspectiva pedagógica, entendemos que las líneas educativas marcadas por la religión influyen notablemente en el devenir de muchos ciudadanos y se incrustan en el foro político-social. Así nos encontramos que la religión como poderoso instrumento de socialización ejerce una gran influencia intencionada en la educación y valores de los ciudadanos y se configura como el currículo social, normalmente oculto, del contexto próximo de muchos ciudadanos. La presencia del Islam y los musulmanes en Europa, aunque no es un fenómeno nuevo, es cuestionada por los Estados-nación confrontando el currículo oficial, la educación reglada, con el currículo social, muy influido por el Islam entre sus fieles. De esta manera se convierte en parte integrante de la lucha por la identidad nacional individual y colectiva, ya sea en lo referente al laicismo, la democracia o ciudadanía. Y en este sentido, queremos aportar una revisión actualizada de esta cuestión tan presente en Europa.

  2. Log Linear Models for Religious and Social Factors affecting the practice of Family Planning Methods in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.

  3. Social-ecological systems, social diversity, and power: insights from anthropology and political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fabinyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A social-ecological system (SES framework increasingly underpins the "resilience paradigm." As with all models, the SES comes with particular biases. We explore these key biases. We critically examine how the SES resilience literature has attempted to define and analyze the social arena. We argue that much SES literature defines people's interests and livelihoods as concerned primarily with the environment, and thereby underplays the role of other motivations and social institutions. We also highlight the SES resilience literature's focus on institutions and organized social units, which misses key aspects of social diversity and power. Our key premise is the importance of inter- and multi-disciplinary perspectives. To illustrate this, we draw attention to the critique of earlier ecological anthropology that remains relevant for current conceptualizations of SESs, focusing on the concepts of social diversity and power. And we discuss insights from social anthropology and political ecology that have responded to this critique to develop different ways of incorporating social diversity and power into human-environment relations. Finally, we discuss how these social science perspectives can help improve the understanding of the "social" in SES resilience research.

  4. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  5. Responsabilidades sociales y políticas de los bibliotecarios = Social and political responsibilities of librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Muela-Meza, Zapopan Martín

    2001-01-01

    Presentation (which title is: "Social and Political Responsibilities of Librarians") given to the students and professors, lecturers, readers and faculty body of the College of Library and Information Science (LIS) of the School of Philosophy and Letters at the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, thanks to the invitation of Mrs. Maria del Rosario Banda Martínez, lecturer and MLS of that program (to whom the author is very thankful for such invitation). The presentation covered around...

  6. Political Parties and Interest Groups Members' Patterns of Social Network Site Usage in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira Turdubaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan, with a high level of political participation and an avant-garde position regarding internet access in Central Asia, broadband and social media penetration in the population, is a critical case for studying social network sites (SNSs in relation to political participation. This study analyzes the practices and attitudes of SNS users in Kyrgyzstan. Two types of users – members of political parties and members of interest organizations – are interviewed in focus groups about their practices and attitudes towards political content in the social network site Facebook. The findings indicate that, to some extent, the political engagement is indeed occurring within the Facebook environment, suggesting that the popular social networking sites (SNSs are an avenue for young people to express and share their political views. Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. Participants’ perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific types of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  7. Citizenship beyond politics: the importance of political, civil and social rights and responsibilities among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that men are more engaged as citizens than are women. Yet, little is known about gender cleavages across a variety of citizenship norms. To what extent do men and women define citizenship differently? To address that question, this study examines the importance men and women assign various citizenship rights and responsibilities using 2004 ISSP data from 18 Western, industrialized nations. Using a disaggregated approach to understanding definitions of citizenship, we examine political, civil, and social rights and responsibilities. After controlling for a variety of demographic and attitudinal influences, we find that men and women are not different in their views regarding the importance of political responsibilities. However, women do view political rights as significantly more important than do men. Further, in comparison to men, women view both civil and social responsibilities and rights domains as significantly more important.

  8. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  9. Political Participation as Public Pedagogy--The Educational Situation in Young People's Political Conversations in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Olson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that young people's political participation in the social media can be considered "public pedagogy". The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt's…

  10. Politics, Media and Youth: Understanding Political Socialization via Video Production in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Kate; Lagos, Taso G.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the lack of civic and political engagement on the part of today's youth has relied on traditional, often quantitative, measures of political knowledge that may miss important elements of the process. Using an ethnographic approach with a group of inner-city high school students, our study reveals a richer construction of students'…

  11. Blood pressure and social support observations from Mamre, South Africa, during social and political transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A; Hoffman, M; Lombard, C; Steyn, K; Levitt, N; Katzenellenbogen, J

    1999-10-01

    Social support, by moderating cardiovascular reactivity, has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of stress on blood pressure in American communities. This is the first report to examine the relationship between social support and blood pressure in a South African context, during a period of infrastructure modernisation and political change. A total of 1240 residents (542 men, 698 women) of mixed ethnic origin, older than 14 years and stratified by age and sex, participated in a survey to determine risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Social support was assessed by a questionnaire developed in consultation with the community. It was defined by interactions that may threaten family harmony (score 1) and by networking between relatives, friends, colleagues and neighbours (score 2). Mean blood pressure of the sample was 130/79 mm Hg (s.d. 25/14 mm Hg). Hypertension prevalence was 26.9%. Only 36% of women compared to 57.3% of men (P social support networks were similarly perceived by both sexes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated weakly with score 1 (r = 0.096, P networking between relatives, friends or neighbours, significantly influences blood pressure in this community. Measures of social support thought to moderate blood pressure may have limited cross-cultural application. Attitudinal changes during socio-political transition may impact on the generalisability of instruments for measurement.

  12. A Second Reformation? : Liberal Protestantism in Dutch Religious, Social and Political Life, 1870-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Tom-Eric Marinus

    2017-01-01

    In the third quarter of the nineteenth century, a movement of ‘modernists’ or ‘liberals’ began to manifest itself within Dutch Protestantism. Modernists firmly believed to be the heralds of a ‘second Reformation’, harmonising Christianity with contemporary intellectual and cultural life, and as such

  13. Socialization and Political Culture of Women in Positions of Popular Election. Municipality Presidents in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Chávez Arellano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the forms of socialization and political culture of some women who had positions of representatives of municipalities in rural communities in Tlaxcala, México. We presume that the ways of assuming and exercising power are closely linked to a  political culture that begins in the family and secured in various social spaces such as school, political parties or unions. The analysis in this paper is based on testimonies obtained from 14 women who were municipal presidents between 1992 and 2010, a period that frames the beginning of political alternation in Mexico.

  14. A Religious Worldview: Protecting One's Meaning System Through Religious Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby

    2015-11-01

    For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.

  16. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health.

  17. Secular and religious: the intrinsic doubleness of analytical psychology and the hegemony of naturalism in the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Roderick

    2013-06-01

    In recent years a number of prominent social theorists, including Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor, have voiced concern about the hegemony of naturalistic, secular assumptions in the social sciences, and in their different ways have sought to address this by establishing greater parity between secular and religious perspectives. This paper suggests that C.G. Jung's analytical psychology, which hitherto has been largely ignored by social theory, may have something to contribute on this issue as it can be understood coherently both empirically, without reference to transcendent reality, and metaphysically, with reference to transcendent reality. It is argued that, despite his denials of any metaphysical intent, Jung does in fact engage in metaphysics and that together the empirical and metaphysical vectors of his thought result in a rich and distinctive double perspective. This dual secular and religious perspective can be seen as part of Jung's own critique of the hegemony of naturalism and secularism, which for Jung has profound social as well as clinical relevance. The concern and approach that Habermas and Taylor share with Jung on this issue may provide some grounds for increased dialogue between analytical psychology and the social sciences. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Kholid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to examine the political par- ticipation of social media users particularly of Facebook and Twitter during the 2014 Indonesian presidential election. The data collection was per- formed through survey with accidental sampling methods. Samples were taken from population of undergraduate students of political and social sci- ences faculty at five universities in Yogyakarta namely UGM, UIN Sunan Kalijaga, UMY, UNY and UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. Using statistic descriptive, this research conceptualizes the political participation of social media users while the relations of social me- dia and political participation is analyzed through OLS Regression. The findings indicated that the level of political participation of the social media users during the election was categorized as good. How- ever, the facilities offered by the two social media applications were not maximally used to supporting political participation activities. On the other hand, the result OLS regression shows that there were positive and significant correlations and influences of social media towards the political participation of its users during the election even though the per- centage was small.

  19. Challenges for Social-Ecological Transformations: Contributions from Social and Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Görg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transformation has become a major topic of sustainability research. This opens up new perspectives, but at the same time, runs the danger to convert into a new critical orthodoxy which narrows down analytical perspectives. Most research is committed towards a political-strategic approach towards transformation. This focus, however, clashes with ongoing transformation processes towards un-sustainability. The paper presents cornerstones of an integrative approach to social-ecological transformations (SET, which builds upon empirical work and conceptual considerations from Social Ecology and Political Ecology. We argue that a critical understanding of the challenges for societal transformations can be advanced by focusing on the interdependencies between societies and the natural environment. This starting point provides a more realistic understanding of the societal and biophysical constraints of sustainability transformations by emphasising the crisis-driven and contested character of the appropriation of nature and the power relations involved. Moreover, it pursues a transdisciplinary mode of research, decisive for adequately understanding any strategy for transformations towards sustainability. Such a conceptual approach of SET is supposed to better integrate the analytical, normative and political-strategic dimension of transformation research. We use the examples of global land use patterns, neo-extractivism in Latin America and the global water crisis to clarify our approach.

  20. An Appraisal of the Utilisation of Social Media for Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    The influence of new media technology in political communication across the globe .... what people do with the media instead of what the media do to people. ... their information need, and thus make them active participants in the political ... is a medium that allows individuals to share important information with friends.

  1. Political Socialization and the Future of Democracy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a thorough understanding of the political system and possession of relevant political knowledge and attitude the various factors that hinder appropriate pratice of democracy and development of enlightened citizenship are gradually nipped in the bud. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 133- ...

  2. Different meanings of the social dominance orientation concept: predicting political attitudes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Iyer, Aarti

    2010-06-01

    We examined predictors of political attitude change by assessing the independent and interactive effect of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a context-dependent versus an individual difference construct. In a longitudinal study, British students' political orientation was assessed before entering university (T1) and after being at university for 2 months (T2) and 6 months (T3; N=109). Results showed that initial SDO (T1) did not predict political attitudes change nor did it predict self-selected entry into course with hierarchy enhancing or hierarchy-attenuating ideologies. More support was obtained for a contextually determined model whereby SDO (T2) mediated the relationship between social class (T1) and political attitude change (T3). We also found support for mediated moderation in accounting for effects of initial SDO on political attitude change. Findings suggest that SDO as a concept that is sensitive to group dynamics is best suited to explain shifts in political attitudes.

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation with the Social Skills and Religious Behaviour of Female Students at Dammam University in the Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Eman Mohammad Reda Ali; Al-Khawaldeh, Naseer Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The study has examined the correlation between emotional intelligence, social skills, and religious behavior among university female students, since it had been noticed that there was escalation in the frequency of some behavioral and emotional problems such as vandalism, aggression, social withdrawal, weakness of social relations, patterns of…

  4. The challenges and factors of political socialization of the contemporary youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N М Belgarokova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the conditions and results of the processes of political culture development and political socialization of the contemporary youth in the frame of sociological research. The analysis of the conflicting influences of the agents of political socialization (family, system of education, mass media, the difficult circumstances and the challenging economic status of the contemporary Russian youth as well as the macropolitical environment in the country provides an opportunity to arrive at the conclusion concerning the socialization crisis of youth in contemporary Russia.

  5. Theorizing political psychology: Doing integrative social science under the condition of postmodernity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Shawn W.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...

  6. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  7. A Social-Ecological, Process-Oriented Perspective on Political Violence and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Merrilees, Christine E; Taylor, Laura K; Shirlow, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Youths' risk for adjustment problems in contexts of political violence is well-documented. However, outcomes vary widely, with many children functioning well. Accordingly, moving beyond further documenting the risk for many negative outcomes associated with living in contexts of political violence, a second generation of research is moving towards identifying the mechanisms and conditions that contribute to children's adjustment. Increasing support is emerging for understanding effects on children in terms of changes in the social contexts in which children live, and in the psychological processes engaged by these social ecologies. Selected themes are considered, including (a) the need to study multiple levels of the social ecology, (b) differentiating between the effects of exposure to contexts of political versus non-political violence, and (c) theories about explanatory processes. Selected research pertinent to these directions is reviewed, including findings from a six-wave longitudinal study on political violence and children in Northern Ireland.

  8. Social and pedagogical aspects of religious literacy among the younger generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of the education of youth in religious issues through the activities of the Church and secular educational institutions. The author shows the absolute failure of the efforts of the state and the Church in this direction that causes damage to the moral education of the younger generation. The author enlightens the originality, specificity, criticism of the interaction between the Church and the intelligentsia, and also the organizational ways of formation of the religious literacy among the population of Russia.

  9. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  10. Producing and Consuming the Controversial--A Social Media Perspective on Political Conversations in the Social Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…

  11. Converting the Jews? The duties of the prince, between religious imperative and political necessity (Lombardy, 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Savy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper first examines the princely power’s implementation of a conversionist policy regarding Jews in the late medieval Duchy of Milan, and then considers the treatment of the conversion in contemporary treaties and mirrors of princes. The Sforza’s attitude towards conversion was more complex than one might expect given common assumptions about medieval religiosity. Until the end of the 15th century, the duke did not do much to promote the conversion of Jews, out of fear that doing so might cause a popular uprising, or even prove illegal. But when Jews did convert, the duke defended and exploited their actions. Indeed, the prince affirmed his political superiority through his refusal to submit to the Church’s injunction to force the Jews to convert. Paradoxically, he demonstrated his power by refraining from intervention.

  12. Tipping the Balance of Power : Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media in politics has changed the relationship between political journalists and politicians. Especially Twitter has developed into a regular news beat. Journalists use it to build relationships with politicians and quote their tweets in coverage. For many politicians, tweeting

  13. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt: The Scope of Newspapers and Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Shehata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing and mobilizing the public, they eventually failed to empower new political actors, and this was because old actors, supported by newspapers and other mainstream media, managed to obstruct the new actors’ progress.

  14. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  15. Holistic self-care for rehabilitation experienced by thai buddhist trauma patients in areas of political and social unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, Praneed; Watanasiriwanich, Wachiraya; Kitrungrote, Luppana

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the meaning and practice of holistic self-care for rehabilitation among Thai Buddhist trauma patients living in areas of political unrest where acts of terrorism occur. Eleven Thai Buddhist trauma patients were selected as specified. The data were collected by in-depth interviews between November 2011 and April 2012, and analyzed using the Van Manen method.Those interviewed described "holistic self-care for rehabilitation" as learning (1) to acquire a new life and (2) to bear the increased demands of care as a chronic disease. Health care responses fell into 3 categories: (1) improving physical self-sufficiency and rehabilitation by increasing muscle strength, pain management, and pressure sores; (2) improving psychological well-being by applying positive thinking, making an effort to live independently, and following a set of religious practices; and (3) finding harmony in life through caution and a willingness to adjust one's lifestyle. Although the participants seemed to adapt well to their new lifestyles, extensive support from health care professionals was necessary. This study promotes better understanding of the holistic health care experiences the survivors of trauma have as a result of an unstable political situation that includes aspects of social unrest and terrorism.

  16. The Political Economy of Social Data : A Historical Analysis of Platform–Industry Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, A.; Nieborg, D.; van der Vlist, F.

    2017-01-01

    Social media platform–industry partnerships are essential to understanding the politics and economics of social data circulating among platforms and third parties. Using Facebook as a case study, this paper develops a novel methodology for empirically surveying the historical dynamics of social

  17. Descriptions of euthanasia as social representations: comparing the views of Finnish physicians and religious professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jylhankangas, L.; Smets, T.; Cohen, J.; Utriainen, T.; Deliens, L.

    2014-01-01

    In many western societies health professionals play a powerful role in people's experiences of dying. Religious professionals, such as pastors, are also confronted with the issues surrounding death and dying in their work. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the ways in which death-related

  18. Religiousness, Spirituality, and Social Support: How Are They Related to Underage Drinking among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara L.; Salsman, John M.; Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General has declared underage drinking among college students a major health issue for the nation, making it imperative that researchers delineate factors which predict and protect against it. Research suggests religiousness and spirituality might be protective factors, but methodological limitations make it difficult to know for…

  19. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  20. The Trend of Body Donation for Education Based on Korean Social and Religious Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or…

  1. Differential Social Integration among First Generation Greeks in New York: Participation in Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglery, Anna

    1988-01-01

    Studies the relationship of educational level and knowledge of English on the differential integration of 71 post-1965 Greek immigrants into the religious structure of the Greek community of New York, New York. Tentatively concludes that socioeconomic status may play a larger role than the variables explored. (FMW)

  2. Social Ecology, Deep Ecology and the Future of Green Political Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Describes the differences which divide the social ecology movement and the Deep Ecology Movement. Discusses how each views population ecology, politics, natural resources, and ecological living. Calls for a unified ecological movement. (CW)

  3. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay.

  4. Managing Diversity as A Foundation of Religious Tolerance: A Study in Sidoasri Village, The Regency of Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanny Septimawan Sutopo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amongst other things, Indonesian history was rife with religious conflicts. Religious differences had thus far been factored in the causes of intolerance amongst believers of different religions. This study examined how religious tolerance that was established in Sidoasri village where Christians and Muslims were living together. This research used a qualitative descriptive method, where it would describe and explain data from the subject research on the form of religious tolerance in Sidoasri village. The results of this research show that religious tolerance is always built through the long process by way of mediating various past conflicts. Religious dogma has never been a cause of intolerance. Social, cultural, political, and economic factors are decisive in founding religious tolerance. 

  5. Managing Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Inter-Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria with over 150 million people consists of muslims and christians who live across the country. The religious divide in the country crisscrosses more than 250 ethnic groups as well as deep political divisions that cross religious lines. Over the last decade, numerous 'hotspots' around the country have suffered from ...

  6. Features and Mechanisms for Ensuring Social and Political Stability in Contemporary Chinese Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Алексеевич Сущенко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features and mechanisms of ensuring and maintaining social and political stability in China. Analyzes the scientific theoretical foundation in the study of this phenomenon, developed by Russian and Chinese scientists. Political stability in contemporary China is understood as a precondition for effective social and economic development. The paper studied the treatment of leadership in China from different generations to tools approval of social and political stability as a way of implementing the modernization program of the political course. It has been found that maintaining the political stability of the society in modern China made possible by the harmonization of public relations, flexible national policy, economic growth, trends in socio-economic development and the use of ideological tools. The author studied the basic mechanisms of the stability of the political system of China at the present stage. It is concluded that a stable political development in contemporary China strengthens the regime and the preservation of the monopoly of the CCP to political power.

  7. Socialization and Political Culture of Women in Positions of Popular Election. Municipality Presidents in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Chávez Arellano; Verónica Vázquez García

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the forms of socialization and political culture of some women who had positions of representatives of municipalities in rural communities in Tlaxcala, México. We presume that the ways of assuming and exercising power are closely linked to a  political culture that begins in the family and secured in various social spaces such as school, political parties or unions. The analysis in this paper is based on testimonies obtained from 14 women who were municipal presidents...

  8. Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist Propensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Schils

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020 among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. CONTEMPORARY MUSLIM POLITICAL IDENTITY: THE SACRED TEXT AND SOCIAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И В Кудряшова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the formation of modern Muslim political identity on the macro-po-litical and individual levels. The author explores the relation between its Islamic and state-national levels. It is shown that this relationship is of dynamic nature and that at present both these levels are significantly differentiated: nationalism outgrows the framework of state nationalism and gradually acquires civil dimension, while the Islamic layer, losing its significance as the only source of identification and self-identification for Muslims, acquires new socio-political content. The latter is reflected in the development of “Islamist pluralism”. It is noted that the ascriptive orientations to kin-groups, ethnic groups and clans remain significant and especially vibrant in the times of political turbulence.

  10. Social Reproduction and Political Change in The Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Bo Brendstrup

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines a core tension in the political television serial The Wire (2002-2008). While several critics have argued that this show is both “bleak” and “systemic” in its portrayal of contemporary society, this paper argues that it is useful to understand these textual elements as building...... blocks in The Wire’s attempt to create a coherent and consistent political argument. The paper argues that had The Wire been structured as a more uplifting and redeeming story, the systemic nature of its societal criticism would be undercut and the show would not embrace the logical consequence...

  11. The sources of political orientations in post-industrial society: social class and education revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Werfhorst, Herman G; de Graaf, Nan Dirk

    2004-06-01

    This paper studies the impact of social class and education on political orientation. We distinguish the 'old' middle class from a new class of social/cultural specialists. However, the difference in their political orientation may especially be related to the level and field of education; the new middle class is more highly educated and often in fields of study that extensively address social competencies, characteristics independently affecting political outcomes. Analyses on Dutch data showed that education is more important in the prediction of 'cultural' liberal issues than social class. Economically-oriented issues are more strongly affected by social class. This means that interests of the new middle class are served by liberal standpoints relating to a strong government and income redistribution policies, but not relating to cultural issues.

  12. Values in the Curricula of Religious Education and Social Studies in Primary Schools in the Context of Local-Universal Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakcan, Recep; Meydan, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the approach of teaching curricula of primary courses of religious education and social studies values and to determine the weight of values found in these programs with regard to various aspects such as being open to novelty-conservatism, individualism-being social, nationalism-universalism, self-expansion-self…

  13. Religious content of hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.

  14. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.

  15. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  16. Continuity and Change in Political Socialization in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomczynski, Kazimierz M.; Shabad, Goldie

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of Polish teachers who volunteered to introduce civic education about democracy, along with parents, and students aged 13-14 examined individual-level support for democracy and a market economy in relation to three psychological dimensions widely thought to affect political and economic attitudes: valuing of self-direction, authoritarian…

  17. Criticism of the Press: Its Social, Psychological and Political Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    This study examines data from several national polls about press coverage during the Watergate scandal, in order to assess the origins of press criticism. The polls were conducted between 28 September and 6 October 1973, during June 1974, and in August 1974. The data suggest that political variables--particularly support of Nixon, party…

  18. 1 Explaining Political Agitators: Socialization and Class in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    in the Making of Gani Fawehinmi and Fela Anikulapo. Kuti of Nigeria .... generally to deprivation, claiming that man develops relative ..... adolescence upward. ... influenced by their parents and other family members and .... brother, on the 30th September 1979, .... socio- political development of a country, and the purposes ...

  19. Who is the Troll?: The Construction of Political Identities on Social Media in the Peruvian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cerna Aragón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One can easily find discrediting accusations between users with different political affiliations or ideological orientations on social media. The objective of this article is to affirm that these practices are neither superfluous nor secondary, but rather fundamental in the formation and consolidation of political identities of those who participate in these discussions. This article reviews up-to-date academic literature about three recent trends in the dynamics of political discussion on social media (the polarization of the political debate, the focus on personalities and figures, and the trolls’ practices and, using tools taken from Netnography, it explores and applies these concepts to the Peruvian context. Consequently, the article offers an outline about the daily political dynamics on social media, how users take sides and disputes happen, and how this serves to the (reproduction of political identities. The results of this investigation show a scenario where two characteristics prevail: the polarization between different political stances and the uncertainty about the information and identities in circulation.

  20. Religião e (DesOrdem Social: Contestado, Juazeiro e Canudos nos Estudos Sociológicos sobre Movimentos Religiosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Giumbelli

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes sociological work produced during the 1960s and 1970s on Messianic and rural religious movements, specifically encompassing the episodes of Contestado, Juazeiro, and Canudos. It begins with these authors’ characterizations of the social formations within which the movements emerged and with a discussion of coronelismo. It next examines how the notion of Popular Catholicism fits into these studies and what importance is attached to it. Lastly, it explores these authors’ evaluations of the degree and nature of social rupture which is occasioned by these religious movements, and goes on to identify links between such evaluations and two kinds of questions: the distinction between religious and secular protests and the relationship between religion and social class.

  1. Twitter and Facebook are not Representative of the General Population: Political Attitudes and Demographics of British Social Media users

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Jonathan; Prosser, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    A growing social science literature has used Twitter and Facebook to study political and social phenomena including for election forecasting and tracking political conversations. This research note uses a nationally representative probability sample of the British population to examine how Twitter and Facebook users differ from the general population in terms of demographics, political attitudes and political behaviour. We find that Twitter and Facebook users differ substantially from the gen...

  2. Social Media and Political Participation : Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Hillegersberg, van J. ( ); Huibers, T. (Theo)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes

  3. Social Media and Political Participation: Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes

  4. Inside the Social Open Method of Coordination: The hard politics of ‘soft’ governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhercke, B.W.R.

    2016-01-01

    The process of European integration has irreversibly altered the configuration of national welfare states. In spite of formidable institutional and political hurdles, incremental European social regulation led to the development of a genuine EU social policy. This PhD is mainly concerned with one

  5. Social Epistemology and Its Politically Correct Words: Avoiding Absolutism, Relativism, Consensualism, and Vulgar Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Where social epistemology has been applied in environmental education research, certain words have come to be associated with it, such as, "social," "contextualized," "strategic," "political," "pragmatic," "democratic," and "participatory." In this paper, I first suggest interpretations of these words that potentially avoid absolutism, relativism,…

  6. Social Media Is the New Player in the Politics of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Political debate about the Common Core State Standards (the first major education policy initiative in the social media age) ramped up quickly on social media, particularly on Twitter. However, while the increased and intense conversation influenced many states to disavow Common Core in name, those states ended up adopting standards that were…

  7. Social media effects on opinion polarization and political participation during the 2015 European immigration movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    The selective exposure to likeminded political viewpoints on algorithmic social media platforms is seen as a potential source for opinion polarization. But so far, little is known about how realistic this proposed mechanism is. It is furthermore an open question, what effects a potential opinion...... polarization invoked by social media use has on citizens’ democratic behavior, especially in a non-electoral context. Focusing on the issue of immigration during the refugee influx to Europe in autumn 2015, this study investigates the effects of social media usage on attitude polarization and connects...... it to political participation in refugee-related activities. A panel study conducted among Danish citizens (n=847) reveals that frequent social media usage contributes to a reinforcement of existing attitudes and at the same time mobilizes political participation. However, citizens who become more extreme...

  8. An Analytic Glossary to Social Inquiry Using Institutional and Political Activist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bisaillon PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This analytic glossary, composed of 52 terms, is a practical reference and working tool for persons preparing to conduct theoretically informed qualitative social science research drawing from institutional and political activist ethnography. Researchers using these approaches examine social problems and move beyond interpretation by explicating how these problems are organized and what social and ruling relations coordinate them. Political activist ethnography emerges from, and extends, institutional ethnography by producing knowledge explicitly for activism and social movement organizing ends. The assemblage of vocabulary and ideas in this word list are new, and build on existing methodological resources. This glossary offers an extensive, analytic, and challenging inventory of language that brings together terms from these ethnographic approaches with shared ancestry. This compilation is designed to serve as an accessible “one-stop-shop” resource for persons using or contemplating using institutional and political activist ethnography in their research and/or activist projects.

  9. Network interventions - How citizens’ social media networks influence their political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    Social media platforms are special places of information exposure because they are structured around a user’s social network and not around content, like other news media. Studies could show that news exposure on social media can affect citizens’ political participation due to the personalized......, targeted, & inadvertent exposure. However, previous research did not strongly focus on how the characteristics of a citizens’ social media network might alter this relationship. We tests how political information exposure via three different media channels affects political participation among Danish...... citizens and examine possible moderation effects of users network size, network diversity and the newly introduced parameter of perceived network activity. To this end, a two-wave online survey (n=858) among the Danish population was conducted, applying a smartphone-based media diary study. We find strong...

  10. Policy without politics: the limits of social engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    The extent of coverage provided by a country's health services is directly related to the level of development of that country's democratic process (and its power relations). The United States is the only developed country whose government does not guarantee access to health care for its citizens. It is also the developed country with the least representative and most insufficient democratic institutions, owing to the constitutional framework of the political system, the privatization of the electoral process, and the enormous power of corporate interests in both the media and the political process. As international experience shows, without a strong labor-based movement willing to be radical in its protests, a universal health care program will never be accepted by the US establishment.

  11. Political economy and social psychology of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Gwang Sik

    2009-03-01

    The contents of this book are consideration on independence of nuclear safety regulations, analysis of trend in internal and external on effectualness of nuclear safety regulations, political psychology of a hard whistle, how to deal with trust and distrust on regulation institute, international trend and domestic trend of nuclear safe culture, policy for building of trust of people on nuclear safety and regulations, measurement and conception of nuclear safety and for who imposes legal controls?

  12. Political economy and social psychology of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Gwang Sik

    2009-03-15

    The contents of this book are consideration on independence of nuclear safety regulations, analysis of trend in internal and external on effectualness of nuclear safety regulations, political psychology of a hard whistle, how to deal with trust and distrust on regulation institute, international trend and domestic trend of nuclear safe culture, policy for building of trust of people on nuclear safety and regulations, measurement and conception of nuclear safety and for who imposes legal controls?.

  13. Disentangling the Importance of Psychological Predispositions and Social Constructions in the Organization of American Political Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J

    2012-06-01

    Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis.

  14. Women in Transnational Migrant Activism: Supporting Social Justice Claims of Homeland Political Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Mügge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions found in this article include a leftist and a Kurdish women organization supporting the communist cause in the 1980s and the Kurdish struggle in the 1990s in Turkey, respectively. In both organizations gender equality was subordinated to broader ideologies of political parties in their homeland. Leftist activists in the cold war era supported a narrow definition of the "politics of redistribution," while and Kurdish activists, combined classical features of the latter with those of traditional identity politics.

  15. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change.

  16. Exploring Affordances of Facebook as a Social Media Platform in Political Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed political parties adopting social media as part of their election campaign strategy to encourage citizen participation and involvement. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what Facebook as a social media platform is perceived to afford political parties...... in their campaign strategy and how these intentions are reflected in the actual actions during the campaign. Based on a case study of political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011, our findings reveal that the medium is perceived to afford: 1) facilitation of direct communication...... to promote political interests and enable dialogue, 2) projection of an image of authenticity through informal media and 3) creating interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with supporters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook shows that the majority of the intended...

  17. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  18. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...

  19. Volunteering in Religious Communities: Does it Contribute to Society? Calculating Social Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Welmoet

    2015-01-01

    In a special issue of Research on Social Work Practice 21 (4), 2011, Ram Cnaan and Thomas McLauglin launch an academic debate about ways to quantify the accomplishments of social work and social services as unique contributions to society. They argue that for too long social work has failed to claim

  20. Utilidad de las películas para debatir temas complejos: política, religión y ciencia en Ágora Usefulness of movies for discussing complex topics: politics, religion and science in Ágora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aramburu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las películas comerciales han constituido un método docente de demostrada eficacia en entornos educativos de ciencias de la salud. En el presente artículo se describe la utilidad de Ágora para presentar las complejas relaciones entre ciencia, política y religión, las cuales afectan a diversas situaciones biomédicas en la actualidad. Materiales y métodos. La actividad consistió en la proyección de la película y posterior debate, al final del cual los estudiantes cumplimentaron, de forma anónima y voluntaria, un cuestionario de diez preguntas sobre los temas tratados y los vinculados con los objetivos educativos preestablecidos. Después se les solicitó que enviaran voluntariamente un informe personal sobre los aspectos más relevantes de la película. Resultados. Cincuenta y dos estudiantes (96,3% de los asistentes respondieron el cuestionario de evaluación. Consideraron que Ágora tenía un interés notable para describir un ejemplo de conflicto entre ciencia y poderes sociales, y manifestaron que tales situaciones aún podían persistir hoy. En los informes personales realizados por 49 estudiantes (90,7% destacaron la consideración de tales conflictos, las barreras impuestas al conocimiento nuevo, la discriminación de la mujer en la sociedad y en la ciencia, así como las dificultades que entraña el respeto por el pensamiento individual. Conclusiones. Ágora puede ser una película de interés para analizar y debatir las difíciles relaciones entre ciencia, religión y política. A pesar de su ambientación clásica, plantea situaciones aún identificables en nuestra sociedad y que los estudiantes deberían conocer.Introduction. Popular movies have turned out to be useful educational tools able to introduce complex issues to students of health sciences. The present paper describes the usefulness of Ágora to discuss the conflicts that might appear when science is faced with religion or politics. Materials and

  1. A National Study Predicting Licensed Social Workers' Levels of Political Participation: The Role of Resources, Psychological Engagement, and Recruitment Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    The social work literature is replete with studies evaluating social workers' direct practice interventions, but strikingly few have assessed how well social workers are faring in the political arena. This study tests a major theoretical model, the civic voluntarism model, developed to explain why some citizens become involved in politics, whereas…

  2. Social media, cyber-dissent, and constraints on online political communication in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  3. Television, Parents, and the Political Socialization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Tamar

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the role of television in constructing social reality and teaching children to participate in society, examining Israeli research on the role of television fiction and news in parent-child interactions. The article notes how family cultures affect the way television is incorporated into the socialization process in all households. (SM)

  4. Social Networks on Spanish Politics: Twitter on 2011 Election Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Izquierdo Labella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter broke during the campaign of the Spanish regional and municipal elections of May 2011 with great strength as a field over the electoral battle. Most of the communication equipment of the leading candidates made extensive use of this new tool making it an additional tool to conventional media. Thus it was found inthe race for the presidency of the Community of Madrid and the mayor at City Hall of Madrid. Five months later, his strength was multiplied during the November elections, consolidating Twitter as another tool for candidates, journalists and citizens in the political debate.

  5. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  6. Simposi Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Participació en el Simposi Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que va tenir lloc a la Universitat de Florència els dies 5 i 6 d'octubre de 2007.

  7. The Evolving Politics of Race and Social Work Activism: A Call across Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapal, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Social work has engaged with and led the revolutionary social movements of the past century. Yet today, as activism by and for racial others unfolds across the United States and Canada, our discipline remains largely silent. This article considers new ways for social workers to conceptualize social work activism, challenge the existing erasures within the profession, and construct innovative strategies to locate social work within the critical social movements of our time. Recognizing the continuity of histories of colonialism, slavery, and genocide, the author argues that social workers must engage with racialized communities' resistance through their legacy of exclusion and displacement. The author demonstrates the significance of an evolving politics of race and social justice for social work practice. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  8. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  9. Secularization and Postmodernism: Religious Processes among the Young in Today’s Russia and Europe and Their Social and Theological Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgij Orekhanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burning issue of religiosity among contemporary Russian youths. Methodologically, the research is based on a comparative analysis of the religious processes among young people in Russia and Germany during the last ten years. The author maintains that the beliefs of young Russians are a refl ection of the general religious processes currently underway in Russia. At the same time, there is an obvious correlation between these processes and the ones in post-secular Europe: Russian religious landscape is actually becoming as varied as the European one. This fact is connected with the peculiarities of the «new faith», characterized as something personal and always in search, as illustrated by studies on religious symbolism in social networks. Moreover, religiosity among youths presents well-defi ned traits that German researchers have noticed long ago: the «new faith» is characterized by the absence of dogmas, the transformation of the concept of sin, and a deep mistrust for every kind of authority. At the same time individual experience acquires great, if not paramount, importance, becoming a universal criterion of truth for any phenomenon, including religious ones. This experience is described by three key options — «subculture», «patchwork religiosity » and «singularity» — which taken together form the mode of religious identity among contemporary Russian youths.

  10. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  11. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Erich Fromm – Da psicanálise social à religião humanista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Gniss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A presente matéria descreve o desenvolvimento da proposta de uma religião  humanista a partir da análise marxiana e de um aprofundamento das teorias  freudianas em direção a uma abordagem de relevância prática

  13. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ICPSR maintains a data archive of more than 500,000 files of research in the social sciences. It hosts 16 specialized collections of data in education, aging,...

  14. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  15. Mass Media as Instruments for Political and Social Control in China: Media Role in Chinese Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi

    2003-01-01

    Under the influence of Soviet media theory, Chinese media have been held under the control of the Communist Party of China ever since the Party was established in 1921. However, this practice of control was subject to change as a result of rapid economic development and many social changes brought about by economic reform after 1978. This thesis explores the current situation of media control in China. Although the mass media in China began to enjoy more autonomy and diversity after the natio...

  16. Religious Influence on Older Americans' Sexual Lives: A Nationally-Representative Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveniuk, James; O'Muircheartaigh, Colm; Cagney, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between religious influence and sexual expression in older Americans, with specific attention to gender. Using the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally-representative survey of older adults, we created a composite measure of religious influence on sexual expression using Latent Class Analysis. We found more variability within denominations than between in terms of membership in the high-influence class; this indicated that religious influence on sexual expression was diverse within faiths. We show that religious influence was associated with higher self-reported satisfaction with frequency of sex, as well as higher physical and emotional satisfaction with sex, but only for men. Men were also significantly more likely than women to report that they would only have sex with a person they love. These results persisted in the presence of controls for demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, church attendance, intrinsic religiosity, political ideology, and functional health.

  17. Religious influence on older Americans’ sexual lives: A nationally-representative profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveniuk, James; O’Muircheartaigh, Colm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between religious influence and sexual expression in older Americans, with specific attention to gender. Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally-representative survey of older adults, we create a composite measure of religious influence on sexual expression using Latent Class Analysis. We find more variability within denominations than between in terms of membership in the high-influence class; this indicates that religious influence on sexual expression is diverse within faiths. We show that religious influence is associated with higher self-reported satisfaction with frequency of sex, as well as higher physical and emotional satisfaction with sex, but only for men. Men are also significantly more likely than women to report that they would only have sex with a person they love. These results persisted in the presence of controls for demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, church attendance, intrinsic religiosity, political ideology, and functional health. PMID:26063533

  18. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  19. The transformation of labour and social politics in neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krašovec Primož

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The text has three aims: first, to explain the relationship between capitalism and neoliberalism, as well as to clarify the very term „neoliberalism“, diverging from the usual explanations; second, to trace important changes in the organization of labour in late capitalism; and three, to establish the consequences of both neoliberalism and the new organization of labour with regards to social policy, but also to describe and classify the most important forms of change in social policy. Besides these main theoretical goals, the text also debates the limits of the „welfare state“, in the light of deeper structural regularities in capitalism.

  20. Neoliberalism, Conservative Politics, and ‘Social Recapitalization’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Although embedded neoliberalism takes different forms, it is nonetheless defined by its commitment to ‘roll back’ the state in terms of its role as a social provider, as a mediator between capital and labour, and as an ameliorator of perceived market failure. Having said this, the British state......, although the Conservative-led government in the UK has through the austerity measures pursued from 2010 onwards been able to ‘shrink’ the state (considered as a proportion of GDP), it has not had the capacity or commitment to bring about social recapitalization. Although some broader inclusion initiatives...

  1. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  2. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  3. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  4. O MOBON, a política e a imprensa: notas sobre religião e política em Minas Gerais (The MOBON, the politics and the press: comments on religion and politics in Minas Gerais - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Roberto Costa Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A proposta deste artigo é apresentar parte do processo de formação do MOBON (Movimento da Boa Nova e as idéias que o nortearam na década de 1980, bem como a influência do trabalho de mediação realizado por ele na Zona da Mata mineira. Este movimento se mostrou importante para a expressiva votação de candidatos do Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT naquela região. Tal fato chamou a atenção da imprensa nacional em função do trabalho de mediação religiosa na conformação da posição política daqueles grupos. A candidatura de Lula não obteve apoio da população em muitos espaços onde os bispos o apoiavam abertamente. Nosso argumento centra-se na idéia de que as características locais e o cotidiano são mais fundamentais na formação das idéias e concepções de mundo dos atores sociais que o apoio de lideranças da alta cúpula eclesiástica, que pode ser vista como distante da população, ao contrário da organização popular que é feita no cotidiano político. Assim, vamos apresentar reflexões a respeito do trabalho missionário e a forma como este acabou se constituindo e obtendo repercussão política. Palavras-chave: Religião; Imprensa; Política. Abstract The proposal of this paper is to present part of the MOBON (“Boa Nova” Movement formation process, its ideas in the 1980s, as well as the influence of its mediation work in the Forest Zone of Minas Gerais state. This movement showed to be important due to the expressive number of votes in the Worker’s Party (PT in that region. This fact caught the attention of the national media regarding the religious mediation work in the conformation of these groups’ political positions. The Lula candidacy did not have the population support in many spaces where the bishops supported him openly. Our thesis focus the idea that the local characteristics and the everyday life are more fundamental in the social actors formation of ideas and world standpoints than

  5. Thinking Political Emancipation and the Social Sciences in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to their limitations if not their failure to comprehend emancipation in a manner ... aligning their thinking with that of the state (either in its current or forthcoming form). Given the lack of success of the social sciences in thinking human ...

  6. Political Acclamation, Social Media and the Public Mood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    . The article surveys issues of differential geographies of access, weighting of posts, value-creation, orality and gesture, algorithmic governmentality, and Big Data and knowledge production. It argues that social media constitute a public from a mass of individualized, private postings. It concludes...

  7. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  8. Social networks as anti-revolutionary forces: Facebook and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The much celebrated Arab Spring has championed social media as an organizing force. This led to the celebration of a new revolutionary force for people seeking more justice and accountability from their leaders. Maghreb became the example to follow for others across Africa especially given the central role youth played ...

  9. Social Groups, Sport and Political Engagement in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, T.; Bowler, S.; Hanneman, R.; Karp, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Many prominent social theorists contend that memberships in voluntary associations make major contributions to making citizens more engaged with democracy. Although substantial attention has been directed at the potential role of sports groups, previous studies using survey data have not found

  10. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  11. #FeesMustFall as social movement and emancipatory politics? Moving towards an apocalyptic theological praxis outside the limits of party politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe G.K. Buttelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes three reflexive movements. The first one offers an introduction to Fees Must Fall, pointing to some aspects that allow us to understand it as a social movement and some of its basic features. The second movement is a theoretical one, constructing the notion of emancipatory politics. It is based on the distinctions suggested by Jacques Rancière between ‘police and politics’ and by Michael Neocosmos between ‘excessive and expressive’ politics. It will also present the Freirean notion of ‘conscientisation and dialogicity’, emphasising the learning experience from the political praxis within emancipatory social movements. The third movement offers, as conclusion, an apocalyptic politics as suggested by Žižek, envisioned through the lens of Christian eschatology, as a critical approach to social movements towards the radical transformation of society.

  12. Youth Involvement in Politically Motivated Violence: Why Do Social Integration, Perceived Legitimacy, and Perceived Discrimination Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten S. De Waele

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several major theories of crime causation have been applied to the study of violence towards persons and towards property (vandalism. Less frequently, these middle-range theoretical frameworks are applied to explain individual differences in political violence. Against a background of growing concern about right-wing political violence among adolescents, the present study examines the role of a number of independent variables derived from different theoretical frameworks in a sample of 2,879 Flemish adolescents. Using blockwise regression models, the independent effects of key independent variables from social control theory, procedural justice theory, general strain theory, social learning theory, and self-control theory are assessed. The results support an integrative approach towards the explanation of political violence. The implications of our findings for future studies on violent extremism are discussed.

  13. Connected Activism: Indigenous Uses of Social Media for Shaping Political Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Elena Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies describe digital tactics as specific strategies actors apply within broader repertoires of contention, specifically in social and political contexts. A comparison of EZLN, Idle No More, and the ongoing Rio Yaqui water rights movement reveals the kinds of community knowledge work that has to happen prior to and around activating digital tactics in Indigenous rights movements, including choices in messaging and discourses of Indigeneity, targeting of movement opponents, and selection of digital tools and techniques. Activists harness these communicative affordances to practice a politics of visibility, cultivate solidarity, diffuse an Indigenous consciousness, enforce dominant governments’ trust and treaty responsibilities, and remind many of the irrevocable injustice of colonialism. Designing methodologies that account for specific Indigenous social and political contexts as well as the affordances of various digital environments is part of the future work of Indigenous media theorists.

  14. Social, economic, and political forces affecting the future of occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A

    1989-09-01

    1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.

  15. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  16. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...

  17. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  18. Teacher quality in a political and social setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical contributions and empirical data the article examines the relationship between educational paradigms in the school debate as well as their presence as tools for reflection and choice of action in teaching practice. Special attention is paid to the role of knowledge and skil...... as a vehicle for social emancipation. Finally, a few implications for the recent Danish teacher education reform are indicated....

  19. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporations can generate e...

  20. Political Experiences and Social Imagery Regarding Reelection in Mexico, 1928-1964. The Transformation of a Civil Right into a Political Principle and Social Taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anaya Merchant

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews both the political circumstances that guided constitutional  reforms regarding  the  reelection of legislators (1933 and the  ones  that  led to the  couter-refórm (1964 but were, however, lost in historical oblivion. It is very interesting to observe the process through which a civil right (reelection transforms into a political. principle (nonreelection and then into a taboo that impregnated  social imagery well into the twentieth century.  Although restablishing  the right to reelection in itself contributes only  fragmentarily to a better functioning of legislative power, it implies the possible emergence of both old and new institutional risks and costs, so in Mexico —during the twentieth century- this issue could not be discussed soberly and responsibly in all its complexities.

  1. Communication Media, Memory, and Social-Political Change in Eric Havelock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronbeck, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to rehearse E. Havelock's arguments about relationships among communication modes or media, memory, and social-political change to specify his primary contributions to the so-called orality-literacy theorems, or to what is now beginning to be called theories of media ecology. Describes Havelock's evolutionary journey from the late 1950s to…

  2. Should social psychologists create a disciplinary affirmative action program for political conservatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Freely staying on the move between alternative points of view is the best antidote to dogmatism. Robert Merton's ideals for an epistemic community are sufficient to correct pseudo-empirical studies designed to confirm beliefs that liberals (or conservatives) think deserve to be true. Institutionalizing the self-proclaimed political identities of social psychologists may make things worse.

  3. The Social and Political Role of the Russian Orthodox Church as Perceived by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, L. A.; Andreeva, L. K.

    2015-01-01

    The article compares the data from a survey reflecting college students' perception of the social and political role of the Russian Orthodox Church with the results of nationwide Russian surveys for the purpose of determining the degree to which the basic conclusions coincide or differ. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  4. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  5. Political Socialization and Reactions to Immigration-Related Diversity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, James G.; Lay, J. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    We explore the roots of tolerance for immigration-related diversity from a political socialization perspective. Among rural adolescent respondents, we find that attitudes toward immigrants are surprisingly variable along a number of important dimensions: anticipated socioeconomic status, family longevity in the community, and employment in…

  6. Social and Political Thinking in Children: Implications for Law-Related Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Nancy B.

    The paper reviews literature dealing with children's social and political development and examines how changing orientations in child development research relate to citizenship education. The paper is intended for use by elementary school educators as they develop and implement citizenship education and law-related education programs. The paper is…

  7. Growing apart : the comparative political economy of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, Stefan Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, most OECD countries witnessed a widening of the income distribution. This doctoral thesis collects five studies that provide insight into determinants and political and economic consequences of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries. The

  8. Political Education and Social Reconstructionism: Contextualizing the Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The modernist era of world history has been defined as the age of internationalism. Conversely, globalization is an academic concept that is used to define postmodern world history. Globalization is theoretically framed from varied perspectives. Most specifically it is analyzed as political, social, and economic phenomena but also within the…

  9. Theory of Systems and Social-Political Realities of Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of forming the theory of systems as a scientific paradigm of social-humanitarian cognition. Focusing their attention on the interpretations of the structural composition of a political system, the authors analyze the relations between the state and the citizens of modern Russia, the actually effective mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and public associations.

  10. News Media, Political Socialization and Popular Citizenship: Towards a New Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, David

    1997-01-01

    Notes that news media use has declined in recent years, particularly among young people. Offers a critical review of research on the changing role of journalism in political socialization. Evaluates calls for popular alternatives to conventional forms of news and for a postmodern conception of citizenship and the public sphere. Concludes that more…

  11. Towards a de-biased social psychology: The effects of ideological perspective go beyond politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable conservatives are in short supply and will not arrive to save social psychology any time soon. The field needs to save itself through de-biasing. The effects of a liberal worldview permeate and distort discussion of many topics that are not overtly political, including behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, the fundamental attribution error, and the remarkably persistent consistency controversy.

  12. Collegiate Diversity Experiences and Students' Views Regarding Social and Political Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eugene T., III; Trolian, Teniell L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study examines the relationship between engagement in diversity experiences during college and student attitudes about the importance of being socially and politically involved at the end of their fourth year of college. Findings suggest a positive link between…

  13. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CANDIDATES IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA (2014: THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Patrut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of social media has drawn the attention of the specialists from the political marketing because it contributes quickly and efficiently to the increase of the political product’s visibility and appeals to its supporters for content creation and viral promotion of the political messages. In addition, the candidate can communicate directly with the citizens and may involve them in creating virtual communities. In our study we briefly present the way in which social media was used, timidly at first, during the campaign for the 2008 parliamentary elections, for the 2009 presidential elections and for the 2012 local and parliamentary elections. The importance of social media increased during the 2012 Romanian presidential impeachment referendum and contributed decisively to rallying voters to go to the polls and, implicitly, to the Klaus Iohannis’s victory in the 2014 presidential elections. We have focused especially on Facebook, as social network, because it has managed to attract the largest number of users in Romania. The success of the 2.0 political actors does not imply (only to use the network as an alternative news channel, but especially to establish the bidirectional connection and constant interaction with virtual friends.

  15. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  16. The Comparative Impacts of Social Justice Educational Methods on Political Participation, Civic Engagement, and Multicultural Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Amy; Austic, Elizabeth A.; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M.; Dirksen, Kaleigh E.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college students' commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education…

  17. Cyberactivisim in the Process of Political and Social Change in Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soengas-Pérez, Xosé; Assif, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This research analyses the contribution of cyberactivism to the political and social change in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, as well as the opinion of young Arabs on the present context. Meaningful information has been extracted from regular interviews to 30 undergraduates over a five-year period. These students had already participated in the process…

  18. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  19. Social media in political communication and the use of twitter in the 2011 general elections in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktutan, Günseli; Binark, Mutlu; Çomu, Tuğrul; Doğu, Burak; İslamoğlu, Gözde; Telli Aydemir, Aslı

    2012-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research supported by TÜBİTAK SOBAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Grant Group), which investigates with quantitative and qualitative methods the practices involved in the usage of the social media by political parties and political party leaders as a channel/area for political communication. The aim for this study is to demonstrate, within the framework of the developing citizenshi...

  20. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT, Political Interest (PI and Policy Satisfaction (PS with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using Partial Least Squares-MultiGroup Analysis (PLS-MGA. Results revealed that political knowledge moderated the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter and political interest with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. However, it did not moderate the relationship between policy satisfaction with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. Generally, these findings suggests that political knowledge plays a significant role in youth online political participation in Malaysia. Consequently, this study has added empirical evidence to predictors of political participation while at the same time contributing to the body of knowledge on online political participation.

  1. Feminists eminists at the World Social Forum: Challenges for a New Political Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Celiberti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the ways of incursion of the feminist plurality’s significant expressions in the World Social Forum. These incursions express the changes in the subjectivities and in strategies of struggle that feminist movements in particular and social movements in general begin to develop, in the frame of a globalised world and in the new millennium. It’s an unprecedented process, that is promoting the development of new paradigms for collective action, that combines local and global issues, the interconnection of multiple agendas and the recovery of a more profound dimension of economic, social, cultural and symbolic justice, broadening, in this process, the concept of politics, the political and the power. The article sets discussion around the ways in which social movements converging in the Forum – that drag old dynamics and at the same time recreate new paradigms – work in politics and open the possibility of re-inventing an emancipation map and a social conception, capable of competing with neo-liberal consensus and with the single thought, recuperating diversity and plurality of social individuals and actors.

  2. Religion and Politics by Other Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Serrano Amaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the 2016 debate over egalitarian adoption in Colombia in order to suggest that in the fields of gender and sexuality, religion and politics constitute the same flow of signifiers. That flow is dislocated, temporary, and unstable, since it depends on the dynamics of social conflicts and political transitions. Thus, the Colombian case can be interpreted as the emergence of a religious project in political terms, which secularizes its discourse in order to spiritualize society.  In turn, both the legal debate, with its appeal to State authority, and populism, with its longing to return to founding principles, are means for that emergence.

  3. A widening gap? The political and social organization of childcare in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how social policies and programmes implemented in Argentina shape the political and social organization of childcare. The author seeks to analyse how welfare institutions are currently responding to emerging needs, and to what extent they facilitate the defamilialization of childcare for different social classes. Because Argentina lacks a truly unified ‘care policy’, four different kinds of facilities and programmes are examined: employment-based childcare services; pre-school schemes; social assistance care services; and poverty reduction strategies. It is argued that far from offering equal rights and services with a universalist cast, these ‘caring’ institutions reflect the ethos of the current welfare model in Argentina: a fragmented set of social policies based on different assumptions for different social groups, which in turn filter down to the social organization of childcare.

  4. Communication and social sciences: the transdisciplinary and political spin

    OpenAIRE

    García Canclini, Néstor

    2011-01-01

    Las sociedades nacionales se transformaron bajo la interdependencia globalizada; las comunicaciones están revolucionadas por la digitalización de la radio, el cine y la televisión, así como por el despliegue de Internet, los celulares y las redes sociales. La cultura se cuestiona si subsistirán los soportes que le dieron entidad: los libros en papel, los discos, las salas de cine. Se cuestiona en qué condiciones puede seguir hablándose de patrimonio histórico y cultural en tiempos de turismo ...

  5. A Trigger or a Muffler? - Examining the Dynamics of Crosscutting Exposure and Political Expression in Online Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Young Bae

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of online social media to serve as a sphere for political discourse and investigates the extent to which everyday uses of online social networking sites can expose citizens to politically diverse viewpoints.  In addition, this study asks whether such crosscutting exposure in online social networks will act as a trigger or a muffler for political expression – that is, whether exposure political difference will stimulate or discourage political discussions.  With analyses of a sample of online social networking site users in the context of the 2012 presidential election in South Korea, this study explicates the link between crosscutting exposure and citizens’ political expressions in social media.  Results reveal that contrary to the predictions in previous literature, exposure to politically incongruent viewpoints in online social networking sites does not seem to undermine users’ expressive behaviors but instead positively contribute to political expression.  In addition, this study shows the significant role of citizens’ perceptions of candidate support in their own networks, and illustrates that the dynamics of political expression differ significantly depending on the users’ age.

  6. How digital design shapes political participation: A natural experiment with social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Scott A; John, Peter; Margetts, Helen; Yasseri, Taha

    2018-01-01

    Political behaviour increasingly takes place on digital platforms, where people are presented with a range of social information-real-time feedback about the behaviour of peers and reference groups-which can stimulate (or depress) participation. This social information is hypothesized to impact the distribution of political activity, stimulating participation in mobilizations that are increasing in popularity, and depressing participation in those that appear to be less popular, leading to a non-normal distribution. Changes to these platforms can generate natural experiments allowing for an estimate of the impact of different kinds of social information on participation. This paper tests the hypothesis that social information shapes the distribution of political mobilizations by examining the introduction of trending information to the homepage of the UK government petition platform. The introduction of the trending feature did not increase the overall number of signatures per day, but the distribution of signatures across petitions changed significantly-the most popular petitions gained more signatures at the expense of those with fewer signatories. We further find significant differences between petitions trending at different ranks on the homepage. This evidence suggests that the ubiquity of trending information on digital platforms is introducing instability into political markets, as has been shown for cultural markets. As well as highlighting the importance of digital design in shaping political behaviour, the findings suggest that a non-negligible group of individuals visit the homepage of the site looking for petitions to sign, without having decided the issues they wish to support in advance. These 'aimless petitioners' are particularly susceptible to changes in social information.

  7. It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  8. Social Movements and Political Agency in the Digital Age: A Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.

  9. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  10. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  11. Is Political Activism on Social Media an initiator of Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.

  12. The Religious Quest As Transformative Journey: Interspiritual Religious Belonging And The Problem Of Religious Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEntee Rory

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.

  13. Religious narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...

  14. Religious Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban

    2005-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.

  15. "Are You an African?" The Politics of Self-Construction in Status-Based Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason

    2009-05-01

    Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.

  16. The Political Future of Social Medicine: Reflections on Physicians as Activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H Jack

    2017-03-01

    The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension.During the 1960s, the author and many other clinicians were directly involved in attempts to use health care institutions to foster structural change. However, the author argues that efforts to assist individual patients and more effectively manage their interactions with the health care system, as described in the articles in this issue's special collection on "structural competency," while worthy and useful, do not confront root causes. Going forward, efforts to effect structural change must take place outside the arena of the clinical encounter and involve interprofessional teams and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations. They should intervene directly on the structures that contribute to illness such as poor housing, income and wealth inequality, inferior education, racism and residential segregation, and toxic concentrations of extreme poverty in urban areas. Collectively, these efforts-within and outside the spheres of medicine-represent the real operative form of structural competency.

  17. Social networks, politics and Commitment 2.0: Spanish MPs on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sixto, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a technologically and sociologically advanced society, the organizations that do not use the new media and the cyber communication techniques are probably doomed to failure. In this virtual sphere the social networks constitute a suitable resource and channel for the implementation of political marketing 2.0, as it provides a scenario where the interaction with users is possible. From this perspective, we verified their presence of the 350 members of the Spanish Congress on Facebook, the country’s most popular social network, in order to establish the predominant typologies, updating frequency, contents, resources, and the types of information posted in this spaces.This article also examines the interactivity of MPs in what we have termed Commitment 2.0: political communication in personal contexts such as social networks requires going from the participatory attitude to the participatory action; that is, to accept the interaction 2.0 as the correct behaviour on the network.

  18. New Ways of Interaction in Social Media: Political Participation of Young People in Mexico and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo-Ibáñez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The media crisis is linked to the crisis of public institutions. This shows the emergence of social practices focused on user activation and consequently, we can observe a decline of vertical mediation. However, these phenomena do not extend horizontally at a global level. With this study, we compare the results of a survey of more than two thousand university students from Mexico and Ecuador, in which we question the perceptions of these strategic groups about phenomena such as political participation on and offline, and political information consumption.

  19. Migrant Workers' Community in China: Relationships among Social Networks, Life Satisfaction and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The millions of persons migrating from China´s rural areas to urban spaces have contributed greatly to the country´s decades-long economic growth, and the influx of migrants has changed the fabric of China´s urban social and economic life. These internal migrants, similar to many international immigrants, depend heavily on their social networks, which are often developed in their rural villages, for jobs, housing, financial assistance, and social support both during and after migration. Consequently, migrants´ networks function distinctly in well-being and behavior. Using data from the 2006 China General Social Survey, this article seeks to 1 investigate the existence of migrant sub-groups in China, 2 understand the characteristics of social networks among sub-groups, and 3 explore the relationships social networks hold to life satisfaction and political participation among China´s migrant population. This article asserts that China´s migrant population includes several sub-groups emerging on the basis of gender, education, age, and marital status, which in turn produce different patterns of ties and social interactions among their social networks. While this article finds very different employment patterns among migrant sub-groups, migrant networks do not appear to strongly influence perceptions and behaviors, such as life satisfaction and political participation. This article also argues that individual networks could facilitate the development of migrant communities in cities.

  20. Social capital and political culture in Brazil: prospectives and constrains Capital social y cultura política en brasil: posibilidades y límites

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Marcelo BAQUERO JACOME

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between political culture and social capital in Brazil. It emphasizes the importance of constructing a political system founded in the interpersonal or reciprocal trust, as well as the confidence in the political institutions. After examining the main controversies about the definition of social capital, this article defends the idea of reterritorializing this concept, giving a strategic value insofar as the instrumental dimension is concerned, which is,...

  1. A Meta-analytic Review of Religious or Spiritual Involvement and Social Health among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Allen C; Merluzzi, Thomas V; Pustejovsky, James E; Park, Crystal L; George, Login; Fitchett, George; Jim, Heather SL; Munoz, Alexis R; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Snyder, Mallory A; Salsman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Background Religion and spirituality (R/S) play an important role in the daily lives of many cancer patients. There has been great interest in determining whether R/S factors are related to clinically-relevant health outcomes. This meta-analytic review examined associations between dimensions of R/S and social health (e.g., social roles and relationships). Methods A systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases was conducted, and data were extracted by four pairs of investigators. Bivariate associations between specific R/S dimensions and social health outcomes were examined in a meta-analysis using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results A total of 78 independent samples encompassing 14,277 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Social health was significantly associated with overall R/S (Fisher z effect size = .20, Pcancer. Further research is needed to examine the temporal nature of these associations and the mechanisms that underlie them. PMID:26258730

  2. Social Justice and Faith Maturity: Exploring Whether Religious Beliefs Impact Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Christine; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Odahl, Charlynn

    2014-01-01

    The current study compared perceptions by college students (n = 304; M age=19.75 years old) enrolled at an urban and diverse Roman Catholic university on self-report measures of faith/belief structures, social justice, and community service attitudes. Survey results indicated that both horizontal and vertical faith maturity perceptions…

  3. An Introduction to Social Semantic Web Mining & Big Data Analytics for Political Attitudes and Mentalities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The social web has become a major repository of social and behavioral data that is of exceptional interest to the social science and humanities research community. Computer science has only recently developed various technologies and techniques that allow for harvesting, organizing and analyzing such data and provide knowledge and insights into the structure and behavior or people on-line. Some of these techniques include social web mining, conceptual and social network analysis and modeling, tag clouds, topic maps, folksonomies, complex network visualizations, modeling of processes on networks, agent based models of social network emergence, speech recognition, computer vision, natural language processing, opinion mining and sentiment analysis, recommender systems, user profiling and semantic wikis. All of these techniques are briefly introduced, example studies are given and ideas as well as possible directions in the field of political attitudes and mentalities are given. In the end challenges for future studies are discussed.

  4. Social values and political realities in the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Social values, which represent our visions, determine the decisions made in the energy sector more than their technical feasibility. The present energy system is based on 80 % fossil fuels. This situation will continue at least for the coming 20 years, since there are no innovations and no radical change of lifestyle to be expected within this time frame. The absolute level of energy consumption will raise. The rural - urban migration will continue. Scenarios of feasible energy developments may be characterized by fossil-, renewable and nuclear driven energy technologies. The worldwide energy resources are plentiful available and are sufficient even for a growing population. The conflicting objectives of the decision makers in the energy sector drive the energy dichotomies, the sustainability, and the effects of energy competition to an even more severe situation. System Engineering is an approach, which combines systems analysis and technology know-how and by which realistic and optimal energy solutions may be developed. Verbundplan uses System Engineering to plan and erect complex power systems, especially hydro power plants, to evaluate decisions in the energy and environmental field and to optimize investments and the operation of energy systems. (author)

  5. Chlorofluorocarbons and the environment: scientific, economic, social and political issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O; Probert, S D; O' Callaghan, P W [Cranfield Inst. of Technology, Bedford (GB). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1990-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons have been among the most useful chemical compounds ever developed. However, after more than forty years of a continuously increasing rate of worldwide use in the industrial and domestic sectors, unequivocal evidence has indicated that, if released into Earth's atmosphere, they are amongst the most devastating of pollutants that could threaten the quality of life for future generations. Thus it is not surprising that, for nearly two decades, this dichotomy of interests has been a prominent issue. This report presents the scientific evidence available concerning the impacts of chlorofluorocarbons on the ambient environment. Regional, national and international policies adopted to try to curb their emissions into the atmosphere are summarised. Economic and social consequences of these policies are discussed, together with some of the available and recommended technological solutions to the environmental problem. It is believed that agreements reached internationally to date are insufficient to ensure the adequate protection of the environment. Even an immediate total ban on the production and use of such chemical compounds would not lead to a reversal of the environmental degradation for at least a century, due to the chlorofluorocarbons already in the atmosphere. (author).

  6. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein

    2010-01-01

    I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack o...

  7. Building a Tower of Babel? Integrating Core Motivations and Features of Social Structure into the Political Psychology of Political Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn

    The political psychology of political action provides the potential for building bridges between scholars from different fields. The main aim of this article is to set some baby steps toward building two conceptual bridges by bringing together a core motivation approach to political action with core

  8. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  10. The Role of Social Network Platform in Egyptian's Political Upheaval in January 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Hassan Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network platforms are tools, which are not just utilized for entertainment, but also serve as a multiple purposed tool in other areas, including politics. Egyptians have utilized these tools to communicate, coordinate, and bring about mass protests, since 2010. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of the public sphere and communicative action of Habermas, with the new public sphere and network society this paper examines the role of SNSs during the Arab Spring in Egypt. The lit review assumes that SNSs are causes of political upheavals. The article, however, argues that the SNSs are simply an instrument for communication and mobilization of people in the Egyptian 25th January political uprising.

  11. Motivations for Social Media Use and Impact on Political Participation in China: A Cognitive and Communication Mediation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Chan, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Integrating uses and gratifications theory and the cognitive/communication mediation model: this study examines Chinese students' use of social media and subsequent impact on political participation. An integrative framework is proposed where media use, political expression, and political cognitions (efficacy and knowledge) play important mediating roles between audience motivations and participation. Structural equation analyses showed support for the integrated model. Guidance and social utility motivations exhibited different indirect effects on online and offline participation through social media news, discussion, and political efficacy. Entertainment motivations exhibited no direct or indirect effects. Contrary to expectations and previous literature, surveillance motivations exhibited negative direct and indirect effects on offline participation, which may be attributed to the particular Chinese social and political context. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People – the German Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Onken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will also be considered, taking in account sociological aspects. Based on the empirical findings we discuss implications for civic education. In contrast to many discussions in literature about this issue, in which the focus is on the need to put the various influences of political socialization into a broader context, we argue that the parental social background is the crucial upstream factor, prior to e.g. civic education. The conclusion indicates that a group‐specific educational approach, taking into account the social background, is the most promising one for reaching the normative goal of civic education: Politically self‐determined citizens. Aufgrund der sozialen und politischen Veränderungen ist die politische Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den Westeuropäischen Demokratien auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt worden. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir Aspekte dieser Entwicklung und zeigen, welche Folgen sich aus diesen ergeben. Wir analysieren empirische Befunde aus Deutschland mit dem Schwerpunkt auf die Frage, welche sozialen Faktoren relevant sind für die individuelle politische Partizipationsbereitschaft. Der Einfluss der Finanz‐ und Wirtschaftskrise in Europa auf politische Einstellungen wird dabei ebenfalls betrachtet. Dies geschieht unter Berücksichtigung der soziologischen Aspekte. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse Fragen wir nach den Folgen für die politische Bildung. Im Gegensatz zu dem in der Literatur häufig vertretenen Ansatz, die politische

  13. The Humanistic Imperative in African Politics | Agbude | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factionalism, political 'godfatherism', tribalism, ethnicity, social injustice, lack of respect for both procedural and legal justice, religious squabbles, poverty, hunger, poor maintenance culture, insecurity of life and property and etc. The Machiavellian style of leadership has further deepened the. African states into retrogression ...

  14. Social Categories are Natural Kinds, not Objective Types (and Why it Matters Politically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types.” An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting oppression and marginalization have found this ontological category so attractive: objective types have the ontological credentials to secure the reality (and thus political representation of social categories, and yet they do not impose exclusionary essences that also naturalize and legitimize social inequalities. This essay argues that, from the perspective of these political goals of fighting oppression and marginalization, the category of objective types is in fact a Trojan horse; it looks like a gift, but it ends up creating trouble. I argue that objective type classifications often lack empirical adequacy, and as a result they lack political adequacy. I also provide, and in reference to the normative goals described above, several arguments for preferring a social ontology of natural kinds with historical essences.

  15. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

  16. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Ferguson, Laura; Aggleton, Peter; Mane, Purnima; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Giang, Le Minh; Barbosa, Regina M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Parker, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as “key populations”; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges. PMID:25859715

  17. [Social and political actors in the formulation of health reform in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etviti, J E; Leyva, R F

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the participation of social and political actors in the process of formulating health policy allows one to understand the specific characteristics of the organization and operation of a health system. This study analyzes the drafting process for the General Health Act (LGS) in Spain with the purpose of establishing the relationship between social, political, and economic actors in both the formulation of the Act itself and the organization of the Spanish Health System. A case study was carried out from 1982 through 1986. Documentary parliamentary data, the medical press, national magazines and journals, and press reports by political, social, and public health actors were analyzed. The first version of the General Health Act presented by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) proposed a health system with funding and public administration aimed at achieving universal health coverage, integrated care, community participation, and health education. This proposal was submitted to a complex negotiating process with business groups, unions, and health professionals. The General Health Act as finally approved excludes the principles of equity and incorporates private interests in health: "free choice of doctor and hospital", public funding and private administration of the health system, and the establishment of Social Security as the core of the entire health system.

  18. Political culture in Romania - past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae FRIGIOIU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to tersely present the situation of the political culture in Romania after 1989. The comprehension of the political culture seen as a result of a valorous past full of religious content constitutes the single path that can reveal the imaginary of the Romanian people; moreover, the study has as a purpose to improve the understanding of the political and cultural values which are linked to the consolidation of a democratic system in a similar manner to the connection between the forms and the causes of any social and political change in the country.

  19. BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION VS. SOCIAL POLITICS: AN ASSESSMENT WITH REGARD TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Sozer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of business administration has close relations with the disciplines of economics, law, behavioral sciences, statistics and mathematics. The manager of an enterprise should not only manage the sources of capital securing the maximum profit, but also he/she should have knowledge on how to manage the people working for the enterprise (workers and other personnel. Social politics is the discipline which analyses the human relations arising from economic affairs. Thus the main concern of this discipline is the influence of economics on human beings and society as well as the social problems arising from economic affairs. The aim is the general harmony between all the segments of the society, i.e. creation and maintenance of social balance. Globalization has shown its effects also on the existing disciplines. For instance business administration has adopted the concept of social responsibility enlarging its field of interest. As a result of this enlargement, social politics and social responsibility have largely corresponded to each other in terms of scope. However this correspondence is valid only for partners, but not for actors and instruments involved.

  20. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third......, it will determine what effect the exposure to political information on different media channels can have on electoral participation and their first vote in a national election....