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Sample records for sns ring llrf

  1. CORRECTION SYSTEMS UPGRADE FOR THE SNS RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; GARDNER, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    In view of the changes in the design of the SNS ring from the original FODO lattice [l] to the 220m hybrid lattice [2] and finally 1.3GeV compatible 248m ring [3], complementary studies have been undertaken, in order to upgrade its correction packages. We review the evolution of the correction systems and present the accelerator physics studies for the adopted schemes and powering plan

  2. SNS RING STUDY AT THE AGS BOOSTER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; FEDOTOV, A.; GARDNER, C.; LEE, Y.Y.; LUCCIO, A.; MALITSKY, N.; ROSER, T.; WENG, W.T.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.; REECE, K.; WANG, J.G.

    2000-06-30

    During the g-2 run at the BNL AGS in early 2000, a 200 MeV storage-ring-like magnetic cycle has been set-up and tuned at the Booster in preparing for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring study. In this article, we report the progress of the machine set-up, tuning, some preliminary studies, and the future plan.

  3. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring

  4. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-06-30

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring.

  5. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2001-01-01

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with ∼100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented

  7. TRANSVERSE PHASE SPACE PAINTING FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING INJECTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring [1] is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system [2] are presented and discussed.

  8. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  9. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-08-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {micro}s with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1 mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generatino and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  10. SNS ACCUMULATOR RING DESIGN AND SPACE CHARGE CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.

    1998-05-04

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  11. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H - beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  12. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  13. Precision Magnetic Elements for the SNS Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Spataro, C.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic elements for an accumulator storage ring for a 1 GeV Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been under design. The accumulation of very high intensity protons in a storage ring requires beam optical elements of very high purity to minimize higher order resonances in the presence of space charge. The parameters of the elements required by the accumulator lattice design have been reported. The dipoles have a 17 cm gap and are 124 cm long. The quadrupoles have a physical length to aperture diameter ratio of 40 cm/21 cm and of 45 cm/31 cm. Since the elements have a large aperture and short length, optimizing the optical effects of magnet ends is the major design challenge. Two dimensional (2D) computer computations can, at least on paper, produce the desired accuracy internal to magnets, i.e. constant dipole fields and linear quadrupole gradients over the desired aperture to 1 x 10 -4 . To minimize undesirable end effects three dimensional (3D) computations can be used to design magnet ends. However, limitations on computations can occur, such as necessary finite boundary conditions, actual properties of the iron employed, hysteresis effects, etc., which are slightly at variance with the assumed properties. Experimental refinement is employed to obtain the desired precision

  14. RF Beam Position Monitor for the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kurt; Cameron, Peter; Dawson, Craig; Degen, Chris; Kesselman, Martin; Mead, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates 1060 pulses of 38-mA peak current 1-GeV H-minus particles from the Linac through the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to a mercury target via the RTBT line. The dynamic range over the course of the accumulation cycle is 60 dB. As a result of particle energy distribution the 402.5-MHz RF bunching frequency quickly de-coheres during the first few turns. In order to measure first-turn position a dual-mode BPM has been designed to process 402.5-MHz signal energy during the first few turns then switch to a Baseband mode to process de-cohered energy in the low MHz region. The design has been implemented as a dual mother/daughter board PCI architecture. Both Baseband and RF calibration are included on the RF BPM board. A prototype system has been installed in the SNS Linac

  15. Space charge and magnet error simulations for the SNS accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe-Wang, J.; Fedotov, A.V.; Wei, J.; Machida, S.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of space charge forces and magnet errors in the beam of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring are investigated. In this paper, the focus is on the emittance growth and halo/tail formation in the beam due to space charge with and without magnet errors. The beam properties of different particle distributions resulting from various injection painting schemes are investigated. Different working points in the design of SNS accumulator ring lattice are compared. The simulations in close-to-resonance condition in the presence of space charge and magnet errors are presented. (author)

  16. Damping the e-p instability in the SNS accumulator ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Deibele, C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Xie, Z.

    2018-03-01

    A broadband, digital damper system for both transverse planes developed for the SNS accumulator ring has recently damped the first indications of the broadband 50-150 MHz e-p instability in a 1.2 MW neutron production beam. This paper presents details of the design and operation of the SNS damper system as well as results of active damping of the e-p instability in the SNS ring showing a reduction in power of betatron oscillation over the 10-300 MHz band of up to 70%. The spectral content of the beam during operation, with and without the damper system is presented and performance of the damper system is evaluated.

  17. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zaipeng [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States); Deibele, Craig, E-mail: deibele@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO BOX 2008 MS6483, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6461 (United States); Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring.

  18. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zaipeng; Deibele, Craig; Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2015-01-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring

  19. BEAM-LOSS DRIVEN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; CAMERON,P.; DANBY,G.; GARDNER,C.J.; JACKSON,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; LUDEWIG,H.; MALITSKY,N.; RAPARIA,D.; TSOUPAS,N.; WENG,W.T.; ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper summarizes three-stage design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.).

  20. Beam-Loss Driven Design Optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes three-state design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.)

  1. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI, J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply

  2. Overview of LLRF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liepe, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades accelerator controls and feedback systems have changed dramatically. While in the past relative simple analog systems where used, present systems are highly complex, and all accelerators in planning or under construction heavily relay on advanced feedback and feedforward control schemes. The Low-Level-Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system not only stabilizes the field in the RF cavities, but also has to provide among other things frequency control, exception handling, extensive diagnostic, and performance and machine availability maximization. As manifold as the tasks are for the LLRF system, so are the challenges. Linac driven light sources require highest field stability, while pulsed machines or low beta linacs bring their own challenges for the LLRF system. This presentation reviews the challenges and demands on present and future LLRF systems, gives an overview of state-of-the-art solutions, and an introduction into a very active and exciting field of accelerator physics.

  3. Effects and Correction of Closed Orbit Magnet Errors in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, S.C.; Holmes, J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the effect and correction of three types of orbit errors in SNS: quadrupole displacement errors, dipole displacement errors, and dipole field errors. Using the ORBIT beam dynamics code, we focus on orbit deflection of a standard pencil beam and on beam losses in a high intensity injection simulation. We study the correction of these orbit errors using the proposed system of 88 (44 horizontal and 44 vertical) ring beam position monitors (BPMs) and 52 (24 horizontal and 28 vertical) dipole corrector magnets. Correction is carried out numerically by adjusting the kick strengths of the dipole corrector magnets to minimize the sum of the squares of the BPM signals for the pencil beam. In addition to using the exact BPM signals as input to the correction algorithm, we also consider the effect of random BPM signal errors. For all three types of error and for perturbations of individual magnets, the correction algorithm always chooses the three-bump method to localize the orbit displacement to the region between the magnet and its adjacent correctors. The values of the BPM signals resulting from specified settings of the dipole corrector kick strengths can be used to set up the orbit response matrix, which can then be applied to the correction in the limit that the signals from the separate errors add linearly. When high intensity calculations are carried out to study beam losses, it is seen that the SNS orbit correction system, even with BPM uncertainties, is sufficient to correct losses to less than 10-4 in nearly all cases, even those for which uncorrected losses constitute a large portion of the beam.

  4. CERN's PS Booster LLRF renovation : plans and initial beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Leinonen, PM; Molendijk, JC; Pedersen, F; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Schokker, M

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 a project was started to renovate the CERN's PS Booster (PSB) low-level RF (LLRF). Required LLRF capabilities include frequency program, beam phase, radial and synchronization loops. The new LLRF will control the signals feeding the three RF cavities present in each ring; it will also shape the beam in a dual harmonic mode, operate a bunch splitting and create a longitudinal blow-up. The main benefits of this new LLRF are its full remote and cycle-to-cycle controllability, built-in observation capability and flexibility. The overall aim is to improve the robustness, maintainability and reliability of the PSB operation and to make it compatible with the injection from the future Linac4. This paper outlines the main characteristics of the software and hardware building blocks. Initial beam test results and hints on the main milestones and future work are also given.

  5. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS protonstorage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    CERN Document Server

    Pivi, M T

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electron cloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure.

  6. MITIGATION OF THE ELECTRON-CLOUD EFFECT IN THE PSR AND SNS PROTONSTORAGE RINGS BY TAILORING THE BUNCH PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro T F

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electron cloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure

  7. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS proton storage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electroncloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure

  8. SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  9. Preliminary estimates of dose and residual activation of selected components in ring collimation straight of the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Simos, N.; Walker, J.; Mallen, A.; Wei, J.; Todosow, M.

    2000-01-01

    The highest doses to components in the SNS ring are expected to be to those located in the collimation straight section. In this paper the authors present estimated doses to magnets and cable located between collimators. In addition the buildup of relatively long half-life radioactive isotopes is estimated, following machine operation and shutdown. Finally, the potential dose to operators approaching the machine following operation and shutdown for four hours is made. The results indicate that selected components might require replacement after several years of full power operation. In addition, the reflection of gamma-rays from the tunnel walls contribute a non-negligible amount to the dose of an operator in the tunnel following machine shutdown

  10. Design and development progress of a LLRF control system for a 500 MHz superconducting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Song, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, K. H.; Yu, I. H.; Chai, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The LLRF (low-level radio-frequency) control system which regulates the amplitude and the phase of the accelerating voltage inside a RF cavity is essential to ensure the stable operation of charged particle accelerators. Recent advances in digital signal processors and data acquisition systems have allowed the LLRF control system to be implemented in digitally and have made it possible to meet the higher demands associated with the performance of LLRF control systems, such as stability, accuracy, etc. For this reason, many accelerator laboratories have completed or are completing the developments of digital LLRF control systems. The digital LLRF control system has advantages related with flexibility and fast reconfiguration. This paper describes the design of the FPGA (field programmable gate array) based LLRF control system and the status of development for this system. The proposed LLRF control system includes an analog front-end, a digital board (ADC (analog to digital converter), DAC (digital to analog converter), FPGA, etc.) and a RF & clock generation system. The control algorithms will be implemented by using the VHDL (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language), and the EPICS (experiment physics and industrial control system) will be ported to the host computer for the communication. In addition, the purpose of this system is to control a 500 MHz RF cavity, so the system will be applied to the superconducting cavity to be installed in the PLS storage ring, and its performance will be tested.

  11. A hardware overview of the RHIC LLRF platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The RHIC Low Level RF (LLRF) platform is a flexible, modular system designed around a carrier board with six XMC daughter sites. The carrier board features a Xilinx FPGA with an embedded, hard core Power PC that is remotely reconfigurable. It serves as a front end computer (FEC) that interfaces with the RHIC control system. The carrier provides high speed serial data paths to each daughter site and between daughter sites as well as four generic external fiber optic links. It also distributes low noise clocks and serial data links to all daughter sites and monitors temperature, voltage and current. To date, two XMC cards have been designed: a four channel high speed ADC and a four channel high speed DAC. The new LLRF hardware was used to replace the old RHIC LLRF system for the 2009 run. For the 2010 run, the RHIC RF system operation was dramatically changed with the introduction of accelerating both beams in a new, common cavity instead of each ring having independent cavities. The flexibility of the new system was beneficial in allowing the low level system to be adapted to support this new configuration. This hardware was also used in 2009 to provide LLRF for the newly commissioned Electron Beam Ion Source.

  12. Participants of the LLRF05 : Workshop on Low Level RF, CERN 10-13 October 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Sophisticated Low Level RF systems are needed in modern particle accelerators to deal with the characteristics of state-of-the-art RF accelerating structures and their power sources, and to meet unprecedented levels of performance. The goal of the LLRF05 workshop is to share experience between linac and synchrotron projects (SNS, J-PARC, ILC, LHC etc.) and to discuss the best engineering practice.

  13. Digital LLRF System for RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Alok; Motiwala, P.D.; Bharade, S.K.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Das, D.

    2015-01-01

    A Low level RF (LLRF) system based on digital techniques has been developed for RFQ of Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA). The basic LLRF system for RFQ is composed of a Front end analog module housed in a 19 inch bin and a 6U cPCI based Digital board having a high speed and high density FPGA onboard, supporting 32 bit/33MHz PCI ver2.0 protocol and housed in a 19 inch cPCI crate. It also has a cPCI based CPU board with QNX operating system. The cPCI crate is connected to control room via Ethernet. Analog module conditions the input field signals from RF cavity and makes it compatible to digital board. It also amplifies RF Drive signal (Modulator output) from digital board, which goes to high power amplifier. The digital board digitally processes the input RF signals, and generates RF drive signal, which after amplification, used for driving the resonant cavity. The main features of digital board are under-sampling of input RF signals, digital in-phase and quadrature detection, and a proportional- integral (PI) controller algorithm implemented in a FPGA. The LLRF system works in CW as well as in PULSE mode. It also has a DDS implemented in VHDL, used for conditioning and tracking/tuning of the cavity. LLRF system operates under QNX based equipment frontend application and client running from control room. One analog module and one digital board set, supports one resonant cavity. The present paper describes the development of an LLRF system and its results with a test cavity. (author)

  14. LEDA LLRF control system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Balleyguier, P.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) for the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) project will be built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The low-level RF (LLRF) control system portion of this accelerator must perform many functions, of which the primary one is controlling the RF fields in the accelerating cavities. Plans have been made to provide for on-line characterization of the LLRF control system and the complete RF system through use of stimulus and response buffers, and a digital signal processor built into the field control system electronics. The purpose of this circuitry is to characterize the behavior of the entire RF system (klystron, waveguides, high power splitters, accelerator cavity, etc.). This characterization feature can be used to measure the performance of the closed loop system with respect to the open loop system, to provide an automated way to set loop parameters, to determine the cavity Q-curve, and to detect any abnormal behavior in the RF chain. The types of measurements include frequency and time-domain responses to given perturbations, amplitude modulations, etc. This paper will discuss types of algorithms that can be implemented and present a description and block diagram of the electronics to be used

  15. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  16. CERN's LEIR Digital LLRF : system overview and operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Blas, A; Bracke, E; Butterworth, A; Dubouchet, F; Findlay, A; Pedersen, F; Sanchez-Quesada, J

    2010-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is an accumulation and acceleration ring in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion injector chain. After its successful start in 2005, it has been running in three operational campaigns. The LEIR low-level RF (LLRF) system is the first all-digital system to operate in a CERN circular machine. Its capabilities include beam control tasks as well as dual-harmonic cavity voltage/phase servoing. All the system’s control parameters are fully configurable, remotely and in-between cycles; extensive built-in observation capabilities and diagnostics are available. The system is flexible, powerful and extremely reliable. This paper outlines the main building blocks and operational features, along with results obtained during the first years of operation.

  17. The Test of LLRF control system on superconducting cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhenglong; Wang, Xianwu; Wen, Lianghua; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Gao, Zheng; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The first generation Low-Level radio frequency(LLRF) control system independently developed by IMPCAS, the operating frequency is 162.5MHz for China ADS, which consists of superconducting cavity amplitude stability control, phase stability control and the cavity resonance frequency control. The LLRF control system is based on four samples IQ quadrature demodulation technique consisting an all-digital closed-loop feedback control. This paper completed the first generation of ADS LLRF control s...

  18. SNS moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The pulsed-neutron source SNS facility will start operation at 1 MW. A later upgrade to 5 MW is planned. The facility consists of a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and a target station. The protons from the accumulator ring will be injected into the target station at 1 GeV. The subsequent spallation process will then produce low-energy thermal neutrons that may be used for a wide variety of experiments. In this paper the authors discuss neutronic calculations which address various aspects of the moderate design. The computer codes HETC and MCNP were used for these calculations with the former code performing the high-energy transport. Neutrons which fell in energy to 20 MeV or less were then passed to MCNP for further transport

  19. LHC and CLIC LLRF final reports

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, A; Woolley, B; Ambattu, P; Tahir, I; Syratchev, Igor; Wuensch, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Crab cavities rotate bunches from opposing beams to achieve effective head-on collision in CLIC or collisions at an adjustable angle in LHC. Without crab cavities 90% of achievable luminosity at CLIC would be lost. In the LHC, the crab cavities allow the same or larger integrated luminosity while reducing significantly the requested dynamic range of physics detectors. The focus for CLIC is accurate phase synchronisation of the cavities, adequate damping of wakefields and modest amplitude stability. For the LHC, the main LLRF issues are related to imperfections: beam offsets in cavities, RF noise, measurement noise in feedback loops, failure modes and mitigations. This report develops issues associated with synchronising the CLIC cavities. It defines an RF system and experiments to validate the approach. It reports on the development of hardware for measuring the phase performance of the RF distributions system and cavities. For the LHC, the hardware being very close to the existing LLRF, the report focuses on...

  20. CEBAF NEW DIGITAL LLRF SYSTEM EXTENDED FUNCTIONALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Allison; K. Davis; H. Dong; C. Hovater; L. King; J. Musson; T. Plawski

    2007-01-01

    The new digital LLRF system for the CEBAF 12GeV accelerator will perform a variety of tasks, beyond field control [1]. In this paper we present the superconducting cavity resonance control system designed to minimize RF power during gradient ramp and to minimize RF power during steady state operation. Based on the calculated detuning angle, which represents the difference between reference and cavity resonance frequency, the cavity length will be adjusted with a mechanical tuner. The tuner has two mechanical driving devices, a stepper motor and a piezo-tuner, to yield a combination of coarse and fine control. Although LLRF piezo processing speed can achieve 10 kHz bandwidth, only 10 Hz speed is needed for 12 GeV upgrade. There will be a number of additional functions within the LLRF system; heater controls to maintain cryomodule's heat load balance, ceramic window temperature monitoring, waveguide vacuum interlocks, ARC detector interlock and quench detection. The additional functions will be divided between the digital board, incorporating an Altera FPGA and an embedded EPICS IOC. This paper will also address hardware evolution and test results performed with different SC cavities

  1. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  2. Commissioning and performance of the BNL EBIS LLRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Smith, K.S.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) LLRF system utilizes the RHIC LLRF upgrade platform to achieve the required functionality and flexibility. The LLRF system provides drive to the EBIS high-level RF system, employs I-Q feedback to provide required amplitude and phase stability, and implements a cavity resonance control scheme. The embedded system provides the interface to the existing Controls System, making remote system control and diagnostics possible. The flexibility of the system allows us to reuse VHDL codes, develop new functionalities, improve current designs, and implement new features with relative ease. In this paper, we will discuss the commissioning process, issues encountered, and performance of the system.

  3. Commissioning and performance of the BNL EBIS LLRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, S.; Smith, K.S.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) LLRF system utilizes the RHIC LLRF upgrade platform to achieve the required functionality and flexibility. The LLRF system provides drive to the EBIS high-level RF system, employs I-Q feedback to provide required amplitude and phase stability, and implements a cavity resonance control scheme. The embedded system provides the interface to the existing Controls System, making remote system control and diagnostics possible. The flexibility of the system allows us to reuse VHDL codes, develop new functionalities, improve current designs, and implement new features with relative ease. In this paper, we will discuss the commissioning process, issues encountered, and performance of the system.

  4. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MI, J.L.; SANDBERG, J.; SANDERS, R.; SOUKAS, A.; ZHANG, W.

    2000-01-01

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted

  5. APT LLRF control system functionality and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Rohlev, A.S.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    1% amplitude and l degree phase. The feedback control system requires a phase-stable RF reference subsystem signal to correctly phase each cavity. Also, instead of a single klystron RF source for individual accelerating cavities, multiple klystrons will drive a string of resonantly coupled cavities, based on input from a single LLRF feedback control system. To achieve maximum source efficiency, we will be employing single fast feedback controls around individual klystrons such that the gain and phase characteristics of each will be ''identical.'' In addition, resonance control is performed by providing a proper drive signal to structure cooling water valves in order to keep the cavity resonant during operation. To quickly respond to RF shutdowns, and hence rapid accelerating cavity cool- down, due to RF fault conditions, drive frequency agility in the main feedback control subsystem will also be incorporated. Top level block diagrams will be presented and described for each of the aforementioned subsystems as they will first be developed and demonstrated on the Low Energy Demonstrator Accelerator (LEDA) The low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) will perform various functions. Foremost is the feedback control of the accelerating fields within the cavity in order to maintain field stability within

  6. APT LLRF control system functionality and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Rohlev, A.S.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) will perform various functions. Foremost is the feedback control of the accelerating fields within the cavity in order to maintain field stability within ± 1% amplitude and 1 degree phase. The feedback control system requires a phase-stable RF reference subsystem signal to correctly phase each cavity. Also, instead of a single klystron RF source for individual accelerating cavities, multiple klystrons will drive a string of resonantly coupled cavities, based on input from a single LLRF feedback control system. To achieve maximum source efficiency, we will be employing single fast feedback controls around individual klystrons such that the gain and phase characteristics of each will be 'identical'. In addition, the resonance condition of the cavities is monitored and maintained. To quickly respond to RF shutdowns, and hence rapid accelerating cavity cool-down, due to RF fault conditions, drive frequency agility in the main feedback control subsystem will also be incorporated. Top level block diagrams will be presented and described as they will first be developed and demonstrated on the Low Energy Demonstrator Accelerator (LEDA). (author)

  7. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  8. 13 CFR 120.847 - Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). (a) General. PCLP CDCs must establish and maintain a LLRF... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). 120.847 Section 120.847 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  9. A high performance DAC/DDS daughter module for the RHIC LLRF platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.S.; Yuan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The RHIC LLRF upgrade is a flexible, modular system. Output signals are generated by a custom designed XMC card with 4 high speed digital to analog (DAC) converters interfaced to a high performance field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper discusses the hardware details of the XMC DAC board as well as the implementation of a low noise rf synthesizer with digital IQ modulation. This synthesizer also provides injection phase cogging and frequency hop rebucketing capabilities. A new modular RHIC LLRF system was recently designed and commissioned based on custom designed XMC cards. As part of that effort a high speed, four channel DAC board was designed. The board uses Maxim MAX5891 16 bit DACs with a maximum update rate of 600 Msps. Since this module is intended to be used for many different systems throughout the Collider Accelerator complex, it was designed to be as generic as possible. One major application of this DAC card is to implement digital synthesizers to provide drive signals to the various cavities at RHIC. Since RHIC is a storage ring with stores that typically last many hours, extremely low RF noise is a critical requirement. Synchrotron frequencies at RHIC range from a few hertz to several hundred hertz depending on the species and point in the acceleration cycle so close in phase noise is a major concern. The RHIC LLRF system uses the Update Link, a deterministic, high speed data link that broadcasts the revolution frequency and the synchronous phase angle. The digital synthesizers use this data to generate a properly phased analog drive signal. The synthesizers must also provide smooth phase shifts for cogging and support frequency shift rebucketing. One additional feature implemented in the FPGA is a digital waveform generator (WFG) that generates I and Q data pairs based on a user selected amplitude and phase profile as a function of time.

  10. Development of prototype digital LLRF system at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Chakraborty, Shoubhik; Lad, Mahendra; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    RF field is used in accelerator to accelerate the charge particles. The beam parameters depend highly on the stability of the RF field. Due to dynamic beam loading conditions the variations in RF parameters of accelerating structures needs to be controlled precisely, hence low level RF feedback control system plays vital role. Considering revolutionary development in the field of digital electronics and inherent advantages of digital systems, digital LLRF control system work was taken up. The digital LLRF system consists of two major units namely RF processing and digital processing. RF processing unit uses I/Q modulator for amplitude and phase control. This unit provides synchronized clock using ÷16 pre-scalar and also performs up conversion and down conversion for synchronized LO and IF generation respectively, along with required amplification and filtering. Digital processing unit takes down converted IF signal with appropriate sampling rate for I/Q detection. To extract the amplitude and phase information I/Q data is digitally filtered and processed using CORDIC algorithm in FPGA. I/Q modulator is used for controlling the amplitude and phase of RF field. Prototype development of digital LLRF control system for 325 MHz, 650 MHz is in progress. Digital LLRF system at 505 MHz has been installed in one RF station of Indus-2 RF system. In this paper development of prototype Digital LLRF system at RFSD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and results are presented. (author)

  11. Prototype Real-time ATCA-based LLRF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, Dariusz; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Czuba, Krzysztof; Predki, Paweł; Simrock, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerators employed to drive Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) currently being built in Hamburg, require sophisticated control systems. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic field in accelerating modules with tolerances below 0.02 % for amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase to produce ultra-stable electron beam that meets the conditions required for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The LLRF control system of 32-cavity accelerating module of the XFEL accelerator requires acquisition of more than 100 analogue signals sampled with frequency around 100 MHz. Data processing in real-time loop should complete within a few hundreds of nanoseconds. Moreover, the LLRF control system should be reliable, upgradable and serviceable. The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard, developed for telecommunication applications, can fulfil all of the above mentione...

  12. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  13. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  14. Interfaces and Communication Protocols in ATCA-Based LLRF Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Dariusz; Koprek, Waldemar; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Simrock, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Linear accelerators driving Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) or the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), require sophisticated Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control systems. The controller of the LLRF system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the field in accelerating modules below 0.02% of the amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase tolerances to produce an ultra stable electron beam that meets the required conditions for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). Since the LLRF system for the XFEL must be in operation for the next 20 years, it should be reliable, reproducible and upgradeable. Having in mind all requirements of the LLRF control system, the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) has been chosen to build a prototype of the LLRF system for the FLASH accelerator that is able to supervise 32 cavities of one RF station. The LLRF controller takes advantage of features offered by the ATCA standard. The LLRF system consists of a few ATCA carrier blades, Rear Transition Modules (RTM) and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMCs) that provide all necessary digital and analog hardware components. The distributed hardware of the LLRF system requires a number of communication links that should provide different latencies, bandwidths and protocols. The paper presents the general view of the ATC A-based LLRF system, discusses requirements and proposes an application for various interfaces and protocols in the distributed LLRF control system.

  15. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-21

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog–digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  16. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support he high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  17. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  18. Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandi, T.K.; Suman, S.; Pandey, H.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. DESIGN OF BEAM-EXTRACTION SEPTUM MAGNET FOR THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TSOUPAS, N.; LEE, Y.Y.; RANK, J.; TUOZZOLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    The beam-extraction process from the SNS accumulator ring [1,2] requires a Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we discuss the geometrical and magnetic field requirements of the magnet and present results obtained from two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations that shows the field quality in the regions of interest of the septum magnet

  20. SNS AC Power Distribution and Reliability of AC Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. A design description under the Construction Design and Maintenance (CDM) with regard to regulations (OSHA, NFPA, NEC), reliability issues and maintenance of the AC power distribution system are herewith presented. The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. The Accelerator Systems are Front End (FE)and LINAC KLYSTRON Building (LK), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), Accumulator Ring and Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) Support Buildings have 30MW installed power. FELK has 16MW installed, majority of which is klystron and magnet power supply system. CHL, supporting the super conducting portion of the accelerator has 7MW installed power and the RING Systems (HEBT, RING and RTBT) have also 7MW installed power.*

  1. Configuration and application of He RFQ LLRF control system based on EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae-Sung; Jeong, Hae-Seong; Kim, Seong-Gu; Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In He RFQ device, the high-power Radio-Frequency (RF) is very important because it is responsible for the stable delivery and efficient acceleration of the beam. Since that, the control system of high-power Radio-Frequency must be developed and this system is called LLRF control system. The LLRF control system required exquisite amplitude value that has ±1 % error range. We need a precise remote control system for this reason. This paper represents the configuration of LLRF control system in terms of software layers based on EPICS. Also, this paper explains the application of LLRF control system to test environment (hardware) and represents test result and suggests future work. The LLRF control system at the He RFQ is very important. The configuration of LLRF control system is completed on the software side and hardware modules: vxworks operating system installation, EPICS BASE compilation, module source code compiled, object file loading and execution on vxworks, EPICS IOC operation check, etc. The application of LLRF control system to module is implemented well: ADC module, DAC module, EPICS IOC test.

  2. Electron-cloud simulation results for the PSR and SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos. In particular, a complete refined model for the secondary emission process including the so called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has been included in the simulation code

  3. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  4. PXIe-based LLRF architecture and versatile test bench for heavy ion linear acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Jugo, I. Badillo J.; Portilla, J.; Feutchwanger, J.; Vicente, C. San; Etxebarria, V.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the architecture of a digital LLRF system for heavy-ion acceleration developed under the specification of the projected future heavy-ion accelerator facility in Huelva, Spain. A prototype LLRF test bench operating at 80MHz in CW mode has been designed and built. The core LLRF control has been digitally implemented on a PXIe chassis, including an FPGA for digital signal processing and a real time controller. The test bench is completed with a good quality signal generator u...

  5. SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Peter Kneisel; John Mammosser; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircia Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Tim Whitlatch; Mark Wiseman

    2003-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility, Jefferson Lab, is producing 24 Superconducting Radio FR-equency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium beta production, and 12 high beta (0.81) production cryomodules. After testing [ ], the medium beta prototype cryomodule was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and acceptance check out has been completed. All production orders for cavities and cryomodule components are being received at this time and the medium beta cryomodule production run has started. Each of the medium beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. The performance results of cryomodules to date will be discussed

  6. Design and configuration of VME EPICS driver for He RFQ LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae-Sung; Jeong, Hae-Seong; Kim, Seong-Gu; Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Helium Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (He RFQ) development, the role of the high-power Radio-Frequency (RF) is very important because it is responsible for stable delivery and efficient acceleration of the beam. Since the amplitude control requirements of LLRF system are ±1 % (amplitude), we need a precise remote control system for this reason. This system is referred to as Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system. This paper describes the basic configuration tasks performed by hardware side and the software side to build the LLRF control system, and describes the future work of the He RFQ LLRF control system based on this paper. LLRF control system development at the He RFQ development stage is important. LLRF control system development requires the exact configuration of hardware and software. For each of the Layer configuration is completed on the software side and hardware modules: vxworks operating system installation, EPICS BASE compilation, module source code compiled, object file loading and execution on vxworks, EPICS IOC operation check, etc.

  7. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  8. Modulator considerations for the SNS RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an intense neutron source for neutron scattering experiments. The project is in the research stage, with construction funding beginning next year. The SNS is comprised of an ion source, a 1,000 MeV, H - linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a neutron producing target, and experimental area to utilize the scattering of the neutrons. The linear accelerator is RF driven, and the peak beam current is 27 mA and the beam duty factor is 5.84%. The peak RF power required is 104 MW, and the H - beam pulse length is 0.97 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RF pulses must be about 0.1 ms longer than the beam pulses, due to the Q of the accelerating cavities, and the time required to establish control of the cavity fields. The modulators for the klystrons in this accelerator are discussed in this paper. The SNS is designed to be expandable, so the beam power can be doubled or even quadrupled in the future. One of the double-power options is to double the beam pulse length and duty factor. The authors are specifying the klystrons to operate in this twice-duty-factor mode, and the modulator also should be expandable to 2 ms pulses at 60 Hz. Due to the long pulse length and low RF frequency of 805 MHz, the klystron power is specified at 2.5 MW peak, and the RF system will have 56 klystrons at 805 MHz, and three 1.25 MW peak power klystrons at 402.5 MHz for the low energy portion of the accelerator. The low frequency modulators are conventional floating-deck modulation anode control systems

  9. The US spallation neutron source (SNS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The SNS is a 1 MW pulsed spallation neutron source that will be sited at Oak Ridge. It will consist of a high-current, normal-conducting linac accelerating an H - beam to 1 GeV, an accumulator ring which compresses each 1 ms linac pulse into a 600 ns bunch which is then extracted in a single turn onto a liquid mercury target. Neutron pulses emerge at a 60 Hz rate from the two ambient, and two cryogenic moderators. Eighteen beam ports surrounding the target station are available for neutron-scattering instrumentation. Funds for ten instruments are included in the construction project; these instruments will provide basic measurement capability for the many and varied research activities at the SNS facility. The new spallation source is being built by a consortium of laboratories; the partners are LBNL, LANL, BNL, ANL and ORNL. The breadth and depth of experience and resources brought by such a wide-spread team offers very significant advantages. Construction will start in October of 1998, operation will begin in October, 2005. (J.P.N.)

  10. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  11. IFMIF LLRF control system architecture based on EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, J.; Ibarra, A.; Miguel Angel Patricio; Rivers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) linear accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA CW (Continuous Wave) deuteron accelerator prototype to validate the technical options of the accelerator design for IFMIF. The primary mission of such facility is to test and verify materials performance when subjected to extensive neutron irradiation of the type encountered in a fusion reactor. The RF (Radio Frequency) power system of IFMIF-EVEDA consists of 18 RF chains working at 175 MHz with three amplification stages each. The LLRF (Low-Level Radio Frequency) controls the amplitude and phase of the signal to be synchronized with the beam and it also controls the resonance frequency of the cavities. The system is based on a commercial cPCI (Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) board provided by Lyrtech and controlled by a Windows Host PC. For this purpose, it is mandatory to communicate the cPCI FPGA Board with an EPICS Channel Access, building an IOC (Input Output Controller). A new software architecture to design a device support, using AsynPortDriver class and CSS as a GUI (Graphical User Interface), is also presented. (authors)

  12. First neutron results from SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadbetter, A.J.; Abbley, D.; Bailey, I.F.

    1985-05-01

    The report summarises the analyses of the first neutron results on the pulsed spallation source SNS. The source parameters; aspects of the instrumentation; and experimental results particular to a given beamline; are all discussed. General conclusions based on these data, the detectors and the computing system, are also examined. (U.K.)

  13. DATA ACQUISITION FOR SNS BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YENG, Y.; GASSNER, D.; HOFF, L.; WITKOVER, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor system uses VME based electronics to measure the radiation produced by lost beam. Beam loss signals from cylindrical argon-filled ion chambers and neutron detectors will be conditioned in analog front-end (AFE) circuitry. These signals will be digitized and further processed in a dedicated VME crate. Fast beam inhibit and low-level, long-term loss warnings will be generated to provide machine protection. The fast loss data will have a bandwidth of 35kHz. While the low level, long-term loss data will have much higher sensitivity. This is further complicated by the 3 decade range of intensity as the Ring accumulates beam. Therefore a bandwidth of 100kHz and dynamic range larger than 21 bits data acquisition system will be required for this purpose. Based on the evaluation of several commercial ADC modules in preliminary design phase, a 24 bits Sigma-Delta data acquisition VME bus card was chosen as the SNS BLM digitizer. An associated vxworks driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed at BNL. Simulating test results showed this system is fully qualified for both fast loss and low-level, long-term loss application. The first prototype including data acquisition hardware setup and EPICS software (running database and OPI clients) will be used in SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) system commissioning

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Longitudinal Dynamics for Low Energy Ring-High Energy Ring at the Positron-Electron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetta, Claudio; Mastorides, T.; Fox, J.D.; Teytelman, D.; Van Winkle, D.

    2007-01-01

    A time domain dynamic modeling and simulation tool for beam-cavity interactions in the Low Energy Ring (LER) and High Energy Ring (HER) at the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) is presented. Dynamic simulation results for PEP-II are compared to measurements of the actual machine. The motivation for this tool is to explore the stability margins and performance limits of PEP-II radio-frequency (RF) systems at future higher currents and upgraded RF configurations. It also serves as a test bed for new control algorithms and can define the ultimate limits of the low-level RF (LLRF) architecture. The time domain program captures the dynamic behavior of the beam-cavity-LLRF interaction based on a reduced model. The ring current is represented by macrobunches. Multiple RF stations in the ring are represented via one or two macrocavities. Each macrocavity captures the overall behavior of all the 2 or 4 cavity RF stations. Station models include nonlinear elements in the klystron and signal processing. This enables modeling the principal longitudinal impedance control loops interacting via the longitudinal beam model. The dynamics of the simulation model are validated by comparing the measured growth rates for the LER with simulation results. The simulated behavior of the LER at increased operation currents is presented via low-mode instability growth rates. Different control strategies are compared and the effects of both the imperfections in the LLRF signal processing and the nonlinear drivers and klystrons are explored

  15. SNS project-wide beam current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, M.; Witkover, R.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    A consortium of national laboratories is constructing the Spallation Neutron Source [1] (SNS) to be installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are signal similarities that exist in the beam diagnostic instrumentation that could permit common designs. This paper will focus on the beam current monitoring requirements, and the methods under consideration to measure beam current in various locations throughout the SNS facility

  16. Electron-cloud updated simulation results for the PSR, and recent results for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos are presented in this paper. A refined model for the secondary emission process including the so called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has recently been included in the electron-cloud code

  17. FPGA and optical-network-based LLRF distributed control system for TESLA-XFEL linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Czarski, Tomasz; Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    The work presents a structural and functional model of a distributed low level radio frequency (LLRF) control system for the TESLA-XFEL accelerator. The design of a system basing on the FPGA chips and multi-gigabit optical network was debated. The system design approach was fully parametric. The major emphasis is put on the methods of the functional and hardware concentration to use fully both: a very big transmission capacity of the optical fiber telemetric channels and very big processing power of the latest series of the, DSP enhanced and optical I/O equipped, FPGA chips. The subject of the work is the design of a universal, laboratory module of the LLRF sub-system. Initial parameters of the system model under the design are presented.

  18. PSB LLRF: new features for machine studies and operation in the PSB 2016 run

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E

    2017-01-01

    A new digital Low-Level RF (LLRF) system has beensuccessfully deployed on the four PS Booster (PSB) ringsin June 2014, after the Long-Shutdown 1 (LS1). Althoughonly recently deployed, several new features for machinestudies and operation have already been required and im-plemented. This note provides an overview of the main fea-tures deployed for the 2016 PSB run and of their results

  19. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Drury; Edward Daly; Christiana Grenoble; William Hicks; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman; G. Davis; Jean Delayen

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-β (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-β and twelve high-β (0.81) production cryomodules. Nine medium-β cryomodules as well as two high-β cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q 0 ), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Q ext 's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper

  20. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Michael A; Davis, Kirk; Delayen, Jean R; Grenoble, Christiana; Hicks, William R; King, Larry; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Tom; Preble, Joseph P; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-beta and twelve high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Ten medium-beta cryomodules as well as two high beta cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q0), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Qext's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Travis J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); MacDougall, Prof. Gregory J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The workshop “Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS” was held September 1-2, 2016 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The workshop aimed to examine the technical feasibility and scientific need to construct a μSR and/or β-NMR facility at the SNS. During the course of the workshop it became evident that recently developed technology could enable the development of a world leading pulsed muon source at SNS, without impacting the neutron science missions of the SNS. The details are discussed below.

  2. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.

    1983-01-01

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  3. SNS Diagnostics Tools for Data Acquisition and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Sundaram, Madhan; Long, Cary D

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1.0 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based and will run Windows for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. The diagnostics platform as well as other control systems and operator consoles use the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to communicate. This paper describes the tools created to evaluate the diagnostic instrument using our standard programming environment, LabVIEW. The tools are based on the LabVIEW Channel Access library and can run on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. The data-acquisition tool uses drop and drag to select process variables organized by instrument, accelerator component, or beam parameters. The data can be viewed on-line and logged to disk for later ...

  4. Dynamic Visualization of SNS Diagnostics Summary Report and System Status

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, Willem; Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Embedded Windows XP and LabVIEW. The diagnostics instruments communicate with the control system using the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the Diagnostics Group's approach to collecting data from the instruments, processing it, and presenting live in a summarized way over the web. Effectively, adding a supervisory level to the diagnostics instruments. One application of this data mining is the "Diagnostics Status Page" that summarizes the insert-able devices, transport efficiencies, and the mode of the accelerator in a compact webpage. The displays on the webpage change automatically to show the latest and/o...

  5. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  6. FPGA-based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkuszewski, Karol; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented.

  7. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  8. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Simrock, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  9. Communication system of LLRF based on SOPC of Nios Ⅱ softcore: design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He; Wang Fang; Qiu Feng; Wang Qunyao; Sha Peng

    2011-01-01

    DC-SC photocathode injector at Peking University and 9 cell superconducting cavity at Institute of High Energy Physics have both adopted digital LLRF control system, in which communication system based on STRATIX Ⅳ series FPGA development Kit. Through the System-on-a-Programmable-Chip (SOPC) technology and the development environment provided by NIOS Ⅱ IDE, It realized communication function with Tri-State Ethernet. The interface created by Labview has been used to set the parameters and get data. After repeating tests, the communication system has been running well all through. (authors)

  10. Ring RF and longitudinal dynamics in the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brodowski, J.; Delong, J.; Meth, M.; Onillon, E.; Zaltsman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Average beam currents of 40 A will be present in the Spallation Neutron Source. Even though the entire cycle time is only one synchrotron oscillation the longitudinal phase space determines peak beam current and momentum spread. Both factors play a role in space charge and instability dynamics. Longitudinal simulations with beam loading and longitudinal space charge have been done in the design phase

  11. FPGA based, DSP board for LLRF 8-Channel SIMCON 3.0 Part I: Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2005-09-01

    The paper describes design, construction and initial measurements of an eight channel electronic LLRF device predicted for building of the control system for the VUV-FEL accelerator at DESY (Hamburg). The device, referred in the paper to as the SIMCON 3.0 (from the SC cavity simulator and controller) consists of a 16 layers, VME size, PCB, a large FPGA chip (VirtexII-4000 by Xilinx), eight fast ADCs and four DACs (by Analog Devices). To our knowledge, the proposed device is the first of this kind for the accelerator technology in which there was achieved (the FPGA based) DSP latency below 200 ns. With the optimized data transmission system, the overall LLRF system latency can be as low as 500 ns. The SIMCON 3.0 sub-system was applied for initial tests with the ACC1 module of the VUV FEL accelerator (eight channels) and with the CHECHIA test stand (single channel), both at the DESY. The promising results with the SIMCON 3.0 encouraged us to enter the design of SIMCON 3.1 possessing 10 measurement and control channels and some additional features to be reported in the next technical note. SIMCON 3.0 is a modular solution, while SIMCON 3.1 will be an integrated board of the all-in-one type. Two design approaches - modular and all-in-one, after branching off in this version of the SIMCON, will be continued.

  12. Data transmission optical link for LLRF TESLA project part I: hardware structure of OPT0 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krzysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming a very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals. The paper presents the idea and realization of a gigabit synchronous data distributor designed to work in the LLRF control system of TESLA technology based X-ray FEL. The design bases on a relatively simple and cheap FPGA chip Cyclone. Commercially available SERDES (serializer/deserializer) and optical transceiver chips were applied. The optoelectronic module is embedded on the main LLRF BMB (backbone mother board). The MB provides communication with the outside computer control system, programmable chip configuration, integration with other functional modules and power supply. The hardware implementation is here described and the used software for BER (bit-error-rate) testing of the multi-gigabit optical link. The measurement results are presented. The appendix contains a comparison between the available protocols of serial data transmission for FPGA technology. This paper is a partial contribution to the next version of the SIMCON system which is expected to be released this year. The SIMCON, ver 3.0 will contain 8 channels and multi-gigabit optical transmission capability. It will be a fully modular construction.

  13. MatLab script to C code converter for embedded processors of FLASH LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnowski, K.; Siemionczyk, A.; Pucyk, P.; Szewiński, J.; Pożniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The low level RF control system (LLRF) of FEL serves for stabilization of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the superconducting niobium, resonant, microwave cavities and for controlling high power (MW) klystron. LLRF system of FLASH accelerator bases on FPGA technology and embedded microprocessors. Basic and auxiliary functions of the systems are listed as well as used algorithms for superconductive cavity parameters identification. These algorithms were prepared originally in Matlab. The main part of the paper presents implementation of the cavity parameters identification algorithm in a PowerPC processor embedded in the FPGA circuit VirtexIIPro. A construction of a very compact Matlab script converter to C code was presented, referred to as M2C. The application is designed specifically for embedded systems of very confined resources. The generated code is optimized for the weight. The code should be transferable between different hardware platforms. The converter generates a code for Linux and for stand-alone applications. Functional structure of the program was described and the way it is acting. FLEX and BIZON tools were used for construction of the converter. The paper concludes with an example of the M2C application to convert a complex identification algorithm for superconductive cavities in FLASH laser.

  14. Development of RF non-IQ sampling module for Helium RFQ LLRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae-Seong; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has a plan to develop the helium irradiation system. This system includes the Ion source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT systems to transport helium particles to the target. Especially, the RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) system should receive the 200MHz RF within 1% amplitude error stability. For supplying stable 200MHz RF to the RFQ, the low-level radio frequency (LLRF) should be controlled by control system. The helium RFQ LLRF control system adopted non- IQ sampling method to sample the analog input RF. Sampled input data will be calculated to get the I, Q values. These I, Q values will be used to monitor the amplitude and phase of the RF signal. In this paper, non-IQ sampling logic and amplitude and phase calculating logic of the FPGA will be introduced. Using Xilinx ISE design suite which is tool for developing the FPGA logic module, non-IQ sampling module and amplitude and phase computing module developed. In the future, PI gain module and frequency error computing module will be developed.

  15. Simulation of the Direct Digital Synthesis module for Helium RFQ LLRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae-Seong; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the DDS module in the FPGA simulated and the analysis result will be introduced. Using Xilinx ISE design suite which is tool for developing the FPGA logic module, DDS module simulated. KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has a plan to develop the helium irradiation system. This system includes the Ion source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT systems to transport helium particles to the target. Especially, the RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) system should receive the 200 MHz RF within 1% amplitude error stability. For supplying stable 200 MHz RF to the RFQ, the LLRF (low-level radio frequency) should be controlled by control system. This helium RFQ LLRF control system have a concept to track the cavity resonance frequency. For tracking the cavity resonance frequency, the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in the digital board will tune the frequency of the output sinusoidal signal. In order to implement this frequency tracking concept, the DDS (Direct Digital Synthesis) module should be implemented in the FPGA. In the future, frequency tracking system will be tested using test cavity.

  16. A deterministic, gigabit serial timing, synchronization and data link for the RHIC LLRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.; Severino, F.

    2011-01-01

    A critical capability of the new RHIC low level rf (LLRF) system is the ability to synchronize signals across multiple locations. The 'Update Link' provides this functionality. The 'Update Link' is a deterministic serial data link based on the Xilinx RocketIO protocol that is broadcast over fiber optic cable at 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). The link provides timing events and data packets as well as time stamp information for synchronizing diagnostic data from multiple sources. The new RHIC LLRF was designed to be a flexible, modular system. The system is constructed of numerous independent RF Controller chassis. To provide synchronization among all of these chassis, the Update Link system was designed. The Update Link system provides a low latency, deterministic data path to broadcast information to all receivers in the system. The Update Link system is based on a central hub, the Update Link Master (ULM), which generates the data stream that is distributed via fiber optic links. Downstream chassis have non-deterministic connections back to the ULM that allow any chassis to provide data that is broadcast globally.

  17. An Examination of the Causal Relationship among Self-Identity Development, Using SNS and SNS Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Shohei; Sakata, Kiriko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The adolescent is the big turning point during the life. Adolescents must find positive answer for the question “what is with the quality of oneself” through interactions with neighboring people to develop SELF-IDENTITY. On the other hand, Social Network Services (SNS) are highly familiar to them, making “SNS addiction” become a big social problem. This study attempted causal relationship among self-identity development and using SNS, consequently SNS addiction, from the viewpoint of personal...

  18. IMPACT simulation and the SNS linac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-particle tracking simulations for the SNS linac beam dynamics studies are performed with the IMPACT code. Beam measurement results are compared with the computer simulations, including beam longitudinal halo and beam losses in the superconducting linac, transverse beam Courant-Snyder parameters and the longitudinal beam emittance in the linac. In most cases, the simulations show good agreement with the measured results

  19. LLRF beam results on the first year of ELENA’s commissioning with beam

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena; Molendijk, John; Sanchez Quesada, Jorge; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    CERN’s Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) ring’s commissioning with beam started in earnest in March 2017. Ions from an H- source were injected in ELENA at low energy, although in a degraded way (lower voltage and intensity than planned) and with not constant reproducibility of the injection. From August 2017 onwards antiprotons from the AD were also injected in ELENA at high energy for up to three, weekly MD session. The 2017 ELENA commissioning run stopped on December 1st to allow the installation of the electron cooler. This note gives an overview of the successful operation carried out by the ELENA Low-Level RF (LLRF) during the first year of ELENA commissioning and of the main beam results obtained. Operation with H- ions and with antiprotons are considered, together with different operational settings and problems encountered. Hints on future deployment and commissioning steps are also provided.

  20. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-07-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10{sup -15}. The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  1. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-05-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10 -15 . The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  2. On the modification to the SNS extracted proton beam to allow for a transmission target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    The present SNS proton beam line consists of a series of triplets of quadrupoles with an achromatic bend such that the protons are taken from the accelerator ring into Hall 3, down its centre line onto the target. The modification described here has been prompted by the demands of a proposed negative pion bio-medical beam line, and the adaption replaces the last three triplets QT12, QT13 and QT14 (Quadrupoles Q41 to Q49 incl.). It begins at an achromatic waist in the original design, and by the use of three triplets of greater aperture produces a further small waist for a target station before focussing the 'object' produced by this transmission target onto the SNS target. (UK)

  3. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  4. Ferrite measurements for SNS accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendall, R.G.; Church, R.A.

    1979-03-01

    The RF system for the SNS has six double accelerating cavities each containing seventy ferrite toroids. Difficulties experienced in obtaining toroids to the required specifications are discussed and the two toroid test cavity built to test those supplied is described. Ferrite measurements are reported which were undertaken to measure; (a) μQf as a function of frequency and RF field level and (b) bias current as a function of frequency for different ranges of ferrite permeability μ. (U.K.)

  5. Status of the SNS Linac An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Holtkamp, N

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source SNS is a second generation pulsed neutron source and under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic energy Sciences and is dedicated to the study of the structure and dynamics of materials by neutron scattering. A collaboration composed of six national laboratories (ANL, BNL, TJNAF, LANL, LBNL, ORNL) is responsible for the design and construction of the various subsystems. With the official start in October 1998, the operation of the facility will begin in 2006 and deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam with a pulse length of approximately 700 nanoseconds on a liquid mercury target. The multi-lab collaboration allowed access to a large variety of expertise in order to enhance the delivered beam power by almost an order of magnitude compared to existing neutron facilities. The SNS linac consists of a combination of room temperature and superconducting structures and will be the first pulsed high power sc lin...

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Longitudinal Beam Dynamics - RF Station Interaction in the LHC Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastorides, T

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain simulation has been developed to study the interaction between longitudinal beam dynamics and RF stations in the LHC rings. The motivation for this tool is to determine optimal LLRF configurations, to study system sensitivity on various parameters, and to define the operational and technology limits. It will be also used to study the effect of RF station noise, impedance, and perturbations on the beam life time and longitudinal emittance. It allows the study of alternative LLRF implementations and control algorithms. The insight and experience gained from our PEP-II simulation is important for this work. In this paper we discuss properties of the simulation tool that will be helpful in analyzing the LHC RF system and its initial results. Partial verification of the model with data taken during the LHC RF station commissioning is presented

  7. Modeling high-Power Accelerators Reliability-SNS LINAC (SNS-ORNL); MAX LINAC (MYRRHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A. E.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving reliability has recently become a very important objective in the field of particle accelerators. The particle accelerators in operation are constantly undergoing modifications, and improvements are implemented using new technologies, more reliable components or redundant schemes (to obtain more reliability, strength, more power, etc.) A reliability model of SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) LINAC has been developed within MAX project and analysis of the accelerator systems reliability has been performed within the MAX project, using the Risk Spectrum reliability analysis software. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparison with the SNS operational data. Results and conclusions are presented in this paper, oriented to identify design weaknesses and provide recommendations for improving reliability of MYRRHA linear accelerator. The SNS reliability model developed for the MAX preliminary design phase indicates possible avenues for further investigation that could be needed to improve the reliability of the high-power accelerators, in view of the future reliability targets of ADS accelerators.

  8. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addic...

  9. Fabrication of high crystalline SnS and SnS2 thin films, and their switching device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeongsu; Lee, Jeongsu; Shin, Seokyoon; Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Seungjin; Park, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Sejin; Lee, Namgue; Bang, Minwook; Lee, Seung-Beck; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2018-05-01

    Representative tin sulfide compounds, tin monosulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are strong candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, based on non-toxicity, low cost, unique structures and optoelectronic properties. However, it is insufficient for synthesizing of tin sulfide thin films using vapor phase deposition method which is capable of fabricating reproducible device and securing high quality films, and their device characteristics. In this study, we obtained highly crystalline SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition and obtained highly crystalline SnS2 thin films by phase transition of the SnS thin films. The SnS thin film was transformed into SnS2 thin film by annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in H2S atmosphere. This phase transition was confirmed by x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and we studied the cause of the phase transition. We then compared the film characteristics of these two tin sulfide thin films and their switching device characteristics. SnS and SnS2 thin films had optical bandgaps of 1.35 and 2.70 eV, and absorption coefficients of about 105 and 104 cm‑1 in the visible region, respectively. In addition, SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited p-type and n-type semiconductor characteristics. In the images of high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, SnS and SnS2 directly showed a highly crystalline orthorhombic and hexagonal layered structure. The field effect transistors of SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited on–off drain current ratios of 8.8 and 2.1 × 103 and mobilities of 0.21 and 0.014 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively. This difference in switching device characteristics mainly depends on the carrier concentration because it contributes to off-state conductance and mobility. The major carrier concentrations of the SnS and SnS2 thin films were 6.0 × 1016 and 8.7 × 1013 cm‑3, respectively, in this experiment.

  10. Possible use of the SNS synchrotron for feasibility tests on aspects of heavy ion fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, C.W.; Rees, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    There remain a large number of theoretical and practical problems to be solved before a complete accelerator-driver system prototype and a target chamber prototype may be built with any confidence to allow an assessment to be made of the practicality of heavy ion fusion power plants. Two accelerator-driver systems remain under serious consideration for 1 - 10 MJ systems of ion kinetic energies approximately 10 GeV, namely, the induction linac and the storage ring systems. The possible use of the SNS synchrotron for comparative studies of these alternative accelerator-driver systems is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Online vrienden bepalen de overtuigingskracht van SNS-campagnes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Antheunis, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.

    2011-01-01

    Marketers more and more design advertising campaigns especially for Social Network Sites (SNS), with the aim that SNS users forward these campaigns to their online network. By means of a survey, this study investigates whether the persuasiveness of such campaigns is determined by the strength of the

  12. SNS online display technologies for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, K.U.; Chen, X.; Purcell, J.; Danilova, E.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitousness of web clients from personal computers to cell phones results in a growing demand for web-based access to control system data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) we have investigated different technical approaches to provide read access to data in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for a wide variety of web client devices. The core web technology, HTTP, is less than ideal for online control system displays. Appropriate use of Ajax, especially the Long Poll paradigm, can alleviate fundamental HTTP limitations. The SNS Status web uses basic Ajax technology to generate generic displays for a wide audience. The Dashboard uses Long Poll and more client-side Java-Script to offer more customization and faster updates for users that need specialized displays. The Web OPI uses RAP for web access to any BOY display, offering utmost flexibility because users can create their own BOY displays in CSS. These three approaches complement each other. Users can access generic status displays with zero effort, invest time in creating their fully customized displays for the Web OPI, or use the Dashboard as an intermediate solution

  13. Performance of Ferrite Vector Modulators in the LLRF System of the Fermilab HINS 6-Cavity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Philip [Fermilab; Barnes, Barry [Fermilab; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Cullerton, Ed [Fermilab; Tan, Cong [Fermilab

    2013-04-01

    The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) 6-cavity test is a part of the Fermilab HINS Linac R&D program for a low energy, high intensity proton Hsup>- linear accelerator. One of the objectives of the 6-cavity test is to demonstrate the use of high power RF Ferrite Vector Modulators(FVM) for independent control of multiple cavities driven by a single klystron. The beamline includes an RFQ and six cavities. The LLRF system provides a primary feedback loop around the RFQ and the distribution of the regulated klystron output is controlled by secondary learning feed-forward loops on the FVMs for each of the six cavities. The feed-forward loops provide pulse to pulse correction to the current waveform profiles of the FVM power supplies to compensate for beam-loading and other disturbances. The learning feed-forward loops are shown to successfully control the amplitude and phase settings for the cavities well within the 1 % and 1 degree requirements specified for the system.

  14. LLRF Control of High Loaded-Q Cavities for the LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Carlos [LBNL, Berkeley; Babel, Sandeep [SLAC; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [Jefferson Lab; Boyes, Matt [SLAC; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Cullerton, Ed [Fermilab; Doolittle, Lawrence [LBNL, Berkeley; Einstein, Joshua [Fermilab; Hong, Bo [SLAC; Hovater, Curt [Jefferson Lab; Huang, Gang [LBNL, Berkeley; Ratti, Alessandro [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-06-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is planning an upgrade (LCLS-II) to the Linear Coherent Light Source with a 4 GeV CW Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) linac. The nature of the machine places stringent requirements in the Low-Level RF (LLRF) system, expected to control the cavity fields within 0.01 degrees in phase and 0.01% in amplitude, which is equivalent to a longitudinal motion of the cavity structure in the nanometer range. This stability has been achieved in the past but never for hundreds of superconducting cavities in Continuous-Wave (CW) operation. The difficulty resides in providing the ability to reject disturbances from the cryomodule, which is incompletely known as it depends on the cryomodule structure itself (currently under development at JLab and Fermilab) and the harsh accelerator environment. Previous experience in the field and an extrapolation to the cavity design parameters (relatively high Q_{L}c≈ 4×10⁷ , implying a half-bandwidth of around 16 Hz) suggest the use of strong RF feedback to reject the projected noise disturbances, which in turn demands careful engineering of the entire system.

  15. A 96 channel receiver for the ILCTA LLRF system at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavric, Uros; Chase, Brian; Branlard, Julien; Cullerton, Ed; Klepec, Dan; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The present configuration of an ILC main LINAC RF station has 26 nine cell cavities driven from one klystron. With the addition of waveguide power coupler monitors, 96 RF signals will be down-converted and processed. A down-converter chassis is being developed that contains 12 eight channel analog modules and a single upconverter module. This chassis will first be deployed for testing a cryomodule composed of eight cavities located at New Muon Laboratory (NML) - Fermilab. Critical parts of the design for LLRF applications are identified and a detailed description of the circuit with various characteristic measurements is presented. The board is composed of an input band-pass filter centered at 1.3GHz, followed by a mixer, which down-converts the cavity probe signal to a proposed 13 MHz intermediate frequency. Cables with 8 channels per connector and good isolation between channels are being used to interconnect each down-converter module with a digital board. As mixers, amplifiers and power splitters are the most sensitive parts for noise, nonlinearities and crosstalk issues, special attention is given to these parts in the design of the LO port multiplication and distribution

  16. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakrani, Samsudi; Ismail, Bakar [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound.

  17. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudi Sakrani; Bakar Ismail

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound

  18. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  19. R and D of an LLRF control system for a 162.5 MHz radio frequency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lianghua; Wu Xianwu; He Yuan; Zhang Ruifeng; Zhang Shenghu; Zhu Zhenglong; Li Chunlong; Shi Longbo; Zhang Rui; Chang Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a low level radio frequency control system that was developed by the Institute of Modern Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, and will be used in Injector Ⅱ of the China-ADS project. The LLRF control system consists of an RF modulated front end, fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) modules, and a digital signal processing board based on a field programmable gate array. The system has been tested on a room temperature cavity with 12-hr, and the results illustrate that the stability of amplitude and phase achieved ±0.32% and ±0.35 degrees, respectively. (authors)

  20. Modular and reconfigurable common PCB-platform of FPGA based LLRF control system for TESLA test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw (Poland); Kierzkowski, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    The paper includes a description of predicted functionalities to be implemented in a universal motherboard (MB) for the next generation of LLRF control system for TESLA. The motherboard bases on a number of quasi-autonomous embedded executive modules. The modules are implemented in a few FPGA chips featured by the MB. The paper presents a practical design of the MB. The initial (basic) solution of the MB has the Cyclone as the chip where the board management is embedded. The board features communication modules - VME and micro, single chip PC with Ethernet. The board provides power supply for the FPGA chips. The board has fast internal communication between particular modules. (orig.)

  1. Modular and reconfigurable common PCB-platform of FPGA based LLRF control system for TESLA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Kierzkowski, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper includes a description of predicted functionalities to be implemented in a universal motherboard (MB) for the next generation of LLRF control system for TESLA. The motherboard bases on a number of quasi-autonomous embedded executive modules. The modules are implemented in a few FPGA chips featured by the MB. The paper presents a practical design of the MB. The initial (basic) solution of the MB has the Cyclone as the chip where the board management is embedded. The board features communication modules - VME and micro, single chip PC with Ethernet. The board provides power supply for the FPGA chips. The board has fast internal communication between particular modules. (orig.)

  2. Recent Neutronic Optimization Studies at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.; Ferguson, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent design considerations at the Spallation Neutron Source have led to significant changes in the target station design, including changing the outer lead reflector to stainless steel and adding structural elements to aid heat transfer. In light of the design evolution, basic design decisions, including the moderator positions, were re-evaluated. With the proton beam energy of 1.0 GeV and a beam power of 2 MW, moderator positions were originally selected to optimize the performance of the upstream moderators, although some penalty was accepted in order to enhance the overall performance of the mixed coupled and decoupled moderators in the SNS target system. The work presented in this paper details sensitivity studies of selected moderator positions as a function of neutron energy. A possible change in proton beam energy, to 1.3 GeV while maintaining a beam power of 2 MW, is also studied in terms of moderator position. (authors)

  3. Mechanical design of the SNS MEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshatz, D.; DeMello, A.; Doolittle, L.; Luft, P.; Staples, J.; Zachoszcz, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is presently designing and building the 2.5 MeV front end for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The front end includes a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) that carries the 2.5 MeV, 38 mA peak current, H - beam from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to the drift tube linac (DTL) through a series of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles, four rebuncher cavities, and a fast traveling wave chopping system. The beamline contains numerous diagnostic devices, including stripline beam position and phase monitors (BPM), toroid beam current monitors (BCM), and beam profile monitors. Components are mounted on three rafts that are separately supported and aligned. The large number of beam transport and diagnostic components in the 3.6 meter-long beamline necessitates an unusually compact mechanical design

  4. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  5. PFGA based, full-duplex, multi-channel, optical gigabit, synchronous data transceiver for TESLA technology LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Jalmuzna, W.; Olowski, K.; Perkuszewski, K.; Zielinski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Kierzkowski, K. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics

    2005-07-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals. The paper presents the idea and realization of a gigabit synchronous data distributor designed to work in the LLRF control system of TESLA technology based X-ray FEL. The design bases on a relatively simple and cheap FPGA chip Cyclone. Commercially available SERDES (serializer/deserializer) and optical transceiver chips were applied. The optoelectronic module is embedded on the main LLRF BMB (backbone mother board). The MB provides communication with the outside computer control system, programmable chip configuration, integration with other functional modules and power supply. The hardware implementation is here described and the used software for BER (bit-error-rate) testing of the multi-gigabit optical link. The measurement results are presented. The appendix contains a comparison between the available protocols of serial data transmission for FPGA technology. This TESLA Technology Report is a partial contribution to the next version of the SIMCON system which is expected to be released this year. The SIMCON, ver 3. will contain 8 channels and multi-gigabit optical transmission capability. (orig.)

  6. Progress with the SNS front-end systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Abraham, W.; Ayers, J.J.; Cheng, D.W.; Cull, P.; DiGennaro, R.; Doolittle, L.; Gough, R.A.; Greer, J.B.; Hoff, M.D.; Leung, K.N.; Lewis, S.; Lionberger, C.; MacGill, R.; Minamihara, Y.; Monroy, M.; Oshatz, D.; Pruyn, J.; Ratti, A.; Reijonen, J.; Schenkel, T.; Staples, J.W.; Syversrud, D.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Yourd, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Front-End Systems (FES) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project have been described in detail elsewhere [1]. They comprise an rf-driven H - ion source, electrostatic LEBT, four-vane RFQ, and an elaborate MEBT. These systems are planned to be delivered to the SNS facility in Oak Ridge in June 2002. This paper discusses the latest design features, the status of development work, component fabrication and procurements, and experimental results with the first commissioned beamline elements

  7. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  8. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Desai, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ∼38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ∼90%. The ∼1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ∼50 mA H - beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ∼99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

  9. The Inelastic Instrument suite at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Garrett E; Abernathy, Douglas L; Ehlers, Georg; Hagen, Mark E; Herwig, Kenneth W; Mamontov, Eugene; Ohl, Michael E; Wildgruber, Christoph U

    2008-01-01

    The instruments in the extensive suite of spectrometers at the SNS are in various stages of installation and commissioning. The Back Scattering Spectrometer (BASIS) is installed and is in commissioning. It's near backscattering analyzer crystals provide the 3 eV resolution as expected. BASIS will enter the user program in the fall of 2007. The ARCS wide angular-range thermal to epithermal neutron spectrometer will come on line in the fall of 2007 followed shortly by the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer. These two direct geometry instruments provide moderate resolution and the ability to trade resolution for flux. In addition both instruments have detector coverage out to 140o to provide a large Q range. The SEQUOIA spectrometer, complete in 2008, is the direct geometry instrument that will provide fine resolution in the thermal to epithermal range. The Spin-Echo spectrometer, to be completed on a similar time scale, will provide the finest energy resolution worldwide. The HYSPEC spectrometer, available no later than 2011, will provide polarized capabilities and optimized flux in the thermal energy range. Finally, the Vision chemical spectrometer will use crystal analyzers to study energy transfers into the epithermal range

  10. A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherline, T E; Solomon, L; Roberts, C K II; Bruce, D; Gaulin, B; Granroth, G E, E-mail: sherlinete@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360 deg. and out of plane tilts ({phi} and v) of from -3.4 deg. to 4.4 deg. and from -2.8 deg. to 3.5 deg., respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

  11. Growth and photovoltaic performance of SnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepa, K.G., E-mail: deepachaithanya@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Nagaraju, J. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orthorhombic SnS quantum dots are synthesized by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HOMO-LUMO level alignments confirmed the electron transport from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell characteristics are analyzed with different size quantum dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FF increased drastically from 15 to 51% on adding a buffer layer to the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SnS QDSSC showed highest V{sub oc} of 504 mV and 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Tin sulphide (SnS) quantum dots of size ranging from 2.4 to 14.4 nm are prepared by chemical precipitation method in aqueous media. Growth of the SnS particles is monitored by controlling the deposition time. Both XRD and SAED patterns confirm that the particles possess orthorhombic structure. The uncapped SnS particles showed secondary phases like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} and SnS{sub 2} which is visible in the SAED pattern. From the electrochemical characterization, HOMO-LUMO levels of both TiO{sub 2} and SnS are determined and the band alignment is found to be favorable for electron transfer from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the HOMO-LUMO levels varied for different particle sizes. Solar cell is fabricated by sensitizing porous TiO{sub 2} thin film with SnS QDs. Cell structure is characterized with and without buffer layer between FTO and TiO{sub 2}. Without the buffer layer, cell showed an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 504 mV and short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5 condition. The low fill factor of this structure (15%) is seen to be increased drastically to 51%, on the incorporation of the buffer layer. The cell characteristics are analyzed using two different size quantum dots.

  12. The SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Lillie, R.A.; Barnes, J.M.; McNeilly, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the conceptual design phase of the SNS project, the target station bulk-biological shield was characterized and the activation of the major targets station components was calculated. Shielding requirements were assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shut-down, and accident conditions utilizing the SNS shield design criteria, DOE Order 5480.25, and requirements specified in 10 CFR 835. Since completion of the conceptual design phase, there have been major design changes to the target station as a result of the initial shielding and activation analyses, modifications brought about due to engineering concerns, and feedback from numerous external review committees. These design changes have impacted the results of the conceptual design analyses, and consequently, have required a re-investigation of the new design. Furthermore, the conceptual design shielding analysis did not address many of the details associated with the engineering design of the target station. In this paper, some of the proposed SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding design analyses will be presented. The SNS facility (with emphasis on the target station), shielding design requirements, calculational strategy, and source terms used in the analyses will be described. Preliminary results and conclusions, along with recommendations for additional analyses, will also be presented. (author)

  13. Simulations of signal amplification and oscillations using a SNS junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.M.; Soares, V.; Nicolsky, R.

    1998-01-01

    A superconducting - normal metal - superconducting junction (SNS junction) may exhibit a low voltage negative differential resistance (LVNDR) effect over part of its current voltage characteristic (CVC). As the LVNDR effect is stable against a bias voltage at this CVC range, it should be possible to combine a SNS junction with conventional electronic circuits to obtain electronic devices such as mixers, amplifiers and oscillators. Making use of this remarkable effect, we show that an amplifier may be feasible by assembling a simple voltage divider made up of a SNS junction in series with a resistor. The amplifier circuit includes an adjustable DC voltage supply (the bias voltage) and an AC signal source with a given voltage. The SNS junction is connected in series with a resistor R. Choosing values of the load resistance R approximately equal to the module of the negative differential resistance (dV/dI), at the bias voltage, we may obtain large gains in this amplifier device. In order to get an oscillator, the SNS junction should be connected to a RLC tank circuit with a bias voltage adjusted in the range of the LVNDR region of its CVC. A power output of the order of one microwatt may be easily obtained. (orig.)

  14. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  15. Neutronic Design Calculations on Moderators for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide an intense source of neutrons for a large variety of experiments. It consists of a high-energy (1-GeV) and high-power (∼1-MW) proton accelerator, an accumulator ring, together with a target station and an experimental area. In the target itself, the proton beam will produce neutrons via the spallation process and these will be converted to low-energy ( 2 O moderators. Extensive engineering design work has been conducted on the moderator vessels. For our studies we have produced realistic neutronic representations of these moderators. We report on neutronic studies conducted on these representations of the moderators using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

  16. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degraff, Brian D. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  17. RF Processing of the Couplers for the SNS Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.Kang; I.E. Campisi; D. Stout; A. Vassioutchenko; M. Stirbet; M. Drury; T. Powers

    2005-01-01

    All eighty-one fundamental power couplers for the 805 MHz superconducting cavities of the SNS linac have been RF conditioned and installed in the cryomodules successfully. The couplers were RF processed at JLAB or at the SNS in ORNL: more than forty couplers have been RF conditioned in the SNS RF Test Facility (RFTF) after the first forty couplers were conditioned at JLAB. The couplers were conditioned up to 650 kW forward power at 8% duty cycle in traveling and standing waves. They were installed on the cavities in the cryomodules and then assembled with the airside waveguide transitions. The couplers have been high power RF tested with satisfactory accelerating field gradients in the cooled cavities

  18. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Sunil H; Chaudhary, Mahesh D; Deshpande, M P

    2014-01-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm −1 and 224 ± 4 cm −1 are the characteristic A g mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm −1 is associated with secondary Sn 2 S 3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current–voltage (I–V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail. (paper)

  19. Ultrasonic synthesis of In-doped SnS nanoparticles and their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-05-01

    Indium (In)-doped Tin (II) Sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by an ultra-sonication method and their optical, electrical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties were investigated. XRD patterns of the obtained NPs indicated formation of orthorhombic polycrystalline SnS. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exhibited flower-like NPs with particle sizes below 100 nm for both SnS and In-doped SnS samples. Optical analysis showed a decrease in energy band gap of SnS NPs upon In doping. In addition, electrical results demonstrated p-type nature of the synthesized SnS NPs and enhanced electrical conductivity of the NPs due to increased tin vacancy. Dielectric experiments on SnS NPs suggested an electronic polarizations effect to be responsible for changing dielectric properties of the particles, in terms of frequency. Finally, photocatalytic experiments revealed that high degradation power can be obtained using In-doped SnS NPs.

  20. Transverse Matching Progress Of The SNS Superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Experience using laser-wire beam profile measurement to perform transverse beam matching in the SNS superconducting linac is discussed. As the SNS beam power is ramped up to 1 MW, transverse beam matching becomes a concern to control beam loss and residual activation in the linac. In our experiments, however, beam loss is not very sensitive to the matching condition. In addition, we have encountered difficulties in performing a satisfactory transverse matching with the envelope model currently available in the XAL software framework. Offline data analysis from multi-particle tracking simulation shows that the accuracy of the current online model may not be sufficient for modeling the SC linac.

  1. Lithium insertion mechanism in SnS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre-Devos, I.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.; Lavela, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study lithium insertion in SnS 2 by means of 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Sn L I,III , and S K edges, and theoretical electronic structures (calculated in the density-functional theory framework). An insertion mechanism is derived according to the Li amount. It shows the influence of the SnS 2 -layered structure on the Sn reduction, particularly the possibility of an intermediate oxidation state between Sn IV and Sn II , which is not observed during Li insertion in three-dimensional sulfides

  2. Neutron scattering instruments for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Fornek, T.; Herwig, K.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a 1 MW pulsed spallation source for neutron scattering planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This facility is being designed as a 5-laboratory collaboration project. This paper addresses the proposed facility layout, the process for selection and construction of neutron scattering instruments at the SNS, the initial planning done on the basis of a reference set of ten instruments, and the plans for research and development (R and D) to support construction of the first ten instruments and to establish the infrastructure to support later development and construction of additional instruments

  3. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  4. Reliability model of SNS linac (spallation neutron source-ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A.; Fernandez, P.

    2015-01-01

    A reliability model of SNS LINAC (Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) has been developed using risk spectrum reliability analysis software and the analysis of the accelerator system's reliability has been performed. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparing them with the SNS operational data. This paper presents the main results and conclusions focusing on the definition of design weaknesses and provides recommendations to improve reliability of the MYRRHA ( linear accelerator. The reliability results show that the most affected SNS LINAC parts/systems are: 1) SCL (superconducting linac), front-end systems: IS, LEBT (low-energy beam transport line), MEBT (medium-energy beam transport line), diagnostics and controls; 2) RF systems (especially the SCL RF system); 3) power supplies and PS controllers. These results are in line with the records in the SNS logbook. The reliability issue that needs to be enforced in the linac design is the redundancy of the systems, subsystems and components most affected by failures. For compensation purposes, there is a need for intelligent fail-over redundancy implementation in controllers. Enough diagnostics has to be implemented to allow reliable functioning of the redundant solutions and to ensure the compensation function

  5. An automatic sample changer for use on the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    A design for an Automatic Room Temperature Sample Changer suitable for any completely contained sample, gas, liquid or solid, has been produced. Samples can be moved in any sequence into the neutron beam. The design was evolved primarily to suit SNS instruments. A prototype was constructed specifically for the LAD spectrometer having ten sample positions. The accuracy of the sample positioning was determined. (author)

  6. Overview of Privacy in Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powale, Pallavi I.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.

    2013-07-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of communication and life style of people in today's world. Because of the wide range of services offered by SNSs mostly for free of cost, these sites are attracting the attention of all possible Internet users. Most importantly, users from all age groups have become members of SNSs. Since many of the users are not aware of the data thefts associated with information sharing, they freely share their personal information with SNSs. Therefore, SNSs may be used for investigating users' character and social habits by familiar or even unknown persons and agencies. Such commercial and social scenario, has led to number of privacy and security threats. Though, all major issues in SNSs need to be addressed, by SNS providers, privacy of SNS users is the most crucial. And therefore, in this paper, we have focused our discussion on "privacy in SNSs". We have discussed different ways of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) leakages from SNSs, information revelation to third-party domains without user consent and privacy related threats associated with such information sharing. We expect that this comprehensive overview on privacy in SNSs will definitely help in raising user awareness about sharing data and managing their privacy with SNSs. It will also help SNS providers to rethink about their privacy policies.

  7. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  8. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Deformation Monitoring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Error, J J; Fazekas, J J; Helus, S A; Maines, J R

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project is a 1.4 MW accelerator-based neutron source located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For shielding purposes, a 17 foot berm of native soil has been constructed on top of the accelerator tunnel system. This backfill has caused ongoing settlement of the tunnels. The settlement has been monitored by the SNS Survey and Alignment Group at regular intervals, in order to discover the patterns of deformation, and to determine when the tunnels will be stable enough for precise alignment of beam line components. The latest monitoring results indicate that the settlement rate has significantly decreased. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation of the monitoring surveys, and provides an analysis of the results.

  10. SNS Central Helium Liquefier spare Carbon Bed installation and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degraff, Brian D. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been without major operations downtime since operations were started back in 2006. This system utilizes a vessel filled with activated carbon as the final major component to remove oil vapor from the compressed helium circuit prior to insertion into the system's cryogenic cold box. The need for a spare carbon bed at SNS due to the variability of carbon media lifetime calculation to adsorption efficiency will be discussed. The fabrication, installation and commissioning of this spare carbon vessel will be presented. The novel plan for connecting the spare carbon vessel piping to the existing infrastructure will be presented.

  11. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) conceptual design shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Odano, N.; Lillie, R.A.

    1998-03-01

    The shielding design is important for the construction of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) due to its impact on conventional facility design, maintenance operations, and since the cost for the radiation shielding shares a considerable part of the total facility costs. A calculational strategy utilizing coupled high energy Monte Carlo calculations and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations, along with semi-empirical calculations, was implemented to perform the conceptual design shielding assessment of the proposed SNS. Biological shields have been designed and assessed for the proton beam transport system and associated beam dumps, the target station, and the target service cell and general remote maintenance cell. Shielding requirements have been assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shutdown, and accident conditions. A discussion of the proposed facility design, conceptual design shielding requirements calculational strategy, source terms, preliminary results and conclusions, and recommendations for additional analyses are presented

  12. TRACKING TESTS FOR THE SNS FAST INJECTION BUMP POWER SUPPLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENG, W.; CUTLER, R.; DEWAN, S.

    2004-01-01

    The tracking requirement of the SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies is described. In addition to the usual tracking between the load current and the input reference of a power supply, these power supplies must also track between pairs of units under slightly different loads. This paper describes the use of a current-null test to measure tracking performances. For the actual tests, a single dummy magnet load was used to measure the tracking between the first two production units at the manufacturer's facility. Using the Yokogawa WE7000 waveform. PC-based measurement instrument, input and output waveforms are digitized and stored in data files. A program written for this application is then used to extract data from these files to construct, analyze the waveforms and characterize the power supply performance. Results of the measurements of two SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies will be presented in this paper

  13. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS FOR RAMP-EDGE SNS JUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Q.; Fan, Y.; Gim, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the processing optimization and fabrication of ramp-edge high-temperature superconducting junctions by using alternative materials for both superconductor electrodes and normal-metal barrier. By using Ag-doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (Ag:YBCO) as electrodes and a cation-modified compound of (Pr y Gd 0.6-y )Ca 0.4 Ba 1.6 La 0.4 Cu 3 O 7 (y = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) as a normal-metal barrier, high-temperature superconducting Josephson junctions have been fabricated in a ramp-edge superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor (SNS) configuration. By using Ag:YBCO as electrodes, we have found that the processing controllability /reproducibility and the stability of the SNS junctions are improved substantially. The junctions fabricated with these alternative materials show well-defined RSJ-like current vs voltage characteristics at liquid nitrogen temperature

  14. Neutronic moderator design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Neutronics analyses are now in progress to support the initial selection of moderator design parameters for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The results of the initial optimization studies involving moderator poison plate location, moderator position, and premoderator performance for the target system are presented in this paper. Also presented is an initial study of the use of a composite moderator to produce a liquid methane like spectrum

  15. Synthesis and characterization of electrodeposited SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, W. Y.; Sun, Y. C.; Djurišić, A. B.; Chan, W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Here we systematically investigated the effect of solution concentration and growth temperature on the properties of SnS thin films. The properties of deposited films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We found that sample quality is strongly affected by deposition conditions and that the sample composition exhibits strong temperature dependence. Detailed discussion of material properties dependence on the growth conditions is given

  16. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL; Guyotte, Greg S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  17. DESIGN OF AN IMPROVED ION CHAMBER FOR THE SNS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITKOVER,R.L.; GASSNER,D.

    2002-05-06

    Ion chambers are in common use as beam loss monitors at many accelerators. A unit designed and used at FNAL and later at BNL was proposed for the SNS. Concerns about the ion collection times and low collection efficiency at high loss rates led to improvements to this unit and the design of an alternate chamber with better characteristics. Prototypes have been tested with pulsed beams. The design and test results for both detectors will be presented.

  18. Modifications in SnS thin films by plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-01

    The present study shows the modifications of structural, optical and electrical characteristics that occur in tin sulfide (SnS) thin films treated in air and in nitrogen plasma at different pressure conditions. The films were obtained by the chemical bath deposition method, which results in SnS thin films with an orthorhombic crystalline structure, band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.1-1.2 eV, and electrical conductivities ({sigma}) in the order of 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}. The films treated with air plasma at pressures between 1 and 4 Torr, showed the presence of SnS{sub 2}, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, within the band gap values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 eV. On the other hand, the films treated with nitrogen plasma presented the same phases, but showed a significant modification in the electrical conductivity, increasing from 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (as-deposited) up to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (plasma treated). This result is a suitable range of conductivity for the improvement of the solar cells with SnS as an absorber material. Also, emission spectroscopy measurements were carried out in both air and nitrogen plasma treatments.

  19. Status of the SNS superconducting linac and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H- ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS generates neutrons by the spallation reaction with the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade and has been operating with beam for almost two years. As the first operational pulsed superconducting linac, many of the aspects of its performance were unknown and unpredictable. A lot of experiences and data have been gathered on the pulsed behavior of cavities and cryomodules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures during the commissioning of its components and beam operations. This experience is of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam, the performance of the superconducting linac and the future plans will be presented.

  20. Commissioning and operation of the horizontal test apparatus at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Hannah, Brian S. [ORNL; Doleans, Marc [ORNL; Saunders, Jeffrey W. [ORNL

    2015-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) has built, commissioned and operated a Horizontal Test Apparatus (HTA) vessel in the Radiofrequency Test Facility (RFTF) test cave. It can be operated at 4.5 K using the independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF). The HTA is designed to be a single cavity version of an SNS cryomodule with the ability to demount and replace the cavity. It provides the functionality for testing a single dressed SNS medium or high beta Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) cavity. The HTA is currently being used in support of R&D for in-situ plasma processing of the cavity's inner niobium surface. The design and commissioning of the HTA at 4.5 K will be presented as well as results from operating the HTA including cool-down, warm-up and steady state operations. Results from plasma processing a warm SCRF cavity in-between cold HTA tests will also be reported.

  1. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  2. Beam Instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P. R.; Shea, T. J.; Connolly, R. C.; Kesselman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10 -4 . A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring

  3. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  4. RFTech report on cavity design, LLRF & HPRF systems and design integration, & costing

    CERN Document Server

    De Conto, J M; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights results from the EuCARD WP4.3 RFTech network, which was active from April 2009 to July 2013. The objective of RFTech was bringing together RF experts from different laboratories and communities, e.g. proton & electron accelerators, or storage rings & linacs, to exchange ideas and to promote innovation on all aspects of RF technology. RFTech organized 4 primary annual workshops and the organized or co-organized several topical workshops or dedicated sessions in larger conferences, like MIXDES, ICAP 12 etc. The present document highlights the main topics covered during this networking activity. The RFTech activities related to superconducting RF infrastructures are described in the EuCARD report “European Infrastructures for R&D and Test of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities and Cryo-modules” (Wolfgang Weingarten, ISBN 978-83-7207-952-7).

  5. PSB beam longitudinal blow-up by phase modulation with the digital LLRF prototype system

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Jaussi, M; Leinonen, P; Molendijk, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J

    2014-01-01

    The PSB will be upgraded to a new, Digital Low-Level RF (DLLRF) system in 2014 at the injectors’ restart after LS1. This DLLRF is an evolution of that successfully deployed in LEIR and comprises new hardware, software and implementation strategies. Machine development studies have been carried out in the PSB over recent years with the existing LEIR-style hardware installed in PSB ring four. These studies have allowed testing approaches and validating implementation strategies. This note focuses on a series of MDs carried out during the 2011 run where a new implementation of the longitudinal beam blow-up obtained by phase modulation was tested. Test results and effects on the beam are show for a CNGS-type beam. Finally, an overview is given of the final longitudinal blow-up implementation planned with the new hardware, which will be operationally deployed in 2014.

  6. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) assisted hydrothermal synthesis of SnS nanorods and nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Subhajit; Kar, Soumitra; Chaudhuri, Subhadra

    2007-01-01

    Nanorods and nanosheets of tin sulfide (SnS) were synthesized by a novel thioglycolic acid (TGA) assisted hydrothermal process. The as prepared nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD study reveals the formation of well-crystallized orthorhombic structure of SnS. Diameter of the SnS nanorods varied within 30-100 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns identify the single crystalline nature for the SnS nanocrystals. The mechanism for the TGA assisted growth for the nanosheets and nanorods have been discussed

  7. Characterization and Optical Properties of the Single Crystalline SnS Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue GH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The SnS nanowire arrays have been successfully synthesized by the template-assisted pulsed electrochemical deposition in the porous anodized aluminum oxide template. The investigation results showed that the as-synthesized nanowires are single crystalline structures and they have a highly preferential orientation. The ordered SnS nanowire arrays are uniform with a diameter of 50 nm and a length up to several tens of micrometers. The synthesized SnS nanowires exhibit strong absorption in visible and near-infrared spectral region and the direct energy gapE gof SnS nanowires is 1.59 eV.

  8. Modular version of SIMCON, FPGA based, DSP integrated, LLRF control system for TESLA FEL part II: measurement of SIMCON 3.0 DSP daughterboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes design, construction and initial measurements of an eight channel electronic LLRF device predicted for building of the control system for the W-FEL accelerator at DESY (Hamburg). The device, referred in the paper to as the SIMCON 3.0 (from the SC cavity simulator and controller) consists of a 16 layer, VME size, PCB, a large FPGA chip (VirtexII-4000 by Xilinx), eight fast ADCs and four DACs (by Analog Devices). To our knowledge, the proposed device is the first of this kind for the accelerator technology in which there was achieved (the FPGA based) DSP latency below 200 ns. With the optimized data transmission system, the overall LLRF system latency can be as low as 500 ns. The SIMCON 3.0 sub-system was applied for initial tests with the ACCl module of the VUV FEL accelerator (eight channels) and with the CHECHIA test stand (single channel), both at the DESY. The promising results with the SIMCON 3.0. encouraged us to enter the design of SIMCON 3.1. possessing 10 measurement and control channels and some additional features to be reported in the next technical note. SIMCON 3.0. is a modular solution, while SIMCON 3.1. will be an integrated board of the all-in-one type. Two design approaches - modular and all-in-one - after branching off in this version of the Simcon, will be continued.

  9. SNS vil høre om det supplerende materiale giver anledning til yderligere kommentarer eller ændrer risikovurderingen. Zea mays (1507). EFSAs udtalelse og vurdering af 1507 majsen. Modtaget 14-03-2005, deadline 29-03-2005, svar 23-03-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    "DMU har via EFSAs GMOnet indhentet de nye oplysninger (mail fra SNS d. 14-03-2005) til ansøgningen om godkendelse til markedsføring til import og videreforarbejdning af den genmodificerede majs (1507). DMU har først gennemgået materialet for at undersøge om det ændrer den risikovurdering vi tidl...

  10. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.-I.; Regan, Amy; Wang, Y.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller

  11. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, S I; Wang, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller.

  12. Status of the Cryogenic System Commissioning at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, Fabio; Campisi, Isidoro E; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Gurd, Pamela; Hatfield, Daniel; Howell, Matthew; Knudsen, Peter; Stout, Daniel; Strong, William

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 Watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning strategy and status will be presented.

  13. Optoelectronic characterizations of vacuum evaporated Cu 2 SnS 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of non-toxic, cheap earthly abundant, ternary compound of Cu2SnS3 thin film. ... film were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. ... to determine the electrical properties of the deposited Cu2SnS3 ternary films.

  14. Synthesis and Raman analysis of SnS nanoparticles synthesized by PVP assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    SnS film was prepared by a simple drop casting method after synthesizing SnS nanoparticles by using PVP assisted polyol method. Confocal Raman study was carried out for the as deposited and annealed (150, 300 and 400 °C) films at two different excitation wavelengths 514 and 785 nm. At the excitation wavelength of 514 nm, the Raman modes showed for a mixed phase of SnS and SnS{sub 2} up to 150 °C and then only a pure SnS phase was observed up to 400 °C due to the dissociation of SnS{sub 2} in to SnS by releasing S. The increase in intensity of Raman (A{sub g} and B{sub 3g}) as well as IR (B{sub 3u}) active modes of SnS are observed with increasing annealing temperature at excitation wavelength 785 nm due to the increased crystallinity and inactiveness of SnS{sub 2} modes. X-ray diffraction confirming the formation of a single phase of SnS while the greater homogeneity in both size and shape of SnS nanoparticles were confirmed through surface morphology from SEM.

  15. Lessons Learned from the Jefferson Lab - SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Hogan; Edward Daly; John Fischer; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    In light of the recent developments with the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the recommendation to utilize ''Cold'' technology for this future particle accelerator, this paper will present the lessons learned from the recently concluded Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodule production run at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Over the past twenty years Jefferson Lab has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more SRF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The knowledge gained from the design and fabrication of the SNS prototype, eleven - 0.61 (medium) beta and the twelve - 0.81 (high) beta cryomodules, will prove to be an effective asset to the ILC project. After delivery of the final production cryomodule in March 2005, design and fabrication data will be collected, evaluated and presented to make this information beneficial for future particle accelerator projects. Recommendations with respect to these findings will also be presented as an integral part of this paper

  16. Higher order mode analysis of the SNS superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Ho Kim; Dong Jeon; Sundelin, R

    2001-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM's) of monopoles, dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles in beta =0.61 and beta =0.81 6-cell superconducting (SC) cavities for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project, have been found up to about 3 GHz and their properties such as R/Q, trapping possibility, etc have been figured out concerning manufacturing imperfection. The main issues of HOM's are beam instabilities (published separately) and HOM induced power especially from TM monopoles. The time structure of SNS beam has three different time scales of pulses, which are micro-pulse, midi-pulse and macropulse. Each time structure will generate resonances. When a mode is near these resonance frequencies, the induced voltage could be large and accordingly the resulting HOM power. In order to understand the effects from such a complex beam time structure on the mode excitation and resulting HOM power, analytic expressions are developed. With these analytic expressions, the induced HOM voltage and HOM power were calculated by assuming e...

  17. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Lu, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  18. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  19. Band Alignments, Valence Bands, and Core Levels in the Tin Sulfides SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3: Experiment and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Whittles, TJ; Burton, LA; Skelton, JM; Walsh, A; Veal, TD; Dhanak, VR

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfide solar cells show relatively poor efficiencies despite attractive photovoltaic properties, and there is difficulty in identifying separate phases, which are also known to form during Cu2ZnSnS4 depositions. We present X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements of single crystal SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3, with electronic-structure calculations from density functional theory (DFT). Differences in the XPS spectra of the three phases, including...

  20. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

  1. A leading-edge hardware family for diagnostics applications and low-level RF in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Jaussi, M; Leiononen, P; Levens, T E; Molendijk, J C; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Simonin, J

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons transferred from the CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The requirements for the acquisition and treatment of signals for longitudinal diagnostics are very demanding, owing to the revolution frequency swing as well as to the digital signal processing required. The requirements for the Low-Level Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system are very demanding as well, especially in terms of revolution frequency swing, dynamic range and low noise required by the cavity voltage control and digital signal processing to be performed. Both sets of requirements will be satisfied by using a leading-edge hardware family, developed to cover the LLRF needs of all synchrotrons in the Meyrin site; it will be first deployed in 2014 in the CERN’s PSB and in the medical machine MedAustron. This paper gives an overview of the main building blocks of the hardware family and of th...

  2. Digital Low Level RF Systems for Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, B.; Barnes, B.; Meisner, K.

    1997-05-01

    At Fermilab, a new Low Level RF system is successfully installed and operating in the Main Ring. Installation is proceeding for a Tevatron system. This upgrade replaces aging CAMAC/NIM components for an increase in accuracy, reliability, and flexibility. These VXI systems are based on a custom three channel direct digital synthesizer(DDS) module. Each synthesizer channel is capable of independent or ganged operation for both frequency and phase modulation. New frequency and phase values are computed at a 100kHz rate on the module's Analog Devices ADSP21062 (SHARC) digital signal processor. The DSP concurrently handles feedforward, feedback, and beam manipulations. Higher level state machines and the control system interface are handled at the crate level using the VxWorks operating system. This paper discusses the hardware, software and operational aspects of these LLRF systems.

  3. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  4. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  5. A nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuefeind, Joerg; Chipley, Kenneth K.; Tulk, Chris A.; Simonson, J. Michael; Winokur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is one of five neutron scattering instruments being managed within the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Instruments-Next Generation (SING) project. NOMAD is designed as a high-flux, medium-resolution diffractometer using a large bandwidth of neutron energies and extensive detector coverage to perform structural determinations of local order in crystalline and amorphous materials. The instrument will enable studies of a large variety of samples ranging from liquids, solutions, glasses, polymers, and nanocrystalline materials to long-range ordered crystals and will allow unprecedented access to high-resolution pair distribution functions, small-contrast isotope substitution experiments, small sample sizes, and parametric studies. Project completion for the instrument is anticipated in 2010 and a review of the design status will be given

  6. The SNS Resonance Control Cooling System Control Valve Upgrade Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Derrick C.; Schubert, James Phillip; Tang, Johnny Y.

    2008-01-01

    The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

  7. Preparation and characterization of Cu2SnS3 thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Narasimman, R.; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    Cu2SnS3 thin films were electrodeposited on F:SnO2/Glass substrates at room temperature by using aqueous solution. Copper and tin were first electrodeposited from single bath and post annealed in the presence of sulphur atmosphere to obtain the Cu2SnS3 phase. The Cu2SnS3 phase with preferred orientation along the (112) crystal direction grows to greater extent by the post annealing of the film. Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic crystal structure of Cu2SnS3 with principle mode of vibration as A1 (symmetric breathing mode) corresponding to the band at 291 cm-1. It also reveals the benign coexistence of orthorhombic Cu3SnS4 and Cu2SnS7 phases. Optical properties of the film show direct band gap of 1.25 eV with a high absorption coefficient of the order of 104 cm-1 in the visible region. Photo activity of the electrodeposited film was established in two electrode photoelectro-chemical cell, where an open circuit voltage of 91.6 mV and a short circuit current density of 10.6 µA/cm2 were recorded. Fabrication of Cu2SnS3 thin film heterojunction solar cell is underway.

  8. The RF power system for the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The initial goal of the SNS project is to produce a 1 MW average beam of protons with short pulse lengths onto a neutron-producing target. The objective of the SNS RF system is to generate 117 MW peak of pulsed 805 MHz microwave power with an accelerated beam pulse length of 1.04 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The power system must be upgradeable in peak power to deliver 2 MW average power to the neutron target. The RF system also requires about 3 MW peak of RF power at 402.5 MHz, but that system is not discussed here. The design challenge is to produce an RF system at minimum cost, that is very reliable and economical to operate. The combination of long pulses and high repetition rates make conventional solutions, such as the pulse transformer and transmission line method, very expensive. The klystron, with a modulating anode, and 1.5 MW of peak output power is the baseline RF amplifier, an 56 are required in the baseline design. The authors discuss four power system configurations that are the candidates for the design. The baseline design is a floating-deck modulating anode system. A second power system being investigated is the fast-pulsed power supply, that can be turned on and off with a rise time of under 0.1 ms. This could eliminate the need for a modulator, and drastically reduce the energy storage requirements. A third idea is to use a pulse transformer with a series IGBT switch and a bouncer circuit on the primary side, as was done for the TESLA modulator. A fourth method is to use a series IGBT switch at high voltage, and not use a pulse transformer. The authors discuss the advantages and problems of these four types of power systems, but they emphasize the first two

  9. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  10. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  11. Growth of highly textured SnS on mica using an SnSe buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Fong, W.K.; Wang, W.; Surya, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the growth of SnS thin films on mica substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent 2D layered structure and strong (001) texture were observed with a record low rocking curve full width at half maximum of ∼ 0.101° for the SnS(004) diffraction. An interface model is used to investigate the nucleation of SnS on mica which indicates the co-existence of six pairs of lateral growth orientations and is in excellent agreement with the experimental Φ-scan measurements indicating 12 peaks separated by 30° from each other. To control the lateral growth of the SnS epilayers we investigate the utilization of a thin SnSe buffer layer deposited on the mica substrate prior to the growth of the SnS thin film. The excellent lattice match between SnSe and mica enhances the alignment of the nucleation of SnS and suppresses the minor lateral orientations along the mica[110] direction and its orthogonal axis. Detailed low-frequency noise measurement was performed to characterize the trap density in the films and our results clearly demonstrate substantial reduction in the density of the localized states in the SnS epilayer with the use of an SnSe buffer layer. - Highlights: • A record low rocking curve FWHM for deposited SnS on mica • Investigation of the nucleation of SnS on mica using the interface model • Investigation of nucleation mechanism by phi-scan measurement • Grain boundary formation from crystallites of various nucleation orientations • Suppression of nucleation orientations using an SnSe buffer layer

  12. Effects of Ge- and Sb-doping and annealing on the tunable bandgaps of SnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsuan-Tai; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Huang, Chen-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    SnS, Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films with single orthorhombic SnS phase were fabricated via solvothermal routes and subsequent spin-coating, respectively. The substitution solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. The bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films can be tuned in the ranges of 1.25–1.35 and 1.30–1.39 eV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the tunable bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films are discussed. For the Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films subjected to annealing at 200–350 °C in N{sub 2}, the bandgaps of 200 °C-annealed films remain unchanged, while those of 300 °C- and 350 °C-annealed films decrease with the annealing temperature because of the evaporation of Ge and Sb respectively. - Highlights: • Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films were fabricated via spin-coating. • The solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. • The bandgaps of SnS films can be tuned by Ge and Sb doping respectively. • Annealing above 300 °C reduces the bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films.

  13. Intercalation of organic molecules into SnS2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, M.L.; Tan, K.J.; Wei, F.X.; Zhang, K.K.; Jiang, H.; Kloc, C.

    2013-01-01

    SnS 2 is a layered semiconductor with a van der Waals gap separating the covalently bonded layers. In this study, post-synthesis intercalation of donor organic amine molecules, such as ethylenediamine (en), into tin disulfide and secondary intercalation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 1, 5-naphthalenediamine (NDA) into SnS 2e n have been verified with X-ray diffraction. PPD and NDA did not intercalate directly even during prolonged annealing but replaced en readily if en was already present in the van der Waals gap. The c-lattice dilation is proportional to the intercalant size. Unit cell lattices of intercalated products were determined from the positions of the X-ray diffraction peaks. Optical images taken during the intercalation showed that intercalation progressed from the periphery towards the interior of the crystal. TEM diffraction patterns in the [0 0 1] direction of SnS 2 after intercalation revealed defects and stacking mismatches among the SnS 2 layers caused by the intercalation. UV–Vis absorption studies showed a red shift in the band edge of the SnS 2 material after intercalation. The band edge was 2.2 eV for pristine SnS 2 ; after intercalation with en or PPD, the absorbance spectra band edges shifted to approximately 0.7 eV or 0.5 eV, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: SnS 2 single crystals were intercalated with organic amine molecules such as ethylenediamine, phenylenediamine and naphthalenediamine. Absorption studies showed red shift of band edge after intercalation, which was consistent with optical observations. X-ray diffraction indicated lattice dilation in the c-lattice of SnS 2 after intercalation. Highlights: ► Organic molecules intercalated inhomogenously between covalently bonded SnS 2 layers. ► Ethylenediamine (en) intercalate directly into SnS 2 . ► Phenylenediamine (PPD) and naphthalenediamine (NDA) can be intercalated into SnS 2 secondary. ► In a secondary intercalation the bonds between layers are weakened by direct

  14. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  15. Fabrication and optical properties of SnS thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Although the fabrication of tin disulfide thin films by SILAR method is quiet common, there is, however, no report is available on the growth of SnS thin film using above technique. In the present work, SnS films of 0.20 μm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by SILAR method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were smooth and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films. Scanning electron micrograph revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDAX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component while UV-vis transmission spectra exhibited high absorption in the visible region. The intense and sharp emission peaks at 680 and 825 nm (near band edge emission) dominated the photoluminescence spectra

  16. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  17. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  18. Simple eco-friendly synthesis of the surfactant free SnS nanocrystal toward the photoelectrochemical cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoguang; Woo, Heechul; Wu, Peinian; Hong, Hyo Jin; Jung, Wan Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Choi, Jin Woo

    2017-11-28

    A simple, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly pathway for synthesizing efficient sunlight-driven tin sulfide photocatalyst was studied. SnS nanocrystals were prepared by using mechanical method. The bulk SnS was obtained by evaporation of SnS nanocrystal solution. The synthesized samples were characterized by using XRD, SEM, TEM, UV-vis, and Raman analyses. Well crystallized SnS nanocrystals were verified and the electrochemical characterization was also performed under visible light irradiation. The SnS nanocrystals have shown remarkable photocurrent density of 7.6 mA cm -2 under 100 mW cm -2 which is about 10 times larger than that of the bulk SnS under notably stable operation conditions. Furthermore, the SnS nanocrystals presented higher stability than the bulk form. The IPCE(Incident photon to current conversion efficiency) of 9.3% at 420 nm was obtained for SnS nanocrystal photoanode which is strikingly higher than that of bulk SnS, 0.78%. This work suggests that the enhancement of reacting area by using SnS nanocrystal absorbers could give rise to the improvement of photoelectrochemical cell efficiency.

  19. The Research on Informal Learning Model of College Students Based on SNS and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Cong, Xiao; Bi, Fangyan; Zhou, Dongdai

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, informal learning based on online become the main way for college students to learn a variety of subject knowledge. The favor to the SNS community of students and the characteristics of SNS itself provide a good opportunity for the informal learning of college students. This research first analyzes the related research of the informal learning and SNS, next, discusses the characteristics of informal learning and theoretical basis. Then, it proposed an informal learning model of college students based on SNS according to the support role of SNS to the informal learning of students. Finally, according to the theoretical model and the principles proposed in this study, using the Elgg and related tools which is the open source SNS program to achieve the informal learning community. This research is trying to overcome issues such as the lack of social realism, interactivity, resource transfer mode in the current network informal learning communities, so as to provide a new way of informal learning for college students.

  20. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  1. Results of the SNS front end commissioning at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, A.; Ayers, J.J.; Doolittle, L.; Greer, J.B.; Keller, R.; Lewis, S.; Lionberger, C.; Monroy, M.; Pruyn, J.; Staples, J.W.; Syversrude, D.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Shea, T.; SNS Accelerator Physics Group; SNS Beam Diagnostics Collaboration

    2002-01-01

    The Front-End Systems (FES) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project comprise an rf-driven H - ion source, an electrostatic 2-lens LEBT, a 2.5 MeV RFQ, followed by a 14-quadrupole, 4-rebuncher MEBT including traveling-wave fast choppers. The nominal 2.5 MeV H - beam has a current of 38 mA at a repetition rate of 60 Hz and 1 ms pulse length, for a macro duty-factor of 6%, and is chopped at a rate of approximately 1 MHz with a mini duty-factor of 68%. The normalized rms beam emittance at the MEBT exit, matching the first tank of a 402.5 MHz Alvarez linac, is measured to be approximately 0.3 π mm mrad. Diagnostic elements include wire scanners, BPMs, fast current monitors, a slit-harp emittance device and RFQ field monitoring probes. The results of the beam commissioning and the operation of the RFQ and diagnostic instrumentation are reported. The entire FES was shut down at LBNL at the end of May 2002 and will be recommissioned at ORNL prior to installation of the drift-tube linac

  2. Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, Joe R.; Freeman, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

  3. Refined beam measurements on the SNS H- injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B. X.; Welton, R. F.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C. M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    The H- injector for the SNS RFQ accelerator consists of an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source and a compact, two-lens electrostatic LEBT. The LEBT output and the RFQ input beam current are measured by deflecting the beam on to an annular plate at the RFQ entrance. Our method and procedure have recently been refined to improve the measurement reliability and accuracy. The new measurements suggest that earlier measurements tended to underestimate the currents by 0-2 mA, but essentially confirm H- beam currents of 50-60 mA being injected into the RFQ. Emittance measurements conducted on a test stand featuring essentially the same H- injector setup show that the normalized rms emittance with 0.5% threshold (99% inclusion of the total beam) is in a range of 0.25-0.4 mm.mrad for a 50-60 mA beam. The RFQ output current is monitored with a BCM toroid. Measurements as well as simulations with the PARMTEQ code indicate an underperforming transmission of the RFQ since around 2012.

  4. DOUBLE-WALL COLLIMATOR DESIGN OF THE SNS PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; LUDEWIG, H.; CATALAN-LASHERAS, N.; CRIVELLO, S.

    2001-01-01

    The collimator absorber array of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is responsible for stopping the 1.0 GeV protons that are in the halo of the beam. It is estimated that 0.1% of the 2 MW beam will be intercepted by the adopted collimating scheme implemented at various sections of the beam transport and accumulation. This paper summarizes the conceptual design of the collimator absorber as well as the supporting detailed analysis that were performed and guided the design process. Key requirement in the design process is the need for the collimator beam tube to minimize beam impedance while closely following its beta function. Due to lack of available experimental data, the long-term behavior of irradiated materials in an environment where they interface with coolant flow becomes an issue. Uncertainties in the long-term behavior prompted a special double-wall design that will enable not only beam halo interception but also the efficient transfer of deposited energy both under normal and off-normal conditions to the coolant flow. The thermo-mechanical response of the double wall beam tube and of a particle bed surrounding it are discussed in detail in the paper

  5. Electron Cloud Mitigation in the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, Daniele; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Ludewig, H.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Macek, R.J.; Furman, Miguel A.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H - injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron-cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation

  6. Electron-cloud mitigation in the spallation neutron source ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, D.; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; Furman, M.; Pivi, M.; Macek, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H- injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation

  7. Neutronics for the SNS long wavelength target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E.B.; Micklich, B.J.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most significant and adventurous aspects of the LWTS (Long Wavelength Target Station) design concept is the use of slab moderators, historically considered to be awkward due to the high contamination of the neutron beams with fast and high- energy neutrons. Concern over this contamination is the reason behind our proposition that none of the beam on a slab moderator should be viewed directly, that is, without a curved guide, compact bender, or other fast and high-energy neutron filter. We made a large number of calculations concerning fast neutron source term of the solid target-slab moderator configuration with monolithic solid methane, which includes a curved guide or compact beam bender. We also made optimization on target position, beam void open angle, target gap and target division of the split target configuration. All fast and high-energy neutron spectra will be reported as lethargy spectra, normalized to 1 eV. In this way, we will attempt to define the 'cost' of using slab moderators as a function of the payoff gained from their use. We report these data for general information and discussion, and further draw the conclusions. Numerous issues have arisen in the course of the LWTS concept development, which require more information than is now in hand to provide the basis for detailed design and for potential design innovations. Some of the R and D issues are listed, along with proposed efforts to fill design needs. We have devised a highly effective 'base case' conceptual design for LWTS, which we are still evaluating and optimizing. LWTS will provide distinctly unique capabilities complimentary to SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) HPTS (High Power Target Station). The configuration of LWTS is strongly coupled to instrument requirements through close interaction with scientists formulating the science case and instrument suite. (Tanaka, Y.)

  8. Physical properties of very thin SnS films deposited by thermal evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shuying; Conibeer, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    SnS films with thicknesses of 20–65 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation. The physical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy at room temperature. The results from XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that the deposited films mainly exhibit SnS phase, but they may contain a tiny amount of Sn 2 S 3 . The deposited SnS films are pinhole free, smooth and strongly adherent to the surfaces of the substrates. The color of the SnS films changes from pale yellow to brown with the increase of the film thickness from 20 nm to 65 nm. The very smooth surfaces of the thin films result in their high reflectance. The direct bandgap of the films is between 2.15 eV and 2.28 eV which is much larger than 1.3 eV of bulk SnS, this is deserving to be investigated further.

  9. The critical current density of an SNS Josephson-junction in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, George J; Hampshire, Damian P

    2013-01-01

    Although the functional form of the critical current density (J c ) of superconducting–normal–superconducting (SNS) Josephson-junctions (J-Js) has long been known in the very low field limit (e.g. the sinc function), includes the local properties of the junction and has been confirmed experimentally in many systems, there have been no such general solutions available for high fields. Here, we derive general analytic equations for J c in zero field and in high fields across SNS J-Js for arbitrary resistivity of the superconductor and the normal layer which are consistent with the literature results available in limiting cases. We confirm the validity of the approach using both computational solutions to time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory applied to SNS junctions and experimental J c data for an SNS PbBi–Cd–PbBi junction. We suggest that since SNS junctions can be considered the basic building blocks for the description of the grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials because they both provide flux-flow channels, this work may provide a mathematical framework for high J c technological polycrystalline superconductors in high magnetic fields. (paper)

  10. Commissioning of the Superconducting Linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H-ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS will use the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons to generate neutrons by spallation, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade. The SRF cavities, operated at 805 MHz, were designed, built and integrated into cryomodules at Jefferson Lab and installed and tested at SNS. SNS is also the first proton-like accelerator which uses SRF cavities in a pulse mode. Many of the details of the cavity performance are peculiar to this mode of operation, which is also being applied to lepton accelerators (TESLA test facility and X-FEL at DESY and the international linear collider project). Thanks to the low frequency of the SNS superconducting cavities, operation at 4.2 K has been possible without beam energy degradation, even though the cavities and cryogenic systems were originally designed for 2.1 K operation. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam and the performance of the superconducting linac will be presented

  11. Ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical synthesis of SnS nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gómez, Nora A.; Parra-Arcieniega, Salomé M. de la; Garza-Tovar, Lorena L.; Torres-González, Luis C.; Sánchez, Eduardo M., E-mail: eduardo.sanchezcv@uanl.edu.mx

    2014-03-05

    Highlight: • Obtention of SnS nanostructures using novel ionic liquid assisted sonochemical method. • Influence of the (BMImBF{sub 4}) ionic liquid in SnS morphology. • Inhibitory effect in SnS crystallinity by structuring agents in ionic environments. -- Abstract: SnS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical method (ILASM). The starting reagents were anhydrous SnCl{sub 2}, thioacetamide, dissolved in ethanol and ionic liquid (IL)1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF{sub 4}) mixtures. Our experiments showed that IL plays an important role in the morphology of SnS. A 1:1 ethanol:IL mixture was found to yield the more interesting features. The lower concentration of Sn (II) in solution favored the presence of nanoplatelets. An increase in ultrasonic time favored crystalline degree and size as well. Also, the effect of additives as 3-mercaptopropionic acid, diethanolamine, ethylene glycol, and trioctyl phosphine oxide is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis-DRS) were used to characterize the obtained products.

  12. Toward Detection of Exoplanetary Rings via Transit Photometry: Methodology and a Possible Candidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Masataka; Masuda, Kento; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Uehara, Sho [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-4397 (Japan); Kawahara, Hajime, E-mail: aizawa@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    The detection of a planetary ring of exoplanets remains one of the most attractive, but challenging, goals in the field of exoplanetary science. We present a methodology that implements a systematic search for exoplanetary rings via transit photometry of long-period planets. This methodology relies on a precise integration scheme that we develop to compute a transit light curve of a ringed planet. We apply the methodology to 89 long-period planet candidates from the Kepler data so as to estimate, and/or set upper limits on, the parameters of possible rings. While the majority of our samples do not have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) to place meaningful constraints on ring parameters, we find that six systems with higher S/Ns are inconsistent with the presence of a ring larger than 1.5 times the planetary radius, assuming a grazing orbit and a tilted ring. Furthermore, we identify five preliminary candidate systems whose light curves exhibit ring-like features. After removing four false positives due to the contamination from nearby stars, we identify KIC 10403228 as a reasonable candidate for a ringed planet. A systematic parameter fit of its light curve with a ringed planet model indicates two possible solutions corresponding to a Saturn-like planet with a tilted ring. There also remain two other possible scenarios accounting for the data; a circumstellar disk and a hierarchical triple. Due to large uncertain factors, we cannot choose one specific model among the three.

  13. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with non-magnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Rong, Qing-Yan; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with non-magnetic elements in groups IA, IIA and IIIA based on the first-principles methods. The doped systems exhibit half-metallic and metallic natures depending on the doping elements. The formation of magnetic moment is attributable to the cooperative effect of the Hund's rule coupling and hole concentration. The spin polarization can be stabilized and enhanced through confining the delocalized impurity states by biaxial tensile strain in hole-doped SnS2 monolayer. Both the double-exchange and p-p exchange mechanisms are simultaneously responsible for the ferromagnetic ground state in those hole-doped materials. Our results demonstrate that spin polarization can be induced and controlled in SnS2 monolayers by non-magnetic doping and tensile strain.

  15. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  16. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  17. Wavefunction and energy of the 1s22sns configuration in a beryllium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shizhong; Ma Kun; Yu Jiaming; Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    A new set of trial functions for 1s 2 2sns configurations in a beryllium atom is suggested. A Mathematica program based on the variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and energies of 1s 2 2sns (n = 3–6) configurations in a beryllium atom. Non-relativistic energy, polarization correction and relativistic correction which include mass correction, one-and two-body Darwin corrections, spin-spin contact interaction and orbit-orbit interaction, are calculated respectively. The results are in good agreement with experimental data. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Development of N-layer materials for SNS junction and SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.P.; McDevitt, J.T.; Jia, Q.

    1997-01-01

    Materials characteristics including water reactivity, oxygen loss, electromigration of oxide ions, and interfacial reactivity problems have plagued attempts to produce reliable and reproducible cuprate SNS superconductor junctions. In an effort to solve some of these formidable problems, new N-layer compounds from the family of R 1-x Ca x Ba 2-y La y Cu 3-z M z O 7-δ (R = Y, Gd and Pr; M = Co, Ni and Zn; 0 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ phase and the modified materials exhibit enhanced durability properties. The compounds have been utilized to make both SNS junctions and SQUID devices

  19. Implementation of SNS Model for Intrusion Prevention in Wireless Local Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isah, Abdullahi

    The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria.......The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria....

  20. SnS2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongyu; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Luo, Jun; Shi, Yingying; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesized SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures exhibit large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS 2 nanoflakes. - Highlights: • Synthesis of SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures. • Simple solution-phase approach. • Morphology feature of SnS 2 . • Enhanced performance as Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures are directly synthesized via a simple solution-phase approach. The as-prepared SnS 2 /MWCNTs structures are investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries as compared with SnS 2 nanoflakes. It has been found that the composite structure exhibit excellent lithium storage performance with a large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS 2 nanoflakes. The first discharge and charge capacities have been found to be 1416 and 518 mA h g −1 for SnS 2 /MWCNTs composite electrodes at a current density of 100 mA g −1 between 5 mV and 1.15 V versus Li/Li + . A stable reversible capacity of ∼510 mA h g −1 is obtained for 50 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance may be attributed to the flake-morphology feature of SnS 2 and the addition of MWCNTs that can hinder the agglomeration of the active materials and improve the conductivity of the composite electrode simultaneously

  1. Photoelectrochemical properties of orthorhombic and metastable phase SnS nanocrystals synthesized by a facile colloidal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Po-Chia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang; Shaikh, Muhammad Omar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chia-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-01

    SnS of orthorhombic (OR) and metastable (SnS) phases were synthesized by using a simple and facile colloidal method. The tin precursor was synthesized using tin oxide (SnO) and oleic acid (OA), while the sulfur precursor was prepared using sulfur powder (S) and oleyamine (OLA). The sulfur precursor was injected into the tin precursor and the prepared SnS nanocrystals were precipitated at a final reaction temperature of 180 °C. The results show that hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) can be successfully used as a surfactant to synthesize monodisperse 20 nm metastable SnS nanoparticles, while OR phase SnS nanosheets were obtained without HMDS. The direct bandgap observed for the metastable SnS phase is higher (1.66 eV) as compared to the OR phase (1.46 eV). The large blueshift in the direct bandgap of metastable SnS is caused by the difference in crystal structure. The blueshift in the direct band gap value for OR-SnS could be explained by quantum confinement in two dimensions in the very thin nanosheets. SnS thin films used as a photo anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell were prepared by spin coating on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The photocurrent density of the SnS (metastable SnS)/FTO and SnS (OR)/FTO are 191.8 μA/cm{sup 2} and 57.61 μA/cm{sup 2} at an applied voltage of − 1 V at 150 W, respectively. These narrow band gap and low cost nanocrystals can be used for applications in future optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • A facile method to synthesize two different phases of SnS having different morphological and optical properties. • The phases and morphologies of SnS nanocrystal can be controlled by adding capping surfactant hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). • As we know, this is the first metastable SnS photoanode for application in a photoelectrochemical cell.

  2. Phase-tunable Majorana bound states in a topological N-SNS junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Bork; Danon, Jeroen; Flensberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the differential conductance of a one-dimensional normal-superconductor-normal-superconductor (N-SNS) junction with a phase bias applied between the two superconductors. We consider specifically a junction formed by a spin-orbit coupled semiconducting nanowire with regions ...

  3. Electronic structure of SnS deduced from photoelectron spectra and band-structure calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, A.R.H.F.; Groot, R.A. de; Haas, C.; Turner, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    SnS is a layer compound with a phase transition from a high-temperature β phase to a low-temperature α phase with a lower symmetry. Ab initio band-structure calculations are presented for both phases. The calculations show that the charge distributions in the two phases are very similar. However,

  4. Fabrication of SnS quantum dots for solar cell applications: issues of capping and doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Prastani, C.; Nanu, D.E.; Nanu, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Vetushka, A.; Hývl, M.; Fejfar, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present our recent study of SnS particles in the backdrop of significant developments that have taken place so far for which a review of the present status of this material, its structural, optical, electronic characteristics, and device performance is described. To further improve the

  5. Effect of van der Waals interaction on the properties of SnS2 layered semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminovski, Y.; Palacios, P.; Wahnón, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, dispersion correction applied on layered semiconductors is a topic of interest. Among the known layered semiconductors, SnS 2 polytypes are wide gap semiconductors with a van der Waals interaction between their layers, which could form good materials to be used in photovoltaic applications. The present work gives an approach to the SnS 2 geometrical and electronic characterization using an empirical dispersion correction added to the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional and subsequent actualization of the electronic charge density using the screened hybrid Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof functional using a density functional code. The obtained interlayer distance and band-gap are in good agreement with experimental values when van der Waals dispersion forces are included. - Highlights: ► Tin disulphide (SnS 2 ) has been calculated using density functional theory methods. ► A dispersion correction was also applied for two different SnS 2 polytypes. ► Geometrical parameters and band-gaps were obtained using both approaches. ► Our calculations give a good agreement of the computed band gap with experiment

  6. Research on SNS and Education: The State of the Art and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hoyos, Carlos; Haya Salmón, Ignacio; Fernández-Díaz, Elia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for further discussion, a review of the scientific literature produced internationally on the use of Social Network Sites (SNS) in different levels of education and settings. A total of 62 articles published in international scientific journals with peer review have been analysed. The main objective of this paper is to discuss…

  7. Kayser-Fleischer Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Contacts Lab Tracker/Copper Calculator Stories Programs & Research ... About Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease Kayser-Fleischer Rings Definition Kayser-Fleischer Ring: Clinical sign. Brownish-yellow ring visible around the corneo- ...

  8. Development of SNS Stream Analysis Based on Forest Disaster Warning Information Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; KIM, D.; Kang, M.; Woo, C.; Kim, D.; Seo, J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, H.; Heon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disasters, such as landslides and wildfires, cause huge economic losses and casualties, and the cost of recovery is increasing every year. While forest disaster mitigation technologies have been focused on the development of prevention and response technologies, they are now required to evolve into evacuation and border evacuation, and to develop technologies fused with ICT. In this study, we analyze the SNS (Social Network Service) stream and implement a system to detect the message that the forest disaster occurred or the forest disaster, and search the keyword related to the forest disaster in advance in real time. It is possible to detect more accurate forest disaster messages by repeatedly learning the retrieved results using machine learning techniques. To do this, we designed and implemented a system based on Hadoop and Spark, a distributed parallel processing platform, to handle Twitter stream messages that open SNS. In order to develop the technology to notify the information of forest disaster risk, a linkage of technology such as CBS (Cell Broadcasting System) based on mobile communication, internet-based civil defense siren, SNS and the legal and institutional issues for applying these technologies are examined. And the protocol of the forest disaster warning information service system that can deliver the SNS analysis result was developed. As a result, it was possible to grasp real-time forest disaster situation by real-time big data analysis of SNS that occurred during forest disasters. In addition, we confirmed that it is possible to rapidly propagate alarm or warning according to the disaster situation by using the function of the forest disaster warning information notification service. However, the limitation of system application due to the restriction of opening and sharing of SNS data currently in service and the disclosure of personal information remains a problem to be solved in the future. Keyword : SNS stream, Big data, Machine

  9. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  10. Carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure as a high-efficiency solar fuel catalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Samireddi, Satyanarayana; Chang, Yu-Chung; Putikam, Raghunath; Chang, Po-Han; Sabbah, Amr; Fu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Fu; Wu, Chih-I; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, M C; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-12

    Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an L-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS 2 (SnS 2 -C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS 2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS 2 . This SnS 2 -C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO 2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS 2 -C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO 2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS 2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-07-01

    SnS1-xSex nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, -1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS1-xSex nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS1-xSex nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS1-xSex nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS1-xSex thin films. The PL spectra of SnS1-xSex nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV-vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (Eg) of SnS1-xSex nanostructures varied between 1.22-1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  12. Combinatorial development of Cu2SnS3 as an earth abundant photovoltaic absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Lauryn L.

    The development of high efficiency, earth abundant photovoltaic absorbers is critical if photovoltaics are to be implemented on the TW scale. Although traditional thin films absorbers such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe have achieved over 20% device efficiencies, the ultimately scalability of these devices may be limited by elemental scarcity and toxicity issues. To date, the most successful earth abundant thin film absorber is Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4, which has achieved 12.6% efficiency as of 2014. However, chemical complexity and disorder issues with this material have made the path to higher efficiency CZTSSe devices unclear. As a result, many researchers are now exploring alternative earth abundant absorber materials. In this thesis, we apply our "rapid development" methodology to the exploration of alternative photovoltaic absorbers. The rapid development (RD) methodology, consisting of exploration, research, and development stages, uses complementary theory and experiment to assess candidate materials and down-select in each stage. The overall result is that, in the time span of ~2-3 years, we are able to rapidly go from tens of possible absorber materials to 1-2 working PV device prototypes. Here, we demonstrate the RD approach as applied to the Cu-Sn-S system. We begin our investigation of the Cu-Sn-S system by evaluating the thermodynamic stability, electrical transport, electronic structure, and optical and defect properties of candidate materials using complementary theory and experiment. We find that Cu2SnS3 is the most promising absorber candidate because of its strong optical absorption, tunable doping, and wide stability range. Our other candidate compounds suffer from serious flaws that preclude them from being successful photovoltaic absorbers, including too high experimental conductivity (Cu4SnS4), or poor hole transport and low absorption coefficient (Cu4Sn7S16). Next, we investigate the doping and defect physics of Cu2SnS 3. We identify the origins of the

  13. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  14. TiO2-SnS2 nanocomposites: solar-active photocatalytic materials for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kusic, Hrvoje; Fanetti, Mattia; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Valant, Matjaz; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2017-08-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites as effective solar-active photocatalysts for water treatment. Two strategies for the preparation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites were examined: (i) in-situ chemical synthesis followed by immobilization on glass plates and (ii) binding of two components (TiO 2 and SnS 2 ) within the immobilization step. The as-prepared TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites and their sole components (TiO 2 or SnS 2 ) were inspected for composition, crystallinity, and morphology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine band gaps of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 and to establish the changes in comparison to respective sole components. The activity of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites was tested for the removal of diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation and compared with that of single component photocatalysts. In situ chemical synthesis yielded materials of high crystallinity, while their morphology and composition strongly depended on synthesis conditions applied. TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites exhibited higher activity toward DCF removal and conversion in comparison to their sole components at acidic pH, while only in situ synthesized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites showed higher activity at neutral pH.

  15. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  16. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  17. Synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanoparticles using surfactant free microemulsion (SFME) with the single microemulsion scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkas, Hemant S.; Marathe, Deepak M.; Mahajan, Mrunal S.; Muntaser, Faisal; Patil, Mahendra B.; Tak, Swapnil R.; Sali, Jaydeep V.

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of monomorphic, SnS nanoparticles without using a capping agent is a difficult task with chemical route of synthesis. This paper reports on synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanopartilces with dimension in the quantum-dot regime using surfactant free microemulsion with single microemulsion scheme. This has been achieved by reaction in microreactors in the CME (C: chlorobenzene, M: methanol and E: ethylene glycol) microemulsion system. This is an easy and controllable chemical route for synthesis of SnS nanoparticles. Nanoparticle diameter showed prominent dependence on microemulsion concentration and marginal dependence on microemulsion temperature in the temperature range studied. The SnS nanoparticles formed with this method form stable dispersion in Tolune.

  18. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films. The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E_g) of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  19. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 , for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO 2 -SnS 2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS 2 into non-active SnO 2 . Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  20. Optimization of Pulsed Operation of the Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) Cavities at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to address the optimization in a pulsed operation, a systematic computational analysis has been made in comparison with operational experiences in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). From the analysis it appears that the SNS SRF cavities can be operated at temperatures higher than 2.1 K, a fact resulting from both the pulsed nature of the superconducting cavities, the specific configuration of the existing cryogenic plant and the operating frequency

  1. Characterization of hydrothermally synthesized SnS nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Birendra Kumar; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, SnS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method using stannous chloride and thiourea as tin (Sn) and sulfur (S) precursor respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit orthorhombic structure. Average particles size was calculated using Scherrer's formula and found to be 23 nm. FESEM image shows that the as-prepared nanoparticles are in plate like structure. Direct optical band gap (Eg) of as-synthesized nanoparticles was calculated through UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement and found to be 1.34 eV, which is near to optimum need for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV). Thus this SnS, narrowband gap semiconductor material can be applied as an alternative absorber material for solar cell application.

  2. Carbon dots decorated vertical SnS_2 nanosheets for efficient photocatalytic oxygen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Fengmei; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Liu, Kaili; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Chao; He, Jun; Liu, Quanlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal sulfides are highly desirable materials for photocatalytic water splitting because of their appropriate energy bands. However, the poor stability under light illumination in water hinders their wide applications. Here, two-dimensional SnS_2 nanosheets, along with carbon dots of the size around 10 nm, are uniformly grown on fluorine doped tin oxide glasses with a layer of nickel nanoparticles. Significantly, strong light absorption and enhanced photocurrent density are achieved after integration of SnS_2 nanosheets with carbon dots. Notably, the rate of oxygen evolution reached up to 1.1 mmol g"−"1 h"−"1 under simulated sunlight irradiation featuring a good stability.

  3. Synthesis of SnS nanoparticles by SILAR method for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukigase, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sagawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2011-03-01

    SnS-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were applied in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) which are environmentally more favorable than conventional Cd or Pb-chalcogenide-sensitized electrodes. SnS nanoparticles were well-distributed over the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Deposited SnS nanoparticles had diameter about 3 nm. Under AM1.5 irradiation with 100 mW/cm2 light intensity (at 1 sun), the energy conversion efficiency of obtained cells reached a value of 0.21% (0.25 cm2) at SILAR coating cycles of 5. In addition, the photovoltaic performance was improved by additional ZnS coating on the surface of SnS-sensitized TiO2 electrodes.

  4. Shielding calculations in support of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) proton beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Popova, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Determining the bulk shielding requirements for accelerator environments is generally an easy task compared to analyzing the radiation transport through the complex shield configurations and penetrations typically associated with the detailed Title II design efforts of a facility. Shielding calculations for penetrations in the SNS accelerator environment are presented based on hybrid Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates particle transport methods. This methodology relies on coupling tools that map boundary surface leakage information from the Monte Carlo calculations to boundary sources for one-, two-, and three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations. The paper will briefly introduce the coupling tools for coupling MCNPX to the one-, two-, and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes in the DOORS code suite. The paper will briefly present typical applications of these tools in the design of complex shield configurations and penetrations in the SNS proton beam transport system

  5. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  6. The Jefferson Lab Quality Assurance Program for the SNS Superconducting Linac Construction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Ozelis

    2003-01-01

    As part of a multi-laboratory collaboration, Jefferson Lab is currently engaged in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of 23 cryomodules for the superconducting linac portion of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As with any large accelerator construction project, it is vitally important that these components be built in a cost effective and timely manner, and that they meet the stringent performance requirements dictated by the project specifications. A comprehensive Quality Assurance (QA) program designed to help accomplish these goals has been implemented as an inherent component of JLab's SNS construction effort. This QA program encompasses the traditional spectrum of component performance, from incoming parts inspection, raw materials testing, through to sub-assembly and finished article performance evaluation

  7. EXPLORING TRANSVERSE BEAM STABILITY IN THE SNS IN THE PRESENCE OF SPACE CHARGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV,A.V.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; WEI,J.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; SHISHLO,A.

    2002-06-03

    The highest possible intensity in the machine is typically determined by the onset of coherent beam instabilities. Understanding the contribution of various effects to the damping and growth of such instabilities in the regime of strong space charge is thus of crucial importance. In this paper we explore transverse beam stability by numerical simulations using recently implemented models of transverse impedance and three-dimensional space charge. Results are discussed with application to the SNS accumulators.

  8. Optical Tooling and its Uses at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    CERN Document Server

    Helus, Scott; Error, Joseph; Fazekas, Julius; Maines, James

    2005-01-01

    Optical tooling has been a mainstay of the accelerator alignment community for decades. Even now in the age of electronic survey equipment, optical tooling remains a viable alternative, and at times the only alternative. At SNS, we combine traditional optical tooling alignment methods, instrumentation, and techniques, with the more modern electronic techniques. This paper deals with the integration of optical tooling into the electronic survey world.

  9. Social Network Sites (SNS): do they match ? Definitions and methods for social sciences and marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Thomas; Coutant, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Social Networks Sites (SNS) such as Facebook, MySpace, Skyrock.com or Linkedin have become new fields of investigation for marketing. Even though the phenomenon has met with an amazing popular success, only a few scientific works have been published on this subject. This article proposes initially to evaluate the situation by a review of the experts' discourses and, then, a an analysis of the texts in core disciplines specialising in social networks analysis (mainly sociometry, anthropology a...

  10. Structural and chemical transformations in SnS thin films used in chemically deposited photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, David; Delgado, Guadalupe; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically deposited SnS thin films possess p-type electrical conductivity. We report a photovoltaic structure: SnO 2 :F-CdS-SnS-(CuS)-silver print, with V oc > 300 mV and J sc up to 5 mA/cm 2 under 850 W/m 2 tungsten halogen illumination. Here, SnO 2 :F is a commercial spray-CVD (Pilkington TEC-8) coating, and the rest deposited from different chemical baths: CdS (80 nm) at 333 K, SnS (450 nm) and CuS (80 nm) at 293-303 K. The structure may be heated in nitrogen at 573 K, before applying the silver print. The photovoltaic behavior of the structure varies with heating: V oc ∼ 400 mV and J sc 2 , when heated at 423 K in air, but V oc decreases and J sc increases when heated at higher temperatures. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over one year by now. The overall cost of materials, simplicity of the deposition process, and possibility of easily varying the parameters to improve the cell characteristics inspire further work. Here we report two different baths for the deposition of SnS thin films of about 500 nm by chemical deposition. There is a considerable difference in the nature of growth, crystalline structure and chemical stability of these films under air-heating at 623-823 K or while heating SnS-CuS layers, evidenced in XRF and grazing incidence angle XRD studies. Heating of SnS-CuS films results in the formation of SnS-Cu x SnS y . 'All-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures' involving these materials are presented

  11. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others? news, may influence recipients? perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other?s posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. ...

  12. Empirical analysis of internal social media and product innovation: Focusing on SNS and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Idota, Hiroki; Minetaki, Kazunori; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Recently social media such as Blog and SNS has been introducing by many firms for means of sharing information inside the firm, in particular to promote product and process innovation. This paper attempts to examine the relationship between social media and product innovation, and research questions are summarized as follows: (i) whether social capital influences the use of social media; (ii) whether social media promotes product innovation; and (iii) whether the effect of social media on pro...

  13. Template-free synthesis of novel SnS2 array and its superior performances for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anquan; Qiao, Lulu; Tan, Pengfei; Ma, Yongjin; Liu, Yi; Pan, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A kind of novel three-dimensional SnS2 array was fabricated by an ethylenediamine (EDA) assisting low-temperature solvothermal method. It was observed that as-obtained SnS2 array was composed of numerous SnS2 nanosheets with the thickness of about 22 nm. When used as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the SnS2 array displayed remarkable capacities on rate and cycling performances, delivering the rates with reversible capacities of 763.3, 658.6, 593.6, 554.4 and 450.3 mAh g-1 at the current densities of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the satisfactory cycling performance was also disclosed, remaining capacity of 547.8 mAh g-1 after 100th cycle at 0.2 A g-1, better than some reported pure SnS2 nanostructures. Based on the characterization and experimental results, the reasons of such superior electrochemical performances were determined and elaborated. It means that the SnS2 array possesses promising potential on the renewable energy field.

  14. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  15. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cwjeon@ynu.ac.kr

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  16. Low-Temperature Electrical Characteristics of Si-Based Device with New Tetrakis NiPc-SNS Active Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Arzu Büyükyağci; Carbas, Buket Bezgın; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Soylu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    A new tetrakis 4-(2,5-di-2-thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl)-substituted nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc-SNS) has been synthesized. This synthesized NiPc-SNS thin film was deposited on p-type Si substrate using the spin coating method (SCM) to fabricate a NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction diode. The temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of the NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction with good rectifying behavior were investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) measurements between 50 K and 300 K. The results indicate that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The barrier inhomogeneity across the NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction reveals a Gaussian distribution at low temperatures. These results provide further evidence of the more complicated mechanisms occurring in this heterojunction. Based on these findings, NiPc-SNS/ p-Si junction diodes are feasible for use in low-temperature applications.

  17. Moderator poison design and burn-up calculations at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Ferguson, P.D.; Iverson, E.B.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Popova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was commissioned in April 2006. At the nominal operating power (1.4 MW), it will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of ∼$2 million a piece. A replacement of the inner reflector plug presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are a lot of factors limiting the lifetime of the inner reflector plug, like radiation damage to the structural material and helium production of beryllium, the bottle-neck is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. Increasing the thickness of the poison sheet extends the lifetime but would sacrifice the neutronic performance of the moderators. A compromise is accepted at the current SNS target system which uses thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 6 MW-years of operation. The calculations in this paper reveal that Cd may be a better poison material from the perspective of lifetime and neutronic performance. In replacing Gd, the inner reflector plug could reach a lifetime of 8 MW-years with ∼5% higher peak neutron fluxes at almost no loss of energy resolution

  18. Photocurrent Enhancement by a Rapid Thermal Treatment of Nanodisk-Shaped SnS Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kumar, Mohit; Kim, Joondong; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2017-12-21

    Photocathodes made from the earth-abundant, ecofriendly mineral tin monosulfide (SnS) can be promising candidates for p/n-type photoelectrochemical cells because they meet the strict requirements of energy band edges for each individual photoelectrode. Herein we fabricated SnS-based cell that exhibited a prolonged photocurrent for 3 h at -0.3 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in a 0.1 M HCl electrolyte. An enhancement of the cathodic photocurrent from 2 to 6 mA cm -2 is observed through a rapid thermal treatment. Mott-Schottky analysis of SnS samples revealed an anodic shift of 0.7 V in the flat band potential under light illumination. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis indicates that an efficient charge transfer appropriate for solar hydrogen generation occurs at the -0.3 V vs RHE potential. This work shows that SnS is a promising material for photocathode in PEC cells and its performance can be enhanced via simple postannealing.

  19. Tunneling Diode Based on WSe2 /SnS2 Heterostructure Incorporating High Detectivity and Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Hu, Xiaozong; Zhou, Shasha; Song, Hongyue; Zhang, Qi; Pi, Lejing; Li, Liang; Li, Huiqiao; Lü, Jingtao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2018-02-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on atomically thin 2D materials have led to a new era in next-generation optoelectronics due to their tailored energy band alignments and ultrathin morphological features, especially in photodetectors. However, these photodetectors often show an inevitable compromise between photodetectivity and photoresponsivity with one high and the other low. Herein, a highly sensitive WSe 2 /SnS 2 photodiode is constructed on BN thin film by exfoliating each material and manually stacking them. The WSe 2 /SnS 2 vdW heterostructure shows ultralow dark currents resulting from the depletion region at the junction and high direct tunneling current when illuminated, which is confirmed by the energy band structures and electrical characteristics fitted with direct tunneling. Thus, the distinctive WSe 2 /SnS 2 vdW heterostructure exhibits both ultrahigh photodetectivity of 1.29 × 10 13 Jones (I ph /I dark ratio of ≈10 6 ) and photoresponsivity of 244 A W -1 at a reverse bias under the illumination of 550 nm light (3.77 mW cm -2 ). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Coherence-enhanced phase-dependent dissipation in long SNS Josephson junctions: Revealing Andreev bound state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonneville, B.; Murani, A.; Ferrier, M.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the best known causes of dissipation in ac-driven quantum systems stems from photon absorption causing transitions between levels. Dissipation can also be caused by the retarded response to the time-dependent excitation, and in general gives insight into the system's relaxation times and mechanisms. Here we address the dissipation in a mesoscopic normal wire with superconducting contacts, that sustains a dissipationless supercurrent at zero frequency and that may therefore naively be expected to remain dissipationless at a frequency lower than the superconducting gap. We probe the high-frequency linear response of such a normal metal/superconductor (NS) ring to a time-dependent flux by coupling it to a highly sensitive multimode microwave resonator. Far from being the simple, dissipationless derivative of the supercurrent-versus-phase relation, the ring's ac susceptibility also displays a dissipative component whose phase dependence is a signature of the dynamical processes occurring within the Andreev spectrum. We show how dissipation is driven by the competition between two mechanisms. The first is the relaxation of the Andreev level distribution function, while the second corresponds to microwave-induced transitions within the spectrum. Depending on the relative strength of those contributions, dissipation can be maximal at π , a phase at which the proximity-induced minigap closes, or can be maximal near π /2 , a phase at which the dc supercurrent is maximal. We also find that the dissipative response paradoxically increases at low temperature and can even exceed the normal-state conductance. The results are successfully confronted with theoretical predictions of the Kubo linear response and time-dependent Usadel equations, derived from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian describing the SNS junction. These experiments thus demonstrate the power of the ac susceptibility measurement of individual hybrid mesoscopic systems in probing in a controlled way

  1. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  2. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  3. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  4. An Exploration of Social Networking Sites (SNS) Adoption in Malaysia Using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) And Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh Say Leng; Suddin Lada; Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad; Ag Asri Hj Ag Ibrahim; Tamrin Amboala

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore the factors that encourage students to adopt social network sites (SNS) in Malaysia and to use the study’s findings to develop guidelines for SNS providers on how to maximize the rate of adoption. A conceptual model of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and intrinsic motivation is proposed and empirically tested in the context of SNS usage. Structural Equation modelling was used on the survey data from 283 university s...

  5. ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF THE MISFIT-LAYER COMPOUND (SNS)(1.17)NBS2 DEDUCED FROM BAND-STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS AND PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FANG, CM; ETTEMA, ARHF; HAAS, C; WIEGERS, GA; VANLEUKEN, H; DEGROOT, RA

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)(1.17)NbS2 we carried out an ab initio band-structure calculation of the closely related commensurate compound (SnS)(1.20)NbS2. The band structure is compared with calculations for NbS2 and for hypothetical SnS with

  6. Electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)1.17NbS2 deduced from band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.M.; Ettema, A.R.H.F.; Haas, C.; Wiegers, G.A.; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)1.17NbS2 we carried out an ab initio band-structure calculation of the closely related commensurate compound (SnS)1.20NbS2. The band structure is compared with calculations for NbS2 and for hypothetical SnS with

  7. Electron cloud development in the Proton Storage Ring and in the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We have applied our simulation code ''POSINST'' to evaluate the contribution to the growth rate of the electron-cloud instability in proton storage rings. Recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos are presented in this paper. A key ingredient in our model is a detailed description of the secondary emitted-electron energy spectrum. A refined model for the secondary emission process including the so-called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has recently been included in the electron-cloud code

  8. Extrinsic pseudocapacitve Li-ion storage of SnS anode via lithiation-induced structural optimization on cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qingwang; Zhou, Gang; Liu, Jiatu; Wu, Chen; Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Libao; Li, Chengchao

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new enhanced extrinsic pseudocapacitve Li-ion storage mechanism via lithiation-induced structural optimization strategy. The flower-like C@SnS and bulk SnS exhibit initial capacity decay and subsequent increase of capacity on cycling. After a long-term lithiation/delithiation process, flower-like C@SnS and bulk SnS exhibit improved rate performance and reversible capacity in comparison with those of initial state. Moreover, a high capacity of 530 mAh g-1 is still remained even after 1550 cycles at a high current density of 5.0 A g-1 for flower-like C@SnS after pre-lithiation of 350 cycles. According to the comprehensive analysis of structural evolution and electrochemical performance, it demonstrates that SnS electrodes experience crystal size reduction and further amorphization on cycling, which enhances the reversibility of conversion reaction for SnS, leading to increasing capacity. On the other hand, surface-dominated extrinsic pseudocapacitive contribution results in enhanced rate performance because electrodes expose a large fraction of Li+ sites on surface or near-surface region with structural optimization on cycling. This study reveals that extrinsic pseudocapacitance of SnS can be stimulated via lithiation-induced structural optimization, which gives rise to high-rate and long-lived performances.

  9. Facile fabrication of Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaomin; Huang, Guanbo; Gao, Haihuan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Yan, Jing; Liu, Yu; Qiu, Haixia; Ma, Ning; Gao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by combining a hydrothermal technique and a facile in situ growth method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra. Their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degrading methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that when the mass percentage of Bi_2S_3 in Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 was 7.95 wt%, the as-prepared Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO. The highly improved performance of the Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite was mainly ascribed to the efficient charge separation. - Highlights: • Facile fabrication of novel Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts. • High-performance photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants. • Good recyclability of catalyst without photo-corrosion. • The photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  10. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited SnS using O{sub 2} plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Martínez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Calixto-Rodríguez, M. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Reyes, P.G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, we report modifications of structural and optical, electrical properties that occur in tin sulphide (SnS) treated in O{sub 2} plasma. The SnS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were treated in an O{sub 2} plasma discharge at 3 Torr of pressure discharge, a discharge voltage of 2.5 kV and 20 mA of discharge current. The prepared and treated thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The photoconductivity and electrical effects of SnS have been studied. The SnS thin films had an orthorhombic crystalline structure. With the plasma treatment the optical gap and electrical properties of the SnS films changed from 1.61 to 1.84 eV, for 3.9 × 10{sup 5} to 10.42 Ω cm, respectively. These changes can be attributed to an increase in electron density, percolation effects due to porosity, surface degradation/etching that is an increase in surface roughness, where some structural changes related to crystallinity occurs like a high grain size as revealed by SEM images.

  11. Physical properties of SnS thin films grown by hot wall deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremenok, V.; Ivanov, V.; Bashkirov, S.; Unuchak, D.; Lazenka, V.; Bente, K.; Tashlykov, I.; Turovets, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Recently, considerable effort has been invested to gain a better and deeper knowledge of structural and physical properties of metal chalcogenide semiconductors because of their potential application in electrical and photonic devices. Among them, tin sulphide (SnS) has attracted attention because of band gap of 1.3 eV and an absorption coefficient greater than 10 4 cm - 1. Additionally, by using tin sulfide compounds for photovoltaic devices, the production costs are decreased, because these materials are cheap and abundant in nature. For the sythesis of SnS thin films by hot wall deposition, SnS ingots were used as the source materials synthesized from high purity elements (99.999 percent). The thin films were grown onto glass at substrate temperatures between 220 and 380 degrees Celsium. The thickness of the films was in the range of 1.0 - 2.5 μm. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of the materials were studied by XRD using a Siemens D-5000 diffractometer with CuK α (λ = 1.5418 A) radiation. In order to consider instrumental error, the samples were coated by Si powder suspended in acetone. The composition and surface morphology of thin films were investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a CAMECA SX-100, a scanning electron microscope JEOL 6400 and an atomic force microscope (AFM, Model: NT 206), respectively. Depth profiling was performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) using a Perkin Elmer Physical Electronics 590. The electrical resistivity was studied by van der Pauw four-probe technique using silver paste contact. The optical transmittance was carried out using a Varian Cary 50 UV - VIS spectrophotometer in the range 500 - 2000 nm. The as-grown films exhibited a composition with a Sn/S at. percent ratio of 1.06. The AES depth profiles revealed relatively uniform composition through the film thickness. The XRD analysis of the SnS films showed that they were monophase (JCPDS 39-0354), polycrystalline with

  12. Effect of a magnetic field on the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvenov, G.Y.; Ryazanov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The contribution of superconducting plates to the resistance of Ta--Cu--Ta sandwiches in the presence of a magnetic field of up to 170 Ge is investigated. Near the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/H, the Ta used was in a mixed (vortical) state. It is shown that the presence of gradients of the order parameter near the Abrikosov vortices appreciably changes the penetration depth of a longitudinal electric field into the superconductor and leads to a corresponding change in the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

  13. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  14. Effect of thickness on electrical properties of SILAR deposited SnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Astam, Aykut; Cerhan, Asena; ćayir, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films of different thickness were prepared on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using tin (II) chloride and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions. The thicknesses of the films were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and found to be 47.2, 65.8, 111.0, and 128.7nm for 20, 25, 30 and 35 deposition cycles respectively. The electrical properties of the films were investigated using d.c. two-point probe method at room temperature and the results showed that the resistivity was found to decrease with increasing film thickness.

  15. Analysis of the Qualification-Tests Performance of the Superconducting Cavities for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R; Ozelis, O

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This consists of 11 medium-beta (β=0.61) cyomodules of 3 cavities each, and 12 high-beta (β=0.81) cryomodules of 4 cavities each. Before assembly into cavity strings the cavities undergo individual qualification tests in a vertical cryostat (VTA). In this paper we analyze the performance of the cavities during these qualification tests, and attempt to correlate this performance with cleaning, assembly, and testing procedures. We also compare VTA performance with performance in completed cryomodules.

  16. Nanodiamond Foils for H- Stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL; Harris, Gary [Howard University; Piazza, Fabrice [Pontifica Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Dominican Republic

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a single nanodiamond foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the entire operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control over film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development

  17. Electric field effect on the critical current of SNS-contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmanov, A.L.; Rozhkov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field effect on the SNS-contact critical current is investigated in the Ginzburg-Landau theory approximation. It is shown that the electric field may cause a notable increase of the contact critical current especially if the sample temperature is close to the temperature of a superconducting transition of T sc normal layer. Electric field effect is increased with the reduction of film thickness, but it can strong enough for thick films as well at temperature close to T sc . 11 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Fabrication of SnS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Tin sulfide films of 0.20 µm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were well covered and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films and provided information on the crystallite size and residual strain of the thin films. FESEM revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component. High absorption in the visible region was evident from UV–Vis transmission spectra. PL studies were carried out with 550 nm photon excitation. To the best of our knowledge, however, no attempt has been made to fabricate a SnS thin film using the SILAR technique

  19. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  20. Hierarchical Graphene-Encapsulated Hollow SnO2@SnS2 Nanostructures with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangwang; Xie, Zhiqiang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Dietrich, Grant; Dooley, Kerry M; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-14

    Complex hierarchical structures have received tremendous attention due to their superior properties over their constitute components. In this study, hierarchical graphene-encapsulated hollow SnO2@SnS2 nanostructures are successfully prepared by in situ sulfuration on the backbones of hollow SnO2 spheres via a simple hydrothermal method followed by a solvothermal surface modification. The as-prepared hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposite can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting excellent cyclability with a capacity of 583 mAh/g after 100 electrochemical cycles at a specific current of 200 mA/g. This material shows a very low capacity fading of only 0.273% per cycle from the second to the 100th cycle, lower than the capacity degradation of bare SnO2 hollow spheres (0.830%) and single SnS2 nanosheets (0.393%). Even after being cycled at a range of specific currents varied from 100 mA/g to 2000 mA/g, hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites maintain a reversible capacity of 664 mAh/g, which is much higher than single SnS2 nanosheets (374 mAh/g) and bare SnO2 hollow spheres (177 mAh/g). Such significantly improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical hollow structure, which not only effectively alleviates the stress resulting from the lithiation/delithiation process and maintaining structural stability during cycling but also reduces aggregation and facilitates ion transport. This work thus demonstrates the great potential of hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites for applications as a high-performance anode material in next-generation lithium ion battery technology.

  1. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  2. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  3. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  4. Electronic structure of the misfit layer compound (SnS)(1.20)TiS2 : Band structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, CM; deGroot, RA; Wiegers, GA; Haas, C

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the incommensurate misfit layer compound (SnS)(1.20)TiS2 we carried out an ab initio band structure calculation in the supercell approximation. The band structure is compared with that of the components 1T-TiS2 and hypothetical SnS with a similar

  5. Electronic structure of the misfit layer compound (SnS)1.20TiS2 : band structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.M.; Groot, R.A. de; Wiegers, G.A.; Haas, C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the incommensurate misfit layer compound (SnS)1.20TiS2 we carried out an ab initio band structure calculation in the supercell approximation. The band structure is compared with that of the components 1T-TiS2 and hypothetical SnS with a similar

  6. Comparative study of SnS recrystallization in molten CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}and KI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmo, Kristi; Kauk-Kuusik, Marit; Pilvet, Maris; Mikli, Valdek; Kaerber, Erki; Raadik, Taavi; Leinemann, Inga; Altosaar, Mare; Raudoja, Jaan [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-01-15

    In the present study, the recrystallization of polycrystalline SnS in different molten salts CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2} and KI as flux materials are presented. The recrystallization and growth of polycrystalline material in molten salts produces unique SnS monograin powders usable in monograin layer solar cells. XRD and Raman analysis revealed that single phase SnS powder can be obtained in KI at 740 C and in SnCl{sub 2} at 500 C. Long time heating of SnS in molten CdI{sub 2} was accompanied by chemical interaction between SnS and CdI{sub 2} that resulted in a mixture of CdS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystals. SEM images showed that morphology of crystals can be controlled by the nature of the flux materials: needle-like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} together with round edged crystals of CdS in CdI{sub 2}, flat crystals of SnS with smooth surfaces in SnCl{sub 2} and well-formed SnS crystals with rounded edges in KI had been formed. The temperatures of phase transitions and/or the interactions of SnS and flux materials were determined by differential thermal analysis. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Physics of quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  8. Overcoming the efficiency limitations of SnS2 nanoparticle-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Smith, Ryan P.; Park, Chinho

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment, the electron transport layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporation on the performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of tin disulfide (SnS2) nanoparticles (NPs) and low band gap energy polymers poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PBT7). Inserting an electron transport layer (ETL) (i.e., ZnO) on the top of the photoactive layer improved the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, which led to an improvement in charge transport. Moreover, adding a suitable amount of PCBM to the SnS2/polymer active layer enhanced the device performance, such as short circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). In particular, adding 0.5 mg of PCBM to the composite solution led to a 25% and 1.5% improvement in the J sc value and PCE, respectively. The enhanced performance was due mainly to the improvements in the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, charge carrier mobility within the donor-acceptor interface, and carrier collection efficiency at the cathode.

  9. Teacher-student Relationship and SNS-mediated Communication: Perceptions of both role-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Hershkovitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher-student relationships are vital for academic and social development of students, for teachers’ professional and personal development, and for having a supportive learning environment. In the digital age, these relationships can extend beyond bricks and mortar and beyond school hours. Specifically, these relationships are extended today while teachers and students communicate via social networking sites (SNS. This paper characterizes differences between teachers (N=160 and students (N=587 who are willing to connect with their students/teachers via Facebook and those who do not wish to connect. The quantitative research reported here within is based on data collection of personal characteristics, attitudes towards Facebook, and perceptions of teacher-student relationship. Findings suggest differences in characteristics of the two groups (willing to connect vs. not willing to connect within both populations (teachers and students. Also, in both populations, those who were willing to connect, compared to those who were not willing to connect, present more positive attitudes towards using Facebook for teaching/learning and are more opposed to a banning policy of student-teacher SNS-based communication. We also found that students who were willing to connect showed a greater degree of closeness with their teachers compared to those who were not willing to connect. This study may assist policymakers when setting up regulations regarding teacher-student communication via social networking sites.

  10. Social networking sites (SNS) as a tool for midwives to enhance social capital for adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Williamson, Moira; Ferguson, Sally

    2018-07-01

    to explore ways in which midwives can enhance the support provided by social networking sites for adolescent mothers. a narrative approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was obtained from Edith Cowan University human ethics department. focus groups and interviews were undertaken with adolescent mothers and midwives in Western Australia. the four key themes identified across both groups were validation by midwives, importance of ownership, enhanced community connections and the importance of guideline development. findings suggest both mothers and midwives consider there are a variety of ways in which healthcare professionals could enhance the support afforded to adolescent mothers by their use of SNS. Midwives were more likely to consider the need for guideline development, but the underlying value of accessible, professionally mediated online support and information was consistent across the two groups. Midwives would benefit from acknowledging the role played by SNS in providing support to adolescent mothers and by considering ways in which this technology can be used to lend further support to this group of mothers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches

  12. Layered SnS sodium ion battery anodes synthesized near room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2017-08-10

    In this report, we demonstrate a simple chemical bath deposition approach for the synthesis of layered SnS nanosheets (typically 6 nm or ~10 layers thick) at very low temperature (40 °C). We successfully synthesized SnS/C hybrid electrodes using a solution-based carbon precursor coating with subsequent carbonization strategy. Our data showed that the ultrathin carbon shell was critical to the cycling stability of the SnS electrodes. As a result, the as-prepared binder-free SnS/C electrodes showed excellent performance as sodium ion battery anodes. Specifically, the SnS/C anodes delivered a reversible capacity as high as 792 mAh·g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA·g−1. They also had superior rate capability (431 mAh·g−1 at 3,000 mA·g−1) and stable long-term cycling performance under a high current density (345 mAh·g−1 after 500 cycles at 3 A·g−1). Our approach opens up a new route to synthesize SnS-based hybrid materials at low temperatures for energy storage and other applications. Our process will be particularly useful for chalcogenide matrix materials that are sensitive to high temperatures during solution synthesis.

  13. Computational Benchmark Calculations Relevant to the Neutronic Design of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Yugo, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will provide an intense source of low-energy neutrons for experimental use. The low-energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of a high-energy (1.0 GeV) proton beam on a mercury (Hg) target and slowed down in liquid hydrogen or light water moderators. Computer codes and computational techniques are being benchmarked against relevant experimental data to validate and verify the tools being used to predict the performance of the SNS. The LAHET Code System (LCS), which includes LAHET, HTAPE ad HMCNP (a modified version of MCNP version 3b), have been applied to the analysis of experiments that were conducted in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the AGS experiments, foils of various materials were placed around a mercury-filled stainless steel cylinder, which was bombarded with protons at 1.6 GeV. Neutrons created in the mercury target, activated the foils. Activities of the relevant isotopes were accurately measured and compared with calculated predictions. Measurements at BNL were provided in part by collaborating scientists from JAERI as part of the AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. To date, calculations have shown good agreement with measurements

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with 4d transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Rong, Qing-Yan; Chen, Qiao; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayers substitutionally doped with 4-d transition-metal through systematic first principles calculations. The doped complexes exhibit interesting electronic and magnetic behaviors, depending on the interplay between crystal field splitting, Hund's rule, and 4d levels. The system doped with Y is nonmagnetic metal. Both the Zr- and Pd-doped systems remain nonmagnetic semiconductors. Doping results in half-metallic states for Nb-, Ru-, Rh-, Ag, and Cd doped cases, and magnetic semiconductors for systems with Mo and Tc dopants. In particular, the Nb- and Mo-doped systems display long-ranged ferromagnetic ordering with Curie temperature above room temperature, which are primarily attributable to the double-exchange mechanism, and the p-d/p-p hybridizations, respectively. Moreover, The Mo-doped system has excellent energetic stability and flexible mechanical stability, and also possesses remarkable dynamic and thermal (500 K) stability. Our studies demonstrate that Nb- and Mo-doped SnS2 monolayers are promising candidates for preparing 2D diluted magnetic semiconductors, and hence will be a helpful clue for experimentalists.

  15. SNS 2.1K Cold Box Turn-down Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Casagrande; P.A. Gurd; D.R. Hatfield; M.P. Howell; W.H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; V. Ganni; P. Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is nearing completion. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The 2.1K cold box consists of four stages of centrifugal compressors with LN2-cooled variable speed electric motors and magnetic bearings. The cryogenic system successfully supported the Linac beam commissioning at both 4.2K and 2.1K and has been fully operational since June 2005. This paper describes the control principles utilized and the experimental results obtained for the SNS cold compressors turn-down capability to about 30% of the design flow, and possible limitation of the frequency dependent power factor of the cold compressor electric motors, which was measured for the first time during commissioning. These results helped to support the operation of the Linac over a very broad and stable cold compressor operating flow range (refrigeration capacity) and pressure. This in turn helped to optimize the cryogenic system operating parameters, minimizing the utilities and improving the system reliability and availability

  16. The formation of α-phase SnS nanorods by PVP assisted polyol synthesis: Phase stability, micro structure, thermal stability and defects induced energy band transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    We report the formation of single phase of SnS nanostructure through PVP assisted polyol synthesis by varying the source concentration ratio (Sn:S) from 1:1M to 1:12M. The effect of PVP concentration and reaction medium towards the preparation of SnS nanostructure is systematically studied through confocal Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis–NIR absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometers. The surface morphology of SnS nanostructure changes from nanorods to spherical shape with increasing PVP concentration from 0.15M to 0.5M. Raman analysis corroborates that Raman active modes of different phases of Sn-S are highly active when Raman excitation energy is slightly greater than the energy band gap of the material. The presence of intrinsic defects and large number of grain boundaries resulted in an improved thermal stability of 20 °C during the phase transition of α-SnS. Band gap calculation from tauc plot showed the direct band gap of 1.5 eV which is attributed to the single phase of SnS, could directly meet the requirement of an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. Finally, we proposed an energy band diagram for as synthesized single phase SnS nanostructure based on the experimental results obtained from optical studies showing the energy transitions attributed to band edge transition and also due to the presence of intrinsic defects. - Highlights: • PVP stabilizes the orthorhombic (α) phase of SnS. • Optical band gap of P type SnS tuned by PVP for photovoltaic applications. • The formation of Sn rich SnS phase is investigated through XPS analysis. • Intrinsic defects enhance the thermal stability of α-SnS. • The feasibility of energy transition liable to point defects is discussed.

  17. Enhanced photodegradation activity of methyl orange over Ag2CrO4/SnS2 composites under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jin; Zhou, Xiaosong; Ma, Lin; Xu, Xuyao; Wu, Jingxia; Liang, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel visible-light-driven Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites are synthesized. • Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 . • Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 exhibits excellent stability for the photodegradation of MO. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Novel Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites were prepared by a simple chemical precipitation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic tests showed that the Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites enhanced photocatalytic activities for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), and the optimum rate constant of Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 at a weight content of 1.0% Ag 2 CrO 4 for the degradation of MO was 2.2 and 1.5 times larger than that of pure Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 , respectively. The improved activity could be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons-hole pairs on the interface of Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 , which arised from the synergistic effect between Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 . Moreover, the possible photocatalytic mechanism with superoxide radical anions and holes species as the main reactive species in photocatalysis process was proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  18. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  19. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirov, S.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V.; Gladyshev, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed

  20. A facile inexpensive route for SnS thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Minna Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy, E-mail: drmvasudr9@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Pejjai, Babu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jeon, Chan-Wook [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chinho, E-mail: chpark@ynu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna Reddy, K.T., E-mail: ktrkreddy@gmail.com [Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: PYS spectra of SnS/SnS{sub 2} interface and the related band diagram. - Highlights: • A low cost SnS solar cell is developed using chemical bath deposition. • We found E{sub I} & χ of SnS (5.3 eV & 4.0 eV) and SnS{sub 2} (6.9 eV & 4.1 eV) films from PYS. • Band offsets of 0.1 eV (E{sub c}) and 1.6 eV (E{sub v}) are estimated for SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction. • SnS based solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 0.51%. - Abstract: Environment-friendly SnS based thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} as buffer layer were successfully fabricated from a facile inexpensive route, chemical bath deposition (CBD). Layer studies revealed that as-grown SnS and SnS{sub 2} films were polycrystalline; (1 1 1)/(0 0 1) peaks as the preferred orientation; 1.3 eV/2.8 eV as optical band gaps; and showed homogeneous microstructure with densely packed grains respectively. Ionization energy and electron affinity values were found by applying photoemission yield spectroscopy (PYS) to the CBD deposited SnS and SnS{sub 2} films for the first time. These values obtained as 5.3 eV and 4.0 eV for SnS films; 6.9 eV and 4.1 eV for SnS{sub 2} films. The band alignment of SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction showed TYPE-II heterostructure. The estimated conduction and valance band offsets were 0.1 eV and 1.6 eV respectively. The current density–voltage (J–V) measurements of the cell showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.12 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 10.87 mA cm{sup −2}, fill factor (FF) of 39% and conversion efficiency of 0.51%.

  1. On the Laurent polynomial rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.

    1985-02-01

    We describe some properties of the Laurent polynomial rings in a finite number of indeterminates over a commutative unitary ring. We study some subrings of the Laurent polynomial rings. We finally obtain two cancellation properties. (author)

  2. SnS absorber thin films by co-evaporation: Optimization of the growth rate and influence of the annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Víctor, E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, Juan Francisco; Guillén, Cecilia; Herrero, José

    2015-05-01

    Tin sulfide thin films were prepared by co-evaporation on soda-lime glass substrates, for use as absorber layers. The synthesis was carried out at 350 °C substrate temperature and varying the growth rate in the 2-6 Å/s range, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses in the 700-1500 nm range. After evaporation, the samples were heated at 400 °C and 500 °C under various atmospheres. The evolution of the morphological, structural and optical properties has been analyzed as a function of the thickness and deposition rate, before and after annealing. For the samples grown at the lowest rate, SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase mixing has been observed by X-ray diffraction. Samples with reduced thickness preferably crystallize in the SnS phase, whereas thicker layers become richer in the Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase. The sulfur treatment of samples prepared at the lowest rate results in the formation of SnS{sub 2} phase. Otherwise, the samples obtained at the highest rates show single-phase SnS after heating at 400 °C in sulfur atmosphere, with gap energy values around 1.24 eV. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide thin films were deposited by co-evaporation at different growth rates. • The influence of the growth rate and post-annealing at different conditions was studied. • The SnS phase was obtained by optimizing the growth rate and the annealing process. • The SnS phase presented properties for use as absorber layer.

  3. THE METHODS OF PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED NEUTRON BEAMS FOR HYSPEC AT THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; PASSELL, L.; ZALIZNYAK, A.; GHOSH, V.J.; LEONHARDT, W.L.; HAGEN, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC), under construction at the SNS on beam line 14B, is the only inelastic scattering instrument designed to enable polarization of the incident and the scattered neutron beams. A Heusler monochromator will replace the graphite crystal for producing polarized neutrons. In the scattered beam it is planned to use a collimator--multi-channel supermirror bender array to analyze the polarization of the scattered beam over the final energy range from 5-20 meV. Other methods of polarization analysis under consideration such as transmission filters using He 3 , Sm, and polarized protons are considered. Their performance is estimated and a comparison of the various methods of polarization is made

  4. Spray pyrolyzed Cu2SnS3 thin films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    We report the fabrication of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films by a non-vacuum and low cost spray pyrolysis technique. Annealing of the as-deposited film in the sulphur atmosphere produces highly stoichiometric, granular and crystalline CTS phase. The CTS thin films shows direct optical band gap of 1.58 eV with high absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. Hall measurement shows the carrier concentration of the order of 1021 cm-3 and a favourable resistivity of 10-3 Ω cm. A solar cell architecture of Glass/FTO/CTS/CdS/Al:ZnO/Al was fabricated and its current-voltage characteristic shows an open circuit voltage, short circuit current density and fill-factor of 12.6 mV, 20.2 µA/cm2 and 26% respectively. A further improvement in the solar cell parameters is underway.

  5. Optimization of the SNS magnetism reflectometer neutron-guide optics using Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, F

    2002-01-01

    The magnetism reflectometer at the spallation neutron source SNS will employ advanced neutron optics to achieve high data rate, improved resolution, and extended dynamic range. Optical components utilized will include a multi-channel polygonal curved bender and a tapered neutron-focusing guide section. The results of a neutron beam interacting with these devices are rather complex. Additional complexity arises due to the spectral/time-emission profile of the moderator and non-perfect neutron optical coatings. While analytic formulae for the individual components provide some design guidelines, a realistic performance assessment of the whole instrument can only be achieved by advanced simulation methods. In this contribution, we present guide optics optimizations for the magnetism reflectometer using Monte Carlo simulations. We compare different instrument configurations and calculate the resulting data rates. (orig.)

  6. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L

    2006-01-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...

  7. Neutron scattering for studies of soft matter at SNS and HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, we will present an overview of the scientific program of the Structure and Dynamics of Soft Matter Group, in the Biology and Soft Matter Division of the Neutron Sciences Directorate. From the broader area of soft materials research, the group members have chosen four main areas of scientific focus including: Confinement and Low-Dimensional Systems, Structure and Dynamics of Colloids, Nanoparticle-Polymer Composites, Transport in Membranes, and New Neutron Techniques for soft matter science. We will present several examples of neutron scattering experimental studies in each of these areas highlighting the experimental and theoretical (or modeling) capabilities of the group at both HFIR and SNS. Example topics to be discussed include SANS, reflectometry, and/or quasielastic studies of membranes on patterned interfaces, dynamics and structure of soft colloidal materials (including both polymeric dendrimers and biomimetic materials), gas confinement in mesoporous structures, transport in polyelectrolyte thin films, and development of spin-echo SANS concepts. (author)

  8. Andreev reflexion studies on planar hybrid SNS-junctions based on 122-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Sebastian; Schmidt, Stefan; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Kurth, Fritz; Iida, Kazumasa; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the properties of iron-based superconductors, we prepared hybrid junctions in thin film technique. Therefore two geometries were prepared, a planar SNS-junction and an edge junction. The base electrode was made of Ba(Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}){sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films, a sputtered gold layer acts as normal barrier for the planar junction and for the counter electrode we used the conventional superconductor lead. We measured the electrical properties of each electrode, as well as the junctions itself. To obtain information about the order parameter symmetry, we show the differential conductance and compare with different variations of an extended BTK-model. We show differences and commonalities between the results of both junction geometries.

  9. Recent Performance of and Plasma Outage Studies with the SNS H- Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    SNS ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised RFQ, which requires higher RF power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ~55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ~90% of the continuous ~300W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly-detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 also increased the H- beam current to ~55 mA, and increased the transmission by ~7%.

  10. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  11. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  12. Thermally evaporated thin films of SnS for application in solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Robert W.; Ogah, Ogah E.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian

    2009-01-01

    SnS (tin sulphide) is of interest for use as an absorber layer and the wider energy bandgap phases e.g. SnS 2 , Sn 2 S 3 and Sn/S/O alloys of interest as Cd-free buffer layers for use in thin film solar cells. In this work thin films of tin sulphide have been thermally evaporated onto glass and SnO 2 :coated glass substrates with the aim of optimising the properties of the material for use in photovoltaic solar cell device structures. In particular the effects of source temperature, substrate temperature, deposition rate and film thickness on the chemical and physical properties of the layers were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was used to determine the film composition, X-ray diffraction to determine the phases present and structure of each phase, transmittance and reflectance versus wavelength measurements to determine the energy bandgap and scanning electron microscopy to observe the surface topology and topography and the properties correlated to the deposition parameters. Using the optimised conditions it is possible to produce thin films of tin sulphide that are pinhole free, conformal to the substrate and that consist of densely packed columnar grains. The composition, phases present and the optical properties of the layers deposited were found to be highly sensitive to the deposition conditions. Energy bandgaps in the range 1.55 eV-1.7 eV were obtained for a film thickness of 0.8 μm, and increasing the film thickness to > 1 μm resulted in a reduction of the energy bandgap to less than 1.55 eV. The applicability of using these films in photovoltaic solar cell device structures is also discussed.

  13. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  14. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  15. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  16. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  17. The rings of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Mink, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the observation of five brief occultations of the star SAO 158687 which occurred both before and after its occultation by Uranus on March 10, 1977. The events were observed with a three-channel occultation photometer, attached to a 91-cm telescope. The observations indicate that at least five rings encircle the planet Uranus. Possible reasons for the narrowness of the Uranus rings are discussed.

  18. Some Aspects of Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Herstein, IN

    2011-01-01

    S. Amitsur: Associative rings with identities.- I.N. Herstein: Topics in ring theory.- N. Jacobson: Representation theory of Jordan algebras.- I. Kaplansky: The theory of homological dimension.- D. Buchsbaum: Complexes in local ring theory.- P.H. Cohn: Two topics in ring theory.- A.W. Goldie: Non-commutative localisation.

  19. Ring correlations in random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M F

    2016-12-01

    We examine the correlations between rings in random network glasses in two dimensions as a function of their separation. Initially, we use the topological separation (measured by the number of intervening rings), but this leads to pseudo-long-range correlations due to a lack of topological charge neutrality in the shells surrounding a central ring. This effect is associated with the noncircular nature of the shells. It is, therefore, necessary to use the geometrical distance between ring centers. Hence we find a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law out to larger distances, with the correlations between rings decaying away when two rings are more than about three rings apart.

  20. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. Utilization of Monte Carlo Calculations in Radiation Transport Analyses to Support the Design of the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and construction is scheduled to commence in FY01 . The SNS initially will consist of an accelerator system capable of delivering an ∼0.5 microsecond pulse of 1 GeV protons, at a 60 Hz frequency, with 1 MW of beam power, into a single target station. The SNS will eventually be upgraded to a 2 MW facility with two target stations (a 60 Hz station and a 10 Hz station). The radiation transport analysis, which includes the neutronic, shielding, activation, and safety analyses, is critical to the design of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed SNS, and the Monte Carlo method is the cornerstone of the radiation transport analyses

  2. The Rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Filacchione, G.; Marouf, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    One could become an expert on Saturn's iconic rings pretty easily in the early 1970s, as very little was known about them beyond the distinction between the A, B, and C rings, and the Cassini Division or "gap" between rings A and B (Alexander, 1962; Bobrov, 1970). Water ice was discovered spectroscopically on the ring particle surfaces, and radar and microwave emission observations proved that the particles must be centimeters to meters in size, consisting primarily, not just superficially, of water ice (Pollack, 1975). While a 2:1 orbital resonance with Mimas had long been suspected of having something to do with the Cassini Division, computers of the time were unable to model the subtle dynamical effects that we now know to dominate ring structure. This innocent state of affairs was exploded by the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981. Spectacular images revealed filigree structure and odd regional color variations, and exquisitely detailed radial profiles of fluctuating particle abundance were obtained from the first stellar and radio occultations, having resolution almost at the scale of single particles. Voyager-era understanding was reviewed by Cuzzi et al. (1984) and Esposito et al. (1984). While the Voyager data kept ring scientists busy for decades, planning which led to the monumentally successful NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission, which arrived in 2004, had been under way even before Voyager got to Saturn. A review of pre-Cassini knowledge of Saturn's Rings can be found in Orton et al. (2009). This chapter will build on recent topical and process-specific reviews that treat the gamut of ring phenomena and its underlying physics in considerable detail (Colwell et al., 2009; Cuzzi et al., 2009; Horányi et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009; Esposito, 2010; Tiscareno, 2013b; Esposito, 2014). We will follow and extend the general organization of Cuzzi et al. (2010), the most recent general discussion of Saturn's rings. For brevity and the benefit of the

  3. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  4. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  5. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  6. A Cross-cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eSoon Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one’s experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105, South Korea (n = 113, and China (n = 87. The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts’ profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users’ profiles and contact with friends’ profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts’ profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions. PMID:27148100

  9. Impact of additional sulphur on structure, morphology and optical properties of SnS thin films by thermal evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banotra, Arun; Padha, Naresh; Kumar, Shiv; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of SnS have been obtained from Sn and S powders which were mixed up using ball mill technique with and without evaporating additional sulphur prior to annealing at 523K. The obtained samples were taken for structural, optical, chemical and morphological studies. The X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of SnS phase on annealing in vacuum having S/Sn ratio of 0.67 obtained from EDAX. This deficit in `S' is removed by supplementing additional `S' of 200nm prior to annealing which results in the S/Sn ratio of 1.01. The optical transmission recorded from spectrophotometer used to study different optical parameters. Morphological results corroborate well with the XRD, EDAX and optical study. The obtained stoichiometric films were also tested for Ag/p-SnS Schottky diodes on In coated glass substrates using current voltage measurements.

  10. Direct fabrication of a W-C SNS Josephson junction using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jun; Kometani, Reo; Ishihara, Sunao; Warisawa, Shin’ichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A tungsten-carbide (W-C) superconductor/normal metal/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction has been fabricated using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD). Under certain process conditions, the component ratio has been tuned from W: C: Ga = 26%: 66%: 8% in the superconducting wires to W: C: Ga = 14%: 79%: 7% in the metallic junction. The critical current density at 2.5 K in the SNS Josephson junction is 1/3 of that in W-C superconducting nanowire. Also, a Fraunhofer-like oscillation of critical current in the junction with four periods is observed. FIB-CVD opens avenues for novel functional superconducting nanodevices. (paper)

  11. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE SNS CCL HOT MODEL WATER COOLING SYSTEM USING THE SINDA/FLUINT NETWORK MODELING TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. AMMERMAN; J. BERNARDIN

    1999-11-01

    This report presents results for design and analysis of the hot model water cooling system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The hot model, when completed, will include segments for both the CCL and coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL). The scope of this report encompasses the modeling effort for the CCL portion of the hot model. This modeling effort employed the SINDA/FLUINT network modeling tool. This report begins with an introduction of the SNS hot model and network modeling using SINDA/FLUINT. Next, the development and operation of the SINDA/FLUINT model are discussed. Finally, the results of the SINDA/FLUINT modeling effort are presented and discussed.

  12. Evaluation of SNS Beamline Shielding Configurations using MCNPX Accelerated by ADVANTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risner, Joel M; Johnson, Seth R.; Remec, Igor; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2015-01-01

    Shielding analyses for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory pose significant computational challenges, including highly anisotropic high-energy sources, a combination of deep penetration shielding and an unshielded beamline, and a desire to obtain well-converged nearly global solutions for mapping of predicted radiation fields. The majority of these analyses have been performed using MCNPX with manually generated variance reduction parameters (source biasing and cell-based splitting and Russian roulette) that were largely based on the analyst's insight into the problem specifics. Development of the variance reduction parameters required extensive analyst time, and was often tailored to specific portions of the model phase space. We previously applied a developmental version of the ADVANTG code to an SNS beamline study to perform a hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo analysis and showed that we could obtain nearly global Monte Carlo solutions with essentially uniform relative errors for mesh tallies that cover extensive portions of the model with typical voxel spacing of a few centimeters. The use of weight window maps and consistent biased sources produced using the FW-CADIS methodology in ADVANTG allowed us to obtain these solutions using substantially less computer time than the previous cell-based splitting approach. While those results were promising, the process of using the developmental version of ADVANTG was somewhat laborious, requiring user-developed Python scripts to drive much of the analysis sequence. In addition, limitations imposed by the size of weight-window files in MCNPX necessitated the use of relatively coarse spatial and energy discretization for the deterministic Denovo calculations that we used to generate the variance reduction parameters. We recently applied the production version of ADVANTG to this beamline analysis, which substantially streamlined the analysis process. We also tested importance function

  13. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  14. Enhanced cyclic stability of SnS microplates with conformal carbon coating derived from ethanol vapor deposition for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2018-04-01

    Carbon coated SnS microplates (SnS@C MPs) were prepared via a facile chemical vapor deposition method using SnS2 nanoflakes as precursor and ethanol vapor as carbon source. The carbon coating restrains the growth of SnS during the heat treatment. Furthermore, it improves the electronic conductivity as well as accommodates volume variations of SnS during the sodiation and desodiation processes. Therefore, the rate capability and cycle performance of the SnS@C MPs as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries are remarkably enhanced compared with the bare SnS and the SnS2 precursor. At current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 A g-1, the optimized SnS@C MPs exhibit stable capacities of 602.9, 532.1, 512.2, 465.9 and 427.2 mAh g-1, respectively. At 1 A g-1, they show a reversible capacity of 528.8 mAh g-1 in the first cycle, and maintain 444.7 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, with capacity retention of 84.1%. The carbon coating through chemical vapor deposition using ethanol vapor as carbon sources is green, simple and cost-effective, which shows great promise to improve the reversible Na+ storage of electrode materials.

  15. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  16. The covariant chiral ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  17. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  18. The Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1975-09-01

    The structure of the Saturnian rings is traditionally believed to be due to resonances caused by Mimas (and possibly other satellites). It is shown that both theoretical and observational evidence rule out this interpretation. The increased observational accuracy on one hand and the increased understanding of the cosmogonic processes on the other makes it possible to explain the structure of the ring system as a product of condensation from a partially corotating plasma. In certain respects the agreement between theory and observations is about 1%. (Auth.)

  19. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  20. Employers as Nightmare Readers: An Analysis of Ethical and Legal Concerns Regarding Employer-Employee Practices on SNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Seili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to study the social reality surrounding the data processing practices employers and employees engage in on social networking sites (SNS. Considering the lack of empirical studies, as well as the considerable uncertainty in the way personal data protection is implemented across the European Union (EU, the paper offers insights on the topic. Qualitative text analysis of semi-structured interviews with employers from the service sector (N=10 and the field of media and communication (N=15, as well as employers from organisations which had experienced various problems due to things their employees had posted on social media (N=14, and employees from the financial sector (N=15 were carried out to explore whether the data protection principles, which can be viewed as the most important guidelines for employers in the EU, are actually followed in their everyday SNS data processing practices. Even though the data protection principles emphasise the need for fair, purposeful, transparent, minimal and accurate processing of personal data, our interviews with employers and employees reveal that the actual SNS processing practices rarely live up to the standards. Our findings indicate that there is a growing mismatch between the social reality and legal requirements regarding data subjects.

  1. Influence of complexing agent (Na2EDTA on chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD data showed that the films have a polycrystalline and orthorhombic structure. It also indicated that the most intense peak at 2 θ = 30.2° which belongs to (221 plane of Cu4 SnS4. The film deposited with 0.05 M Na2 EDTA showed good uniformity, good surface coverage with bigger grains and produced higher absorbance value. The band gap energy varies with the variation of Na2EDTA concentration which ranging from 1.56-1.60 eV. Deposition at concentration of 0.05 M Na2EDTA proved to offer a reasonably good Cu4SnS4 thin film.

  2. High-Resolution Tracking Asymmetric Lithium Insertion and Extraction and Local Structure Ordering in SnS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Huang, Yuan; Liao, Lei; Sutter, Peter; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, En-Ge

    2016-09-14

    In the rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the rate capability and energy efficiency are largely governed by the lithium ion transport dynamics and phase transition pathways in electrodes. Real-time and atomic-scale tracking of fully reversible lithium insertion and extraction processes in electrodes, which would ultimately lead to mechanistic understanding of how the electrodes function and why they fail, is highly desirable but very challenging. Here, we track lithium insertion and extraction in the van der Waals interactions dominated SnS2 by in situ high-resolution TEM method. We find that the lithium insertion occurs via a fast two-phase reaction to form expanded and defective LiSnS2, while the lithium extraction initially involves heterogeneous nucleation of intermediate superstructure Li0.5SnS2 domains with a 1-4 nm size. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Li0.5SnS2 is kinetically favored and structurally stable. The asymmetric reaction pathways may supply enlightening insights into the mechanistic understanding of the underlying electrochemistry in the layered electrode materials and also suggest possible alternatives to the accepted explanation of the origins of voltage hysteresis in the intercalation electrode materials.

  3. Improving cycle stability of SnS anode for sodium-ion batteries by limiting Sn agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Shi, Liang; Lan, Danni; Li, Quan

    2018-02-01

    Flower-like SnS nanostructures are obtained by a simple solvothermal method for anode applications in Na-ion batteries. We show experimental evidence of progressive Sn agglomeration and crystalline Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation process of the SnS electrode, both of which contribute to the capacity decay of the electrode upon repeated cycles. By replacing the commonly adopted acetylene black conductive additive with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), the cycle stability of the SnS electrode is largely improved, which correlates well with the observed suppression of both Sn agglomeration and Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation cycle. A full cell is assembled with the SnS/MWCNT anode and the P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn1/2Ti1/6O2 cathode. An initial energy density of 262 Wh/kg (normalized to the total mass of cathode and anode) is demonstrated for the full cell, which retains 71% of the first discharge capacity after 40 cycles.

  4. Design, operational experiences and beam results obtained with the SNS H- ion source and LEBT at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)** Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that fully satisfies the operational requirements through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. Compared to the early R and D version, many features of the ion source have been improved, and reliable operation at 6% duty factor has been achieved producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. LEBT operation proved that the purely electrostatic focusing principle is well suited to inject the ion beam into the RFQ accelerator, including the steering and pre-chopping functions. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ and Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) system. Prospects for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  5. Non-monotonic effect of growth temperature on carrier collection in SnS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Steinmann, V.; Mangan, N. M.; Brandt, R. E.; Poindexter, J. R.; Jaramillo, R.; Mailoa, J. P.; Hartman, K.; Polizzotti, A.; Buonassisi, T.; Yang, C.; Gordon, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effects of growth temperature on material and device properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin-films and test structures. Grain size, Hall mobility, and majority-carrier concentration monotonically increase with growth temperature. However, the charge collection as measured by the long-wavelength contribution to short-circuit current exhibits a non-monotonic behavior: the collection decreases with increased growth temperature from 150 °C to 240 °C and then recovers at 285 °C. Fits to the experimental internal quantum efficiency using an opto-electronic model indicate that the non-monotonic behavior of charge-carrier collection can be explained by a transition from drift- to diffusion-assisted components of carrier collection. The results show a promising increase in the extracted minority-carrier diffusion length at the highest growth temperature of 285 °C. These findings illustrate how coupled mechanisms can affect early stage device development, highlighting the critical role of direct materials property measurements and simulation

  6. Solution processed Cu2SnS3 thin films for visible and infrared photodetector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Dias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cu2SnS3 thin films were deposited using an economic, solution processible, spin coating technique. The films were found to possess a tetragonal crystal structure using X-ray diffraction. The film morphology and the particle size were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The various planes in the crystal were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The optimum band gap of 1.23 eV and a high absorption coefficient of 104 cm−1 corroborate its application as a photoactive material. The visible and infrared (IR photo response was studied for various illumination intensities. The current increased by one order from a dark current of 0.31 μA to a current of 1.78 μA at 1.05 suns and 8.7 μA under 477.7 mW/cm2 IR illumination intensity, at 3 V applied bias. The responsivity, sensitivity, external quantum efficiency and specific detectivity were found to be 10.93 mA/W, 5.74, 2.47% and 3.47 × 1010 Jones respectively at 1.05 suns and 16.32 mA/W, 27.16, 2.53% and 5.10 × 1010 Jones respectively at 477.7 mW/cm2 IR illumination. The transient photoresponse was measured both for visible and IR illuminations.

  7. Magnetic Field Monitoring in the SNS and LANL Neutron EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Alina; SNS nEDM Collaboration; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SNS neutron EDM experiment requires the ability to precisely control and monitor the magnetic field inside of the fiducial volume. However, it is not always practical (or even possible) to measure the field within the region of interest directly. To remedy this issue, we have designed a field monitoring system that will allow us to reconstruct the field inside of the fiducial volume using noninvasive measurements of the field components at discrete locations external to this volume. A prototype probe array (consisting of 12 single-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors) was used to monitor the magnetic field within the fiducial volume of an in-house magnetic testing apparatus. In this talk, the design and results of this test will be presented, and the possible implementation of this field monitoring method may have in the room temperature LANL neutron EDM experiment will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  8. Neural network based approach for tuning of SNS feedback and feedforward controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung-Il; Prokop, Mark S.; Regan, Amy H.

    2002-01-01

    The primary controllers in the SNS low level RF system are proportional-integral (PI) feedback controllers. To obtain the best performance of the linac control systems, approximately 91 individual PI controller gains should be optimally tuned. Tuning is time consuming and requires automation. In this paper, a neural network is used for the controller gain tuning. A neural network can approximate any continuous mapping through learning. In a sense, the cavity loop PI controller is a continuous mapping of the tracking error and its one-sample-delay inputs to the controller output. Also, monotonic cavity output with respect to its input makes knowing the detailed parameters of the cavity unnecessary. Hence the PI controller is a prime candidate for approximation through a neural network. Using mean square error minimization to train the neural network along with a continuous mapping of appropriate weights, optimally tuned PI controller gains can be determined. The same neural network approximation property is also applied to enhance the adaptive feedforward controller performance. This is done by adjusting the feedforward controller gains, forgetting factor, and learning ratio. Lastly, the automation of the tuning procedure data measurement, neural network training, tuning and loading the controller gain to the DSP is addressed.

  9. Development of Nb nanoSQUIDs based on SNS junctions for operation in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosh, Viacheslav; Kieler, Oliver; Weimann, Thomas; Zorin, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mueller, Benedikt; Martinez-Perez, Maria Jose; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the magnetization reversal of single magnetic nanoparticles requires SQUIDs with high spatial resolution, high spin sensitivity (a few Bohr magneton μ{sub B}) and at the same time sufficient stability in high magnetic fields. We fabricated dc nanoSQUIDs comprising overdamped SNS sandwich-type (Nb/HfTi/Nb) Josephson junctions using optimized technology based on combination of electron beam lithography and chemical-mechanical polishing. Our nanoSQUIDs have Josephson junctions with lateral dimensions ≤ 150 nm x 150 nm, effective loop areas < 0.05 μm{sup 2} and the distance between the Josephson junctions ≤ 100 nm. The feeding strip lines of the width ≤ 200 nm have been realized. The nanoSQUIDs have shown stable operation in external magnetic fields at least up to 250 mT. Sufficiently low level of flux noise resulting in spin sensitivity of few tens μ{sub B}/Hz{sup 1/2} has been demonstrated. A further reduction of the nanoSQUID size using our technology is possible.

  10. Temperature behavior of SNS-like Nb/Al-AlO x/Nb Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Maggi, S.; Rocci, R.; Sosso, A.; Steni, R.

    2006-01-01

    Overdamped Nb/Al-AlO x /Nb Josephson junctions are an intermediate state between the SIS and SNS Josephson junctions. Stable and reproducible non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristics have been obtained with a proper choice of the fabrication parameters, featuring critical current densities J c up to 25 kA/cm 2 and characteristic voltages up to 450 μV. While these values make the junctions interesting for RSFQ electronic circuits, their response to an RF signal at 70 GHz has demonstrated their suitability for both programmable and ac voltage standard. In these work we analyse the temperature behavior of these junctions up to T/T c = 1, T c being the niobium critical temperature, which gives relevant information on the junction structure and, especially, on the oxide insulator/metallic film barrier, which is the key for the reproducible transition from an hysteretic to a non-hysteretic behavior. The results are also compared with other data of hysteretic and overdamped junctions

  11. Glutatione modified ultrathin SnS2 nanosheets with highly photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Renjie; Zhou, Tengfei; Hu, Juncheng; Li, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    L-Glutatione (GSH) modified ultrathin SnS 2 nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a one-pot, facile and rapid solvothermal approach. During the process, the GSH not only served as the sulfur sources, the structure-directing agent, but also as the surface modified ligands. The as-synthesized samples mainly consist of ultrathin nanosheets with the thickness of about 10 nm. Inspiringly, even under the visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the as-synthesized products exhibited highly photocatalytic activities for both the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and the reductive conversion of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. The superior performance was presented by completely removed the methyl orange and aqueous Cr(VI) in 20 min and 60 min, respectively. It was much higher than the pure samples, which suggested that these obtained photocatalysts have the potential for wastewater treatment in a green way. The high-efficiency of photocatalytic properties could attribute to the ultrathin size of the photocatalysts and the chelation between GSH and Sn (IV), which have the advantages of electron–hole pairs separation. Moreover, modified organic compounds with common electron donors would also enhance the spectral response even to the near infrared region through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. (papers)

  12. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-05-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others' news, may influence recipients' perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other's posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. In addition, disclosure messages can vary in the degree of intimacy (from superficial to intimate) and narrativity (from a random blather to a story-like narrative). The roles of disclosure intimacy and narrativity on perceived closeness and social attraction were examined by a 2 × 2 experimental design. By conducting one lab study and another online replication, we consistently found that disclosure frequency, when perceived as appropriate, predicted familiarity and closeness. The effects of disclosure intimacy and narrativity were not stable. Further exploratory analyses showed that the roles of disclosure intimacy on closeness and social attraction were constrained by the perceived appropriateness, and the effects of narrativity on closeness and social attraction were mediated by perceived entertainment value.

  13. Development of a Social DTN for Message Communication between SNS Group Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Takasuka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system application (called “social DTN manager” that builds a DTN (delay, disruption, disconnection tolerant networking among members of a social networking service (SNS community using a community token. The members can exchange messages over this network. Control messages for building a DTN are forwarded to only those nodes that use the same community token in order to reduce flooding of message copies. When a source node sends a communication request to its destination node, they exchange control messages to establish a communication route. Relay nodes use these messages to create and hold routing information for these nodes in their routing tables. Thereafter, relay nodes can forward data messages based on their routing tables. This again reduces flooding of message copies. The social DTN manager incorporates these functions, Facebook Graph API and Google Nearby Connections API. The authors have installed it in Android terminals and confirmed that a social DTN can successfully be built using this application and that data messages can be exchanged between terminals via reactive routes.

  14. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  15. SNS Resonance Control Cooling Systems and Quadrupole Magnet Cooling Systems DIW Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Karoly [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report focuses on control of the water chemistry for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS)/Quadrupole Magnet Cooling System (QMCS) deionized water (DIW) cooling loops. Data collected from spring 2013 through spring 2016 are discussed, and an operations regime is recommended.It was found that the RCCS operates with an average pH of 7.24 for all lines (from 7.0 to 7.5, slightly alkaline), the average low dissolved oxygen is in the area of < 36 ppb, and the main loop average resistivity of is > 14 MΩ-cm. The QMCS was found to be operating in a similar regime, with a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 , low dissolved oxygen in the area of < 45 ppb, and main loop resistivity of 10 to 15 MΩ-cm. During data reading, operational corrections were done on the polishing loops to improve the water chemistry regime. Therefore some trends changed over time.It is recommended that the cooling loops operate in a regime in which the water has a resistivity that is as high as achievable, a dissolved oxygen concentration that is as low as achievable, and a neutral or slightly alkaline pH.

  16. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  17. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  18. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  19. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  20. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  1. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  2. Algebras, rings and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Kirichenko, V V

    Provides both the classical aspects of the theory of groups and their representations as well as a general introduction to the modern theory of representations, including the representations of quivers and finite partially ordered sets. This volume provides the theory of semiprime Noetherian semiperfect and semidistributive rings.

  3. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  4. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  5. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  6. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  7. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  8. Field distributions and particle optics in main bending dipoles of Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The SNS accumulator ring employs 32 electro-magnetic dipoles to bend proton beams. The dipoles are typical sector magnets with relatively large aperture and short length. Thus, how to correctly treat magnetic fringe fields in the devices remains as a question. We have performed 3D computer simulations to study magnetic field distributions in the dipoles. Further, we have analyzed particle optics based on the space-dependent curvature and focusing functions in the magnets. The effect of magnetic fringe fields on the particle motion, especially the focusing/defocusing and dispersion, is investigated. The lens parameters, including the second-order aberrations, are derived and compared with the design hard-edge parameters used in the ring lattice calculations

  9. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  10. Social networking sites (SNS); exploring their uses and associated value for adolescent mothers in Western Australia in terms of social support provision and building social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Towell, Amanda

    2015-09-01

    to explore the use of social networking sites (SNS) by adolescent mothers in Western Australia (WA) in relation to social support and the building of social capital. a constructionist narrative inquiry approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was gained from the university human ethics department. Sampling was purposeful and data were collected using in-depth interviews with seven adolescent mothers in WA. interviews were undertaken within the homes of adolescent mothers across WA. from within three fundamental domains of social support; tangible, emotional and informational support, provided by SNS use, five key themes were identified from the narratives. 'Social connectedness' was identified as a form of tangible support, sometimes termed 'practical' or 'instrumental' support. This theme incorporates connectedness with family, friends, and peers and across new and existing social groups. Three themes were identified that relate to emotional support; 'increased parenting confidence'; 'reduced parental stress' and 'enhanced self-disclosure' afforded by use of SNS. 'Access to information' was identified in terms of informational support, with participants often highlighting SNS use as their primary portal for information and advice. the findings of this study suggest that SNS use affords adolescent mothers in WA access to tangible, informational and emotional support and thus is a valuable source of social capital for these mothers. This study provides a platform for further exploration into this phenomenon, and possible implications include the potential for midwives and health care professionals to promote the benefits of SNS use with, and for, this group of mothers, or to incorporate SNS use into modern health care practices to further develop the potential for improved social capital related outcomes for them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing of SNS-032 in a Panel of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines with Acquired Resistance to a Broad Range of Drugs12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschmann, Nadine; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Voges, Yvonne; Sharifi, Mohsen; Riecken, Kristoffer; Meyer, Jochen; von Deimling, Andreas; Fichtner, Iduna; Ghafourian, Taravat; Westermann, Frank; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2013-01-01

    Novel treatment options are needed for the successful therapy of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SNS-032 in a panel of 109 neuroblastoma cell lines consisting of 19 parental cell lines and 90 sublines with acquired resistance to 14 different anticancer drugs. Seventy-three percent of the investigated neuroblastoma cell lines and all four investigated primary tumor samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 50% in the range of the therapeutic plasma levels reported for SNS-032 (<754 nM). Sixty-two percent of the cell lines and two of the primary samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 90% in this concentration range. SNS-032 also impaired the growth of the multidrug-resistant cisplatin-adapted UKF-NB-3 subline UKF-NB-3rCDDP1000 in mice. ABCB1 expression (but not ABCG2 expression) conferred resistance to SNS-032. The antineuroblastoma effects of SNS-032 did not depend on functional p53. The antineuroblastoma mechanism of SNS-032 included CDK7 and CDK9 inhibition-mediated suppression of RNA synthesis and subsequent depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with a fast turnover rate including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2; cIAP-1), and survivin. In conclusion, CDK7 and CDK9 represent promising drug targets and SNS-032 represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cases. PMID:24466371

  12. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  13. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...

  14. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  15. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System How Can it Help Me?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Stephen D.; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Peterson, Peter F.; Reuter, Michael A.; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I.; Kohl, James Arthur; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cobb, John W.; Lynch, Vickie E.; Chen, Meili; Trater, James R.

    2010-01-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a live cataloging system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to their

  16. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  17. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  18. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers derived from the electrospinning-made SnO{sub 2} nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Ma, Qianli; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Yu, Hui; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: dongxiangting888@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun (China)

    2017-11-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanofibers were fabricated by calcination of the electrospun PVP/SnCl{sub 4} composite nanofibers. For the first time, SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers were successfully synthesized by double crucible sulfurization and selenidation methods via inheriting the morphology of SnO{sub 2} nanofibers used as precursors, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers are respectively pure orthorhombic phase with space group of Pbnm and Cmcm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicates that the diameters of SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers are respectively 140.54±12.80 nm and 96.52±14.17 nm under the 95 % confidence level. The photocatalytic activities of samples were studied by using rhodamine B (Rh B) as degradation agent. When SnS or SnSe nanofibers are employed as the photocatalysts, the respective degradation rates of Rh B solution under the ultraviolet light irradiation after 200 min irradiation are 92.55 % and 92.86 %. The photocatalytic mechanism and formation process of SnS and SnSe nanofibers are also provided. More importantly, this preparation technique is of universal significance to prepare other metal chalcogenides nanofibers. (author)

  20. SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by N-doped carbon and TiO2 for high-performance Na-ion storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by porous N-doped carbon and TiO2 (TiO2@SnS2@N-C on flexible carbon cloth are prepared and tested as a free-standing anode for high-performance sodium ion batteries. The as-obtained TiO2@SnS2@N-C composite delivers a remarkable capacity performance (840 mA h g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1, excellent rate capability and long-cycling life stability (293 mA h g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 600 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of each component of the unique hybrid structure, in which the SnS2 nanosheets with open framworks offer high capacity, while the porous N-doped carbon nanoplates arrays on flexible carbon cloth are able to improve the conductivity and the TiO2 passivation layer can keep the structure integrity of SnS2 nanosheets.

  1. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of SnS2 with a Cubic Structure: The DFT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshayeshi, A.; Taghavi Mendi, R.; Majidiyan Sarmazdeh, M.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a cubic structure of polymorphic SnS2 has been synthesized experimentally, which is stable at room temperature. In this paper, we calculated some structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure based on the full potential-linearized augmented plane waves method. We also studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure. Structural results show that the compressibility of the cubic SnS2 phase is greater than its trigonal phase and the compressibility decreases with increasing pressure. Investigations of the electronic properties indicate that pressure changes the density of states and the energy band gap increases with increasing pressure. The variation of energy band gap versus pressure is almost linear. We concluded that cubic SnS2 is a semiconductor with an indirect energy band gap, like its trigonal phase. The optical calculations revealed that the dielectric constant decreases with increasing pressure, and the width of the forbidden energy interval increases for electromagnetic wave propagation. Moreover, plasmonic energy and refractive index are changed with increasing pressure.

  2. First-principles study of SnS electronic properties using LDA, PBE and HSE06 functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, R.; Ganchenkova, M.; Karazhanov, S.; Marstein, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, tin sulphide (SnS) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CIGS and CZTC for use in solar cells, possessing such properties as non-toxicity, low cost and production stability. SnS has a high theoretically predicted efficiency above 20%, but the experimentally achieved efficiency so far is as low as 4.36%. The reason for the low achieved efficiency is unclear. One of the powerful tools to get deeper insights about the nature of the problem is first-principles calculation approaches. That is why SnS has become an attractive subject for first-principles calculations recently. Previously calculated data, however, show a widespread of such fundamental value as the bandgap varying from 0.26 to 1.26 eV. In order to understand a reason for that, in this work, we concentrate on a systematic study of calculation parameters effects on the resulting electronic structure, with the particular attention paid to the influence of the exchange-correlation functional chosen for calculations. Several exchange-correlation functionals (LDA, PBE and HSE06) were considered. The systematic analysis has shown that the bandgap variation can result from a tensile/compressive hydrostatic pressure introduced by non-equilibrium lattice parameters used for the calculations. The study of the applicability of three functionals has shown that HSE06 gives the best match to both experimentally obtained bandgap and the XPS valence band spectra. LDA underestimates the bandgap but qualitatively reproduces experimentally measured valence DOS similar to that of HSE06 in contrast to PBE. PBE underestimates the bandgap and does not match to the measured XPS spectra.

  3. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  4. Monte-Carlo simulation of a high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS. Long Wavelength Target Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, H.N.; Herwig, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    Using the Monte-Carlo simulation program McStas, we present the design principles of the proposed high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS-Long Wavelength Target Station (LWTS). The LWTS will provide the high flux of long wavelength neutrons at the requisite pulse rate required by the spectrometer design. The resolution of this spectrometer lies between that routinely achieved by spin echo techniques and the design goal of the high power target station backscattering spectrometer. Covering this niche in energy resolution will allow systematic studies over the large dynamic range required by many disciplines, such as protein dynamics. (author)

  5. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that

  6. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  8. Ring-constrained Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    . This new operation has important applications in decision support, e.g., placing recycling stations at fair locations between restaurants and residential complexes. Clearly, RCJ is defined based on a geometric constraint but not on distances between points. Thus, our operation is fundamentally different......We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q...

  9. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  10. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  13. The structure of a mixed GluR2 ligand-binding core dimer in complex with (S)-glutamate and the antagonist (S)-NS1209

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Christina; Pickering, Darryl S; Mirza, Osman

    2006-01-01

    domains has been observed. (S)-NS1209 adopts a novel binding mode, including hydrogen bonding to Tyr450 and Gly451 of D1. Parts of (S)-NS1209 occupy new areas of the GluR2 ligand-binding cleft, and bind near residues that are not conserved among receptor subtypes. The affinities of (RS)-NS1209 at the Glu....... The thermodynamics of binding of the antagonists (S)-NS1209, DNQX and (S)-ATPO to the GluR2 ligand-binding core have been determined by displacement isothermal titration calorimetry. The displacement of (S)-glutamate by all antagonists was shown to be driven by enthalpy....

  14. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stephen D; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W; Peterson, Peter F; Reuter, Michael A; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I; Kohl, James A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Cobb, John W; Lynch, Vickie E; Chen Meili; Trater, James R; Smith, Bradford C; Swain, Tom; Huang Jian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis, E-mail: millersd@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a 'live cataloging' system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members

  15. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Stephen D; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W; Peterson, Peter F; Reuter, Michael A; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I; Kohl, James A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Cobb, John W; Lynch, Vickie E; Chen Meili; Trater, James R; Smith, Bradford C; Swain, Tom; Huang Jian; Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a 'live cataloging' system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to

  16. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen D.; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Peterson, Peter F.; Reuter, Michael A.; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I.; Kohl, James A.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cobb, John W.; Lynch, Vickie E.; Chen, Meili; Trater, James R.; Smith, Bradford C.; (William Swain, Tom; Huang, Jian; Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis; een, Mar K. L. Gr

    2010-11-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a "live cataloging" system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to

  17. NRL ion ring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Drobot, A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Marsh, S.J.; Pasour, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment is under way to form a storng proton ring using the 200 ka, 1.2 MeV, 50 nsec hollow proton beam recently generated at NRL. The 5 m long magnetic field configuration consists of a magnetic cusp, a compressing magnetic field, a gate field and a magnetic mirror. The midplane value of the magnetic mirror is such that the major radius of the ring will be about 10 cm. The degree of field reversal that will be achieved with 5 x 10 16 protons per pulse from the existing beam depends upon the field reversal is possible with the 600 kA proton beam that would be generated from the low inductance coaxial triode coupled to the upgraded Gamble II generator. The propagation and trapping of an intense proton beam in the experimental magnetic field configuration is investigated numerically. The results show that the self magnetic has a very pronounced effect on the dynamics of the gyrating protons

  18. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  19. Magnetization of two coupled rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y; Luck, J M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum

  20. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  1. Three-Dimensional SnS Decorated Carbon Nano-Networks as Anode Materials for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g−1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g−1, the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles. The initial charge capacity for sodium ion batteries can reach 333 mAh·g−1, and it retains a reversible capacity of 186 mAh·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. The good lithium or sodium storage performances are likely attributed to the synergistic effects of the conductive carbon nano-networks and small SnS nanoparticles.

  2. Structure, Surface Morphology, and Optical and Electronic Properties of Annealed SnS Thin Films Obtained by CBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghima, Meriem; Akkari, Anis; Guasch, Cathy; Turki-Kamoun, Najoua

    2014-09-01

    SnS thin films were initially coated onto Pyrex substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and annealed at various temperatures ranging from 200°C to 600°C for 30 min in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a structural transition from face-centered cubic to orthorhombic occurs when the annealing temperature is over 500°C. The surface morphology of all thin layers was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The elemental composition of Sn and S, as measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is near the stoichiometric ratio. Optical properties studied by means of transmission and reflection measurements show an increase in the absorption coefficient with increasing annealing temperatures. The band gap energy is close to 1.5 eV, which corresponds to the optimum for photovoltaic applications. Last, the thermally stimulated current measurements show that the electrically active traps located in the band gap disappear after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that, once again, annealing as a post-deposition treatment may be useful for improving the physical properties of the SnS layers included in photovoltaic applications. Moreover, the thermo-stimulated current method may be of practical relevance to explore the electronic properties of more conventional industrial methods, such as sputtering and chemical vapor deposition.

  3. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  4. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  5. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  6. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  7. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  8. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunikumar, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  9. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  10. Rotating ring-ring electrode theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kellyb, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  11. The Rotating Ring-Ring Electrode. Theory and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kelly, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  12. Damping rings for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, John M; Zimmermann, Frank; Owen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Linear Colider (CLIC) is designed to operate at 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy with a total luminosity of 10^35 cm^-2 s^-1. The overall system design leads to extremely demanding requirements on the bunch trains injected into the main libac at frequency of 100 Hz. In particular, the emittances of the intense bunches have to be about an order of magnitude smaller than presently achieved. We describe our approach to finding a damping ring design capable of meeting these requirements. Besides lattice design, emittance and damping rate considerations, a number of scattering and instability effects have to be incorporated into the optimisation of parameters. Among these, intra-bem scattering and the electron cloud effect are two of the most significant.

  13. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  14. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  15. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  16. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  17. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  18. Exploring Student Use of Social Networking Services (SNS) Surrounding Moral Development, Gender, Campus Crime, Safety, and the Clery Act: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Haley

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory sequential mixed methods study was to explore college students' use of social networking services (SNS); examining how and why they communicate about campus safety information. This study took place at Stockton University, a regional state institution in NJ. Undergraduate students took part in an online quantitative…

  19. Language, mobile phones and internet : a study of SMS texting, email, IM and SNS chats in computer mediated communication (CMC) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, Sandra Nekesa

    2010-01-01

    This book examines the use of language in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) genres in Kenya. It focuses on Short Messaging Service (SMS), Email, Instant Messages (IM) and Social Network Sites (SNS) genres. It presents an overview of the use and characteristics of Kenyan languages in CMC texts

  20. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  1. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  2. Tinkering at the main-ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-08-23

    To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

  3. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  4. Fabrication of 2D SnS2/g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced H2 evolution during photocatalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhou; Chen, Jibing; Ma, Yongning; Feng, Juan; Jia, Jia; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2018-08-15

    In this work, the 2D SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 heterojunctions were successfully prepared by heating the homogeneous dispersion of SnS 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets using a microwave muffle. SEM, TEM and HRTEM images indicated that the SnS 2 nanosheets were loaded on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. The UV-vis spectra show that the absorption intensity of the as-prepared samples was increased and the absorption range was also extended from 420 nm to approximately 600 nm. The H 2 production rate over 5 wt% SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 can reach 972.6 μmol·h -1 ·g -1 under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) using TEOA as the sacrifice agent and Pt as the electron trap, which is 2.9 and 25.6 times higher than those of the pristine g-C 3 N 4 and SnS 2 , respectively. According to the obtained PL spectra, photocurrent and EIS spectra, the enhanced performance for H 2 generation over the heterojunctions is primarily ascribed to the rapid charge transfer arising from the suitable band gap positions leading to an improved photocatalytic performance. The recycling experiments indicated that the as-prepared composites exhibit good stability in H 2 production. Additionally, a possible enhanced mechanism for H 2 evolution was deduced based on the results obtained by various characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties of SnSe and SnS Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Techniques for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariswan; Sutrisno, H.; Prasetyawati, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of SnSe and SnS semiconductors had been prepared by vacuum evaporation techniques. All prepared samples were characterized on their structure, optical, and electrical properties in order to know their application in technology. The crystal structure of SnSe and SnS was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument. The morphology and chemical composition were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive of X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The optical property such as band gap was determined by DR-UV-Vis (Diffuse Reflectance-Ultra Violet-Visible) spectroscopy, while the electrical properties were determined by measuring the conductivity by four probes method. The characterization results indicated that both SnSe and SnS thin films were polycrystalline. SnSe crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with the lattice parameters of a = 11.47 Å, b = 4.152 Å and c = 4.439 Å, while SnS had an orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameters of a = 4.317 Å, b = 11.647 Å and c = 3.981 Å. Band gaps (Eg) of SnSe and SnS were 1.63 eV and 1.35 eV, respectively. Chemical compositions of both thin films were non-stoichiometric. Molar ratio of Sn : S was close to ideal which was 1 : 0.96, while molar ratio of Sn : S was 1 : 0.84. The surface morphology described the arrangement of the grains on the surface of the thin film with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Color similarity on the surface of the SEM images proved a homogenous thin layer.

  6. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Robert A; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Blokland, Willem

    2011-02-14

    A high peak-power Q-switched laser has been used to monitor the ion beam profiles in the superconducting linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The laser beam suffers from position drift due to movement, vibration, or thermal effects on the optical components in the 250-meter long laser beam transport line. We have designed, bench-tested, and implemented a beam position stabilization system by using an Ethernet CMOS camera, computer image processing and analysis, and a piezo-driven mirror platform. The system can respond at frequencies up to 30 Hz with a high position detection accuracy. With the beam stabilization system, we have achieved a laser beam pointing stability within a range of 2 μrad (horizontal) to 4 μrad (vertical), corresponding to beam drifts of only 0.5 mm × 1 mm at the furthest measurement station located 250 meters away from the light source.

  8. Eco-friendly p-type Cu2SnS3 thermoelectric material: crystal structure and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yawei; Li, Chao; Huang, Rong; Tian, Ruoming; Ye, Yang; Pan, Lin; Koumoto, Kunihito; Zhang, Ruizhi; Wan, Chunlei; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    As a new eco-friendly thermoelectric material, copper tin sulfide (Cu2SnS3) ceramics were experimentally studied by Zn-doping. Excellent electrical transport properties were obtained by virtue of 3-dimensionally conductive network for holes, which are less affected by the coexistence of cubic and tetragonal phases that formed upon Zn subsitition for Sn; a highest power factors ~0.84 mW m−1 K−2 at 723 K was achieved in the 20% doped sample. Moreover, an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity close to theoretical minimum was observed in these samples, which could be related to the disordering of atoms in the coexisting cubic and tetragonal phases and the interfaces. Thanks to the phonon-glass-electron-crystal features, a maximum ZT ~ 0.58 was obtained at 723 K, which stands among the tops for sulfide thermoelectrics at the same temperature. PMID:27666524

  9. Structural and optical properties of Cu2SnS3 thin films obtained by SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut ASTAM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu2SnS3 thin films were obtained by annealing of SILAR deposited films at 350°C for 1 hour in sulphur atmosphere. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX and optical absorption measurements, before and after annealing. The XRD results showed that the annealing process transformed the crystal structure of the films from amorphous to polycrystalline. SEM images revealed that the surface morphology of films was changed after annealing while EDAX analysis showed that the films were excess in copper concentration before and after annealing. Optical absorption measurements confirmed that the direct band gap of films decreased from 1.27 eV to 1.21 eV with annealing.

  10. Microstructure and composition of a SNS Josephson junction using CaRuO3 as the metallic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, S.; Merkle, K.L.; Char, K.

    1994-10-01

    Superconductor - normal - superconductor (SNS) edge junctions consisting of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /CaRuO 3 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x were fabricated on (001) LaA1O 3 substrates. These devices display an excess interface resistance which is not well understood but is related to the SN interface and interlayer structure. High-resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the SN interface to determine the structure and possible interface defects. Energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed on the CaRuO 3 film and near interface regions to quantify the extent of interdiffusion between the CiRuO 3 and YBCO films. Changes in either the interface structure or the normal layer chemistry are expected to greatly influence the junction properties

  11. Mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS2 nanosheets as an advanced anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Ping; Lou, Feijian; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SnS 2 nanosheets densely and uniformly anchored on 3D mesoporous carbon matrix. •Unique structural characteristics of both 2D nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. •Markedly enhanced lithium storage capability by virtue of its structure superiority. -- Abstract: This paper reports a novel type of nanohybrid, mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS 2 nanosheets (MC-SnS 2 NSs), which integrates the structural characteristics of both two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the MC-SnS 2 NSs exhibits significantly enhanced cycling stability and rate capability by virtue of its unique structural superiority

  12. Programmed cell death in the leaves of the Arabidopsis spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D mutant correlates with increased expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael M.D.J.-M. Gaussand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different number of stomata than the wild-type. DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of cells in the necrotic spots and a significant increase of caspase-3 and caspase-6 like activities in sns-D leaf extracts indicated that the sns-D mutation caused programmed cell death (PCD. The integration of the activator T-DNA caused an increase of the expression level of At1g13020, which encodes the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2. The expression level of eIF4B2 was positively correlated with the severity of sns-D mutant phenotype. Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is indeed caused by activation tagging of eIF4B2. Thus, incorrect regulation of translation initiation may result in PCD.

  13. Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...

  14. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazideh, M.R., E-mail: Mohammadrezasazideh@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, R. Zarei, E-mail: r.zarei1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • SnS thin films produced by thermal evaporation method using glancing angle deposition technique. • At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range. • FESEM images showed drastic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle deposition. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  15. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  16. Researches on the Piston Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  17. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  18. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  19. SMARANDACHE NON-ASSOCIATIVE RINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2002-01-01

    An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...

  20. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  1. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  2. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  3. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  4. Ring lasers - a brief history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Used these days in inertial navigation, ring lasers are also used in recording the tiniest variations in the Earth's spin, as well in detecting earthquakes and even the drift of continents. How did it all begin?

  5. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  6. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  7. Synlig læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Introduktionen af John Hatties synlig læring i den danske skoleverden møder stadig meget kritik. Mange lærere og pædagoger oplever synlig læring som en tornado, der vil opsuge og ødelægge deres særlige danske udgave af den kontinentale dannelsestænkning, didaktik og pædagogik. Spørgsmålet er om...

  8. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  9. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  10. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  11. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  12. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  14. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  15. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  16. Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.

  17. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  18. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  19. Pure subrings of the rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    Pure subrings of finite rank in the Z-adic completion of the ring of integers and in its homomorphic images are considered. Certain properties of these rings are studied (existence of an identity element, decomposability into a direct sum of essentially indecomposable ideals, condition for embeddability into a csp-ring, etc.). Additive groups of these rings and conditions under which these rings are subrings of algebraic number fields are described. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  20. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  1. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  2. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  3. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  4. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Ma...

  5. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenide (ZnS, CdS and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Datskos, Panos G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Joshi, Pooran C; Meyer, Harry M III; Armstrong, Beth L; Kidder, Michelle; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji-Won

    2015-01-01

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. The capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm. (paper)

  6. Impact of deposition temperature on the properties of SnS thin films grown over silicon substrate—comparative study of structural and optical properties with films grown on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films were chemically deposited over silicon substrate in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The effects of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were evaluated. All films present an orthorhombic SnS structure with a preferred orientation along (040). High absorption coefficients (in the range of 105 cm-1) were found for all obtained films with an increase in α value when deposition temperature decreases. Furthermore, the effects of substrate type were investigated based on comparison between the present results and those obtained for SnS films grown under the same deposition conditions but over glass substrate. The results suggest that the formation of SnS films onto glass substrate is faster than onto silicon substrate. It is found that the substrate nature affects the orientation growth of the films and that SnS films deposited onto Si present more defects than those deposited onto glass substrate. The optical transmittance is also restricted by the substrate type, mostly below 1000 nm. The obtained results for SnS films onto silicon suggest their promising integration within optoelectronic devices.

  7. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  8. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  9. New Main Ring control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  11. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  12. Single-Crystal Growth of Cl-Doped n-Type SnS Using SnCl2 Self-Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yuki; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sugiyama, Taiki; Yanagi, Hiroshi

    2018-06-05

    SnS is a promising photovoltaic semiconductor owing to its suitable band gap energy and high optical absorption coefficient for highly efficient thin film solar cells. The most significant carnage is demonstration of n-type SnS. In this study, Cl-doped n-type single crystals were grown using SnCl 2 self-flux method. The obtained crystal was lamellar, with length and width of a few millimeters and thickness ranging between 28 and 39 μm. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the single crystals had an orthorhombic unit cell. Since the ionic radii of S 2- and Cl - are similar, Cl doping did not result in substantial change in lattice parameter. All the elements were homogeneously distributed on a cleaved surface; the Sn/(S + Cl) ratio was 1.00. The crystal was an n-type degenerate semiconductor with a carrier concentration of ∼3 × 10 17 cm -3 . Hall mobility at 300 K was 252 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and reached 363 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 142 K.

  13. Ultraviolet emission from low resistance Cu2SnS3/SnO2 and CuInS2/Sn:In2O3 nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karageorgou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available SnO2 and Sn:In2O3 nanowires were grown on Si(001, and p-n junctions were fabricated in contact with p-type Cu2S which exhibited rectifying current–voltage characteristics. Core-shell Cu2SnS3/SnO2 and CuInS2/Sn:In2O3 nanowires were obtained by depositing copper and post-growth processing under H2S between 100 and 500 °C. These consist mainly of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and cubic bixbyite In2O3. We observe photoluminescence at 3.65 eV corresponding to band edge emission from SnO2 quantum dots in the Cu2SnS3/SnO2 nanowires due to electrostatic confinement. The Cu2SnS3/SnO2 nanowires assemblies had resistances of 100 Ω similar to CuInS2/In2O3 nanowires which exhibited photoluminescence at 3.0 eV.

  14. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  15. Growth and characterization of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin film deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Sagade, A.A.; Gudage, Y.G.; Lokhande, C.D.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of tin disulfide (SnS 2 ) have been deposited by using low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The deposition parameters such as SILAR cycles (60), immersion time (20 s), rinsing time (10 s) and deposition temperature (27 o C) were optimized to obtain good quality of films. Physical investigations were made to study the structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the deposited SnS 2 thin films have hexagonal crystal structure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated elemental ratio close to those for tin disulfide (SnS (2.02) ). Uniform deposition of the material over the entire glass substrate was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the film is uniform and the substrate surface is well covered with small spherical grains merged in each other. A direct band gap of 2.22 eV was obtained. Photoluminescence (PL) showed two strong peaks corresponding to green and red emission. Ag/SnS 2 junction showed Schottky diode like I-V characteristics. The barrier height calculated was 0.22 eV. Thermoelectric power (TEP) properties showed that tin disulfide exhibits n-type conductivity

  16. Superconducting proton ring for PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, E.

    1979-01-01

    A powerful new facility for colliding beam physics could be provided by adding a proton storage ring in the range of several hundred GeV to the electron-positron storage ring PETRA at DESY. This can be achieved in an economic way utilizing the PETRA tunnel and taking advantage of the higher magnetic fields of superconducting magnets which would be placed above or below the PETRA magnets. A central field of 4 Tesla in the bending magnets corresponds to a proton energy of 225 GeV. (orig.)

  17. The Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    OpenAIRE

    von Hahn, Robert; Becker, Arno; Berg, Felix; Blaum, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Christian; Fadil, Hisham; Fellenberger, Florian; Froese, Michael; George, Sebastian; Göck, Jürgen; Grieser, Manfred; Grussie, Florian; Guerin, Elisabeth A.; Heber, Oded; Herwig, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion a...

  18. Supersymmetric rings in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Redi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of BPS string-like objects obtained by lifting monopole and dyon solutions of N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills theory to five dimensions. We present exact traveling wave solutions which preserve half of the supersymmetries. Upon compactification this leads to macroscopic BPS rings in four dimensions in field theory. Due to the fact that the strings effectively move in six dimensions the same procedure can also be used to obtain rings in five dimensions by using the hidden dimension

  19. Damping ring designs and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Decking, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The luminosity performance of a future linear collider (LC) will depend critically on the performance of the damping rings. The design luminosities of the current LC proposals require rings with very short damping times, large acceptance, low equilibrium emittance and high beam intensity. We discuss the design strategies for lattices achieving the goals of dynamical stability, examine the challenges for alignment and coupling correction, and consider a variety of collective effects that threaten to limit beam quality. We put the design goals in context by referring to the experience of operating facilities, and outline the further research and development that is needed

  20. Laparoscopic appendicectomy using endo-ring applicator and fallope rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Iyoob V; Maliekkal, Joji I

    2009-01-01

    Wider adoption of laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) is limited by problems in securing the appendiceal base as well as the cost and the duration compared with the open procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a new method for securing the appendiceal base in LA, so as to make the entire procedure simpler and cheaper, and hence, more popular. Twenty-five patients who were candidates for appendicectomy (emergency as well as elective) and willing for the laparoscopic procedure were selected for this study. Ports used were 10 mm at the umbilicus, 5 mm at the lower right iliac fossa, and 10 mm at the left iliac fossa. Extremely friable, ruptured, or turgid organs of diameters larger than 8 mm were excluded from the study. The mesoappendix was divided close to the appendix by diathermy. Fallope rings were applied to the appendiceal base using a special ring applicator, and the appendix was divided and extracted through the lumen of the applicator. The procedure was successful in 23 (92%) cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 20 minutes (15-32 minutes). There were no procedural complications seen during a median follow-up of two weeks. The equipment and rings were cheaper when compared with that of the standard methods of securing the base of the appendix. LA using fallope rings is a safe, simple, easy-to-learn, and economically viable method. (author)

  1. Effects of deposition period on the chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Wee Tee, Tan; Soon Min, Ho.; Nagalingam, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The influence of deposition period on the structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films were polycrystalline with prominent peak attributed to (221) plane of orthorhombic crystal structure. The films prepared at 80 min showed significant increased in the intensity of all diffractions. According to AFM images, these films indicated that the surface of substrate was covered completely. The obtained films also produced higher absorption characteristics when compared to the films prepared at other deposition periods based on optical absorption studies. The band gap values of films deposited at different deposition periods were in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV. Deposition for 80 min was found to be the optimum condition to produce good quality thin films under the current conditions. (author).

  2. Examination techniques for non-magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metala, M.J.; Kilpatrick, N.L.; Frank, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Until the introduction of 18Mn18Cr rings a few years ago, most non-magnetic steel rings for generator rotors were made from 18Mn5Cr alloy steel, which is highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of water. This, the latest in a series of papers on the subject of non-magnetic rings by the authors' company, provides a discussion of nondestructive examination of 18Mn5Cr rings for stress corrosion distress. With rings on the rotor, fluorescent penetrant, ultrasonic and special visual techniques are applied. With rings off the rotor, the fluorescent penetrant technique is used, with and without stress enhancement

  3. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  4. WR stars with ring nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that most of usually apparently single nitrogen WR stars with ring emission nebulae around them (WN + Neb) are a probable product of the evolution of a massive close binary with initial masses of components exceeding approximately 20 solar masses. (Auth.)

  5. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  6. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  7. Ring laser frequency biasing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A ring laser cavity including a magnetically saturable member for differentially phase shifting the contradirectional waves propagating in the laser cavity, the phase shift being produced by the magneto-optic interaction occurring between the light waves and the magnetization in the cavity forming component as the light waves are reflected therefrom is described

  8. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  9. Progressiv læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    SAMMENFATNING I denne evalueringsrapport præsenterer Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling ved Aarhus Universitet (herefter NCK) og Rambøll Management Consulting (herefter Rambøll) den værktøjsspecifikke evaluering af Progressiv Læring som pædagogisk værktøj for de ni implementeringsskoler i s...

  10. Wands of the Black Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0001-7701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P017; GA AV ČR KJB1019403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : algebraic classification * Petrov classification * black ring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2005

  11. Substitution of matrices over rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given commutative ring with an identity element, we define and study the substitution of a matrix with entries in into a matrix polynomial or rational function over . A Bezout-type remainder theorem and a "partial-substitution rule" are derived and used to obtain a number of results. The

  12. Exercises in modules and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2009-01-01

    This volume offers a compendium of exercises of varying degree of difficulty in the theory of modules and rings. All exercises are solved in full detail. Each section begins with an introduction giving the general background and the theoretical basis for the problems that follow.

  13. On commutativity theorems for rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. S. Abujabal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with unity. It is proved that if R satisfies the polynomial identity [xny−ymxn,x]=0(m>1,n≥1, then R is commutative. Two or more related results are also obtained.

  14. Annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors as a new route for single phase SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.G., E-mail: martasousa@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da, E-mail: antonio.cunha@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, P.A., E-mail: pafernandes@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-04-01

    Tin sulphide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates through the annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors. Three different approaches to the annealing were compared and the resulting films thoroughly studied. One series of precursors was annealed in a tubular furnace directly exposed to a flux of sulphur vapour plus forming gas, N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2}, and at a constant pressure of 500 mbar. The other two series of identical precursors were annealed in the same furnace but inside a graphite box with and without elemental sulphur evaporation again in the presence of N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2} and at the same pressure as for the sulphur flux experiments. Different maximum annealing temperatures for each set of samples, in the range of 300–570 °C, were tested to study their effects on the properties of the final films. The resulting phases were structurally investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in sulphur flux produced films where SnS{sub 2} was dominant for temperatures up to 480 °C. Increasing the temperature to 530 °C and 570 °C led to films where the dominant phase became Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box with sulphur vapour at temperatures in the range between 300 °C and 480 °C the films are multi-phase, containing Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, SnS{sub 2} and SnS. For high annealing temperatures of 530 °C and 570 °C the films have SnS as the dominant phase. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box without sulphur vapour at 300 °C and 360 °C the films are essentially amorphous, at 420 °C SnS{sub 2} is the dominant phase. For temperatures of 480 °C and 530 °C SnS is the dominant phase but also same residual SnS{sub 2} and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phases are observed. For annealing at 570 °C, according to the XRD results the films appear to be single phase SnS. The composition was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy being

  15. 21 CFR 870.3800 - Annuloplasty ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An annuloplasty ring is a rigid or flexible ring implanted around the mitral or tricuspid heart valve for reconstructive treatment of valvular insufficiency. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  16. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  17. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  18. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  19. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  20. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.