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Sample records for smoking habits quitting

  1. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  3. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  5. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, A.; Naqvi, S.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  6. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Quit Smoking? What's in this article? Where ... addictive drug. But with the right approach , you can overcome the cravings. Where to Start Smokers often ...

  7. Counseling parents to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Free, Teresa A

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that 20%-50% of adult smokers reside with children, and the majority of these smokers (70%) continue to smoke inside their homes despite the adverse health effects of second hand smoke (SHS) for their children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997). Smoking is more prevalent among parents with lower incomes and less education (U.S. Surgeon General's Report, 2002a). Young persons, ages 20-40 in the family child-rearing stage, are more likely to be smokers. However, they usually have less time and financial resources for quitting smoking. To prevent the adverse health effects of SHS for children, pediatric nurses must provide parents with accurate information on affordable smoking cessation education resources. Evidenced-based smoking cessation guidelines, the cost and efficacy of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacological aids, and essential counseling tips for parents are reviewed.

  8. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  9. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  10. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  11. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  12. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  13. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  14. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  15. [The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.

  16. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  17. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  18. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  19. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  20. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  1. YouTube as a source of quitting smoking information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backinger, Cathy L; Pilsner, Alison M; Augustson, Erik M; Frydl, Andrea; Phillips, Todd; Rowden, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To conduct analyses to determine the extent to which YouTube videos posted specific to smoking cessation were actually about quitting smoking and if so, whether or not they portrayed evidence-based practices (EBPs). In August 2008, researchers identified YouTube videos by search strategies, 'relevance' and 'view count' using the following three search terms: 'stop smoking', 'quit smoking' and 'smoking cessation (n=296 for full sample and n=191 for unique videos). Overall, almost 60% of videos contained a message about quitting smoking. Differences were found across search terms for videos about quitting smoking, with 'stop smoking' yielding the highest percentage (80.8%) of videos about quitting smoking. Almost half of the videos (48.9%) contained EBPs for cessation strategies; however, a significant portion contained either non--EBPs (28.4%) or both EBPs and non-EBPs (22.7%). The number of views per an individual video across the six categories ranged from a low of 8 in the 'relevance' strategy and 'smoking cessation' search term to a high of 1,247,540 in the 'view count' strategy and 'stop smoking' search term. Of the top three most viewed videos by strategy and search term, 66.7% included a specific mention of quitting smoking and, of these, the majority included EBPs. Results highlight the need to develop and upload videos containing EBPs both to increase the overall proportion of EBP videos in all categories, particularly in 'quit smoking' and 'stop smoking.' Research is needed to study whether YouTube videos influence knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding quitting smoking.

  2. THYROID FUNCTION Quitting smoking-transient risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for Graves disease. However, Carle et al. have demonstrated that individuals have a transient increased risk of developing overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in the first 2 years after quitting smoking. The mechanisms involved in these two opposing effects of smoking on the

  3. Smoking - tips on how to quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SOME GOALS Set short-term quitting goals and reward yourself when you meet them. Every day, put ... surgery - discharge Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge ...

  4. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  5. Smoking Habit in Severe Obese after bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Carratù, Pierluigi; Faraone, Stanislao; Cerbone, Maria Rosaria; Cristiano, Stefano; Zedda, Anna; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric procedures provide an effective means of short term weight loss and sustained weight control for the morbidly obese. The effect of bariatric procedures on smoking habit in obese subjects is not well known. Therefore, we examined the short term effect of bariatric surgery on smoking habit of severe obese patients up to 12 months from the intervention. Smoking habit was assessed in a cohort of 78 morbid smoking obese patients followed at our clinic for bariatric procedures. They underwent non surgical intra-gastric balloon (IB) or surgical procedures such as lap-band laparoscopic surgery (LAGB) or sleeve gastrectomy/gastric by-pass (SPG). Subjects were administered a written questionnaire about their smoking habit before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedures. No differences were found among the three groups at 6 and 12 months after the procedures (IB 21 %, LAGB 6 %, SPG 5 %; and IB 14 %, LAGB 3 %, SPG 5 %). Only after 3 months, the rate of quitting of the IB group was higher than LAGB and SPG groups (36 %, 6 % and 5 %, respectively; p = 0.02). Bariatric procedures have no effects on smoking habit of moderate-to-heavy smoker severe obese patients. The use of other traditional smoking cessation methods in patients undergone to bariatric procedures should be implemented.

  6. Educational inequalities in smoking: the role of initiation versus quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Vida

    2013-05-01

    The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Using data from 31 waves of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (N = 587,174), the analyses show the relative likelihood of being a never versus former smoker by education, sex, and age from 1966 to 2010 and for birth cohorts from 1920 to 1979. The analyses also describe differences in the cumulative probability of quitting over the life course, and the role of initiation versus quitting in producing educational gaps in smoking. The results show that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking. Differences in former smoking play a small and decreasing role in producing these gaps. This is true across the life course, whether measured at age 25 or age 50, and for both men and women. While the prevalence and age patterns of former smoking by education converge across birth cohorts, differences in never smoking by education increase dramatically. At the population level, educational gaps in adult smoking are produced by the combination of inequalities in initiation and quitting, with differences in initiation playing a larger role in producing the observed gaps. The portion of the gap explained by differences in quitting is itself a function of educational differences in initiation. Thus, educational gradients in adult smoking are tethered to experiences in adolescence. These findings have important implications for both understanding and addressing disparities in this important health behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  9. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  10. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormo...

  11. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  12. Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit: The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Shadel, William G; Klein, David J

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking. Data were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking. Bivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies. Results suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  14. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  15. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  16. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  17. [Motivation to quit smoking among ex-smoker university workers and students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, V; Sotomayor, H; Cruz, M; Naveas, R

    2001-05-01

    In Chile, 10% of deaths in adults are directly attributed to smoking. To identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to quit smoking among a group of subjects that quitted without external help. The motivations to quit smoking were measured using the 20 items Reasons for Quitting Scale (RFQ), in 145 ex smokers (80 students and 65 workers at The University of Conception). The scale identifies intrinsic motivations in the categories health and self control and extrinsic motivations in the categories immediate reinforcement and social pressure. Factorial analysis with orthogonal rotation of the 20 items of the scale, suggested an optimal solution with five factors, that had a maximal impact of 0.43 and explained the motivations in up to a 66% of workers and 65% of students. The factors with the greater impact were the items of immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The category health had only a 6% influence in the modification of smoking habits. The most important motivations to quit smoking in this sample were an immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The analysis of motivations will help to orient smoking cessation programs.

  18. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  19. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieminska, Alicja; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Jassem, Ewa; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Ucinska, Romana; Chelminska, Marta

    2008-08-04

    The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers) who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76%) used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001), mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%). The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%), personal health problems (32%) and social reasons (32%). However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3%) abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is a need for a broader professional help for them. There is

  20. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  1. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  2. Exposure to smoking in soap operas and movies: smoking cessation and attempts to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Harbertson, Judith; Pérez, Ramona L; Novotny, Thomas

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate whether there was an association between seeing an actor smoke in telenovelas, Brazilian films, or international films, and trying to quit and quitting among adult Brazilian smokers. Data from 39,425 participants in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used. Quit ratio (former smoker/former smoker + ever smoker) and proportions of current, former, and never smokers were calculated. Multivariable weighted regression was used to determine significant associations between quitting smoking and exposure to telenovelas and films. For current smokers, the odds of trying to quit were significantly higher among those who saw an actor smoking in a Brazilian film. Those who believed smoking caused serious illness and had rules in the home prohibiting smoking were significantly more likely to have tried to quit or had quit smoking. Exposure to smoking in the media may be different in adults than adolescents. Influential factors for trying to quit and quitting are rules prohibiting smoking at home, belief that smoking causes serious illness, and hearing about dangers of smoking in media.

  3. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prisoners and cigarettes or ‘imprisoned in cigarettes’? What helps prisoners quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Elias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was, despite the special characteristics of prisons, to identify the features which led prisoners who attended the Smoking Cessation Centre at the Kassavetia Detention Centre in Volos (region of Thessaly, in the central part of mainland Greece to quit smoking. Methods Personal interviews with 204 male prisoners irrespective of smoking habitus over the period June 2008 to December 2010 were obtained. Information about medical history, history of tobacco use and addiction to narcotic use was obtained and imprisonment status was recorded. Pharmaceutical treatment (Varenicline and counselling or only counselling were suggested as alternative strategies to them in order to help quit smoking. SPSS v15.0 software was employed, descriptive statistics were used, and a X2 independence test and Student’s t-test were performed. Results Of the sample examined, 75.5% (154 were smokers. They were mainly Greeks (51.5%, single (53.4% and had not gratuated from a high school (secondary education level (70.6%. 59.75% begun smoking early ( ≤14 years of age and 64.9% were highly addicted according to Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. 74% (114 of all smokers at the prison attended the Smoking Cessation Centre. Of them, 30.7% were able to quit smoking at 3 months but 1 year later there were 20.2% ex-smokers. The key characteristics of those who were able to be ex-smokers were a change in smoking habits (decreased compared to when free (p = .001, previous attempts to quit (while incarcerated and in general (p = .001, average dependence levels (p  Conclusions Average dependence, a past free of addictive substance abuse and a better environment of daily living for certain prisoners (as far as the number of cellmates was concerned had a catalytic impact on prisoners finally managed to quit smoking.

  5. Smoking habits in secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, C; Saleiro, S; Marinho, A; Fernandes, G; Gomes, I

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version). A total of 1,770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years), mainly female, (58%), answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6%) were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7%) considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1%) were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2%) had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8%) considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents' and friends' behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking.

  6. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 18...

  7. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  8. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  10. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  13. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  14. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  15. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Sarbit, Gayl; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Currie, Leanne M; Schmid, Jonathan; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-04-20

    /64, 72%). Participants reported using an average of 8.76 (SD 4.08) of the 15 resources available on the website. At 6-month follow-up, 16 of the 67 participants (24%) had quit, 27 (40%) had reduced their smoking and 24 (36%) had not changed their smoking habits. Repeated measures general linear model showed a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked between the 3-month and 6-month follow-up (F1,63=6.41, P=.01, eta squared=0.09). Number of resources used on the website, quit confidence, nicotine dependence and age significantly predicted number of quit attempts by those still smoking at 6 months (F4,45=2.73, P=.04), with number of resources used being the strongest predictor (P=.02). The results of this research support efforts to integrate gender-sensitive approaches in smoking cessation interventions and indicate that this novel Web-based resource has potential in supporting men's smoking cessation efforts.

  16. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  17. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  18. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  19. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  20. Experiences of young smokers in quitting smoking in twin cities of Pakistan: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Kanwal; Oyebode, Oyinlola; Masud, Haleema

    2018-04-10

    Smoking is highly prevalent in Pakistan claiming the lives of over 100,000 individuals every year. A significant proportion of smokers (24.7%) make an attempt to quit each year but 97.4% fail to quit successfully. Little is known about the reasons for, and experiences of, failed quit attempts. This study was carried out to explore the experiences of young male smokers in quitting smoking in the twin cities of Pakistan METHOD: A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A total of 11 participants were interviewed. All study participants were male and had made at least one quit attempt. Study participants were a mix of smokers who failed to quit smoking, intermittent smokers and successful quitters. Streubert's (1991) method of phenomenology was followed during data analysis. The experiences of smokers while smoking "the smoking phase" have major effects on their journey towards quitting smoking. The smoking phase consists of three major stages: contact with initial smoking stimuli, the journey from first puff to enjoying smoking and then finally smoking becoming part of life. However, the journey towards quitting smoking is not as simple as the journey towards becoming a smoker. Instead, smokers get trapped in three overlapping cycles of smoking and quit attempts: smoking & forced quitting, smoking & intentional quitting, and smoking & intermittent smoking before successful quitting. Breaking the cycle is not easy in the presence of trapping factors (addiction, high availability, easy affordability, conducive social setup and low perceived risks of smoking). Three factors play a major role in breaking these cycles which are strong will power, continuous peer support and avoidance of smokers' company. A young smoker, during his experience of quitting smoking gets entrapped in several overlapping cycles of smoking & quit attempts before successful quitting. There are known entrapping factors as well as factors

  1. [Evaluation of motivation to quit smoking in outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokłosa, Anna; Skoczylas, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Anna; Bednarek, Michał; Krzyzanowski, Krystian; Górecka, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The success in smoking cessation depends not only on a method of treatment but also on patient motivation. The aim of this study was to estimate the motivation and the main reason to quit smoking among outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic. One hundred and eleven patients (50 men and 61 women), mean age 58, filled in a motivation test, nicotine dependence test and a questionnaire of the clinic. The main motivation to quit was for the health reasons (83%). Mean motivation test result was 6.93; mean nicotine addiction evaluated in dependence test was 5.49. Eighty seven percent of patients were ready to quit smoking during one month (36% in 24 hours; 23% in one week; 28% in four weeks). There was no significant difference between men and women. The main motivation to quit smoking were the health reasons as well among men as women. There was no correlation between the readiness to quit smoking determined as time to quit attempt and the motivation test.

  2. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  3. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  4. Smoking habit and benign breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewulska-Bokiniec, A.

    1995-01-01

    The possible association between cigarette smoking and the risk of benign breast disease (BBD) was assessed in a case-control study conducted in Gdansk, Poland, between 1990 and 1994. The study compared 160 women with newly diagnosed BBD admitted to the Gdansk Cancer Outpatients Clinic and 160 controls, women from outpatients clinics at the Medical University of Gdansk. There was no convincing evidence of an association, either positive or negative, between various indicators of smoking habit (smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking) and the risk of BBD. Slightly lower relative risk (RRs) of BBD in ex-smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day (RR = 0.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4-2.2), and with duration of smoking >= (RR = 0.1-3.4), were also observed in current smokers (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.5), and (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-3.4), but these findings were not statistically significant. (author)

  5. [Predictors for 'successful quitting smoking' among males carried out in a smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi; Liu, Miao; Chen, Hongyan

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the predictors for 'quitting' among male smokers in a smoking cessation clinic. The target population consisted of smokers who volunteered to seek treatment for cessation at our clinic in Beijing. Smokers received face-to-face counseling and psychological intervention at the first visit by trained physicians and standardized telephone discussion, was carried out with counselors at 1 week, 1/3/6 months a follow-up study. The main outcomes would involve 'successful quitting' at the 7-day point, continuous quit rates at 3 and 6 months as well as the predictors of 'quitting'. From October 2008 to December 2012, we collected 355 eligible male smokers among whom 255 had completed the 6-month follow-up program. Results from the analysis (n = 255) showed that the quitting rates at the 7-day point and 3 months were 34.9% and 25.5%, while the rates were 25.1% and 18.3% among the 355 smokers who had the intention for treatment. Data from the stepwise logistic regression model analysis showed that lower exhaled CO level at the first visit, higher perceived confidence in quitting, lower expenditure on cigarettes and had diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases by physicians, were important predictors for quitting smoking. The main reasons of failure to quit were addiction of tobacco cigarette, craving for cigarettes to relieve pressure from work, peer influence from other smokers, lack of mental preparation and perseverance to quit, etc. Smokers who smoked less cigarettes, had higher perceived confidence in quitting and had physician-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases seemed easier to quit. Regular follow-up intervention services for smokers should be established to enhance the motivation for quitting so as to create a favorable environment for the smokers.

  6. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  7. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  8. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  9. The effect of quitting smoking on the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirov, B S; Schiødt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    smokers at the time of diagnosis and were treated surgically. Patients were advised to quit smoking at each visit. The change of smoking habits and occurrence of unfavorable events were noted during follow-up. Descriptive statistics, Fischer's exact test, Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test, and Cox......The aim of this study was to examine if cessation of smoking after surgical excision of oral potentially malignant lesions in smokers reduced the risk of recurrences, development of new lesions or malignancies. 51 patients with oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia were included. They were daily...... proportional hazards model were used for analysis. 16 patients (31%) quit smoking during the observation period. Only one quitter (6%) developed recurrence compared with 11 continuing smokers (33%) (p

  10. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond "True" or "False" to the statement: "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next." Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next" was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

  11. Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years, mainly female, (58%, answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6% were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7% considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1% were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2% had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8% considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents’ and friends’ behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking. Resumo: Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de

  12. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behavior and responses to a smoking ban

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how ‘smoker’ and ‘non-smoker’ self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Design: Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Main outcome measures: Intention to quit, quit attempts and ‘rejecting...

  13. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  14. Evaluation of smoking habits among Turkish family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Davut; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aydin, Leyla Yilmaz; Ozturk, Serkan; Set, Turan; Eroz, Recep; Celer, Ahmet; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2014-02-01

    Smoking is still a major public health problem in Turkey. It was aimed to investigate smoking prevalence and habits among Turkish family physicians. Cross-sectional study among physicians working in primary care settings was established. A self-administered study survey was applied. The surveys of 1233 family physicians were analyzed. The study included 704 (57.1%) male and 529 (42.9%) female physicians. Mean age (SD) was 38.94 (7.01) years. The proportions of the current, the former and never smokers among family physicians were 34.1%, 14.7% and 51.3%, respectively. Mean age (SD) of smoking initiation was 21.73 (5.04) years. Mean duration (SD) of smoking use was 14.61 (7.29) years. Proportion of current smoker in male physicians was quite higher than in female counterparts (36.9% vs. 30.4%; p smoking initiation in female was 21.42 (4.59) years, but in male was 22.33 (4.98) years (p = 0.36). In female physicians, mean age (SD) for quitting cigarette smoking was found higher than in male (35.85 (6.35) years vs. 33.09 (6.45) years; p = 0.004). No significant difference between nicotine dependence (mean score (SD) of 3.76 (2.48) vs. 3.65 (2.82); p > 0.05) and mean (SD) unit of cigarette a day (18.34(6.03) vs. 17.17 ± 6.79; p > 0.05) between genders was observed. The number of male physicians who started smoking before faculty was higher than female counterparts (15.5% vs. 8.6%; p = 0.023). In conclusion, the smoking prevalence among Turkish family physicians is considerably high.

  15. Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Serafini, Paola; Giordano, Livia; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2010-04-01

    A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, passive exposure and smoking were associated before and during pregnancy. Nearly all women agreed that the ban on smoking in public was reasonable and stated it had influenced their smoking habit or exposure. Despite this lip service, both studies highlighted that smoking in pregnancy remains a problem for many women, as about 10 per cent did not quit and over 50 per cent relapsed after delivery.

  16. Measurement of factors that negatively influence the outcome of quitting smoking among patients with COPD: psychometric analyses of the Try To Quit Smoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Törnkvist, Lena; Gilljam, Hans; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-12-01

    To test internal consistency and factor structure of a brief instrument called Trying to Quit smoking. The most effective treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to quit smoking. Constant thoughts about quitting and repeated quit attempts can generate destructive feelings and make it more difficult to quit. Development and psychometric testing of the Trying to Quit smoking scale. The Trying to Quit smoking, an instrument designed to assess pressure-filled states of mind and corresponding pressure-relief strategies, was tested among 63 Swedish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among these, the psychometric properties of the instrument were analysed by Exploratory Factor Analyses. Fourteen items were included in the factor analyses, loading on three factors labelled: (1) development of pressure-filled mental states; (2) use of destructive pressure-relief strategies; and (3) ambivalent thoughts when trying to quit smoking. These three factors accounted for more than 80% of the variance, performed well on the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and had high internal consistency.

  17. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  18. Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Haw, Sally; Pell, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. Methods We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed in Scotland in 2003–2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. Results NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001) higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001). Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July–September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001) more than expected from the underlying trend. Conclusions Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support. PMID:22110585

  19. How to Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be used to smoking when drinking beer, wine, liquor, or mixed drinks, and you may associate ... Related Resources Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting Where To Get Help When You ...

  20. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  2. Cigarette smoking and quit attempts among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Moreno, Patricia Gonzalez; Rao, Smriti; Garfein, Richard S; Novotny, Thomas E; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-12-01

    Injection drug use and cigarette smoking are major global health concerns. Limited data exist regarding cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among injection drug users (IDUs) in low- and middle-income countries to inform the development of cigarette smoking interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs were recruited through community outreach and administered in-person interviews. Multivariable Poisson regression models were constructed to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) for quit attempts. Of the 670 participants interviewed, 601 (89.7%) were current smokers. Of these, median number of cigarettes smoked daily was 10; 190 (31.6%) contemplated quitting smoking in the next 6 months; 132 (22.0%) had previously quit for ≥1 year; and 124 (20.6%) had made a recent quit attempt (lasting ≥1 day during the previous 6 months). In multivariable analysis, recent quit attempts were positively associated with average monthly income (≥3,500 pesos [US$280] vs. <1,500 pesos [US$120]; PR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.57-3.36), smoking marijuana (PR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), and smoking heroin (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.23-2.78), and they were negatively associated with number of cigarettes smoked daily (PR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94-0.98). One out of 5 IDUs attempted to quit cigarette smoking during the previous 6 months. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of the association between drug use patterns and cigarette smoking quit attempts, including the higher rate of quit attempts observed among IDUs who smoke marijuana or heroin compared with IDUs who do not smoke these substances.

  3. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  6. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  8. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and withdrawal symptoms decrease. Overview Nicotine lozenges are tablets that contain a small amount of nicotine (2 ... Smoking hazards and cessation. In: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders ...

  9. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicat...

  10. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  12. Helping cancer patients to quit smoking by understanding their risk perception, behavior, and attitudes related to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William H C; Chan, Sophia S C; Lam, T H

    2014-08-01

    Evidence shows that smoking is a major cause of cancer, and cancer patients who continue smoking are at greater risk for all causes of mortality, cancer recurrence, and second primary cancers. Nevertheless, many cancer patients still smoke and are not willing to quit. This study aimed at understanding the needs and concerns of current and ex-smoking cancer patients, including their risk perceptions, and the behavior and attitudes related to smoking. A qualitative research was conducted in an oncology outpatient clinic. A one-to-one semi-structured interview was conducted with current Chinese smokers and ex-smokers after they had been diagnosed with cancer. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing a total of 20 current smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A total of 241 patients who were smokers prior to their diagnosis of cancer were identified. Of 241 patients, 208 (86.31%) quitted and 33 (13.69%) continued smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis. In general, patients who refused to quit smoking subsequent to a cancer diagnosis thought that the perceived barriers to quitting outweighed the perceived benefits of quitting. In contrast, most cancer patients who quit after their cancer diagnoses thought that the perceived benefits of quitting greatly outweighed the perceived barriers to quitting. It is vital that healthcare professionals should help cancer patients to quit smoking. Understanding how current smokers and ex-smokers perceive the risks of smoking, and their behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking is an essential prerequisite for the design of an effective smoking cessation intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  14. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  15. Love conquers all but nicotine: Spousal peer effects on the decision to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is

  16. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  17. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  18. Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information and resources, including Create My Quit Plan , smartphone apps , and text message programs Call the NCI ... 2017. Hatsukami DK, Stead LF, Gupta PC. Tobacco addiction. Lancet 2008; 371(9629):2027–2038. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  19. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  20. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  1. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  2. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  3. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  4. The applicability of the theory of planned behavior to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S C; Lanese, R R

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces was conducted. Subjects were randomly selected from three workplaces in southern Taiwan. Those from a large public steel-manufacturing company were used for model building, and those from two private auto-parts-manufacturing companies served to cross-validate the model. Eligible subjects were divided into three study samples: a learning sample and two test samples. Three predictors--priority of quitting, past behavior (measured as previous quit attempt), and habit (measured as nicotine dependence)--were added to the TPB model. The results of this study show that TPB based on the learning sample fit well in another sample from the same workplace but poorly in other workplaces. When priority of quitting and past behavior were added to the TPB model, prediction to other workplaces significantly improved. Habit had no significant contribution to the intention to quit in the TPB model. Detailed discussions of the results are provided.

  5. Twitter=quitter? An analysis of Twitter quit smoking social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Pechmann, Cornelia; Kim, Romina; Leonhardt, James M

    2012-07-01

    Widely popular, Twitter, a free social networking and micro-blogging service, offers potential for health promotion. This study examined the activity of Twitter quit smoking social network accounts. A cross-sectional analysis identified 153 activated Twitter quit smoking accounts dating back to 2007 and examined recent account activity for the month of August 2010. The accounts had a median of 155 followers and 82 total tweets per account; 49% of accounts had >100 tweets. Posted content was largely inconsistent with clinical guidelines; 48% linked to commercial sites for quitting smoking and 43% had tweets on e-cigarettes. In August 2010, 81 of the accounts (53%) were still active. Though popular for building quit smoking social networks, many of the Twitter accounts were no longer active, and tweet content was largely inconsistent with clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to examine the effectiveness of Twitter for supporting smoking cessation.

  6. Exercise Facilitates Smoking Cessation Indirectly via Intention to Quit Smoking: Prospective Cohort Study Among a National Sample of Young Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the specific association between exercise and smoking cessation via smoking-mediated intentions to quit smoking among a national sample of young daily smokers in the United States. Prospective cohort study over a 2-year period, with daily smokers assessed across all 50 states in the United States. Data from the 2003 to 2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used. A total of 1175 young adult smokers aged between 18 and 24 years. Baseline exercise and intent to quit smoking were assessed via validated survey measures. Smoking status at the 2-year follow-up period was assessed via survey assessment. After adjustments, meeting exercise guidelines at baseline was associated with an increased baseline intent to quit smoking among this national sample of daily smokers (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.07; P = .01). After adjustments, those with a baseline intent to quit smoking had a 71% increased odds ratio (OR) of being a nonsmoker at the 2-year follow-up (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20-2.44; P = .003). Baseline exercise was not associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60-1.28; P = .50). In this nationally representative sample of young daily smokers, there was a positive association between exercise participation and intention to quit smoking. Baseline intent to quit smoking was independently associated with nonsmoking status at a 2-year follow-up. Thus, this indirect link between exercise and smoking status may be partially explained by the influence of exercise engagement on smoking-specific intentions.

  7. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  8. Exploring socio-contextual factors associated with male smoker’s intention to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker’s intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Results Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–6.82. In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11–5.10. Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07–3.46. Conclusions A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.

  9. "After all - It doesn't kill you to quit smoking"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of literature demonstrates internet-based smoking cessation interventions as a promising aid in helping people quit smoking. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these interventions influence the cessation process are still relatively unknown. Several studies have...... indicated blogging as a potential source in providing social support to users of internet-based smoking cessation interventions and thereby enhance their change of succeeding in quitting. Objective: The study aimed to investigate themes discussed on a blog in an internet-based smoking cessation intervention....... Conclusions: The blog offers a unique platform for informal conversations about quitting smoking and is important in providing social support to people in a smoking cessation process....

  10. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  11. Factors Affecting the Decision to Quit Smoking of the Participants of a Hospital-Based Smoking Cessation Program in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Georgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect people who are in the process of quitting smoking. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 110 participants in a smoking cessation program (SCP of a hospital in Thessaloniki Greece. Instruments of data collection were: i the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and ii the Fragerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. ANOVA tests between the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire relating to the smokers’ determination to quit smoking applied. Results: Work satisfaction was related to whether the participants had difficulty to smoke in places that prohibited smoking and to how many cigarettes they smoked per day. If a non-smoker partner was urging the participant to quit smoking, it affected the hours of the day when the respondents smoked more cigarettes. Pressure from a non-smoking spouse was a deterrent from smoking many cigarettes during morning hours. Those participants who consumed alcohol smoked cigarettes containing higher levels of nicotine. Conclusion: Smoking cessation is a difficult process which is influenced by many factors such as educational level, work satisfaction and the presence of a partner.

  12. Smoking-related health behaviors of employees and readiness to quit: basis for health promotion interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Carol H; Plach, Sandra K; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp; Cashin, Susan E; Kelber, Sheryl; Cisler, Ron A; Weis, Jo M

    2005-06-01

    This report describes patterns of cigarette smoking and interest in smoking cessation programs among employees in a public worksite (n = 6,000) and a private worksite (n = 14,000). Of the 622 employees who attended an employee assistance program (EAP) orientation, 110 (18%) were current smokers. A significantly greater proportion of public employees smoked cigarettes, smoked more heavily, and evaluated their health more poorly compared to private employees. Smokers in both sites were over-represented in unskilled positions. Regardless of worksite, respondents who smoked had similar desires to quit or cut down and were annoyed by the comments of others, felt guilty about smoking, awakened with a desire to smoke, and felt they had a smoking problem. Overall, more than one third of individuals were interested in joining a smoking cessation program. Occupational health nurses may use these findings to design and implement smoking cessation interventions in their workplaces.

  13. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States, especially the use of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Examples of new and different tobacco and nicotine products and devices include the following: E-cigarettes. Small cigars . Water pipes (hookahs) for smoking tobacco. Flavored smokeless ...

  14. [Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Aline Farias; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2006-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of smoking dependence and to characterize social demographic data, habits and attitudes of young smokers. Answered the questionnairel02 students from Salvador, State of Bahia, of which 11 were smokers. Their mean age and the age in which they first smoked were 18.2 and 13.4 years respectively. Most of them were male, in the first year of senior high school, of brown skin color and had close relatives who smoke. The majority of those young smokers had been advised about the risks of smoking at home and in school, but few had knowledge about the benefits of quitting. Almost half of them had been smoking for more than three years and had started to smoke out of curiosity. More than half of them smoked one cigarette per day, with low levels of nicotine, bought the cigarettes in shops, and wanted and tried to quit smoking, but never succeeded. The degree of dependence was low for most of them. This study offers hints for nurses to act against smoking with young adults.

  15. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  16. Smoking Habits among Greek University Students after the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria; Nanou, Anastasia; Vasilopoulos, Christos; Kourakos, Michael; Skliros, Efstathios; Toska, Aikaterini; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2017-05-01

    Background: University students worldwide seem to have increased rates of smoking, alcohol abuse, binge drinking episodes and harmful consumption trends, raising a serious public health issue. The aim of the present study was to investigate university students’ smoking habits and exposure to secondary smoke amid a financial crisis. Methods: The present descriptive, correlational analysis was conducted at the University of Peloponnese. Results: The average age of the sample (n=203) was 24.9 years (±7.6 years) with 36.0% of the participants (n=73) being postgraduate students. Some 51.2% (n=104) of the participants said they didn’t smoke and 46.3% (n=94, p=0.003) reported no secondary smoke exposure during the past week at home. The majority of the remainder initiated smoking at age 16-17 (48.5%, n=48), and 64.6% (n=42) said the financial crisis did not lead them to change their smoking habits. Conclusions: The majority of students support smoking ban laws in enclosed public spaces, but also their replies highlighted poor implementation on behalf of the state and the authorities. The financial crisis did not appear to have affected student smoking habits. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  18. Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Ok-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    Smoking rates among Korean adult males is still high despite multifaceted efforts to reduce it. In Korea, there have been several studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education for inpatients, health check-ups, and smoking cessation clinics. However, there haven't been any studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education conducted outside the hospital. This study investigated effectiveness of brief education on smoking cessation with an expiratory carbon monoxide (CO) measurement outside the hospital among adult male office-workers in Korea. From April 1st to May 10th, 2012, we conducted a controlled trial among 95 adult male office workers over the age of 19 who smoke outside, in a public place in Seoul by cluster sampling. For the education group, we provided smoking cessation education for about 5 to 10 minutes, measured the expiratory CO level, and made the subjects complete questionnaires, while only self-help materials on quitting smoking were given to the control group. After 4 weeks, we evaluated the change in the level of motivation or success to quit smoking in both groups via e-mail or mobile phone. In the education group, the level of motivation to quit smoking was improved significantly. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of improved motivation to quit smoking in the education group was 28.10 times higher than that of the control group. Brief education on smoking cessation with expiratory CO measurement conducted outside the hospital could enhance the level of motivation to quit smoking.

  19. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  20. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with γ-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by γ-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations.

  1. Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking in a sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Seng, Elizabeth K; Esan, Hannah; Shuter, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) smoke at high prevalences and experience significant smoking-related consequences. In community samples, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking are related to quit motivation and outcomes and are more strongly endorsed by women. This study examined perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and the relationship between risks and benefits and quit motivation and confidence in male and female PLWH. One hundred seven PLWH who reported current cigarette smoking completed measures of demographics, smoking, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking, motivation to quit smoking, and confidence in ability to quit smoking. The highest endorsed risks of quitting smoking were cravings and weight gain and higher endorsement of craving risks was associated with lower confidence in the ability to quit smoking. Women endorsed overall risks and risks related to negative affect more highly than men. Women and men did not differ in their endorsement of the other risks, the benefits of quitting, or the relationship between risks and benefits and quit motivation or confidence. It may be useful for health care professionals to incorporate information about perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking into treatment when working with PLWH who want to stop smoking.

  2. Perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol dependent patients in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Marilyn K; Martin, Rosemarie A; Rohsenow, Damaris J; MacKinnon, Selene Varney; Traficante, Regina; Monti, Peter M

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers. In addition to the usual barriers perceived by smokers, alcohol dependent smokers may have a few barriers unique to their addictive lifestyle. The Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) was administered to 96 alcohol dependent smokers in residential substance abuse treatment. The BQS-SAT is designed to assess perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers using eleven true-false items. One open-ended item was included to gather information about potential additional barriers. The majority of respondents reported withdrawal-related barriers such as expecting to feel irritable, anxious, restless, and about half expected intolerable urges to smoke if they were to quit smoking, as most smokers do. However, concerns about effects on sobriety and needing cigarettes to cope with feeling down were also endorsed by almost half of the patients. Total number of perceived barriers was significantly related to smoking history, expected effects from smoking, and smoking temptation but was not associated with severity of alcohol use or dependence on admission. Providing corrective feedback about these barriers could be useful when addressing smoking with patients who have alcohol abuse or dependence.

  3. Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lange, P; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    , epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects...... who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits......A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal...

  4. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  6. Smoking habits and attitudes among secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Yaacob, I; bin Harun, M H

    1994-03-01

    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.

  7. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marjolein; van den Putte, Bas

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two separate waves from current cigarette smokers with varying levels of nicotine dependence (N=151). In the second wave, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, participants read a smoking cessation message which emphasized the benefits of quitting (positive frame). In the second group participants read a message which emphasized the costs of not quitting (negative frame). Results show that smokers' intentions to quit smoking and their level of nicotine dependence jointly influence the persuasiveness of positive and negative message frames. When nicotine dependence and quitting intention are both high, a negative frame works best. Conversely, a positive frame is preferable when nicotine dependence or quitting intention is low. Smokers' level of processing is proposed as the underlying mechanism explaining the different effects of message frames.

  8. Quitting smoking does not increase the risk of major depressive episodes among users of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L D; Barrera, A Z; Delucchi, K; Penilla, C; Pérez-Stable, E J; Muñoz, R F

    2010-03-01

    Limited evidence has suggested that quitting smoking increases the incidence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), particularly for smokers with a history of depression. Further evidence for this increase would have important implications for guiding smoking cessation. Spanish- and English-speaking smokers without a current MDE (n=3056) from an international, online smoking cessation trial were assessed for abstinence 1 month after their initial quit date and followed for a total of 12 months. Incidence of screened MDE was examined as a function of abstinence and depression history. Continued smoking, not abstinence, predicted MDE screened at 1 month [smoking 11.5% v. abstinence 7.8%, odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.78, p=0.02] but not afterwards (smoking 11.1% v. abstinence 9.8%, OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.77-1.45, p=0.74). Depression history predicted MDE screened at 1 month (history 17.1% v. no history 8.6%, OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29-2.27, pincreased MDE, even for smokers with a history of depression, although a history of depression was. Instead, not quitting was associated with increased MDE shortly following a quit attempt. Results from this online, large, international sample of smokers converge with similar findings from smaller, clinic-based samples, suggesting that in general, quitting smoking does not increase the incidence of MDEs.

  9. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  10. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module.

  11. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

  12. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Minian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  13. Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive

  14. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  15. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly...

  17. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  19. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57–0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06–0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers. PMID:22156071

  20. Non-Motor Correlates of Smoking Habits in de Novo Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Palladino, Raffaele; Barone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects are less likely to ever smoke and are more prone to quit smoking, as compared to controls. Therefore, smoking habits can be considered part of the non-motor phenotype, preceding the onset of motor PD by several years. To explore non-motor symptom (NMS) correlates of smoking habits in de novo PD. This cross-sectional study included 281 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD subjects, recruited in Naples (Italy) and in Kassel (Germany). All subjects completed the NMS Questionnaire (NMSQ), and were investigated for smoking status (never, current and former smokers) and intensity (pack-years). 140 PD subjects never smoked, 20 currently smoked, and 121 had quit smoking before PD diagnosis. NMSQ total score did not associate with smoking status, but with smoking intensity (p = 0.028; coefficient = 0.088). A multinomial logistic regression stepwise model presenting never smoking as reference, selected as NMSQ correlates of current smoking: sex difficulties (p = 0.002; OR = 5.254), daytime sleepiness (p = 0.046; OR = 0.085), insomnia (p = 0.025; OR = 0.135), and vivid dreams (p = 0.040; OR = 3.110); and of former smoking: swallowing (p = 0.013; OR = 0.311), nausea (p = 0.027; OR = 7.157), unexplained pains (p = 0.002; OR = 3.409), forgetfulness (p = 0.005; OR = 2.592), sex interest (p = 0.007; OR = 0.221), sex difficulties (p = 0.038; OR = 4.215), and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.05; OR = 0.372). An ordinal logistic regression stepwise model selected as NMSQ correlates of smoking intensity: nocturnal restlessness (p = 0.027; coefficient = 0.974), and leg swelling (p = 0.004; coefficient = 1.305). Certain NMSs are associated with different smoking status and intensity, suggesting a variety of adaptive mechanisms to cigarette smoking.

  1. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage......, 44% of the 12-week abstainers were abstinent from the target quit date (TQD), while the rest stopped smoking later. We examined the relationship between quit pattern and the varenicline versus placebo difference in continuous abstinence rates at week 52 and contributions of baseline patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: With increasing delay in initial quitting, 12-month success rates declined. Participants who had their last cigarette at week 11 of open-label treatment had quit rates at 52 weeks of 5.7% compared with 54.9% in those who last smoked in week 1 [odds ratio (OR) 20.3 (6.3, 65.9); P

  2. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  3. YouTube as a source of quit smoking information for people living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Lucas, Maya; Ford, Pauline; Meurk, Carla; Gartner, Coral E

    2016-11-01

    YouTube is the most popular video sharing website, and is increasingly used to broadcast health information including smoking cessation advice. This study examines the quality and quantity of YouTube quit smoking videos targeted at people living with mental illness (MI). We systematically searched YouTube using selected relevant search terms. The first 50 videos obtained for each search term were screened for relevance and further videos screened through snowball sampling. Forty unique, English language videos focussing on people with MI were included in the assessment and evaluated for general video characteristics, themes, format, targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction information. Most videos either discussed the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI (n=12) or smoking cessation programmes and policies at an institutional level (n=13). Only nine videos were aimed at providing quit smoking advice to this population. One video recommended higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for people with MI while six videos referred to possible changes in medication dosage on quitting smoking. Four videos suggested cutting down smoking for harm reduction. Very few YouTube videos specifically focus on the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI and even fewer provide targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction advice for this priority population. There is a need to develop comprehensive, evidence based, quit smoking video resources for smokers with a MI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The Smoking Habits of Children and Staff at Brays Grove Comprehensive School, Harlow, Essex

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of smoking habits conducted in a secondary school suggested that most students start smoking as a result of social pressure. Many smokers were aware of health hazards of smoking yet chose to smoke. (PS)

  5. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  7. Implicit and explicit attitudes predict smoking cessation: moderating effects of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T

    2010-12-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  9. An electronic decision support system to motivate people with severe mental illnesses to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Mary F; Ferron, Joelle C; McHugo, Gregory J; Davis, Kristin E; Devitt, Timothy S; Wilkness, Sandra M; Drake, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are high among people with severe mental illnesses compared with the general population (45%-90% versus 20%). The authors developed a Web-based computer decision support system that is tailored for use by people with cognitive deficits and is designed to stimulate motivation to quit smoking by using evidence-based treatment. This initial study used a quasi-experimental design to test the decision support system among a convenience sample of 41 smokers with severe mental illnesses. Researchers interviewed participants at baseline and two months later to assess for behaviors indicative of motivation to quit smoking. A negative binomial regression modeled the outcome and controlled for baseline group differences. Participants who used the decision support system were significantly more likely to show any behavioral motivation to quit smoking (such as meet with a clinician to discuss cessation, initiate cessation treatment, or otherwise attempt to quit) (67% versus 35%; χ(2)=4.11, df=41, p=.04). Further, using the decision support system increased by a factor of 2.97, or about 300%, the expected number of ways that a participant showed motivation. The encouraging results of this pilot study indicate that electronic decision supports may facilitate motivation to quit smoking and use of cessation treatment among people with severe mental illnesses.

  10. Risk perception and motivation to quit smoking: a partial test of the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca J; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Simmons, Vani N

    2011-07-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) posits a distinction between pre-intentional motivation processes and a post-intentional volition process that leads to the actual behavior change. For smoking cessation, the HAPA predicts that increased risk perceptions would foster a decision to quit smoking. From a cross-sectional perspective, the HAPA predicts that those who do not intend to quit (non-intenders) should have lower risk perceptions than those who do intend to quit (intenders). Adult smokers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Multiple measures of motivation to quit smoking and risk perceptions for smoking were assessed. ANOVA and contrast analysis were employed for data analysis. The results were generally supportive of the HAPA. Non-intenders had systematically lower risk perceptions compared to intenders. Most of these findings were statistically significant. The results demonstrated that risk perceptions distinguish non-intenders from intenders. These results suggest that smokers low in motivation to quit could benefit from information and reminders about the serious health problems caused by smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  12. Effect of CT screening on smoking habits at 1-year follow-up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Tønnesen, P; Holst Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer on smoking habits has not been reported in large randomised controlled trials. METHODS: This study evaluated the effect on smoking habits of screening with low-dose CT at 1-year follow up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial...... pack years. Smoking habits were determined at baseline and at annual screening. Smoking status was verified using exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Lung function tests, nicotine dependency and motivation to quit smoking were assessed. Quit rates and relapse rates were determined at 1-year follow...... (DLCST), a 5-year randomised controlled trial comprising 4104 subjects; 2052 subjects received annual low-dose CT scan (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were healthy current and former smokers (>4 weeks since smoking cessation) with a tobacco consumption of >20...

  13. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tubič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination for smoking and an increase in the wish for final putting an end to smoke.

  14. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  15. Smoking behaviour and sensations during the pre-quit period of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown reductions in cigarette consumption during the pre-quit period of exercise-aided smoking cessation interventions. Smoking topography and sensation patterns during this period is unknown and may provide valuable insight into compensation and cessation readiness. Female smokers (N = 236, M age = 43, M cigarettes/day = 17.0) enrolled in an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention self-reported daily cigarette use and cigarette sensory experiences. Breath carbon monoxide and smoking topography data were collected during the period leading up to the targeted quit date (i.e., baseline, week 1, and week 3), which was set for week 4. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that cigarette consumption (p smoking satisfaction (p exercise during the pre-quit period served as a conduit for facilitating behavioral and sensory harm reduction with cigarettes. Furthermore, the pattern of change observed between cigarette consumption and smoking topography does not support compensation. These findings imply that female smokers who exercise prior to a quit attempt are in a favourable state to achieve cessation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  17. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  18. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  19. Financial strain and smoking cessation among men and women within a self-guided quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Langdon, Kirsten J; Nguyen, Nga T; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Financial strain, defined as an unfavorable asset-to-needs ratio, has been associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation in the context of a structured clinical study providing cessation assistance. This study reports on a secondary data analysis that assessed the association of financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence within a structured clinical study of smokers making a self-guided cessation attempt. Participants (N=58; 65.5% men) were enrolled in a study about anxiety sensitivity and smoking cessation whereby they were instructed to initiate a self-guided quit attempt. Relations between financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence on the quit day and at Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 post-quit were assessed using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, sex, race, education, partner status, pre-quit cigarettes smoked per day, and time. Associations between financial strain and abstinence in the whole sample were marginal (aOR=.94, 95% CI=.87-1.01, observations=293; p=.07). However, sex was a significant moderator: greater financial strain was associated with lower odds of abstinence for men (aOR=.90, 95% CI=.80-1.00, observations=201; p=.05), but not women (aOR=1.05, 95% CI=.91-1.21, observations=92; p=.48). Results indicated that financial strain was associated with lower odds of cessation among men undergoing a self-guided quit attempt in the context of a structured clinical study. These data suggest that financial strain may be an important socioeconomic determinant of smoking cessation and support its relevance for better understanding socioeconomic-based smoking-related health disparities. Future work may benefit by exploring sex-specific models of financial strain in the context of smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  1. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND SMOKING HABITS OF SENIOR INDUSTRIAL STAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Susan H.; Wood, C. H.; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the smoking habits of 224 industrial `executives' aged 30 to 69 years in Social Classes I and II were ascertained by means of the Medical Research Council's questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 31% had persistent cough, 25% had persistent phlegm, and 21% were short of breath on hurrying or going up a hill; 9% had had one or more chest illnesses in the past three years lasting for about a week, and 4% had `chronic bronchitis'—defined as persistent phlegm and one or more chest illnesses in the past three years; 67% were smokers, 21% smoking more than 25 cigarettes (or equivalent tobacco) per day; another 20% had stopped smoking. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness was closely related to smoking habit. Data for those aged 40 to 59 years are compared with that obtained from London Transport Board workers and a sample of the population studied by the College of General Practitioners. The latter was further analysed and suggests that the prevalence of cough and phlegm is more closely related to the amount smoked than to social class. The prevalence of chest illness is probably more closely related to social class and less to the amount smoked. It is suggested that, although smoking may initiate irritative respiratory symptoms, the precursors of bronchitis, additional factors are important in causing progression to disabling or fatal chronic bronchitis. PMID:14278803

  2. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  3. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  4. Smoking Cessation for Smokers Not Ready to Quit: Meta-analysis and Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayesha; Kaplan, Cameron M; Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C

    2018-06-11

    To provide a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis on smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit, a population that makes up approximately 32% of current smokers. Twenty-two studies on pharmacological, behavioral, and combination smoking-cessation interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit (defined as those who reported they were not ready to quit at the time of the study) published between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed. The effectiveness (measured by the number needed to treat) and cost effectiveness (measured by costs per quit) of interventions were calculated. All data collection and analyses were performed in 2017. Smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit can be as effective as similar interventions for smokers ready to quit; however, costs of intervening on this group may be higher for some intervention types. The most cost-effective interventions identified for this group were those using varenicline and those using behavioral interventions. Updating clinical recommendations to provide cessation interventions for this group is recommended. Further research on development of cost-effective treatments and effective strategies for recruitment and outreach for this group are needed. Additional studies may allow for more nuanced comparisons of treatment types among this group. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supporting Aboriginal Women to Quit Smoking: Antenatal and Postnatal Care Providers' Confidence, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal

  6. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  7. Smoking habits of patients with newly diagnosed stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, J.; Bonner, J.A.; McGinnis, W.L.; Stella, P.; Marks, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to assess the smoking habits and changes in the cigarette smoking habits of patients prior to, at the time of and after the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer who had agreed to enter a phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial comparing twice daily thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) given with chemotherapy to once daily TRT given with chemotherapy were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their past and present cigarette smoking habits. This questionnaire included information regarding the number of years of smoking, number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day and the time frame of smoking history. Subsequently, patients were given questionnaires to assess changes in smoking history at the halfway point of treatment, and during follow-up visits. Results: Of the 140 patients who were entered on the above noted trial, 132 filled out baseline questionnaires and were the subject of this study. Of these 132 patients, 126 (95%) had either smoked cigarettes in the past or smoked at the time of study entry. The median pack years of smoking. (years of smoking x packs per day) was 43 with a range of 3-169 pack years. Of the 126 patients with a smoking history, 124 provided information regarding the status of their smoking at the time of entry on the study: 89 (72%) claimed to have quit smoking and, 35 (28%) reported that they continued to smoke an average of one pack per day. Of the 89 patients who had quit smoking, roughly one third had quit within the month before study entry and 45% had quit during the 8 month period prior to entry on the study. Of the 35 patients who continued to smoke at the time of entry on the study, 21 indicated that they stopped smoking during the period following randomization. Hence 10% of the original 140 patients entered on study continued to smoke an average of one

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mihajlović

    2009-12-01

    .3%. Only 16.7% of examinees mention that preservation of health is the chief motive to quit cigarette smoking. Even 64.3% of examinees do not consider to quit smoking at all. There is a necessity for strict implementation of the healthcare and educational programs in the lower grades of elementary school. The programs should match the age of pupils, and besides providing the information on tobacco harmful effects, they should develop certain skills and techniques which would help them resist to temptations of their peers to consume tobacco or some other psychoactive substances. Greater engagement of health workers is indispensable, primarily in the field of preventive medicine; they should educate adolescents about tobacco harmful effects and motivate the current smokers to quit this habit.The state itself should be more engaged in the implementation of the health care politics and the current legislation, especially the provisions related to the prohibition of smoking in public places, prohibition of selling tobacco products to minors, and prohibition of tobacco advertising. In addition, the state should increase the budget for these purposes, support health workers in conducting preventive activities and making the healthy environment in schools for children and youths.

  9. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  10. Making hypertensive smokers motivated in quitting: developing 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Chan, Hui Ting; Tsai, Shan Pou; Cheng, Ting Yuan David; Chiang, Po Huang

    2008-04-01

    To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure equivalence of smoking was then identified by the difference in mortality risks between smokers and nonsmokers. Some interaction between hypertension and smoking was found to be synergistic. When hypertension and smoking co-existed, the all-cause mortality outcome [relative risk (RR) = 4.25] was larger than the sum or product of each individual risk for hypertension (RR = 2.16) or for smoking (RR = 1.97). The excess mortality risks of smoking for smokers were converted into a 'blood pressure equivalence'. The results demonstrate that the addition of smoking was similar to an increase of mortality risk approximately equivalent to an increase in blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Smoking cessation in hypertensive patients could provide a reduction of mortality risks similar to a permanent reduction of 40 mmHg in blood pressure, over and above any antihypertensive medications. Appreciating this relationship enables physicians to bridge the clinical disconnection and motivates hypertensive smokers to seek smoking cessation. The use of a 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking' can link the two separate risk factors and may lead to a paradigm shift in overcoming an existing clinical challenge.

  11. The effect of intensive care unit admission on smokers' attitudes and their likelihood of quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polmear, C M; Nathan, H; Bates, S; French, C; Odisho, J; Skinner, E; Karahalios, A; McGain, F

    2017-11-01

    We sought to estimate the proportion of patients admitted to a metropolitan intensive care unit (ICU) who were current smokers, and the relationships between ICU survivors who smoked and smoking cessation and/or reduction six months post-ICU discharge. We conducted a prospective cohort study at a metropolitan level III ICU in Melbourne, Victoria. One hundred consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who were smokers at time of ICU admission, had an ICU length of stay greater than one day, survived to ICU discharge, and provided written informed consent. A purpose-designed questionnaire which included the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence and evaluation of patients' attitude towards smoking cessation was completed by participants following ICU discharge and prior to hospital discharge. Participants were re-interviewed over the phone at six months post-ICU discharge. Of the 1,062 patients admitted to ICU, 253 (23%) were current smokers and 100 were enrolled. Six months post-ICU discharge, 28 (33%) of the 86 participants who were alive and contactable had quit smoking and 35 (41%) had reduced smoking. The median number of reported cigarettes smoked per day reduced by 40%. Participants who initially believed their ICU admission was smoking-related were more likely to have quit six months post-ICU discharge (odds ratio 2.98; 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 8.26; P=0.036). Six months post-ICU discharge, 63/86 (74%) of participants had quit or reduced their smoking. Further research into targeted smoking cessation counselling for ICU survivors is indicated.

  12. The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationships Between Internal Distress and Smoking Behavior During a Quit Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M. Palm; Hayes, Steven C.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA) (i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether pre-quit general EA (Acceptance & Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between four measures of post-quit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving), and smoking. Participates: 40 adult smokers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Distress Tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Results: Multilevel models showed that pre-quit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks post-quit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between post-quit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high pre-quit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, pre-quit smoking-specific EA did not predict post-quit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA pre-quit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Conclusions: Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater post-quit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. PMID:25347023

  13. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Charrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010 show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  14. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  15. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Andler, Raphaël; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2017-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation. Baseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up. All French metropolitan territory. A total of 2057 smokers aged 15-85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline. The three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours. Baseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption [25.9 versus 11.2%, P e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months. It remains unclear whether regular e-cigarette users are also more likely to stop smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Motivation to quit smoking among HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung Thi Phuong; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hwang, Lu Y; Markham, Christine M; Swartz, Michael D; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Vidrine, Damon J

    2015-04-03

    Smoking cessation is emerging as an important component in current HIV care to reduce smoking-related adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine motivation to quit and its associated factors in a sample of 409 HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to September 2013 in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural city). Motivation to quit was measured by a 4-point single item, and was dichotomized as having any motivation versus no motivation. Smoking history, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and other covariates were self-reported by participants. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of motivation to quit. The sample was mostly male (97%). Mean age was 36 years (SD = 5.8). Approximately 37% and 69% of the sample were hazardous drinkers and ever drug users, respectively. The mean duration of HIV infection and ART treatment were 6 years (SD = 3.6) and 5 years (SD = 2.2), respectively. Overall, 59% of the sample was motivated to quit. Factors significantly associated with motivation to quit were income, pain, currently taking Methadone, and the interaction between binge drinking and lifetime drug use. Individuals with the highest income level (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), moderate income level (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), and currently feeling pain (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5) were more likely to be motivated to quit. Conversely, taking Methadone was associated with a lower likelihood of motivation to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Also, those who reported binge drinking only (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9), lifetime drug use only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7), or both substance uses (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.8) were less motivated to quit smoking. Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into HIV care in Vietnam, and should be tailored to meet specific needs for

  17. Illiteracy, Ignorance, and Willingness to Quit Smoking among Villagers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorty, Prasad V. S. N. R.; Allam, Apparao

    1992-01-01

    During the field work to control oral cancer, difficulty in communication was encountered with illiterates. A study to define the role of illiteracy, ignorance and willingness to quit smoking among the villagers was undertaken in a rural area surrounding Doddipatla Village, A.P., India. Out of a total population of 3,550, 272 (7.7%) persons, mostly in the age range of 21–50 years, attended a cancer detection camp. There were 173 (63.6%) females and 99 (36.4%) males, among whom 66 (M53 + F13) were smokers; 36.4% of males and 63% of females were illiterate. Among the illiterates, it was observed that smoking rate was high (56%) and 47.7% were ignorant of health effects of smoking. The attitude of illiterate smokers was encouraging, as 83.6% were willing to quit smoking. Further research is necessary to design health education material for 413.5 million illiterates living in India (1991 Indian Census). A community health worker, trained in the use of mass media coupled with a person‐to‐person approach, may help the smoker to quit smoking. PMID:1506267

  18. [Impact of cigarette packages warning labels in relation to tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Antici, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    the principal aim was to assess the impact of health warnings on cigarette packages in Italy, the reduction of daily number of cigarette smoked, in relationship to the tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit. The second aim was to compare the impact of text warnings versus graphi depictions. cross-sectional study (survey). the study was conducted through interviews to an opportunistic sample of smokers.The subject enrolled were adult smokers (years ≥ 18), living in the province of Rome. Data were collected in two outpatient clinics located in Morlupo and Rome. Interviews were administered in the waiting rooms, to patients or to their relatives/ helpers. The survey was conducted in June-September 2010. The sample size (266 participants) was computed using a power of 80%, a confidence level of 95%, an expected frequency of smokers with a low motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 15%, and a frequency of smokers with a higher motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 30%. the effect of the health warnings used in Italy on smoking reduction was measured with the following self-reported items: "Are you or have you been influenced by the health warnings on cigarettes packages (in relation to the daily number of cigarettes smoked)?"; "Have you changed your smoking habits due to the warnings (for example: don't smoking after a coffee.)?"; "Have you ever stopped smoking due to the warnings?" The effect of labels that used shock images on cigarette boxes was measured using followed self-reported questions: "If shocking images were used on cigarette boxes, would they have greater effect than simple warning text currently used?"; "If your favourite cigarettes brand decide to change the look of its cigarette boxes with shocking images on smoking health damages, would you be driven to change it?" thanks to the health warnings, 95% of the 270 participants were informed on smoking damages, 14% (34 smokers

  19. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth.

  20. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  1. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  2. Interest in an online smoking cessation program and effective recruitment strategies: results from Project Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah M; Wiese, Cheryl; Johnson, Karin E; Alexander, Gwen; Strecher, Victor

    2006-08-22

    The Internet is a promising venue for delivering smoking cessation treatment, either as a stand-alone program or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, there is little data to indicate what percent of smokers are interested in receiving online smoking cessation services or how best to recruit smokers to Internet-based programs. Using a defined recruitment sample, this study aimed to identify the percentage of smokers who expressed interest in or enrolled in Project Quit, a tailored, online, cognitive-behavioral support program offered with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy patches. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of several individual-level versus population-level recruitment strategies. Members from two large health care organizations in the United States were invited to participate in Project Quit. Recruitment efforts included proactive invitation letters mailed to 34533 likely smokers and reactive population-level study advertisements targeted to all health plan members (> 560000 adults, including an estimated 98000 smokers across both health care organizations). An estimated 1.6% and 2.5% of adult smokers from each health care organization enrolled in Project Quit. Among likely smokers who received proactive study invitations, 7% visited the Project Quit website (n = 2260) and 4% (n = 1273) were eligible and enrolled. Response rates were similar across sites, despite using different sources to assemble the invitation mailing list. Proactive individual-level recruitment was more effective than other forms of recruitment, accounting for 69% of website visitors and 68% of enrollees. Smokers were interested in receiving online smoking cessation support, even though they had access to other forms of treatment through their health insurance. Uptake rates for this program were comparable to those seen when smokers are advised to quit and are referred to other forms of smoking cessation treatment. In this sample, proactive mailings were the best

  3. Parent quit attempts after counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and promote cessation: main and moderating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F; Matt, Georg E; Zakarian, Joy M; Jones, Jennifer A

    2009-12-01

    This study explored predictors of smoking quit attempts in a sample of low-income smoking mothers who participated in a randomized trial of a 6-month, 14-session counseling intervention to decrease their children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and eliminate smoking. Measures were taken at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months on 150 mothers who exposed their children (aged or = 10 cigarettes/week in the home. Reported 7-day quits were verified by saliva cotinine or urine anabasine and anatabine levels. There were few quits longer than 6 months. Mothers in the counseling group reported more 24-hr quits (p = .019) and more 7-day quits (p = .029) than controls. Multivariate modeling revealed that having quit for at least 24 hr in the year prior to baseline and the number of alternative cessation methods ever tried were predictive of the longest quit attempt during the 18-month study. Mothers in the counseling group who at baseline felt SHSe posed a health risk for their children or who at baseline had more permissive home smoking policies had longer quit attempts. Results confirm that attempts to quit smoking predict additional quit attempts. This suggests that practice may be necessary for many people to quit smoking permanently. Findings of interaction analyses suggest that participant factors may alter the effects of treatment procedures. Failure to account for or employ such factors in the analysis or design of community trials could confound the results of intervention trials.

  4. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  5. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  6. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  7. Revealing the complexity of quitting smoking: a qualitative grounded theory study of the natural history of quitting in Australian ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-11-23

    To explore the quitting histories of Australian ex-smokers in order to develop an understanding of the varied contribution of smoking cessation assistance (either pharmacotherapy or professionally mediated behavioural support) to the process of quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study; in-depth interviews. 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 men, 22 women) who quit in the past 6-24 months. Although participants' individual quitting histories and their overall experiences of quitting were unique, when the 37 quitting histories were compared it was clear two experiences were common to almost all participants: almost no one quit at their first quit attempt and almost everyone started out quitting unassisted. Furthermore, distinct patterns existed in the timing and use of assistance, in particular the age at which assistance was first used, how some participants were resolutely uninterested in assistance, and how assistance might have contributed to the process of successful quitting even if not used on the final quit attempt. Importantly, three patterns in use of assistance were identified: (1) only ever tried to quit unassisted (n=13); (2) started unassisted, tried assistance but reverted back to unassisted (n=13); (3) started unassisted, tried assistance and quit with assistance (n=11). For most participants, insight into what quitting would require was only gained through prior quitting experiences with and without assistance. For a number of participants, interest in assistance was at its lowest when the participant was most ready to quit. Quitting should be viewed as a process drawing on elements of assisted and unassisted quitting rather than a stand-alone event that can be labelled as strictly assisted or unassisted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Quitting-Unmotivated and Quitting-Motivated Cigarette Smokers Exhibit Different Patterns of Cue-Elicited Brain Activation When Anticipating an Opportunity to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of smoking expectancy on cue-reactivity among those motivated and those unmotivated to quit smoking using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cue-elicited activation was observed in the rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in smokers who expected to smoke within seconds, but not in those who expected to have to wait hours before having the chance to smoke, regardless of quitting motivation. For quitting-unmotivated smokers expecting to smoke, rostral PFC activation was strongly positively correlated with the activation of several areas previously linked to cue-reactivity, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, there was a non-significant negative relationship between activation of the rostral PFC and activation of the medial OFC/rostral ACC in quitting-motivated smokers expecting to smoke. Results extend previous work examining the effects of smoking expectancy and highlight the utility of examining interregional covariation during cue exposure. Findings also suggest that investigators may need to pay close attention to the motivational contexts associated with their experiments when studying cue-reactivity, as these contexts can modulate not only responses to drug cues, but perhaps also the functional implications of observed activity. PMID:21859165

  9. Correlates of smoking, quit attempts and attitudes towards total smoking bans at university: findings from eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Labeeb, Shokria; Kotb, Safaa; Yousafzai, Mohammad T; El-Houfey, Amira; Stock, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Smoking among university students represents a formidable and global public health challenge. We assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables as independent variables, with daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban as dependent variables. A sample of 3258 undergraduate students from eleven faculties at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, completed a general health questionnaire. Overall daily or occasional smoking in last three months prior to the survey was about 9% (8% occasional and 1% daily smokers), and smoking was generally more prevalent among males (male=17%, female=0.6%, P non-smoking policies on university premises, as well as regular up-to-date information on, and the periodic/yearly monitoring of tobacco use by university students employing standardised data collection instruments and reference periods. In addition, it would be valuable to develop campus-based educational/ awareness campaigns designed to counteract tobacco advertisement directed towards young people in Middle East countries. Otherwise, the danger could be that the current relatively low smoking prevalence among university students may escalate in the future.

  10. Evidence that implementation intentions can overcome the effects of smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the aim was to (a) test for the first time whether implementation intentions formed outside the laboratory can overcome the effects of habits, and (b) see whether the operation of implementation intentions could be improved by asking people to form certain "when-then" plans as opposed to uncertain "if-then" plans. The study employed a 2 × 2 fully factorial design with baseline and follow-up measures of smoking status and habits. Smokers (N = 168; circa 33 years of age; 79 women, 89 men) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 intervention groups to form either if-then plans or when-then plans using supporting tools, or to 1 of 2 control conditions in which they were exposed to identical supporting tools but were not asked to form if-then plans or when-then plans. Certainty did not affect the operation of implementation intentions, but smokers who formed implementation intentions were significantly more likely to quit, χ2(1, N = 168) = 8.86, p smoking habits (95% CI [0.02, 0.14]). Similar effects were observed when cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, and craving served as the dependent variables. The findings demonstrate that people who have formed implementation intentions can overcome habits, such as smoking, outside the laboratory. The supporting tools described in the present research could be deployed at low cost with high public health reach to support behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effect of physical activity after a cardiac event on smoking habits and/or Quetelet index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbrechts, I P A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Deckers, J W; Kazemier, M; Erdman, R A M

    2003-02-01

    To further elucidate earlier findings, the present study investigated whether physical activity could serve as a positive stimulus to modify other changeable cardiac risk factors. Participants were 140 patients who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on physical activity. Their present level of physical activity, smoking habits and Quetelet index were investigated as well as that before the cardiac event, in retrospect. Current feelings of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Participants were divided into two categories according to their present level of physical activity after finishing the rehabilitation programme, compared with that before the cardiac event. It appeared that the more physically active category contained more smokers. Although many of them had quitted smoking, significantly more persisted in their smoking habits compared with the patients who did not increase their physical activity. Significantly less depression was found in the more active patients. Although it could not be confirmed that physical activity stimulated a positive change in smoking and Quetelet index, the more active patients appeared to be less depressed.

  12. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  13. Sociodemographic differences in triggers to quit smoking: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeli, E; West, R

    2008-12-01

    Reasons for quitting smoking and triggers that finally precipitate a quit attempt are not necessarily the same thing. We sought to assess variation in reported triggers of attempts to stop smoking as a function of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional household survey in England. A total of 2441 smokers and ex-smokers aged 16 and over, who reported making at least one serious quit attempt in the last 12 months, were recruited. The main outcome measure was participants' responses to the question "What finally triggered your most recent quit attempt?". Respondents selected from a list of options or specified a trigger not on the list. In the event, smokers typically reported as triggers similar factors as have previously been reported as "reasons". "A concern about future health problems" (28.5%) was the most commonly cited trigger followed by "health problems I had at the time" (18%) and then "a decision that smoking was too expensive" (12.2%). The most common external trigger was advice from a health professional (5.6%). Future health concern was more common in smokers with higher socioeconomic status (SES), whereas cost and current health problems were more often cited by lower SES smokers. Younger smokers were more likely to report their quit attempt being triggered by a TV advertisement while older smokers were more likely to cite advice from a health professional. Concern about future health problems was cited less often by 16 to 24 year olds and those aged 65+ than those aged 25 to 64 years. There are significant differences in reported triggers for quit attempts as a function of sociodemographic factors. Most notably, smokers with higher SES are more likely to report concern about future health whereas those from lower SES are more likely to cite cost and current health problems.

  14. Smoking habits of radiotherapy patients: did the diagnosis of cancer make an impact and is there an opportunity to intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Chawla, Aakriti; Mitina, Natalia; Christie, David

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on smoking habits in patients receiving radiotherapy and assess the opportunity to intervene. One hundred consecutive patients were interviewed. They included patients newly diagnosed with cancer of any type and receiving radiotherapy. Detailed information was collected including smoking habits before and after the diagnosis, the timing of and reasons for any changes. We also asked about patients' view of the role of the radiation oncologist in smoking cessation and the opportunities for intervention. Analysis of results involved simple descriptive statistics. Although there were only 14 current smokers, only two had decided to quit. Five smokers decreased smoking, six did not change and one increased smoking. One non-smoker (1/34) took up smoking. Nearly all changes occurred within the first 30 days of diagnosis. Most (79%, 11/14) smokers believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at either the first consultation or when decisions about treatment have been finalised. The diagnosis of cancer can motivate patients to reduce smoking, but few quit altogether and a smaller number increase or even take up smoking. These changes occur early after receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Patients with a smoking history believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at the first consultation. The periodic nature of treatments and consultations at radiation oncology centres suggest there is the potential for an effective smoking cessation programme. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Helping hospitalised clients quit smoking: a study of rural nursing practice and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomm, Murray; Lincoln, Pamela; Egeland, Paula; Rosenberg, Michael

    2002-02-01

    Brief interventions have been identified as a useful tool for facilitating smoking cessation, particularly in the acute care setting and in areas where access to specialist staff is limited, such as rural Australia. A self-administered survey was used to determine current rural nursing staff practices in relation to brief intervention for smoking cessation, and to ascertain the perceived level of support, skills, needs and barriers amongst these staff to conducting brief interventions. The major findings include that while the majority of respondents were aware of their patients' smoking status, most were not very confident about assisting smoking patients to quit. Casually employed nurses were much less likely to be aware of patient smoking status than nurses employed full-time or permanent part-time. Only one-quarter to one-third of nurses did not believe assisting patients to quit was part of their role, and the vast majority of nurses reported that they were non-smokers. Future programs incorporating the routine use of brief interventions will need to consider these findings.

  16. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzin, Mirosław; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Krakowiak, Jan; Saran, Tomasz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kaleta, Dorota

    2018-03-14

    Cessation of tobacco use has the potential to provide the greatest immediate benefits for tobacco control. Understanding the social determinants of smoking cessation is an essential requirement for increasing smoking cessation at the population level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the socio-economic dimensions associated with cessation success among adults in Argentina and Uruguay. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative survey conducted in Argentina (n=5,383) and Uruguay (n=4,833) was utilized. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with results being presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were applied to study differences among those respondents who sustained smoking abstinence (≥1 year) and those who continued smoking. The GATS study revealed that social gradients in tobacco quitting exist in Argentina and Uruguay. Being aged 25-34, particularly men in Uruguay, women in Argentina, low educated men in Argentina and having a lower asset index were associated with reduced odds for quitting. Factors that are driving differences in smoking cessation between diverse social groups in Latin America countries need to be considered when implementing relevant interventions to ensure tobacco control strategies work effectively for all population segments.

  17. Exercise counseling to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: the Fit2Quit randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Roberts, Vaughan; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Christopher; Prapavessis, Harry; Glover, Marewa; Jiang, Yannan; Brown, Paul; Leung, William; Taylor, Sue; Tsai, Midi

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise has been proposed as a potential smoking cessation aid. This study aimed to determine the effects of an exercise counseling program on cigarette smoking abstinence at 24 weeks. A parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adult cigarette smokers (n = 906) who were insufficiently active and interested in quitting were randomized to receive the Fit2Quit intervention (10 exercise telephone counseling sessions over 6 months) plus usual care (behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care alone. There were no significant group differences in 7-day point-prevalence and continuous abstinence at 6 months. The more intervention calls successfully delivered, the lower the probability of smoking (OR, 0.88; 95 % CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01) in the intervention group. A significant difference was observed for leisure time physical activity (difference = 219.11 MET-minutes/week; 95 % CI 52.65-385.58; p = 0.01). Telephone-delivered exercise counseling may not be sufficient to improve smoking abstinence rates over and above existing smoking cessation services. (Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000637246.).

  18. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  19. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  20. Post-quit stress mediates the relation between social support and smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Atem, Folefac; Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2016-06-01

    Social support interventions have demonstrated limited effectiveness for preventing smoking relapse. The stress-buffering hypothesis may be a useful framework by which to understand social support in smoking cessation interventions. The current study evaluated the interrelations among social support, stress, and smoking cessation in both moderation and mediation models. Participants (N=139) were enrolled in a smoking cessation study at the safety-net hospital in Dallas, Texas. During the week prior to a scheduled quit attempt, general social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) questionnaire and smoking-specific social support was measured via repeated smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Post-quit stress was repeatedly assessed via smartphone. Logistic regression analyses evaluated potential interaction effects of pre-quit social support and post-quit stress on the likelihood of achieving biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Mediation models were evaluated to determine if post-quit stress mediated the association between pre-quit social support and smoking cessation. Participants were predominantly Black (63.3%) and female (57.6%); and 55% reported an annual household income of social support did not significantly interact with post-quit stress to influence smoking cessation. However, post-quit stress did mediate associations between social support variables and smoking cessation. Findings indicated that social support impacts smoking cessation through its influence on post-quit stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults participating in cessation treatment. Increasing social support for the specific purpose of reducing stress during a quit attempt may improve smoking cessation rates in disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Homelessness, cigarette smoking and desire to quit: results from a US national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether or not homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socio-economic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. We analyzed data from 2678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using US federally funded community health centers. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (i) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (ii) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socio-economic and behavioral health characteristics. Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57 versus 27%, P homelessness was associated independently with current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-2.93], even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not associated significantly with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (P = 0.26) or adjusted (P = 0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Among patients of US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socio-economic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Homelessness, Cigarette Smoking, and Desire to Quit: Results from a U.S. National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims We determined whether homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socioeconomic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 2,678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using U.S. federally-funded community health centers. Measurements We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (1) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (2) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral health characteristics. Findings Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57% vs. 27%, phomelessness was independently associated with current smoking (AOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.49-2.93), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness, and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not significantly associated with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (p=0.26) or adjusted (p=0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless, and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Conclusions Among patients of U.S. health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socioeconomic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. PMID:23834157

  3. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Helping adolescents quit smoking:a needs assessment of current and former teen smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Suzanne; Boberg, Eric; Patten, Christi; Offord, Kenneth; Gaie, Martha; Schensky, Ann; Gustafson, David H; Dornelas, Ellen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the survey responses of 280 current and former adolescent smokers for what they perceived would be helpful (or what had helped) in quitting smoking. The survey was developed from focus groups and was structured using Prochaska and DiClementes Stages of Change health behavior framework. Results showed that former smokers and current smokers in the preparation stage of change shared beliefs about the importance of interpersonal support, those who were contemplating a quit decision worried about obstacles and internal issues, and current smokers not thinking about quitting focused on external rewards. The findings that significant differences exist based on the adolescent smokers Stage of Change imply that this framework can be appropriately applied to this context.

  5. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  6. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  7. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Macatee, Richard J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Sarawgi, Shivali

    2014-09-01

    Hostility has emerged as an important predictor of smoking cessation difficulties, though the mechanisms underlying the hostility and smoking relationship are poorly understood. Further, research has yet to explore relations between hostile interpretation biases and different aspects of smoking behavior. In the present study, current daily smokers (N = 106) were administered measures of smoking characteristics, smoking motivation, reasons for quitting, hostility, and hostile interpretation bias. Neither trait hostility nor hostile interpretation bias were uniquely associated with motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, nicotine dependence, or problematic symptoms following past cessation attempts. However, hostility and hostile interpretation biases were uniquely associated with different reasons for smoking. Additionally, greater hostile interpretation bias (but not hostility) was uniquely associated with early relapse following past cessation attempts. The current findings add uniquely to the growing, but still relatively small, literature on hostility and smoking and implicate hostile interpretation bias as a potential treatment target in smoking cessation interventions.

  8. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Methods: Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from...... degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely...... of occasional smokers. About every second smoker (55%) had attempted to quit smoking. Almost 45% of the whole sample agreed or strongly agreed with implementing a total smoking ban on campus. Daily smoking was more likely among students with not sufficient income, students whose fathers had at least a bachelor...

  9. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  10. The effect of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking: an examination of the mechanism of action of two pre-quit pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenying; Chappell, Kate; Walters, Julia A E; Jacobson, Glenn A; Patel, Rahul; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing research interest in using nicotine replacement medications to aid smoking reduction prior to a quit attempt. Gaining a better understanding of how treatments influence smoking reduction may allow for better tailoring of treatments and, ultimately, better cessation outcomes. The objective of the current study was to test the effects of the pre-quit use of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. All participants were required to attend up to five study visit sections. Participants (n = 213) who were interested in quitting were randomised (open-label) to receive either pre-quit patch or varenicline (both treatments started 2 weeks prior to an assigned quit day, followed by 10 weeks post-quit) or standard patch (10 weeks starting from an assigned quit day). Participants used modified smartphones to monitor their smoking in real time for 4 weeks. Participants in the two pre-quit treatment groups reported significant reductions in both their satisfaction with smoking (p rate (p rate was associated with the satisfaction with smoking (p rate. Satisfaction was associated with changes in smoking rate, but the relationship was weak. As such, monitoring reductions in satisfaction do not appear to be a viable method of evaluating responsiveness to treatment.

  11. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial “Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military”. Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services. PMID:22561390

  12. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  13. When your smoking is not just about you: antismoking advertising, interpersonal pressure, and quitting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the potential for antismoking advertising to generate interpersonal pressure on smokers to quit using the Cancer Institute NSW's Tobacco Tracking Survey, a telephone tracking survey of adult smokers conducted throughout the year with approximately 50 interviews per week (N = 5,448). The survey includes questions relating to recently broadcast antismoking advertisements, including whether smokers have received pressure from family and friends as a result of their seeing the advertisements. The authors conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to predict: (a) receiving ad-stimulated interpersonal pressure; and (b) quitting outcomes. All analyses controlled for smoker characteristics and potential exposure to the advertisements. Compared with ads coded as having a low level of emotion (by independent coders), ads coded as highly emotional were more likely to have generated interpersonal pressure. Ad-stimulated interpersonal pressure was associated with an increased likelihood of recent quit attempts and with salient quitting thoughts, with a greater effect on quitting thoughts for interpersonal pressure generated by highly and moderately emotional ads. These results support previous research suggesting that highly emotional antismoking ads with personal stories or graphic imagery are effective in promoting smoking cessation, and these results help to identify communication processes that contribute to the ads' success.

  14. Identifying attendance patterns in a smoking cessation treatment and their relationships with quit success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Papini, Santiago; Davis, Michelle L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Frierson, Georita M; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Baird, Scarlett O; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Otto, Michael W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-05-01

    While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial. In addition to standard smoking cessation treatment, participants were randomized to 15 weeks of an exercise intervention (n=72) or an education control condition (n=64). Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) tested whether intervention attendance would be better modeled as qualitatively distinct attendance patterns rather than as a single mean pattern. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) was used to evaluate associations between the attendance patterns and abstinence at the end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The LCGA solution with three patterns characterized by high probability of attendance throughout (Completers, 46.3%), gradual decreasing probability of attendance (Titrators, 23.5%), and high probability of dropout within the first few weeks (Droppers, 30.1%) provided the best fit. The GLMM analysis indicated an interaction of attendance pattern by treatment condition, such that titration was associated with lower probability of quit success for those in the control condition. Probability of quit success was not significantly different between Titrators and Completers in the exercise condition. These findings underscore the importance of examining how treatment efficacy may vary as a function of attendance patterns. Importantly, treatment discontinuation is not necessarily indicative of poorer abstinence outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Survey of the Smoking Habits and Attitudes of High School Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    An extensive review of literature on trends in the consumption of tobacco; concern regarding tobacco and health; the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and coronary heart disease; effect of smoking on human tissues; chemistry of tobacco smoke; and the smoking habits of students precedes discussion of an…

  16. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The process of trying to quit smoking from the perspective of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2012-09-01

    To investigate why some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have difficulty quitting smoking and to develop a theoretical model that describes their perspectives on these difficulties. Grounded theory method was used from the selection of participants to the analyses of semi-structured interviews with 14 patients with COPD. Four additional interviews were conducted to ensure relevance. The analysis resulted in a theoretical model that illustrates the process of 'Patients with COPD trying to quit smoking'. The model illuminates factors related to the decision to try to quit smoking, including pressure-filled mental states and constructive or destructive pressure-relief strategies. The constructive strategies lead either to success in quitting or to continuing to try to quit. The destructive strategies can lead to losing hope and becoming resigned to continuing to smoke. The theoretical model 'Patients trying to quit smoking' contributes to a better understanding of the pressure-filled mental states and destructive strategies experienced by some patients with COPD in the process of trying to quit. This better understanding can help nurses individualise counselling. Moreover, patients' own awareness of these states and strategies may facilitate their efforts to quit. The information in the model can also be used as a supplement to methods such as motivational interviewing (MI). © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Mull, Kristin E; McClure, Jennifer B; Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L

    2018-05-01

    Millions of people world-wide use websites to help them quit smoking, but effectiveness trials have an average 34% follow-up data retention rate and an average 9% quit rate. We compared the quit rates of a website using a new behavioral approach called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; WebQuit.org) with the current standard of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Smokefree.gov website. A two-arm stratified double-blind individually randomized trial (n = 1319 for WebQuit; n = 1318 for Smokefree.gov) with 12-month follow-up. United States. Adults (n = 2637) who currently smoked at least five cigarettes per day were recruited from March 2014 to August 2015. At baseline, participants were mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 46.2 years (13.4), 79% women and 73% white. WebQuit.org website (experimental) provided ACT for smoking cessation; Smokefree.gov website (comparison) followed US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 months. The 12-month follow-up data retention rate was 88% (2309 of 2637). The 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at the 12-month follow-up were 24% (278 of 1141) for WebQuit.org and 26% (305 of 1168) for Smokefree.gov [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76, 1.10; P = 0.334] in the a priori complete case analysis. Abstinence rates were 21% (278 of 1319) for WebQuit.org and 23% (305 of 1318) for Smokefree.gov (OR = 0.89 (0.74, 1.07; P = 0.200) when missing cases were imputed as smokers. The Bayes factor comparing the primary abstinence outcome was 0.17, indicating 'substantial' evidence of no difference between groups. WebQuit.org and Smokefree.gov had similar 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 12 months that were descriptively higher than those of prior published website-delivered interventions and telephone counselor-delivered interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The Use of Tobacco, E-Cigarettes, and Methods to Quit Smoking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Daniel; Böckmann, Melanie; Kastaun, Sabrina

    2018-04-06

    Current data on tobacco use are a necessary prerequisite for the study of the implementation of tobacco control measures in the general population. The German Study on Tobacco Use (Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten, DEBRA) provides previously lacking data on key indicators of smoking behavior and on the consumption of new products such as e-cigarettes. The continual acquisition and accumulation of data permits the analysis of trends and precise statistical evaluation. Data were obtained by repeated face-to-face interviews, at 2-month intervals, of representative samples of approximately 2000 persons across Germany aged 14 years and above. For this article, data from 12 273 persons that were acquired in 6 waves of the survey (June/July 2016 to April/May 2017) were aggregated and weighted. The one-year prevalence of current tobacco consumption was 28.3% (95% confidence interval: [27.5; 29.1]) in the overall survey population and 11.9% [8.9; 14.9] among persons under age 18. Higher tobacco consumption was correlated with lower educational attainment and lower income. 28.1% of the smokers had tried to quit smoking in the past year; the most commonly used method of quitting was e-cigarettes (9.1%). Brief physician advice or pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation were tried by 6.1% and 7.0%, respectively. 1.9% of the overall survey population but only 0.3% of persons who had never smoked were current consumers of e-cigarettes. Tobacco consumption is very high in Germany compared to other countries in Western and Northern Europe, and its distribution across the population is markedly uneven, with a heavy influence of socioeconomic status.

  20. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  1. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  2. The influence of estimated retail tobacco sale price increase on smokers' smoking habit in Jiangxi province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Zhu, Liping; Yan, Wei; Zeng, Guang; Michael, Engelgau

    2015-01-01

    China is the biggest tobacco producer and consumer in the world. Raising cigarette taxes and increasing tobacco retail prices have been prove as effective strategies to reduce tobacco consumption and the prevalence of smoking in western countries. But in China, it is uncertain how an increase of cigarette retail price will influence the tobacco consumption. From April to July, 2012, we selected 4025 residents over 15 years by a three stage random sampling in four cities, Jiangxi Province, China. We conducted interviews of their current smoking habits and how they would change their smoking behavior if tobacco retail prices increase. Overall, the prevalence of smoking is 27 % (47 % for male, 3.1 % for female). 15 % of smokers have tried to quit smoking in the past but all relapsed (168/1088), and over 50 % of current smokers do not want to quit, The average cigarette price per pack is 1.1 USD (range = 0.25-5.0). If retail cigarette prices increases by 50 %, 45 % of smokers say they will smoke fewer cigarettes, 20 % will change to cheaper brands and 5 % will attempt to quit smoking. Smokers who have intention to quit smoking are more sensitive to retail cigarette price increase. With retail cigarette price increases, more smokers will attempt to quit smoking. Chinese smokers will change their smoking habits if tobacco retail prices increase. Consequently the Chinese government should enact tobacco laws which increase the retail cigarette price. The implementation of new tobacco laws could result in lowering the prevalence of smoking. Meanwhile, price increase measures need to apply to all cigarette brands to avoid smokers switching cigarettes to cheaper brands.

  3. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers’ Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Borland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention or the old text-only warnings (control. Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  4. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Bin Mohd Samin, Ahmad Shalihin

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  5. National action plan to reduce smoking during pregnancy: the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Tracy; Melvin, Cathy; Marx, Joseph; Maibach, Edward; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2004-04-01

    Although there has been remarkable progress and momentum toward achieving smoke-free pregnancies in the United States since 1990, concerted action is needed to close the remaining gaps in treatment and prevention so that we can reach the Healthy People 2010 goal for pregnant smokers: a prevalence of 1% or less. This need for action led to the formation of the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit, a collaboration among more than 50 organizations and agencies, public and private, that have joined forces to help pregnant smokers quit by providing proven clinical and community-based interventions to every pregnant smoker. This article summarizes the action plan developed by the partnership, the strategies it outlines, and some of the actions taken by partners over the past year to put the plan into action. Action is planned and progress is being made in five strategic areas: offering help through the health care system; using the media effectively; harnessing community and worksite resources; promoting policies known to increase smoking cessation efforts and successes; and expanding national research, surveillance, and evaluation efforts.

  6. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  7. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F J; Donny, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p reward. These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

  8. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation ? quitting without pharmacological or professional support ? is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched ...

  9. Smoke-Free Policies at Home, Church, and Work: Smoking Levels and Recent Quit Attempts Among a Southeastern Rural Population, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Swan, Deanne W.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Fredrick, George; Daniel, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of smoke-free policies and social support for smoking cessation in the home, at church, and at work on smoking levels and quit attempts in the context of a community-based study of rural African Americans and whites in the Southeast. Methods We conducted a baseline survey to assess sociodemographics, smoking behavior, level of social support for smoking cessation, and smoke-free policies at home, church, and work. W...

  10. Ambivalence and Fluidity in the Teenage Smoking and Quitting Experience: Lessons from a Qualitative Study at an English Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Duncan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a school-based stop smoking pilot project and to understand the teenage experience of smoking and quitting within that context. Design: Flexible design methods. Setting: A Kent (United Kingdom [UK]) secondary school. Methods: Semi-structured interviews analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The main themes…

  11. Encouraging smokers to quit: the cost effectiveness of reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Janneke; Wagena, Edwin J; van Schayck, Constant P; Severens, Johan L

    2006-01-01

    Smoking cessation should be encouraged in order to increase life expectancy and reduce smoking-related healthcare costs. Results of a randomised trial suggested that reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation treatment (SCT) may lead to an increased use of SCT and an increased number of quitters versus no reimbursement. To assess whether reimbursement for SCT is a cost-effective intervention (from the Dutch societal perspective), we calculated the incremental costs per quitter and extrapolated this outcome to incremental costs per QALY saved versus no reimbursement. In the reimbursement trial, 1266 Dutch smokers were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a randomised double consent design. Reimbursement for SCT was offered to the intervention group for a period of 6 months. No reimbursement was offered to the control group. Prolonged abstinence from smoking was determined 6 months after the end of the reimbursement period. The QALYs gained from quitting were calculated until 80 years of age using data from the US. Costs (year 2002 values) were determined from the societal perspective during the reimbursement period (May-November 2002). Benefits were discounted at 4% per annum. The uncertainty of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated using non-parametric bootstrapping. Eighteen participants in the control group (2.8%) and 35 participants in the intervention group (5.5%) successfully quit smoking. The costs per participant were 291 euro and 322 euro, respectively. If society is willing to pay 1000 euro or 10,000 euro for an additional 12-month quitter, the probability that reimbursement for SCT would be cost effective was 50% or 95%, respectively. If society is willing to pay 18,000 euro for a QALY, the probability that reimbursement for SCT would be cost effective was 95%. However, the external validity of the extrapolation from quitters to QALYs is uncertain and several assumptions had to be made. Reimbursement for SCT may

  12. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Wing, Rena R; Kahler, Christopher W; Thompson, J Kevin; Meltzer, Sari; Hecht, Jacki; Minami, Haruka; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial.

  13. Correlations Between Physical Activity, Smoking Habit And Attitude In Elderly With Incidence of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Familia Dimyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis was one of degenerative disease that is common in the elderly. There was a several of risk factors of osteoporosis. Two of them were physical activity and smoking habits. Attitude was one part of a person’s behavior that may affect the prevention of disease. This study aimed to analyze the affect of physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude of the elderly to incidence of osteoporosis. This study is an observational study with case control design. The number of samples in this study was 66 elderly who visited Osteoporosis Clinic Husada Utama Hospital in Surabaya. Respondent selection taken with systematic random sampling. The independent variables of this study were physical activity, smoking habit, and attitude, while the dependent variable was incidence of osteoporosis. Based on correlation analysis with logistic regression test showed there was a significant correlation (p<0,05 between physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude. Odds Ratio (OR in this study for physical activity was 14,764 ,smoking habit was 9,646 and attitude was 5,623. The conclusion of this study, there was physical activity as a dominant affect after controlled smoking habits and attitude to incidence of osteoporosis. The suggestion is to do physical activity three times a week, consume healthy food and beverage, take an enough sleep,reduce stress factors and stop smoking also.   Keywords: Physical activity, smoking habits, elderly

  14. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  15. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  16. How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Abroms, Lorien C

    2017-04-01

    To determine the degree to which the observed benefit of Text2Quit was accounted for by psychosocial mechanisms derived from its quit smoking messaging versus from the use of extra-programmatic smoking cessation treatments and services. Prospective, multiple mediation model of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). United States nation-wide. A total of 409 adult daily smokers participated. Participants were, on average, 35 years of age, predominantly female (68%), white (79%), lacked a college degree (70%), had medium nicotine dependence (average Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Score score of 5.2) and more than half (62%) had made a previous quit attempt. Adult daily smokers browsing the web for smoking cessation support (n = 409; recruited 19 May2011-10 July 2012) were randomized to receive smoking cessation support via Text2Quit versus a smoking cessation material. Mediators (i.e. changes in psychosocial constructs of health behavior change, use of extra-programmatic treatment) were assessed at 1 month using single-item measures and outcome (i.e. self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence) at 6-month follow-up. Mediators accounted for 35% of the effect of Text2Quit on smoking cessation. Only psychosocial mechanisms had complete mediational paths, with increases in self-efficacy [b = 0.10 (0.06-0.15)], quitting know-how [b = 0.07 (0.03-0.11)] and the sense that someone cared [b = 0.06 (0.01-0.11)], partially explaining the conferred benefit of Text2Quit. Use of outside resources, including treatments promoted explicitly by Text2Quit, i.e. medication [b = 0.001 (-0.01 to 0.01), quitline [b = -0.002 (-0.01 to 0.04)], treatments and resources not promoted by Text2Quit, i.e. online forums [b = 0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04)] and self-help materials [b = -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.02)], did not have complete mediational paths. An interaction effect existed for medication use that suggested that for participants not using medication, Text2Quit conferred substantial

  17. Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers' Perceptions of Their Female Partners' Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion initiatives to reduce smoking among parents have focused almost exclusively on women to support their cessation during pregnancy and postpartum, while overlooking the importance of fathers' smoking cessation. This study was a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 new and expectant fathers to identify how they perceived their female partners' efforts to assist them to reduce or quit smoking. Social constructionist gender frameworks were used to theorize and develop the findings. Three key themes were identified: support and autonomy in men's smoking cessation, perception of challenging men's freedom to smoke, and contempt for men's continued smoking. The findings suggest that shifts in masculinities as men take up fathering should be considered in designing smoking cessation interventions for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Changes in smoking habit among patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, José V; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda; Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Sarrión-Pérez, Gracia

    2010-09-01

    To determine the changes in smoking habit among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosed and treated in the Service of Stomatology (Valencia University General Hospital. Valencia, Spain). The study involved 123 patients with a history of OSCC interviewed by telephone on their smoking habits at the time of the diagnosis and modifications in habits subsequently. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years and 9 months (standard deviation, SD +/- 12 years and 2 months). Males predominated (61.8%) over females (38.2%). The mean time from the diagnosis of OSCC to the survey was 4 years and 6 months (SD +/- 3 years and 6 months). Almost one-half of the patients (45.5%) were active smokers at the time of the diagnosis, with a mean duration of the habit of 34.9 years (SD +/- 12 years and 7 months). In turn, 19.5% of the patients were ex-smokers at diagnosis, with an average of 13 years and 9 months (SD +/- 9 years and 4 months) from smoking cessation to the development of cancer. A total of 57.1% of the smokers abandoned the habit at diagnosis, 8.9% continued to smoke to the same extent as before, and 33.9% reduced smoking. A full 44.4 % of our patients diagnosed with OSCC continued to smoke despite warnings of the risks, and although the majority claimed to have reduced their smoking habit, interventional strategies would be indicated to help ensure complete smoking cessation.

  19. Leading-Brand Advertisement of Quitting Smoking Benefits for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Divya; Gall, Phillip A; Ayoub, Noel; Jackler, Robert K

    2016-11-01

    To provide regulators and the US Food and Drug Administration with a description of cessation-themed advertising among electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brands. We performed a content analysis of 6 months (January through June 2015) of advertising by e-cigarette brands on their company-sponsored social media channels and blogs as well as user-generated content (testimonials) appearing within brand-sponsored Web sites. An explicit claim of cessation efficacy unambiguously states that e-cigarettes help in quitting smoking, and implicit claims use euphemisms such as "It works." We selected a cohort of 23 leading e-cigarette brands, either by their rank in advertising spending or their prevalence in Internet searches. Among leading e-cigarette brands, 22 of 23 used cessation-themed advertisements. Overall, 23% of the advertisements contained cessation claims, of which 18% were explicit and 82% were implicit. Among leading e-cigarette advertisers, cessation themes are prevalent with implicit messaging predominating over explicit quit claims. These results can help the Food and Drug Administration clarify whether tobacco products should be regulated as drugs with therapeutic purpose or as recreational products.

  20. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  1. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  2. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  4. How accurate are self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cope GF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Smoking or chewing tobacco is a global public health problem that is becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. These same countries often also have high rates of tuberculosis disease and infection. As smoking can adversely affect tuberculosis severity, response to treatment and relapse, it is therefore important that clinicians have an accurate picture of patients’ smoking habits. Self‐reported smoking habits may be unreliable and objective measurements of tobacco exposure more accurate. Objective To determine the reliability of self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis by measurement of urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of tobacco exposure. Methods Self‐reported tobacco use was recorded in 100 patients receiving treatment for active or latent tuberculosis using an interviewer administered ‘questionnaire. Urinary cotinine levels were measured by the SmokeScreen test 24hours after the end of treatment. Findings Of 81 reported non‐smokers, 10 had a positive test for cotinine, six of whom gave a result indicative of heavy (11‐15 cigarettes/day or very heavy (>16/day smoking. Of the 17 self‐confessed smokers and two chewers of tobacco, nine gave a result consistent with very heavy smoking although none had reported this degree of tobacco use. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between subjective and objective smoking habits. Reliance on patient history may adversely affect response to tuberculosis treatment, and some patients will be denied appropriate intervention for smoking cessation.

  5. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  6. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  7. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  8. Perceived difficulty quitting predicts enrollment in a smoking-cessation program for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sonia A; Scheumann, Angela L; Fowler, Karen E; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Terrell, Jeffrey E

    2010-05-01

    To determine the predictors of participation in a smoking-cessation program among patients with head and neck cancer. This cross-sectional study is a substudy of a larger, randomized trial of patients with head and neck cancer that determined the predictors of smokers' participation in a cessation intervention. Otolaryngology clinics at three Veterans Affairs medical centers (Ann Arbor, MI, Gainesville, FL, and Dallas, TX), and the University of Michigan Hospital in Ann Arbor. 286 patients who had smoked within six months of the screening survey were eligible for a smoking-cessation intervention. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the independent predictors of smokers' participation in an intervention study. Perceived difficulty quitting (as a construct of self-efficacy), health behaviors (i.e., smoking and problem drinking), clinical characteristics (i.e., depression and cancer site and stage), and demographic variables. Forty-eight percent of those eligible participated. High perceived difficulty quitting was the only statistically significant predictor of participation, whereas problem drinking, lower depressive symptoms, and laryngeal cancer site approached significance. Special outreach may be needed to reach patients with head and neck cancer who are overly confident in quitting, problem drinkers, and patients with laryngeal cancer. Oncology nurses are in an opportune position to assess patients' perceived difficulty quitting smoking and motivate them to enroll in cessation programs, ultimately improving quality of life, reducing risk of recurrence, and increasing survival for this population.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes as an aid to quitting smoking among lung cancer patients: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Ford; Lesley Sinclair; Jennifer Mckell; Stephen Harrow; Jennifer Macphee; Andy Morrison; Linda Bauld

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients diagnosed with lung cancer continue to smoke even though this can make their treatment less effective and increase side effects. E-cigarettes form part of the UK's tobacco harm reduction policy landscape and are, by far, smokers' most popular quit attempt method. This pilot study explores feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes to aid smoking cessation among lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods 27 smokers with stage IV lung cancer we...

  10. What explains willingness to pay for smoking-cessation treatments - addiction level, quit-rate effectiveness or the opening bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jan Abel; Røgeberg, Ole J; Stavem, Knut

    2012-11-01

    Several countries have now passed laws that place limitations on where smokers may smoke. A range of smoking-cessation treatments have become available, many of which have documented increased quit rates. Population surveys show that most smokers wish to quit, and most non-smokers would prefer to reduce the prevalence of smoking in society. The strengths of these preferences, however, as measured by their willingness to pay (WTP), have not yet been investigated. This study aims to identify variables that explain variations in people's answers to WTP questions on smoking-cessation treatments. A representative sample of the Norwegian population was asked their WTP in terms of an earmarked contribution to a public smoking-cessation programme. A sub-group of daily smokers was, in addition, asked about their WTP for a hypothetical treatment that would remove their urge to smoke. The impact of variation in the question format (different opening bids) on stated WTP was compared with that of factors suggested by economic theory, such as quit-rate effectiveness, degree of addiction as measured by the 12-item Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-12), and degree of peer group influence as measured by the proportion of one's friends who smoke. In both programmes, the most important determinant for explaining variations in WTP was the size of the opening bid. Differences in quit-rate effectiveness did not matter for people's WTP for the smoking-cessation programme. Addiction, and having a small proportion of friends who smoke, were positively associated with smokers' WTP to quit smoking. Variations in WTP were influenced more by how the question was framed in terms of differences in opening bids, than by variables reflecting the quality (effectiveness) and need (addiction level) for the good in question. While the WTP method is theoretically attractive, the findings that outcomes in terms of different quit rates did not affect WTP, and that WTP answers can be manipulated by the

  11. MapMySmoke: feasibility of a new quit cigarette smoking mobile phone application using integrated geo-positioning technology, and motivational messaging within a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight

  12. Reasons and Motivations for Cigarette Smoking and Barriers against Quitting Among a Sample of Young People in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Bakarman, Marwan A; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Khabaz, Mohamad N; Ahmed, Tahir J; Qureshi, Imtiaz A; Hussain, Muhammad B; Alzahrani, Ali H; AlShehri, Ali A; Basendwah, Mohammad A; Altherwi, Fahd B; AlShehri, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Tobacco consumption has grave negative consequences for health so that it is important to understand the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking among the young generation for developing effective policies to control this widespread problem. This crosssectional survey was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 438 young smokers participated from the University and the general population. Data were collected through anonymous, selfadministered questionnaires in the Arabic language that contained questions about the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking. The questionnaire also contained several questions regarding knowledge and attitude of the participants towards cigarette smoking. The data was analyzed on SPSS16. The mean age of the respondents was 22.9±3.48, out of 438 subjects 87 (19.9%) were married, and 351 (80.1%) were unmarried, and 331 (75.6%) belonged to urban areas while 107 (24.5%) were from the rural areas. Responding to a question about a number of cigarettes smoked per day, 31% answered 1120, 29% answered 2130, and 25% answered 110. Questioned about smokers in the family, 34.5% responded more than one, with 19% for brother and 13% for father. About the reasons for not quitting smoking, 26% described lack of willpower, 25% had no reason, 22% said that people around me smoke, and 15.3% responded stress at home/work. The major motivation for smokers was smoker friends (42%), for 33.8% others, for 12% father/brother and 7.8% media. There are several avoidable and preventable reasons and barriers against quitting smoking. However, knowledge and attitude about smoking were good, and the majority of the smokers were well aware of the associated hazards. Therefore, there is a need to search out ways and means to help them to

  13. [Association between GSK3β polymorphisms and the smoking habits in young Japanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahori, Kenta; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Narita, Shin; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. As a result, rs334558 was significantly associated with smoking habits in genotype frequency and allelic frequency (P smoking habits.

  14. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  15. Efficacy of a Nurse-Delivered Intervention to Prevent and Delay Postpartum Return to Smoking: The Quit for Two Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I; Fish, Laura J; Lyna, Pauline; Peterson, Bercedis L; Myers, Evan R; Gao, Xiaomei; Swamy, Geeta K; Brown-Johnson, Angela; Whitecar, Paul; Bilheimer, Alicia K; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2016-10-01

    Most pregnant women who quit smoking return to smoking postpartum. Trials to prevent this return have been unsuccessful. We tested the efficacy of a nurse-delivered intervention in maintaining smoking abstinence after delivery among pregnant women who quit smoking that was tailored on their high risk of relapse (eg, had strong intentions to return). We recruited 382 English-speaking spontaneous pregnant quitters from 14 prenatal clinics and randomized them to receive either a smoking abstinence booklet plus newsletters about parenting and stress (control) or a nurse-delivered smoking abstinence intervention that differed in intensity for the high and low risk groups. Our primary outcome was smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum. Using intent-to-treat analyses, there was a high rate of biochemically validated smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum but no arm differences ( 36% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-43] vs. 35% [95% CI: 28-43], P = .81). Among women at low risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was significantly higher in the control arm (46%) than in the intervention arm (33%); among women at high risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was slightly lower but not different in the control arm (31%) than in the intervention arm (37%). Low-risk women fared better with a minimal intervention that focused on parenting skills and stress than when they received an intensive smoking abstinence intervention. The opposite was true for women who were at high risk of returning to smoking. Clinicians might need to tailor their approach based on whether women are at high or low risk of returning to smoking. Results suggest that high-risk and low-risk women might benefit from different types of smoking relapse interventions. Those who are lower risk of returning to smoking might benefit from stress reduction that is devoid of smoking content, whereas those who are higher risk might benefit from smoking relapse prevention. © The

  16. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  17. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  18. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  19. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  20. A Survey of Greek Elementary School Students' Smoking Habits and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…

  1. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  2. Noticing e-cigarette advertisements and associations with use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, and quitting smoking. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijndijk, Suzanne M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Willemsen, Marc C.; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W.; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviors of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. Methods We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. Results There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Conclusion Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:26818084

  3. Quit tobacco clinics in Bahrain: smoking cessation rates and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

    2017-01-01

    A high tobacco-quit rate among smokers seeking treatment at QTC is encouraging and indicates that the clinics contributed to tobacco cessation in Bahrain. Counselling sessions and more frequent visits to QTC helped participants to successfully quit tobacco.

  4. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  5. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  6. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  7. Evaluation of a mass media campaign promoting using help to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Parvanta, Sarah A; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. The effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking-cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines were analyzed from March to November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign's impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2,786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  9. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  10. Reasons for quitting: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation in a population-based sample of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S J; Grothaus, L; McBride, C

    1997-01-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation is extended to a population-based sample of smokers (N = 1,137), using a previously validated Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Psychometric evaluation of the RFQ replicated the model that includes health concerns and self-control as intrinsic motivation dimensions and immediate reinforcement and social influence as extrinsic motivation dimensions. Compared to volunteers, the population-based sample of smokers reported equivalent health concerns, lower self-control, and higher social influence motivation for cessation. Within the population-based sample, women compared to men were less motivated to quit by health concerns and more motivated by immediate reinforcement; smokers above age 55 expressed lower health concerns and higher self-control motivation than smokers below age 55. Higher baseline levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were associated with more advanced stages of readiness to quit smoking and successful smoking cessation at a 12-month follow-up. Among continuing smokers, improvement in stage of readiness to quit over time was associated with significant increases in health concerns and self-control motivation.

  11. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-16

    Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app's core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the systematic development of the first smoking

  12. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-01

    Background Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. Objective The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. Methods We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app’s core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. Results We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Conclusions Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the

  13. An Evaluation of a Therapist-Administered Bibliotherapy and Spouse Smoking Habits on Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Barbara L.

    1979-01-01

    Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)

  14. Smoking habits in the randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial with low-dose CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the final results of the effect of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT on the smoking habits of participants in a 5-year screening trial. METHODS: The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) was a 5-year screening trial that enrolled 4104 subjects; 2052 were randomised...... to annual low-dose CT (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were current and ex-smokers (≥4 weeks abstinence from smoking) with a tobacco consumption of ≥20 pack years. Smoking habits were determined annually. Missing values for smoking status at the final screening...... round were handled using two different models. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in annual smoking status between the CT group and control group. Overall the ex-smoker rates (CT + control group) significantly increased from 24% (baseline) to 37% at year 5 of screening (p

  15. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  16. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  17. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  18. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  19. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2% presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3% smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1% smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011 and with smoking history (p = 0.047. We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

  20. Effectiveness of intensive smoking reduction counselling plus combination nicotine replacement therapy in promoting long-term abstinence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not ready to quit smoking: Protocol of the REDUQ trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, Petra; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Limited tobacco dependence treatment resources exist for smoking COPD patients not ready to quit. Smoking reduction may be a viable treatment approach if it prompts quit attempts and subsequent abstinence. This article describes the protocol of the REDUQ (REDUce and Quit) study, which

  1. Smoking habits of pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Targu Mures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.

  2. The association between anxiety sensitivity and motivation to quit smoking among women and men in residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Hoffman, Elana M; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-attributed mortality is the leading cause of death among individuals in residential substance use treatment. As such, identifying factors that influence smoking cessation is highly relevant and important for this group. Motivation to quit (MTQ) smoking is one such factor that is related to smoking cessation. In the present study we examine the relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) and MTQ among individuals enrolled in a residential substance use treatment center in Washington, DC. In light of gender differences in smoking cessation as well as factors that contribute to cessation, we examined this relationship by gender in men and women using multiple group path analysis. Participants (n = 472) completed a measure of MTQ, the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV-TR), a measure of AS, and self-reported their number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to entering a restricted environment. RESULTS indicated that AS was significantly related to MTQ in women (standardized path estimate = 0.21, p = .01), but was not significantly related to MTQ in men. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest the importance of considering AS as a factor in MTQ for women and subsequent smoking cessation among individuals in residential substance use treatment. RESULTS of this study contribute to the extant literature on predictors of MTQ and highlight the need for tailored cessation interventions with AS as one potential cessation treatment target.

  3. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  4. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  5. Factors associated with differences in quit rates between "specialist" and "community" stop-smoking practitioners in the english stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Beard, Emma; Brose, Leonie S; West, Robert; McEwen, Andy

    2013-07-01

    Behavioral support improves smokers' chances of quitting, but quit rates are typically lower for smokers supported by "community practitioners" for whom smoking cessation is a small part of their job than for those supported by "specialist practitioners" for whom it is the main role. This article examined the factors that might contribute to this. A total of 573 specialist practitioners and 466 community practitioners completed a 42-item online survey that covered demographic and employment information, current practices, levels of training, and 4-week CO-verified quit rates. Responses were compared for community and specialist practitioners. Mediation analysis was undertaken to assess how far "structural" and "modifiable" variables account for the difference in quit rates. Specialist practitioners reported higher 4-week CO-verified quit rates than community practitioners (63.6% versus 50.4%, p Specialist" practitioners in the English stop-smoking services report higher success rates than "community" practitioners and this is at least in part attributable to more extensive training and supervision and greater adherence to evidence-based practice including advising on medication usage and promoting abrupt rather than gradual quitting.

  6. Smoking cessation in workplace setting: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions.; Between 2006 a...

  7. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  8. Health-care provider screening for tobacco smoking and advice to quit - 17 countries, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countries responding to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) who saw a health-care provider in the past year and who reported that a health-care provider asked them about smoking and advised them to quit. Respondents were tobacco smokers aged ≥15 years surveyed during 2008-2011 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The proportion of smokers who had visited a health-care provider during the previous 12 months ranged from 21.6% in Egypt to 62.3% in Poland. Among these, the proportion reporting that a health-care provider asked if they smoked ranged from 34.9% in Vietnam to 82.1% in Romania. Among those screened for tobacco use, those who reported their health-care providers advised them to quit ranged from 17.3% in Mexico to 67.3% in Romania. In most countries, persons aged ≥45 years were more likely to report being screened and advised to quit than were persons aged ≤24 years. Health-care providers should identify smokers and provide advice and assistance in quitting at each visit as an adjunct to effective community interventions (e.g., increased price of tobacco products; smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, and tobacco quitlines).

  9. Simulation of quitting smoking in the military shows higher lifetime medical spending more than offset by productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Zhang, Shiping; Arday, David R; Dorn, Patricia W; Jain, Anjali

    2012-12-01

    Despite the documented benefits of quitting smoking, studies have found that smokers who quit may have higher lifetime medical costs, in part because of increased risk for medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, brought on by associated weight gain. Using a simulation model and data on 612,332 adult smokers in the US Department of Defense's TRICARE Prime health plan in 2008, we estimated that cessation accompanied by weight gain would increase average life expectancy by 3.7 years, and that the average lifetime reduction in medical expenditures from improved health ($5,600) would be offset by additional expenditures resulting from prolonged life ($7,300). Results varied by age and sex: For females ages 18-44 at time of cessation, there would be net savings of $1,200 despite additional medical expenditures from prolonged life. Avoidance of weight gain after quitting smoking would increase average life expectancy by four additional months and reduce mean extra spending resulting from prolonged life by $700. Overall, the average net lifetime health care cost increase of $1,700 or less per ex-smoker would be modest and, for employed people, more than offset by even one year's worth of productivity gains. These results boost the case for smoking cessation programs in the military in particular, along with not selling cigarettes in commissaries or at reduced prices.

  10. Autonomy (vs. sociotropy) and depressive symptoms in quitting smoking: evidence for trait-congruence and the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; Ferrence, Roberta; Wild, T Cameron

    2006-10-01

    According to Beck's cognitive theory of depression, autonomy (high achievement concerns) and sociotropy (high interpersonal concerns) are vulnerability factors for depression when achievement or interpersonal stressors, respectively, are experienced. This hypothesis was tested among men and women attempting to quit smoking, an achievement stressor that can provoke depressive symptoms. Smokers recruited from the community (N=210) provided information about their quit attempt through mailed questionnaires. For the 48-h period following the quit, relationships among autonomy, sociotropy, coping, depressive symptoms and lapsing were assessed. Structural equation models supported the trait-congruence hypothesis because greater autonomy, but not sociotropy, was associated with elevated depressive symptoms among both men and women smokers. However, results were stronger for men (beta=.47, p=.0001) than for women (beta=.20, p=.05). After accounting for autonomy's relationship with depressive symptoms, greater autonomy was inversely associated with lapsing among men (beta=-.35, p=.01), but not women. Results point to the potential usefulness of a theoretical approach to understanding relationships between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation, and indicate that autonomous personality may be an important factor in smoking cessation in men.

  11. Factors Associated with Taiwanese Junior High School Personnel Advising Students to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Wei-Gang; Chao, Kun-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most smokers in developing countries begin smoking before age 18, and smoking prevalence is rising among adolescents. School personnel represent a target group for tobacco-control efforts because they interact daily with students, are role models for students, teach about tobacco-use prevention in school curricula, and implement school…

  12. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  13. [Attitudes to smoking and characteristics of the habit among a group of young asthmatics compared to a group of non-asthmatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; Reinares Ten, C; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Sáez Valls, R; Herrera de la Rosa, A

    2000-03-01

    To compare the attitudes toward smoking and smoking patterns of young male asthmatics with the attitudes and habits of a group previously studied non-asthmatic men. Volunteers responded individually to as anonymous questionnaire. Responses were received from 488 asthmatics men (55.83%) of the sample, with 11 not responding) and 386 non-asthmatics (44.16%, with 27 not responding). The mean age of subjects was 19.91 +/- 2.76 yr. Smoking asthmatics numbered 154 (31.56%) non-asthmatic smokers numbered 207 (53.6%) (p non-smoking asthmatics. The prevalence of smoking is lower among asthmatics than among non-asthmatics and asthmatics smoke fewer cigarettes/day and have a lower level of addiction. There are no differences in age of or reasons for starting to smoke. Asthmatics have fewer smoking friends than do non-asthmatics and non-smoking asthmatics have fever still. the desire to quit smoking is high in both groups.

  14. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking behavior and motivation to quit among chronic pain patients initiating multidisciplinary pain treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrod, Marina; Gironda, Ronald J; Clark, Michael E; White, Kristi E; Simmons, Vani N; Sutton, Steven K; Brandon, Thomas H

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess smoking characteristics and cessation motivation prior to and after initiation of multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment. A secondary aim was to identify predictors of cessation motivation among smokers initiating treatment for chronic pain. We used a prospective, nonrandomized, repeated measures design. The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary specialty pain treatment program at a veterans hospital. Smokers (N = 90) referred to a multidisciplinary pain program for the treatment of chronic pain. Patients completed questionnaires assessing pain-related and smoking-related factors prior to (baseline) and 8 weeks post (follow-up) specialty pain treatment initiation. Primary outcome measures were the Contemplation Ladder and the Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm. At baseline, patients reported moderate levels of cessation motivation, and 69% were in the contemplation stage or higher on the SOC. Motivation to quit smoking was higher at follow-up compared with baseline on both continuous, t(89) = 2.11, P motivation (e.g., pain intensity) were subsumed by more general predictors (e.g., nicotine dependence). Patients in this sample were more motivated to quit smoking a few weeks after, as compared with before initiating specialty pain treatment. Future research into pain-specific predictors of cessation motivation is warranted to inform the development of interventions that address pain patients' unique needs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  17. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour.

  18. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be effective in helping smokers quit. ​​​​​​​ The mind and body practices discussed here are generally considered safe for healthy people when they’re performed appropriately. If you ...

  19. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  20. [Drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking/ smoking as a risk factor of stroke among Japanese general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirohumi; Morinaga, Miho; Toyota, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2010-10-01

    We examined the knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors of stroke according to drinking/smoking habits among randomly selected Japanese general population. The Japan Stroke Association and co-researchers have performed a large-scale educational intervention to improve knowledge concerning stroke from 2006 to 2008. Prior to above-mentioned intervention, we conducted mail-surveillance on knowledge about stroke in 11,306 randomly selected residents aged 40 to 74. We assessed the relationship between drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, area, employment, living situation, history of stroke and other stroke related diseases, history of liver disease, family history of stroke and drinking (non-drinker / ex-drinker / occasional drinker / habitual drinker) / smoking habits (non-smoker / ex-smoker / current smoker). Total 5,540 subjects (49.0%) participated in this study. Ex-smokers and current smokers had better knowledge regarding smoking as a risk factor of stroke than non-smokers (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 1.89, 1.55-2.31, 1.76, 1.45-2.12, respectively). There was no difference between habitual drinkers and non-drinkers in their knowledge, whereas current smokers had greater knowledge regarding smoking than nonsmokers. Accordingly, it is suggested that it will be necessary for habitual drinkers to be enlightened regarding heavy drinking as a risk factor of stroke and for current smokers to be provided with information regarding not only these risks but also the specific strategies for invoking behavioral changes.

  1. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Niedzin; Ewelina Gaszyńska; Jan Krakowiak; Tomasz Saran; Franciszek Szatko; Dorota Kaleta

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cessation of tobacco use has the potential to provide the greatest immediate benefits for tobacco control. Understanding the social determinants of smoking cessation is an essential requirement for increasing smoking cessation at the population level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the socio-economic dimensions associated with cessation success among adults in Argentina and Uruguay. Material and Methods Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a cross...

  2. Smoking Habits and Attitudes in Students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidrová, Dagmar; Herotová, Tereza Kopřivová; Šustková, Magdaléna; Hynčica, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This study seeks to assess smoking habits, attitudes and intention to quit in students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. A cross-sectional survey designed to obtain information on smoking history, current smoking status, cessation attempts, and attitudes towards smoking among health professionals was conducted in 452 students of the first and last years of a 6-year Master's Study Programme (General Medicine) and a 3-year Bachelor's Study Programme (Public Health). An anonymous questionnaire was administered during the classes in the course of academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13. 5.7% of the Master's Study Programme students (3.3% women and 9.0% men ) and 4.8% of the Bachelor's Study Programme students reported that they are regular smokers. The share of regular smokers was almost twice as big in students of the English Curriculum of the Master's Programme (10.7%) in comparison with the students of the Czech Curriculum (4.5%), and more than twice as big in students of the last years of both study programmes (3.9% in students of the 1st year and 10.8% in students of the 6th year of the Master's Programme; 3.2% in students of the 1st year and 7.0% in students of the 3rd year of the Bachelor's Study Programme). At the time of the research, 18.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 17.1% of students of the Bachelor's Programme were occasional smokers. 5.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 19.0% of students of the Bachelor's Programme reported that they quit smoking during their studies at the medical faculty; on the contrary, 9.8% of students of the Master's Programme and 14.3% of students of the Bachelor's Programme started smoking during that time. Smoking in health professionals undermines their significant role in health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases in their patients. Therefore, education at the medical faculty should focus on motivation of future health professionals towards non-smoking

  3. Influence of knowledge and attitudes on smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wu, Der-Min; Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Shi, Zheng-Ping; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the knowledge and attitudes of cigarette smoking that are associated with smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of young conscripts in southern and eastern Taiwan between August 1 and December 31, 2001. We selected 3,249 young military conscripts who had served more than 1 month in the military, based on specific criteria. We used a standard structured questionnaire to collect information about the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, knowledge, attitude, and cigarette smoking practices. Our findings showed that among smoking young military conscripts, knowledge about smoking was lower and attitudes toward smoking were more negative when compared with the non-smokers. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking varied with sociodemographic characteristics (age, education level, residential area) and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking), all p smoking had a lower risk of smoking (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.91). But this characteristic diminished after being adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, subjects with a higher attitude score about smoking had relatively lower risk for cigarette smoking when compared to those with a lower attitude score, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.94). Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking habits of physicians in Enugu, Nigeria | Okeke | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physicians are highly respected in their communities. They play a crucial role in issues related to health and people turn to them for advice and consultation. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking among physicians in Enugu, Nigeria, a group of health professionals who ...

  5. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Smoking and environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and associations with quitting behaviour and motivation; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Moore, Lyndell; Clancy, Richard; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Van Zeist, Tara; Stockings, Emily; Bowman, Jenny A

    2016-04-14

    Persons with a mental illness are less likely to be successful in attempts to quit smoking. A number of smoking and environmental characteristics have been shown to be related to quitting behaviour and motivation of smokers generally, however have been less studied among smokers with a mental illness. This study aimed to report the prevalence of smoking characteristics and a variety of physical and social environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and explore their association with quitting behaviour and motivation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken of 754 smokers admitted to four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to explore the association between smoking and environmental characteristics and recent quitting behaviour and motivation. Participants were primarily daily smokers (93 %), consumed >10 cigarettes per day (74 %), and highly nicotine dependent (51 %). A third (32 %) lived in a house in which smoking was permitted, and 44 % lived with other smokers. The majority of participants believed that significant others (68-82 %) and health care providers (80-91 %) would be supportive of their quitting smoking. Reflecting previous research, the smoking characteristics examined were variously associated with quitting behaviour and motivation. Additionally, participants not living with other smokers were more likely to have quit for a longer duration (OR 2.02), and those perceiving their psychiatrist to be supportive of a quit attempt were more likely to have had more quit attempts in the past six months (OR 2.83). Modifiable characteristics of the physical and social environment, and of smoking, should be considered in smoking cessation interventions for persons with a mental illness.

  7. Crohn's disease and smoking: is it ever too late to quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, Ian C; Murray, Kevin; Batman, Birol; Gearry, Richard B; Grafton, Rachel; Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Prosser, Ruth; Bampton, Peter A; Cooke, Sharon E; Mahy, Gillian; Radford-Smith, Graham; Croft, Anthony; Hanigan, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Smoking increases CD risk. The aim was to determine if smoking cessation at, prior to, or following, CD diagnosis affects medication use, disease phenotypic progression and/or surgery. Data on CD patients with disease for ≥5 yrs were collected retrospectively including the Montreal classification, smoking history, CD-related abdominal surgeries, family history, medication use and disease behaviour at diagnosis and the time when the disease behaviour changed. 1115 patients were included across six sites (mean follow-up-16.6 yrs). More non-smokers were male (p=0.047) with A1 (p3 cigarettes/day had an increased risk of developing B2/B3 disease (p=0.012: OR 3.8 95%CI 1.27-11.17). Progression to B2/B3 disease and surgery is reduced by smoking cessation. All CD patients regardless of when they were diagnosed, or how many surgeries, should be strongly encouraged to cease smoking. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  9. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15 years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5 years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15 years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15 years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population.

  11. How effective is the plain packaging of tobacco policy on rates of intention to quit smoking and changing attitudes to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Nick; Stretton, Matthew; Prakash, Minesh

    2018-06-05

    The aim of this study is to critically appraise the evidence for the effectiveness of the plain packaging of tobacco products policy. A systematic approach to a literature review was undertaken using five databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Global Health and Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluate attitudes towards smoking, starting smoking and quitting intentions when plain packaging use is compared with standard cigarette packaging use were included. A total of 1923 studies were identified. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, nine studies were included in the review. The overall quality of the data was variable but a significant number of the studies had major methodological flaws. However, data analysed in the literature review suggest that exposure to plain packaging increases intention to quit amongst exposed individuals, increases negative attitudes to both smoking and starting smoking. Although the evidence for plain packaging of tobacco is not strong, the evidence that is available indicates that it is an effective tobacco cessation policy. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Smoking habit and psychometric scores: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A

    1978-09-13

    During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.

  13. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  14. Want, need and habit as drivers of smoking behaviour: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Luis; Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; West, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Models of tobacco smoking behaviour propose that anticipated pleasure or satisfaction, the need to alleviate a nicotine-induced drive state and a stimulus-driven impulse potentially play an important role. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of how far urges to smoke are reported by smokers and whether the strength of such urges prior to a quit attempt predicts short-term success at quitting. In a prospective study, 566 smokers attending a treatment programme to help smokers quit completed a written questionnaire covering frequency of different types of urge to smoke (automatic impulse - 'automatic urges', anticipated pleasure - 'pleasure urges', and fulfilling a need - 'need urges'). They were asked to rate this for whichever of these urges was dominant for them. The questionnaire also assessed daily cigarette consumption, time to first cigarette of the day, age and gender. Carbon monoxide verified smoking status was recorded at 1 and 4weeks after the target quit date. A total of 47.9% (271) of smokers reported that automatic urges were dominant, 21.7% (123) reported pleasure urges to be dominant, and 30.4% (172) reported need urges to be dominant. The strength of automatic urges predicted abstinence at both 1week (OR=0.74, p=0.005, 95%CI=0.60-0.92) and 4weeks (OR=0.73, p=0.008, 95%CI=0.59-0.92). Associations between other urge types and abstinence were not statistically significant. A substantial proportion of smokers attending a clinic for help with quitting report that their dominant urges to smoke occur without any anticipation of pleasure or relief and the strength of the automatic urges predicts failure to sustain abstinence following a quit attempt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hollywood quits--behind the scenes of a Hollywood-based smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nides, Mitchell; Hund, Lisa M; Carothers, Sharon; McCausland, Kristen L; Duke, Jennifer C; Xiao, Haijun; Balaoing, Michael; Dale, Lowell C; Healton, Cheryl G

    2007-01-01

    To develop, implement, and assess the efficacy of a comprehensive, evidence-based smoking cessation program for entertainment industry workers and their families. Study participants were recruited from 5 outpatient medical clinics and a worksite setting. Tobacco use data were collected during the initial counseling visit and at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used in analysis. More than 50% of participants (n=470) self-reported 7-day abstinence at follow-up. The majority of participants used combination cessation medications, with more than 50% still using at least 1 medication at 6 months. This evidence-based smoking cessation program using behavioral counseling and combination pharmacotherapy was successful with entertainment industry workers.

  16. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Nóris; Chatkin, José; Chapman, Kenneth R; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-03-22

    Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence. Using a cross-sectional study, we included 50 current smokers (group I) and 50 lifetime non-smokers (group II), aged 18-75 years. We screened them at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, Canada). The subjects completed a questionnaire with demographic data, lifestyle habits and details of food intake. The PUFAs measured in the RBC membranes were alphalinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to perform an adjusted comparison between smokers and non-smokers we used the ANCOVA model. After adjusting for confounding factors, non-smokers showed higher consumption of PUFAs, especially salmon: 800 g (0-7.740) than smokers 430 g (0-2.150) P smoking. Smokers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, a not previously reported finding. Considering that PUFAs probably interfere in smoking habit, the increase in omega-3 consumption may become a perspective in prevention or treatment of smoking. However, this inference must be evaluated through specific studies.

  18. A randomised controlled trial to prevent smoking relapse among recently quit smokers enrolled in employer and health plan sponsored quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anna M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Weaver, Michael T; Carlini, Beatriz H; Champion, Victoria L; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2015-06-29

    To test adding an interactive voice response (IVR)-supported protocol to standard quitline treatment to prevent relapse among recently quit smokers. Parallel randomised controlled trial with three arms: standard quitline, standard plus technology enhanced quitline with 10 risk assessments (TEQ-10), standard plus 20 TEQ assessments (TEQ-20). Quit For Life (QFL) programme. 1785 QFL enrolees through 19 employers or health plans who were 24+ h quit. QFL is a 5-call telephone-based cessation programme including medications and web-based support. TEQ interventions included 10 or 20 IVR-delivered relapse risk assessments over 8 weeks with automated transfer to counselling for those at risk. Self-reported 7-day and 30-day abstinence assessed at 6-month and 12-month post-enrolment (response rates: 61% and 59%, respectively). Missing data were imputed. 1785 were randomised (standard n=592, TEQ-10 n=602, TEQ-20 n=591). Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat 30-day quit rates (95% CI) at 6 months were 59.4% (53.7% to 63.8%) for standard, 62.3% (57.7% to 66.9%) for TEQ-10, 59.4% (53.7% to 65.1%) for TEQ-20 and 30-day quit rates at 12 months were 61.2% (55.6% to 66.8%) for standard, 60.6% (56.0% to 65.2%) for TEQ-10, 54.9% (49.0% to 60.9%) for TEQ-20. There were no significant differences in quit rates. 73.3% of TEQ participants were identified as at-risk by IVR assessments; on average, participants completed 0.41 IVR-transferred counselling calls. Positive risk assessments identified participants less likely (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76) to be abstinent at 6 months. Standard treatment was highly effective, with 61% remaining abstinent at 12 months using multiple imputation intent-to-treat (intent-to-treat missing=smoking quit rate: 38%). TEQ assessments identified quitters at risk for relapse. However, adding IVR-transferred counselling did not yield higher quit rates. Research is needed to determine if alternative designs can improve outcomes. NCT00888992. Published by

  19. Impact of drinking and smoking habits on cerebrovascular disease risk among male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yoko; Shimokata, Keiko; Osugi, Shigeki; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2016-10-07

    We aimed to analyze the impact of drinking and smoking behavior on the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases among male employees aged 20-46 years. Twenty years of follow-up data of male employees enrolled in the DENSO Health Insurance Program were used for analyses. Of 29,048 male employees aged 20-46 years who were enrolled in the insurance program in 1994, 25,084 (86.4%) employees underwent annual health check-ups until 2003 without missing an appointment. Of these 25,084 employees, the data of 11,784 (40.6%) employees who self-reported drinking and smoking habits were used for analyses. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cerebrovascular disease in 2004-2013 were calculated in four risk groups categorized as per drinking and smoking behavior in the young group who were in their 20s and the middle-aged group who were in their 30s-40s in 1994. Based on their drinking behavior, participants were categorized into two groups: "not drinking or drinking sometimes" and "drinking every day." Based on their smoking behavior, participants were also categorized into two groups: "not smoking for 10 years" and "smoking for 10 years." A Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that after controlling for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and age, the hazard ratios for "smoking and drinking every day" were 3.82 (95% CI: 1.40-10.41) in the young group and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.27-4.17) in the middle-aged group. Male employees who had been drinking and smoking for 10 years had a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. To prevent cerebrovascular diseases among male employees, it may be effective to offer behavior change interventions for both drinking and smoking habits, regardless of the age group.

  20. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  2. [Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Shabtai; Ganz, Irit; Eldor, Naomi; Garenkin, Mila

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking via a water-pipe (Nargile) is a new phenomena among school children in Israel in recent years. Water-pipe tobacco has the potential for nicotine addiction, for other smoking-related damages and for drug abuse. Our primary goal was to characterize the frequencies of water-pipe smoking among school children in Israel, its distribution according to age, gender, habits and attitudes. The secondary goal was to compare its use to cigarette smoking among these school children. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed among 388 school children (ages 12-18 years old) in grades A, and C, of middle schools and grade B of high schools in a central region of Israel. The questionnaires were answered unanimously and the process was conducted in classes by the school teacher and by nursing school students. Among all school children in this study, 41% smoke a water-pipe at various frequencies. Of all the children, 22% smoke at least every weekend. Water-pipe smoking was 3 times more frequent than cigarette smoking and was almost equally distributed among both genders, but girls were heavier smokers than boys, of either water pipe or cigarette smoking. Six percent of water-pipe smokers add psychoactive drugs or alcohol to the tobacco. The main reasons for water-pipe smoking were the pleasure achieved and the intimacy that it adds to the youngsters' meetings. Ninety percent of all the school children believe that water-pipe smoking is not healthy, but at least 50% believes it is less harmful than cigarettes. According to school children that smoke water-pipes at least every weekend, 40% of their parents are current or ex-smokers of water-pipes, in contrast with 10% of parents to non-smoking children and about a quarter of the children who smoke also do so together with their parents. Tobacco smoking via water-pipes is a very common phenomena among middle and high school children in Israel. Girls are heavier smokers and adding drugs or alcohol to water

  3. Uptake of Tailored Text Message Smoking Cessation Support in Pregnancy When Advertised on the Internet (MiQuit): Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Joanne L; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2018-04-19

    Smoking in pregnancy is a major public health concern. Pregnant smokers are particularly difficult to reach, with low uptake of support options and few effective interventions. Text message-based self-help is a promising, low-cost intervention for this population, but its real-world uptake is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the uptake and cost-effectiveness of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers ("MiQuit") when advertised on the internet. Links to a website providing MiQuit initiation information (texting a short code) were advertised on a cost-per-click basis on 2 websites (Google Search and Facebook; £1000 budget each) and free of charge within smoking-in-pregnancy webpages on 2 noncommercial websites (National Childbirth Trust and NHS Choices). Daily budgets were capped to allow the Google and Facebook adverts to run for 1 and 3 months, respectively. We recorded the number of times adverts were shown and clicked on, the number of MiQuit initiations, the characteristics of those initiating MiQuit, and whether support was discontinued prematurely. For the commercial adverts, we calculated the cost per initiation and, using quit rates obtained from an earlier clinical trial, estimated the cost per additional quitter. With equal capped budgets, there were 812 and 1889 advert clicks to the MiQuit website from Google (search-based) and Facebook (banner) adverts, respectively. MiQuit was initiated by 5.2% (42/812) of those clicking via Google (95% CI 3.9%-6.9%) and 2.22% (42/1889) of those clicking via Facebook (95% CI 1.65%-2.99%). Adverts on noncommercial webpages generated 53 clicks over 6 months, with 9 initiations (9/53, 17%; 95% CI 9%-30%). For the commercial websites combined, mean cost per initiation was £24.73; estimated cost per additional quitter, including text delivery costs, was £735.86 (95% CI £227.66-£5223.93). Those initiating MiQuit via Google were typically very early in pregnancy

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with smoking habits and oral cancer in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in association with oral cancer risk, and their joint effects with individual smoking habits on oral cancer risk are discussed. In total, 620 oral cancer patients and 620 non-cancer controls in central Taiwan were recruited and genotyped. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in oral cancer patients. Joint effects of smoking and MTHFR C677T genotype significantly affected oral cancer susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred lower odds ratios of 0.66 and 0.54 (95% confidence interval=0.49-0.82 and 0.39-0.86), respectively. Those patients with MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of oral cancer metastasis. MTHFR C677T genotype may have joint effects with smoking on oral carcinogenesis, and may be a useful biomarker for prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

  5. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; psmoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  6. Longitudinal study of parental smoking habits and development of asthma in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Hara, Megumi; Harada, Shohei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental smoking habits and the development of asthma in early childhood by using representative samples. The survey subjects included all of the 53,575 babies born in Japan during the periods January 10-17 and July 10-17, 2001. The families of the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires that were delivered by post at 6 months, 1 year 6 months, 2 years 6 months, 3 years 6 months, and 4 years 6 months postpartum. The first survey contained questions regarding the smoking habits of the parents. The second to fifth surveys asked if the child had needed medical attention for the treatment of asthma. Data from 36,888 subjects (collection rate: 68.9%) were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidence of asthma was 12.0%. Maternal indoor smoking significantly increased the risk of asthma development in children, 4-year risk 14.4% vs. 11.7%, risk ratio=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.38. No statistically significant association was found between paternal smoking and asthma development in children. In order to prevent the development of asthma in early childhood, it is necessary to formulate measures to stop or discourage maternal smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Smoking Habits of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Intermittent Claudication in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Joshua; Jabo, Brice; Patel, Sheela; Kiang, Sharon; Bianchi, Christian; Chiriano, Jason; Teruya, Theodore; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines for the medical treatment of intermittent claudication give a GRADE 1A recommendation for smoking cessation. Active smoking is therefore expected to be low in patients suffering from intermittent claudication selected for vascular surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking in patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication at the national level and to determine the relationship between smoking status and intervention. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registries for infra-inguinal bypass, supra-inguinal bypass, and peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) were queried to identify patients who underwent invasive treatment for intermittent claudication. Patient factors, procedure type (bypass versus PVI), and level of disease (supra-inguinal versus infra-inguinal) were evaluated for associations with smoking status (active smoking or nonsmoking) by univariate and covariate analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 101,055 procedures were entered in the 3 registries, with 40,269 (40%) performed for intermittent claudication. Complete data for analysis were present in 37,632 cases. At the time of intervention, 44% of patients were active smokers, with wide variation by regional quality group (16-53%). In covariate analysis, active smoking at treatment was associated with age smoking status. During follow-up, 36% of patients had quit smoking. Predictors of smoking cessation included age ≥70 years (RR 1.45), ABI ≥0.9 (RR 1.12), and bypass procedures (RR 1.22). At the time of treatment, 44% of patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication in the VQI were active smokers and there was a wide regional variation. Prevalence of active smoking was greater in the presence of younger age, fewer comorbidities, lower ABI, and supra-inguinal disease. Type of procedure performed, and in turn level of invasiveness required, did not appear to be influenced by smoking

  8. An Evaluation of Anxiety Sensitivity, Emotional Dysregulation, and Negative Affectivity among Daily Cigarette Smokers: Relation to Smoking Motives and Barriers to Quitting

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Marshall, Erin C.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; Mage = 24.97 years, SD = 9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater ...

  9. Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers

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    Buczkowski K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Krzysztof Buczkowski,1 Ludmila Marcinowicz,2 Slawomir Czachowski,1 Elwira Piszczek3 1Department of Family Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 3Sociology Institute, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Background: Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse.Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting.Methods: We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods.Results: Three main themes were identified: (1 motivations to quit smoking, (2 reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3 modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1 a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2 the high cost of cigarettes, (3 the unpleasant smell, (4 health concern, (5 pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6 a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1 stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2 the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3 the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts.Conclusion: Two

  10. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

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    Garg, Ankur; Singh, Mongjam Meghachandra; Gupta, Vimal Kishore; Garg, Suneela; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Saha, Renuka

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Cross-sectional; Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49). Majority 198 (88.4%) of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001). 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9%) had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India

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    Ankur Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Materials and Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional; Setting: Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; Sample size: 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49. Majority 198 (88.4% of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001. 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9% had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Conclusion: Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  12. Development and Alpha Testing of QuitIT: An Interactive Video Game to Enhance Skills for Coping With Smoking Urges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Paul; Burkhalter, Jack E; Snow, Bert; Fiske, Jeff; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2013-09-11

    Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use.

  13. Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Costa, Rui M

    2017-11-20

    What is a habit? One problem with the concept of habit has been that virtually everyone has their own ideas of what is meant by such a term. Whilst not eschewing folk psychology, it is useful to re-examine dictionary definitions of 'habit'. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines habit as "a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up" and also "an automatic reaction to a specific situation". The latter, reassuringly, is not too far from what has come to be known as stimulus-response theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes as an aid to quitting smoking among lung cancer patients: a pilot study

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    Allison Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many patients diagnosed with lung cancer continue to smoke even though this can make their treatment less effective and increase side effects. E-cigarettes form part of the UK's tobacco harm reduction policy landscape and are, by far, smokers' most popular quit attempt method. This pilot study explores feasibility and acceptability of e-cigarettes to aid smoking cessation among lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods 27 smokers with stage IV lung cancer were recruited from one NHS site in Scotland between May-16 and June-17. They were provided with a 2 nd generation e-cigarette kit at a baseline home visit conducted by a researcher and a volunteer who was an experienced e-cigarette user. Participants were followed-up weekly for four weeks and at 16 weeks. Participants´ response to, and use of, e-cigarettes was explored along with cessation outcomes (self-reported and CO verified. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with health professionals (n=8 engaged with lung cancer patients to obtain their views on the study. Results Overall, participants were motivated to stop smoking and took easily to using e-cigarettes. Minor issues arose around choice of flavour, and some side effects were noted, although participants reported difficulty in distinguishing these from treatment side effects. Seven participants were lost to follow-up. Preliminary findings show that at 4-week follow-up: average CO reading had reduced from 14 (range 3-37 to 8 (range 1-29, and 70% of participants reported daily e-cigarette use, however, use was dependent on individuals' day-to-day health. Health professionals interviewed were generally supportive of e-cigarettes as a tool for quitting, and suggested future efforts should concentrate on patients with curable cancer. Conclusions E-cigarettes have a potential role to play for lung cancer patients. Future smoking cessation research should take account of the impact of cancer treatment on

  15. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  16. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

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    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  17. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

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    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  18. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  19. Economic evaluation of an exercise-counselling intervention to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: The Fit2Quit trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, William; Roberts, Vaughan; Gordon, Louisa G; Bullen, Christopher; McRobbie, Hayden; Prapavessis, Harry; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In the Fit2Quit randomised controlled trial, insufficiently-active adult cigarette smokers who contacted Quitline for support to quit smoking were randomised to usual Quitline support or to also receive ≤10 face-to-face and telephone exercise-support sessions delivered by trained exercise facilitators over the 24-week trial. This paper aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of an exercise-counselling intervention added to Quitline compared to Quitline alone in the Fit2Quit trial. Within-trial and lifetime cost-effectiveness were assessed. A published Markov model was adapted, with smokers facing increased risks of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over 24 weeks, the incremental programme cost per participant in the intervention was NZ$428 (US$289 or €226; purchasing power parity-adjusted [PPP]). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for seven-day point prevalence measured at 24-week follow-up was NZ$31,733 (US$21,432 or €16,737 PPP-adjusted) per smoker abstaining. However, for the 52% who adhered to the intervention (≥7 contacts), the ICER for point prevalence was NZ$3,991 (US$2,695 or €2,105 PPP-adjusted). In this adherent subgroup, the Markov model estimated 0.057 and 0.068 discounted quality-adjusted life-year gains over the lifetime of 40-year-old males (ICER: NZ$4,431; US$2,993 or €2,337 PPP-adjusted) and females (ICER: NZ$2,909; US$1,965 or €1,534 PPP-adjusted). The exercise-counselling intervention will only be cost-effective if adherence is a minimum of ≥7 intervention calls, which in turn leads to a sufficient number of quitters for health gains. Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12609000637246.

  20. Quit in General Practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation

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    Zwar Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study will test the uptake and effectiveness of a flexible package of smoking cessation support provided primarily by the practice nurse (PN and tailored to meet the needs of a diversity of patients. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised trial, with practices allocated to one of three groups 1 Quit with Practice Nurse 2 Quitline referral 3 GP usual care. PNs from practices randomised to the intervention group will receive a training course in smoking cessation followed by access to mentoring. GPs from practices randomised to the Quitline referral group will receive information about the study and the process of written referral and GPs in the usual care group will receive information about the study. Eligible patients are those aged 18 and over presenting to their GP who are daily or weekly smokers and who are able to give informed consent. Patients on low incomes in all three groups will be able to access free nicotine patches. Primary outcomes are sustained abstinence and point prevalence abstinence at the three month and 12 month follow-up points; and incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 12 months. Process evaluation on the reach and acceptability of the intervention approached will be collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI with patients and semi-structured interviews with PNs and GPs. The primary analysis will be by intention to treat. Cessation outcomes will be compared between the three arms at three months and 12 month follow-up using multiple logistic regression. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios will be estimated for the 12 month quit rate for the intervention groups compared to usual care and to each other. Analysis of qualitative data on process outcomes will be based on thematic analysis. Discussion High quality evidence on effectiveness of practice nurse interventions is needed to inform health policy on development of practice nurse roles. If effective

  1. Correlation between smoking habit and surgical outcomes on viral-associated hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Komukai, Sho; Koga, Hiroki; Yamaji, Koutaro; Ide, Takao; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Aishima, Shinichi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2018-01-07

    To investigate the association between smoking habits and surgical outcomes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (B-HCC) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC (C-HCC) and clarify the clinicopathological features associated with smoking status in B-HCC and C-HCC patients. We retrospectively examined the cases of the 341 consecutive patients with viral-associated HCC (C-HCC, n = 273; B-HCC, n = 68) who underwent curative surgery for their primary lesion. We categorized smoking status at the time of surgery into never, ex- and current smoker. We analyzed the B-HCC and C-HCC groups' clinicopathological features and surgical outcomes, i.e ., disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. We also performed subset analyses in both patient groups comparing the current smokers to the other patients. The multivariate analysis in the C-HCC group revealed that current-smoker status was significantly correlated with both OS ( P = 0.0039) and DSS ( P = 0.0416). In the B-HCC patients, no significant correlation was observed between current-smoker status and DFS, OS, or DSS in the univariate or multivariate analyses. The subset analyses comparing the current smokers to the other patients in both the C-HCC and B-HCC groups revealed that the current smokers developed HCC at significantly younger ages than the other patients irrespective of viral infection status. A smoking habit is significantly correlated with the overall and disease-specific survivals of patients with C-HCC. In contrast, the B-HCC patients showed a weak association between smoking status and surgical outcomes.

  2. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. E-cigarette advertisements, and associations with the use of e-cigarettes and disapproval or quitting of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Heijndijk, Suzanne M; Cummings, K Michael; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviours of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  5. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  6. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as easy ... habits with an easy-to-use calendar Includes motivational reminders that coincide with progress, Sends health milestones ...

  7. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  8. An evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, emotional dysregulation, and negative affectivity among daily cigarette smokers: relation to smoking motives and barriers to quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C

    2008-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking.

  9. Smoking Habits and its Effects to Health Among the Middle Aged and Elderly in Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kazuhiko; Nagahama, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Toshihisa; Makiyama, Fumihiko; Ueno, Mitsuo; 平良, 一彦

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship of smoking habits to health status of elderly in a long life span area.Ohgimi Village in Okinawa prefecture was selected as the study area because of long life expectancy. Interview were performed for 765 inhabitants aged 68 years and over.The result obtained are as follows :1) Current smokers were observed in 48.2% of males under 75 years and 33.6% of 75 years and over.2) Although current signs of respiratory tract disease were ...

  10. Optimal solutions for a bio mathematical model for the evolution of smoking habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Waseem; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    In this study, we apply Variation of Parameter Method (VPM) coupled with an auxiliary parameter to obtain the approximate solutions for the epidemic model for the evolution of smoking habit in a constant population. Convergence of the developed algorithm, namely VPM with an auxiliary parameter is studied. Furthermore, a simple way is considered for obtaining an optimal value of auxiliary parameter via minimizing the total residual error over the domain of problem. Comparison of the obtained results with standard VPM shows that an auxiliary parameter is very feasible and reliable in controlling the convergence of approximate solutions.

  11. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Hammad Osama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.

  12. Smoking habits and attitudes toward tobacco bans among United Kingdom hospital staff and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K E; Shin, D; Davies, G

    2011-08-01

    A group of United Kingdom (UK) hospitals. To estimate the current smoking habits of health care professionals (HCPs) in a country with active tobacco control measures, and to record their attitudes to national and hospital tobacco bans. A cross-sectional survey of 500 HCPs. HCPs reported a lower rate of current smoking (7%) than the general population (24%). Doctors (2.6%) and medical students (3.8%) were less likely to be current smokers than both nurses (8.7%) and allied health professionals (10.9%, P smoking in health care premises. A higher proportion of UK doctors (69%) than nurses (52%) favoured a complete ban (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.14-3.56). Self-reported smoking patterns in UK health professionals are lower than previously and compared to other industrialised and developing countries. Support for bans is very high, but differences remain in behaviour and especially attitudes to local bans according to professional status, although this gap is also narrowing.

  13. Association between smoking habits and severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masaya; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Miyase, Yuiko; Suematsu, Yasunori; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Adachi, Sen; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-07-01

    Smoking promotes arteriosclerosis and is one of the most important coronary risk factors. However, few studies have investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We enrolled 416 patients [165/251 = smoker (past and current)/non-smoker)]. They had all undergone CTA and either were clinically suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) or had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. We divided the patients into smoking and non-smoking groups, and evaluated the presence of CAD, the number of significantly stenosed coronary vessels (VD), and the Gensini score as assessed by CTA in the two groups. The incidence of CAD, VD, the Gensini score, and coronary calcification score in the smoking group were all significantly greater than those in the non-smoking group (CAD, p = 0.009; VD, p = 0.003; Gensini score, p = 0.007; coronary calcification score, p = 0.01). Pack-year was significantly associated with VD and the Gensini score, and was strongly associated with multi-vessel disease (2- and 3-VD) (p < 0.05), whereas the duration of cessation in past smokers was not associated with VD or the Gensini score. Pack-year, but not the duration of cessation, may be the most important factor that was associated with the severity of coronary stenosis in terms of VD and the Gensini score.

  14. What cigarette price is required for smokers to attempt to quit smoking? Findings from the ITC Korea Waves 2 and 3 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ja; Park, Susan; Cho, Sung-il; Kim, Yeol; Seo, Hong Gwan; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    We assess the cigarette price that would motivate smokers to quit. We also explore the factors associated with the required price, including exposures to non-tax tobacco control policies. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on data from 1257 male smokers, who participated in either Wave 2 or 3 of the ITC Korea Survey. Information was obtained on what cigarette price per pack would make them try to quit ('price to quit'). Tobit regression on log-transformed price and logistic regression on non-quitting were conducted to identify associated factors. The median price to quit was KRW5854 (US$5.31)/pack, given the current price of KRW2500 (US$2.27)/pack. Younger age, higher education, lack of concern about the health effects of smoking, lack of quit attempts and more cigarettes consumed per day were related to a higher price needed for a quit attempt. Exposures to combinations of non-tax policies were significantly associated with lower price levels to be motivated to quit. Considering the large price increase required for quit attempts, tax policy needs to be combined with other policies, particularly for certain groups, such as heavy smokers. Strengthening non-tax policies is likely to facilitate greater responsiveness to tax policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out at what age children start smoking, as well as their tobacco habits and risk perceptions according to the different school-age groups.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2007; it involved around 1700 students of the Catania province, in Southern Italy. The students filled in a structured tobacco questionnaire. They did it anonymously in the classrooms. Main outcome measures were initiation of smoking, smoking habits, number of cigarettes smoked per day and risk perception.

    Results: From the first year of the primary school to the last year of the high school the proportion of daily smokers increased from 0.0% to 11.8% for girls and from 0.8% to 12.7% for boys. For both genders the initiation of smoking habits occurred mainly at age 10 to 13. Finally, girls had a better risk perception.

    Conclusions: Studying young people’s tobacco habits over time gives an understanding of when preventive measures have to be implemented. In order to influence smoking attitudes, these preventive interventions must be put in place before children start experimenting tobacco.

  16. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  17. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  18. [Oral hygiene habits among tobacco-smoking and non-smoking students of the Medical University of Lublin--chosen aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Among several etiologic factors for dental caries and periodontal diseases we can find dental plaque that forms on the teeth surfaces and prosthetic appliances. Elimination of dental plaque by proper oral hygiene procedures is crucial in caries and periodontal disease prevention. The aim of the study was evaluation of tobacco smoking prevalence among dental students of the Medical University of Lublin and the comparative analysis of oral hygiene habits among smoking and nonsmoking students. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 112 students of the Medical University of Lublin during the second, third, fourth and fifth year of their studies. The students were 20-28 years of age. The questions concerned cigarettes smoking habit and the ways of maintaining oral hygiene. Respondents were divided into smoking and non-smoking group. Statistical analysis was carried out. Obtained results were sent to statistical analysis. Cigarette smoking was reported by 16.67% of surveyed students. No significant differences between smoking and non-smoking students were stated in frequency of brushing, changing the toothbrush, density of toothbrush filaments, using manual and power toothbrush, using whitening toothpastes and frequency of using dental floss and toothpicks. Statistically significant difference was noted in gum chewing habit--smoking students chewed the gum more frequently (83.33%) than non-smoking students (40%). Significant differences occurred also in frequency of professional removal of dental deposits. Calculus removal performed twice a year was reported by 50% of smoking students, comparing with 17.8% of nonsmoking students. 37.78% of nonsmoking students declared professional teeth cleaning performed more often than twice a year comparing with 11.11% of respondents from the smokers group (p < 0.05).

  19. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand, and four Western nations: A cross-cultural comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642

  20. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand and four Western nations: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind.

  1. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods: The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers and their visceral fat area (VFA (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2. Results: The serum triglyceride (TG levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3% exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4% and non-smokers (18.8%. The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9% and former smokers (14.9% demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%. In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions: Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  2. Gene promoter methylation and DNA repair capacity in monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Rizzolo, Piera; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Silvestri, Valentina; Crebelli, Riccardo; Marcon, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The influence of DNA repair capacity, plasma nutrients and tobacco smoke exposure on DNA methylation was investigated in blood cells of twenty-one couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits. All study subjects had previously been characterized for mutagen sensitivity with challenge assays with ionizing radiation in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Plasma levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were also available from a previous investigation. In this work DNA methylation in the promoter region of a panel of ten genes involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, apoptosis and DNA repair (p16, FHIT, RAR, CDH1, DAPK1, hTERT, RASSF1A, MGMT, BRCA1 and PALB2) was assessed in the same batches of cells isolated for previous studies, using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technique. Fairly similar profiles of gene promoter methylation were observed within co-twins compared to unrelated subjects (p= 1.23 × 10(-7)), with no significant difference related to smoking habits (p = 0.23). In a regression analysis the methylation index of study subjects, used as synthetic descriptor of overall promoter methylation, displayed a significant inverse correlation with radiation-induced micronuclei (p = 0.021) and plasma folic acid level (p = 0.007) both in smokers and in non-smokers. The observed association between repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and promoter methylation suggests the involvement of the DNA repair machinery in DNA modification. Data also highlight the possible modulating effect of folate deficiency on DNA methylation and the strong influence of familiarity on the individual epigenetic profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: 'neither smoking habit nor hypertension', 'smoking habit alone', 'hypertension alone' or 'both smoking habit and hypertension.' Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of > or =140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of > or =90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18,444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21,252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31,037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17,418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (Psmoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

  4. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use among a population-based sample of adult smokers: association with smoking cessation and motivation to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Hargraves, J Lee

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly popular electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be the most promising development yet to end cigarette smoking. However, there is sparse evidence that their use promotes cessation. We investigated whether e-cigarette use increases smoking cessation and/or has a deleterious effect on quitting smoking and motivation to quit. Representative samples of adults in 2 US metropolitan areas were surveyed in 2011/2012 about their use of novel tobacco products. In 2014, follow-up interviews were conducted with 695 of the 1,374 baseline cigarette smokers who had agreed to be re-contacted (retention rate: 51%). The follow-up interview assessed their smoking status and history of electronic cigarette usage. Respondents were categorized as intensive users (used e-cigarettes daily for at least 1 month), intermittent users (used regularly, but not daily for more than 1 month), and non-users/triers (used e-cigarettes at most once or twice). At follow-up, 23% were intensive users, 29% intermittent users, 18% had used once or twice, and 30% had not tried e-cigarettes. Logistic regression controlling for demographics and tobacco dependence indicated that intensive users of e-cigarettes were 6 times more likely than non-users/triers to report that they quit smoking (OR: 6.07, 95% CI = 1.11, 33.2). No such relationship was seen for intermittent users. There was a negative association between intermittent e-cigarette use and 1 of 2 indicators of motivation to quit at follow-up. Daily use of electronic cigarettes for at least 1 month is strongly associated with quitting smoking at follow-up. Further investigation of the underlying reasons for intensive versus intermittent use will help shed light on the mechanisms underlying the associations between e-cigarette use, motivation to quit, and smoking cessation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  7. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  8. Using the negative exponential distribution to quantitatively review the evidence on how rapidly the excess risk of ischaemic heart disease declines following quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Fry, John S; Hamling, Jan S

    2012-10-01

    No previous review has formally modelled the decline in IHD risk following quitting smoking. From PubMed searches and other sources we identified 15 prospective and eight case-control studies that compared IHD risk in current smokers, never smokers, and quitters by time period of quit, some studies providing separate blocks of results by sex, age or amount smoked. For each of 41 independent blocks, we estimated, using the negative exponential model, the time, H, when the excess risk reduced to half that caused by smoking. Goodness-of-fit to the model was adequate for 35 blocks, others showing a non-monotonic pattern of decline following quitting, with a variable pattern of misfit. After omitting one block with a current smoker RR 1.0, the combined H estimate was 4.40 (95% CI 3.26-5.95) years. There was considerable heterogeneity, H being 10years for 12. H increased (p<0.001) with mean age at study start, but not clearly with other factors. Sensitivity analyses allowing for reverse causation, or varying assumed midpoint times for the final open-ended quitting period little affected goodness-of-fit of the combined estimate. The US Surgeon-General's view that excess risk approximately halves after a year's abstinence seems over-optimistic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior change techniques used in group-based behavioral support by the English stop-smoking services and preliminary assessment of association with short-term quit outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Evans, Adam; Michie, Susan

    2011-12-01

    To develop a reliable coding scheme for components of group-based behavioral support for smoking cessation, to establish the frequency of inclusion in English Stop-Smoking Service (SSS) treatment manuals of specific components, and to investigate the associations between inclusion of behavior change techniques (BCTs) and service success rates. A taxonomy of BCTs specific to group-based behavioral support was developed and reliability of use assessed. All English SSSs (n = 145) were contacted to request their group-support treatment manuals. BCTs included in the manuals were identified using this taxonomy. Associations between inclusion of specific BCTs and short-term (4-week) self-reported quit outcomes were assessed. Fourteen group-support BCTs were identified with >90% agreement between coders. One hundred and seven services responded to the request for group-support manuals of which 30 had suitable documents. On average, 7 BCTs were included in each manual. Two were positively associated with 4-week quit rates: "communicate group member identities" and a "betting game" (a financial deposit that is lost if a stop-smoking "buddy" relapses). It is possible to reliably code group-specific BCTs for smoking cessation. Fourteen such techniques are present in guideline documents of which 2 appear to be associated with higher short-term self-reported quit rates when included in treatment manuals of English SSSs.

  10. Overcoming Limitations in Previous Research on Exercise as a Smoking Cessation Treatment: Rationale and Design of the “Quit for Health” Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Monti, Peter M.; Emerson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)—an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants’ natural environments. PMID:24246818

  11. Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Cooper, Sue; Foster, Katharine; Emery, Joanne; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Jones, Matthew; Ussher, Michael; Whitemore, Rachel; Leighton, Matthew; Montgomery, Alan; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pregnancy smoking cessation support delivered by short message service (SMS) text message and key parameters needed to plan a definitive trial. Multi-centre, parallel-group, single-blinded, individual randomized controlled trial. Sixteen antenatal clinics in England. Four hundred and seven participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 203) or usual care (n = 204). Eligible women were 5 pre-pregnancy), were able to receive and understand English SMS texts and were not already using text-based cessation support. All participants received a smoking cessation leaflet; intervention participants also received a 12-week programme of individually tailored, automated, interactive, self-help smoking cessation text messages (MiQuit). Seven smoking outcomes, including validated continuous abstinence from 4 weeks post-randomization until 36 weeks gestation, design parameters for a future trial and cost-per-quitter. Using the validated, continuous abstinence outcome, 5.4% (11 of 203) of MiQuit participants were abstinent versus 2.0% (four of 204) of usual care participants [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-9.35]. The Bayes factor for this outcome was 2.23. Completeness of follow-up at 36 weeks gestation was similar in both groups; provision of self-report smoking data was 64% (MiQuit) and 65% (usual care) and abstinence validation rates were 56% (MiQuit) and 61% (usual care). The incremental cost-per-quitter was £133.53 (95% CI = -£395.78 to 843.62). There was some evidence, although not conclusive, that a text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

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    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  13. Associations of Weight Concerns With Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Quit Smoking: A Population-Based Study Among Finnish Daily Smokers.

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    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Kinnunen, Taru H; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Patja, Kristiina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about weight gain occurring after smoking cessation may affect motivation and self-efficacy towards quitting smoking. We examined associations of smoking-specific weight concerns with smoking cessation motivation and self-efficacy in a population-based cross-sectional sample of daily smokers. Six-hundred biochemically verified (blood cotinine) current daily smokers comprising 318 men and 282 women aged 25-74 years, were studied as part of the National FINRISK (Finnish Population Survey on Risk Factors on Chronic, Noncommunicable Diseases) study and its DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic factors in the development of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) sub-study that was conducted in Finland in 2007. Self-reported scales were used to assess weight concerns, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the cessation of smoking. Multiple regression analyses of concerns about weight in relation to motivation and self-efficacy were conducted with adjustments for sex, age (years), body mass index (BMI, [kg/m(2)]), physical activity (times per week), and further controlled for nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Higher levels of weight concerns were associated with lower self-efficacy (β = -0.07, p motivation for smoking cessation (β = 0.02, p = 0.16). These cross-sectional population-based data do not support earlier findings that suggest that smokers with high levels of weight concerns are less motivated to quit smoking. Our data suggest that daily smokers who are highly concerned about weight may have lower self-efficacy for cessation of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determining counselling communication strategies associated with successful quits in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme in East London: a focused ethnography using recorded consultations.

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    Rivas, Carol; Sohanpal, Ratna; MacNeill, Virginia; Steed, Liz; Edwards, Elizabeth; Antao, Laurence; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-10-27

    To determine communication strategies associated with smoking cessation in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme. 11 community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 9 stop smoking advisers and 16 pairs of smokers who either quit or did not quit at 4 weeks, matched on gender, ethnicity, age and smoking intensity. 1-3 audio-recorded consultations between an adviser and each pair member over 5-6 weeks were analysed using a mixed-method approach. First a content analysis was based on deductive coding drawn from a theme-oriented discourse analysis approach and the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Core themes were identified through this quantification to explore in detail the qualitative differences and similarities between quitters and non-quitters. Quantitative analysis revealed advisers used a core set of counselling strategies that privileged the 'voice of medicine' and often omitted explicit motivational interviewing. Smokers tended to quit when these core strategies were augmented by supportive talk, clear permission for smokers to seek additional support from the adviser between consultations, encouragement for smokers to use willpower. The thematic analysis highlighted the choices made by advisers as to which strategies to adopt and the impacts on smokers. The first theme 'Negotiating the smoker-adviser relationship' referred to adviser judgements about the likelihood the smoker would quit. The second theme, 'Roles of the adviser and smoker in the quit attempt', focused on advisers' counselling strategies, while the third theme, 'Smoker and adviser misalignment on reasons for smoking, relapsing and quitting', concerned inconsistencies in the implementation of National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training recommendations. Advisers in community pharmacies should use the advantages of their familiarity with smokers to ensure appropriate delivery of patient-centred counselling strategies and reflect on the impact on

  15. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

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    Sevgi Durna Daştan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.

  16. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  17. Helping Smokers Quit: New Partners and New Strategies from the University of California, San Francisco Smoking Cessation Leadership Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A; Clark, Brian; Cheng, Christine; Saucedo, Catherine B

    2018-01-01

    The Smoking Cessation Leadership Center (SCLC) was established in 2003 to increase the rate of smoking cessation attempts and the likelihood those efforts would succeed. Although smoking remains the number one cause of preventable death and disability, clinicians underperform in smoking cessation. Furthermore, many clinical organizations, governmental agencies, and advocacy groups put little effort into smoking cessation. Initially targeted at increasing the efforts of primary care physicians, SCLC efforts expanded to include many other medical and non-physician disciplines, ultimately engaging 21 separate specialties. Most clinicians and their organizations are daunted by efforts required to become cessation experts. A compromise solution, Ask, Advise, Refer (to telephone quitlines), was crafted. SCLC also stimulated smoking cessation projects in governmental, not-for-profit, and industry groups, including the Veterans Administration, the Health Resources Services Administration, Los Angeles County, and the Joint Commission. SCLC helped CVS pharmacies to stop selling tobacco products and other pharmacies to increase smoking cessation efforts, provided multiple educational offerings, and distributed $6.4 million in industry-supported smoking cessation grants to 55 organizations plus $4 million in direct SCLC grants. Nevertheless, smoking still causes 540,000 annual deaths in the US. SCLC's work in the field of behavioral health is described in a companion article.

  18. Daily negative affect and smoking after a self-set quit attempt: The role of dyadic invisible social support in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Janina; Stadler, Gertraud; Ochsner, Sibylle; Rackow, Pamela; Knoll, Nina; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2015-11-01

    Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

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    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  20. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Estimating the decline in excess risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following quitting smoking - a systematic review based on the negative exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Fry, John S; Forey, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    We quantified the decline in COPD risk following quitting using the negative exponential model, as previously carried out for other smoking-related diseases. We identified 14 blocks of RRs (from 11 studies) comparing current smokers, former smokers (by time quit) and never smokers, some studies providing sex-specific blocks. Corresponding pseudo-numbers of cases and controls/at risk formed the data for model-fitting. We estimated the half-life (H, time since quit when the excess risk becomes half that for a continuing smoker) for each block, except for one where no decline with quitting was evident, and H was not estimable. For the remaining 13 blocks, goodness-of-fit to the model was generally adequate, the combined estimate of H being 13.32 (95% CI 11.86-14.96) years. There was no heterogeneity in H, overall or by various studied sources. Sensitivity analyses allowing for reverse causation or different assumed times for the final quitting period little affected the results. The model summarizes quitting data well. The estimate of 13.32years is substantially larger than recent estimates of 4.40years for ischaemic heart disease and 4.78years for stroke, and also larger than the 9.93years for lung cancer. Heterogeneity was unimportant for COPD, unlike for the other three diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

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    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  3. Wanting to attend isn't just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Stronks, Karien; Willemsen, Marc C; Bogaerts, Nina M M; Nierkens, Vera

    2014-07-07

    Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions ("frequent attenders"), and those who missed more than two sessions ("infrequent attenders"). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to

  4. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Grana, Rachel A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-06-01

    As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression. A total of 9.4% (8.0% ever-dual users who were concurrently using e-cigarettes and smoking conventional cigarettes and 1.4% ever-e-cigarette only users) of Korean adolescents have ever used e-cigarettes and 4.7% were current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users (3.6% dual users and 1.1% e-cigarettes only). After adjusting for demographics, current cigarette smokers were much more likely to use e-cigarettes than were nonsmokers. Among current cigarette smokers, those who smoked more frequently were more likely to be current e-cigarette users. The odds of being an e-cigarette user were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.79) higher among students who had made an attempt to quit than for those who had not. It was rare for students no longer using cigarettes to be among current e-cigarette users (odds ratio, .10; confidence interval, .09-.12). Some Korean adolescents may be responding to advertising claims that e-cigarettes are a cessation aid: those who had made an attempt to quit were more likely to use e-cigarettes but less likely to no longer use cigarettes. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with current and heavier cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults.

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    O'Donovan, Gary; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-04-15

    Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up. Greater amounts of exercise were associated with decreases and greater amounts of smoking were associated with increases in the risks of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. There was no statistically significant evidence of biological interaction; rather, the relative risks of all-cause mortality were additive. In the subgroup of 26,768 ex-smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI 0.60, 0.80), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.71 (0.55, 092) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. In the subgroup of 28,440 smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.57, 0.83), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.45, 0.96) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. Given that an outright ban is unlikely, this study is important because it suggests exercise reduces the risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by around 30% in smokers and ex-smokers. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  7. Estimating the decline in excess risk of cerebrovascular disease following quitting smoking--a systematic review based on the negative exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Fry, John S; Thornton, Alison J

    2014-02-01

    We attempted to quantify the decline in stroke risk following quitting using the negative exponential model, with methodology previously employed for IHD. We identified 22 blocks of RRs (from 13 studies) comparing current smokers, former smokers (by time quit) and never smokers. Corresponding pseudo-numbers of cases and controls/at risk formed the data for model-fitting. We tried to estimate the half-life (H, time since quit when the excess risk becomes half that for a continuing smoker) for each block. The method failed to converge or produced very variable estimates of H in nine blocks with a current smoker RR <1.40. Rejecting these, and combining blocks by amount smoked in one study where problems arose in model-fitting, the final analyses used 11 blocks. Goodness-of-fit was adequate for each block, the combined estimate of H being 4.78(95%CI 2.17-10.50) years. However, considerable heterogeneity existed, unexplained by any factor studied, with the random-effects estimate 3.08(1.32-7.16). Sensitivity analyses allowing for reverse causation or differing assumed times for the final quitting period gave similar results. The estimates of H are similar for stroke and IHD, and the individual estimates similarly heterogeneous. Fitting the model is harder for stroke, due to its weaker association with smoking. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Di; Tian, Hui; Zuo, Fang; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-11-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture out-patient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Physicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within 1 month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counsellor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise and diet advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline, and a telephone counsellor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (approximately 1 minute each) at 1 week and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview. By intention-to-treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3 versus 6.9%, OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0

  9. Helping Smokers Quit: The Smoking Cessation Leadership Center Engages Behavioral Health by Challenging Old Myths and Traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A; Clark, Brian; Cheng, Christine; Saucedo, Catherine B

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is much more common among persons with behavioral health conditions (mental illnesses and/or substance use disorders). Persons with these disorders are more likely to die from smoking-related causes than any other reason. Studies have shown that stopping smoking can improve mental health function, as well as improve outcomes for substance use disorders. Yet, for a variety of reasons, smoking cessation has not been integrated into the treatment of behavioral health conditions, and in many instances tobacco use was not only condoned but encouraged. Beginning in 2007, the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center (SCLC) began engaging relevant agencies in an attempt to stimulate more vigorous smoking cessation activities. Partners included the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, advocacy organizations such as the National Alliance on Mental Illness and Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America, and clinical groups such as the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Behavioral Health, and National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. A signature program featured 16 individual state summits involving agencies and groups from multiple sectors, all aiming to lower smoking rates in behavioral health populations. These activities mark an evolving culture change within behavioral health.

  10. Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Frank, Brandon E; Bold, Krysten W; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether individuals trying to quit smoking who have high depressive symptoms (HD), compared with low depressive symptoms (LD): (1) report more frequent stressful events (SEs), (2) are more likely to smoke after SEs, (3) experience greater acute or persistent changes in affect after an SE, and (4) are at greater risk of smoking following affective changes. Smoking cessation data were analyzed using multi-level path modeling to examine the moderating effects of depressive symptoms on relations among SEs, subsequent affect, and smoking. An academic research center in Central New Jersey, USA. Seventy-one adult treatment-seeking daily smokers recruited from 2010 to 2012. Baseline depressive symptoms [HD: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ≥ 16 versus LD: CES-D affect, and smoking assessed during 21 days post-quit. Multi-level models indicated that HD smokers were more likely than LD smokers to report stressful events [odds ratio (OR) = 2.323, P = 0.009], but had similar post-stress acute affective changes (negative affect: b = -0.117, P = 0.137, positive affect: b = 0.020, P = 0.805). Only HD smokers reported increased negative affect (NA) (b = 0.199, P = 0.030) and decreased positive affect (PA) up to 12 hours later (b = -0.217, P = 0.021), and greater lapse risk up to 24 hours after an SE (OR = 3.213, P = 0.017). The persistence of elevated NA and suppressed PA was partially explained by increased odds of subsequent SEs among HD smokers. However, the heightened stress-lapse association over 24 hours found in HD smokers was not fully explained by sustained aversive affect or subsequent SEs. Depressed and non-depressed smokers trying to quit appear to experience similar acute affective changes following stress: however, depressed smokers experience higher rates of exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking lapse 12-24 hours after a stressful event

  11. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  12. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  13. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  14. Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: Implications for nicotine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Kim, Su-Young; Colby, Suzanne; Conti, David; Giovino, Gary A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hyland, Andrew; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Niaura, Raymond; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Toll, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smoking cessation outcome. This paper used data from four placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials and one international epidemiologic study to determine relations between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; Kozlowski et al., 1994), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS; Shiffman et al., 2004) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al. 2004) with cessation success. Results showed that much of the predictive validity of the FTND could be attributed to its first item, time to first cigarette in the morning, and this item had greater validity than any other single measure. Thus, the time to first cigarette item appears to tap a pattern of heavy, uninterrupted, and automatic smoking and may be a good single-item measure of nicotine dependence. PMID:18067032

  15. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data.Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers.The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  16. The Intention to Quit Smoking: The Impact of Susceptibility, Self-Efficacy, Social Norms and Emotional Intelligence Embedded Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…

  17. Influence of Knowledge and Attitudes on Smoking Habits Among Young Military Conscripts in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoh-Shiang Lin

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

  18. The contribution of DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease genotype and smoking habit to Taiwan lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Liang-Yi; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Tu, Chih-Yen; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Chen, Hung-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ming; Bau, da-Tian

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism the gene for DNA-apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEX1) with personal smoking habit and lung cancer risk in Taiwan, the polymorphic variants of APEX1, Asp(148)Glu (rs1130409), were analyzed in association with lung cancer risk, and their joint effect with personal smoking habits on lung cancer susceptibility was discussed. In this hospital-based case-control study, 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 cancer-free controls, frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the percentages of TT, TG and GG APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes were not significantly different at 43.0%, 41.1% and 15.9% in the lung cancer patient group and 39.9%, 46.1% and 14.0% in non-cancer control group, respectively. We further analyzed the genetic-lifestyle effects on lung cancer risk and found the contribution of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes to lung cancer susceptibility was neither enhanced in the cigarette smokers nor in the non-smokers (p=0.3550 and 0.8019, respectively). Our results provide evidence that the non-synonymous polymorphism of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu may not be directly associated with lung cancer risk, nor enhance the effects of smoking habit on lung cancer development.

  19. Respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is impaired by smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Shinobu; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Sumitomo, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. We analyzed 802 subjects (364 men and 438 women). The means of the lambda-mu-sigma method derived z-score of FEV1 (zFEV1) both in current-smokers and ex-smokers were lower than that in never-smokers. The mean zFEV1 in the ever-smokers with more than 30 pack-years of smoking history were lower than that in the ever-smokers with less smoking history. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant negative correlations between pack-years and zFEV1 both in the ex-smokers and current-smokers. There was no significant correlation between the duration of smoking cessation and zFEV1 in the ex-smokers. Our data suggests that respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is decreased based on smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner. Even after a long period of smoking cessation, the decreased respiratory function seems to be maintained in ex-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care - Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Hellstrand, Mats; Engström, Sevek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16-84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%). Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  1. Overcoming limitations in previous research on exercise as a smoking cessation treatment: rationale and design of the "Quit for Health" trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J; Monti, Peter M; Emerson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)--an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants' natural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  3. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers? Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, ...

  4. Recruitment and initial interest of men in yoga for smoking cessation: QuitStrong, a randomized control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine G; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C

    2015-06-01

    Innovative treatments like yoga for men's smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men's SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18-65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±13.7) who smoked on average 18.6 cigarettes/day (±8.3). Wellness (75.8 %) versus yoga (56 %) men attended more SC classes, p < 0.01. Sixty percent attended ≥1 yoga class. Men reported greater satisfaction with in-house versus community yoga classes. Wellness appears to be the preferred intervention; results indicated that it may be more feasible and showed increased attendance at smoking classes. To be fully feasible, yoga + SC may need to be a unified program offering all classes tailored for men and in the same location.

  5. A Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Intervention for Korean Americans: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Family Norm Toward Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Fang, Hua; Kwon, Simona; Shelley, Donna; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-min individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-min individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2 vs. 11.1 %, χ (2) = 10.7, p family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect.

  6. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  7. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors

  8. How rapidly does the excess risk of lung cancer decline following quitting smoking? A quantitative review using the negative exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John S; Lee, Peter N; Forey, Barbara A; Coombs, Katharine J

    2013-10-01

    The excess lung cancer risk from smoking declines with time quit, but the shape of the decline has never been precisely modelled, or meta-analyzed. From a database of studies of at least 100 cases, we extracted 106 blocks of RRs (from 85 studies) comparing current smokers, former smokers (by time quit) and never smokers. Corresponding pseudo-numbers of cases and controls (or at-risk) formed the data for fitting the negative exponential model. We estimated the half-life (H, time in years when the excess risk becomes half that for a continuing smoker) for each block, investigated model fit, and studied heterogeneity in H. We also conducted sensitivity analyses allowing for reverse causation, either ignoring short-term quitters (S1) or considering them smokers (S2). Model fit was poor ignoring reverse causation, but much improved for both sensitivity analyses. Estimates of H were similar for all three analyses. For the best-fitting analysis (S1), H was 9.93 (95% CI 9.31-10.60), but varied by sex (females 7.92, males 10.71), and age (<50years 6.98, 70+years 12.99). Given that reverse causation is taken account of, the model adequately describes the decline in excess risk. However, estimates of H may be biased by factors including misclassification of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ?A good method of quitting smoking? or ?just an alternative to smoking?? Comparative evaluations of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette usage by dual users

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Coyle, Adrian; Walker, Victoria; Cabrera Torres, Joshelyn; Ordo?a, Izobel; Rahman, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The development of e-cigarettes was initially hailed as a resource in facilitating a reduction in or cessation of cigarette smoking. Many users of e-cigarettes are ‘dual users’, smoking traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The present qualitative study examines the factors that a group of 20 dual users considered to have been influential in their decisions to use e-cigarettes and their comparative evaluations of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Health concerns were not found to be...

  10. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking habits among adults in the work place in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al'Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings.

  11. Hábitos tabágicos em alunos do 6.º ano de Medicina e medidas anti-tabágicas Smoking habits of sixth year medical students and anti-smoking measures in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borges

    2008-06-01

    made available online to the target population (6th year Portuguese medical students. The relationships between some of the variables were analysed using contingency tables and the χ2 test, with p<0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results: We obtained 255 answers to our questionnaire. We found an 18.04% prevalence of smokers. The majority of smokers smoked 1 - 10 cigarettes per day, with men smoking more, and most of them had begun their habit between 13 and 18 years of age, with women beginning later. 36.96% of smokers had already made an attempt to quit smoking. The great majority of the respondents agreed with the anti-smoking measures listed in the questionnaire. Furthermore, they expected these measures to have a positive impact on smoking and on smokingrelated morbidity and mortality. Only 34.90% of the students judged smoking cessation to be sufficiently taught in their curricula. Conclusions: The results are in accordance with the population in general in terms of the prevalence of smokers, the age of beginning smoking and a high prevalence of women smokers. There appears to be across-the-board agreement with anti-smoking measures, along with hope for a reduced general and individual consumption and morbi-mortality.

  12. Recruitment and initial interest of men in yoga for smoking cessation: QuitStrong, a randomized control pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L.; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M.; Bock, Beth C.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative treatments like yoga for men’s smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men’s SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18–65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±1...

  13. Uptake of Tailored Text Message Smoking Cessation Support in Pregnancy When Advertised on the Internet (MiQuit): Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne L; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Background: Smoking in pregnancy is a major public health concern. Pregnant smokers are particularly difficult to reach, with low uptake of support options and few effective interventions. Text message–based self-help is a promising, low-cost intervention for this population, but its real-world uptake is largely unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the uptake and cost-effectiveness of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (“MiQuit”...

  14. Association of E-Cigarette Use With Smoking Cessation Among Smokers Who Plan to Quit After a Hospitalization: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Chang, Yuchiao; Tindle, Hilary A; Kalkhoran, Sara M; Levy, Douglas E; Regan, Susan; Kelley, Jennifer H K; Davis, Esa M; Singer, Daniel E

    2018-05-01

    Many smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit smoking, but whether e-cigarettes aid cessation efforts is uncertain. To determine whether e-cigarette use after hospital discharge is associated with subsequent tobacco abstinence among smokers who plan to quit and are advised to use evidence-based treatment. Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01714323 [parent trial]). 3 hospitals. 1357 hospitalized adult cigarette smokers who planned to stop smoking, received tobacco cessation counseling in the hospital, and were randomly assigned at discharge to a tobacco treatment recommendation (control) or free tobacco treatment (intervention). Self-reported e-cigarette use (exposure) was assessed 1 and 3 months after discharge; biochemically validated tobacco abstinence (outcome) was assessed 6 months after discharge. Twenty-eight percent of participants used an e-cigarette within 3 months after discharge. In an analysis of 237 propensity score-matched pairs, e-cigarette users were less likely than nonusers to abstain from tobacco use at 6 months (10.1% vs. 26.6%; risk difference, -16.5% [95% CI, -23.3% to -9.6%]). The association between e-cigarette use and quitting varied between intervention patients, who were given easy access to conventional treatment (7.7% vs. 29.8%; risk difference, -22.1% [CI, -32.3% to -11.9%]), and control patients, who received only treatment recommendations (12.0% vs. 24.1%; risk difference, -12.0% [CI, -21.2% to 2.9%]) (P for interaction = 0.143). Patients self-selected e-cigarette use. Unmeasured confounding is possible in an observational study. During 3 months after hospital discharge, more than a quarter of smokers attempting to quit used e-cigarettes, mostly to aid cessation, but few used them regularly. This pattern of use was associated with less tobacco abstinence at 6 months than among smokers who did not use e-cigarettes. Additional study is needed to determine whether regular use

  15. Cigarette smoking habit does not reduce the benefit from first line trastuzumab-based treatment in advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Adamo, Vincenzo; Addeo, Raffaele; Fusco, Vittorio; Russo, Antonio; Montemurro, Filippo; Roato, Ilaria; Redana, Stefania; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Berruti, Alfredo; Leoni, Valentina; Galluzzo, Sara; Antimi, Mauro; Ferraro, Giuseppa; Rossi, Maura; Del Prete, Salvatore; Valerio, Maria Rosaria; Marra, Monica; Caraglia, Michele; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Many ErbB2-positive cancers may show intrinsic resistance, and the frequent development of acquired resistance to ErbB-targeted agents represents a substantial clinical problem. The constitutive NF-κB activation in some HER-2/neu positive breast cancer may represent a potential cause of resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Preclinical data revealed that 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the tobacco-specific nitrosamine is able to enhance NF-κB DNA binding activity and theoretically to increase the resistance to trastuzumab. Two hundred and forty-eight women with pathologically confirmed, uni- or bidimensionally measurable, HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated with trastuzumab-based therapy as first line combination for metastatic disease were considered eligible. For all included patients data on smoking habit were detectable from medical records. We retrospectively analysed the smoking habits of 248 MBC patients and correlated these habits with activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy. No statistically significant difference in terms of response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was identified between smokers (former plus active smokers) and never smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant difference in terms of RR, TTP and OS was identified either comparing active smokers and former smokers. Moreover, we did not observed any significant statistical difference in terms of TTP and OS between smokers ≥10 cigarettes/day and smoking habit and both activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based first line therapy in metastatic HER2/neu positive breast cancer patients.

  16. A Block Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Smoking Cessation Counselling and Advice through Short Message Service on Participants Who Joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received…

  17. Eating habits, smoking and toothbrushing in relation to dental caries: a 3-year study in Swedish female teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, K; Swanholm, G; Twetman, S

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe eating, toothbrushing and smoking habits in a cohort of Swedish female adolescents, and to relate the findings to dental caries increment. The research took the form of a longitudinal study. The study sample consisted of a cohort of 162 girls under regular dental care, aged 12 years at baseline, who were followed for 3 years, from the sixth to the ninth grade. Eating, oral cleaning and smoking habits were self-reported three times per year through a questionnaire, and caries data at baseline and after 3 years were collected from dental records. The results showed significantly (P 95% of subjects reported that they brushed their teeth at least once a day, approximately 20% did not do it every evening, and this figure remained stable over the study period. However, snacks, soft drinks and sweets, and toothbrushing habits had no significant influence on caries development. Dietary advice for caries prevention in adolescent girls should focus on the importance of retaining regular main meals, and especially, not skipping breakfast.

  18. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  19. Smoking Water Pipe Habits of University Students and Related Sociodemographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The water pipe smoking is growing into a behaviour like smoking cigarette among young people. The rate of water pipe smoking is especially more common among young people whose socioecomonic situations are better than others [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 19-28

  20. Effects of IL6 C-634G polymorphism on tooth loss and their interaction with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, S; Naito, M; Wakai, K; Sasakabe, T; Hattori, Y; Okada, R; Kawai, S; Hishida, A; Morita, E; Nakagawa, H; Tamura, T; Hamajima, N

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between an IL6 (Interleukin-6) polymorphism (C-634G or rs1800796) and tooth loss, and an interaction between the polymorphism and smoking habits for the loss. Our subjects were 4917 check-up examinees ages 35-69. They reported tooth loss and lifestyle in a questionnaire. We regressed the number of teeth on the IL6 genotype, gender, age, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, energy intake, education, and brushing. We further estimated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having smoking and tooth loss was stronger among those with GG than among those with CC. In a multiple regression analysis, a significant interaction was found between GG genotype and current smoking in the prediction of tooth loss (P = 0.018). The IL6 C-634G polymorphism was significantly associated with tooth loss. Our results suggest greater effects of smoking on tooth loss in GG genotype individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting "extremely difficult to quit" compared with "easy to quit." Nicotine......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being "neuroprotective," we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. METHODS: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients...... substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion...

  2. Relationship between polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes and oral cancer risk in Taiwan: evidence for modification of smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Da-Tian; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lo, Yen-Li; Tsai, Yuhsin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-12-31

    Inherited polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may be associated with differences in the repair capacity and contribute to individual's susceptibility to smoking-related cancers. Both XPA and XPD encode proteins that are part of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. In a hospital-based case-control study, we have investigated the influence of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms on oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population. In total, 154 patients with oral cancer, and 105 age-matched controls recruited from the Chinese Medical Hospital in Central Taiwan were genotyped. No significant association was found between the heterozygous variant allele (AG), the homozygous variant allele (AA) at XPA A-23G, the heterozygous variant allele (AC), the homozygous variant allele (CC) at XPD Lys751Gln, and oral cancer risk. There was no significant joint effect of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln on oral cancer risk either. Since XPA and XPD are both NER genes, which are very important in removing tobacco-induced DNA adducts, further stratified analyses of both genotype and smoking habit were performed. We found a synergistic effect of variant genotypes of both XPA and XPD, and smoking status on oral cancer risk. Our results suggest that the genetic polymorphisms are modified by environmental carcinogen exposure status, and combined analyses of both genotype and personal habit record are a better access to know the development of oral cancer and useful for primary prevention and early intervention.

  3. The perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with severe mental illness participating in a smoking cessation intervention: gender differences and comparison to smokers without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with psychosis, including potential gender differences and comparisons to smokers in the general population. Data were collected from 200 people diagnosed with psychosis participating in a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention for smoking cessation and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in people with severe mental illness. Results were compared with both treatment and non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. Male and female smokers with psychosis generally had similar perceived risks and benefits of quitting. Females rated it significantly more likely that they would experience weight gain and negative affect upon quitting than males diagnosed with psychosis. Compared with smokers in the general population also seeking smoking cessation treatment, this sample of smokers with psychosis demonstrated fewer gender differences and lower ratings of perceived risks and benefits of quitting. The pattern of risk and benefit ratings in smokers diagnosed with psychosis was similar to those of non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. These results increase our understanding of smoking in people with severe mental illness, and can directly inform smoking interventions to maximise successful abstinence for this group of smokers. For female smokers with psychosis, smoking cessation interventions need to address concerns regarding weight gain and negative affect. Intervention strategies aimed at enhancing beliefs about the benefits of quitting smoking for both male and female smokers with psychosis are necessary. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: results from the human micronucleus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, M.; Lando, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effect of tobacco smoking on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human lymphocytes has been the object of many population studies. In most reports, the results were unexpectedly negative, and in many instances smokers had lower frequencies of MN than non-smokers. A pooled re-analysis of 24 databases from the HUMN international collaborative project has been performed with the aim of understanding the impact of smoking habits on MN frequency. The complete database included 5710 subjects, with 3501 non-smokers, 1409 current smokers, and 800 former smokers, among subjects in occupational and environmental surveys. The overall result of the re-analysis confirmed the small decrease of MN frequencies in current smokers (frequency ratio (FR =0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.93-1.01) and in former smokers (FR =0.96, 95% CI =0.91-1.01), when compared to non-smokers. MN frequency was not influenced by the number of cigarettes smoked per day among subjects occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents, whereas a typical U-shaped curve is observed for non-exposed smokers, showing a significant increase of MN frequency in individuals smoking 30 cigarettes or more per day (FR =1.59, 95% CI =1.35-1.88). This analysis confirmed that smokers do not experience an overall increase in MN frequency, although when the interaction with occupational exposure is taken into account, heavy smokers were the only group showing a significant increase in genotoxic damage as measured by the micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. From these results some general recommendations for the design of bio monitoring studies involving smokers can be formulated. Quantitative data about smoking habit should always be collected because, in the absence of such data, the simple comparison of smokers versus non-smokers could be misleading. The sub-group of heavy smokers (≥30 cigarettes per day) should be specifically evaluated whenever it is large enough to satisfy statistical requirements. The

  5. Correlates of ever-smoking habit among adolescents in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, A M; Saeed, A A; Abdulrahman, B M; Al-Kaabba, A F; Raat, H

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the correlates of ever-smoking among adolescents was made in Tabuk government schools in Saudi Arabia. Of 1505 students aged 12-19 years, 657 (43.7%) were ever-smokers (i.e. ever tried cigarette smoking, even 1 or 2 puffs); 65.0% of males and 23.1% of females. In logistic regression analysis significant predictors for ever-smoking were: male sex, belief that smoking helps people feel comfortable in social situations, owning something with a cigarette logo, having pocket money > or = 20 riyals/day, poor school performance and having friends or parents who smoked.

  6. Smoking habits are an independent prognostic factor in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Nilufer; Hayar, Murat; Altmisdortoglu, Ozgur; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Deligonul, Adem; Ordu, Cetin; Evrensel, Turkkan

    2017-09-01

    The role of tobacco in the pathogenesis of lung cancer (LC) has been clearly established. Based on the epidemiological evidence that smoking may influence LC progression, we investigated the idea that smoking behavior could be associated with overall survival (OS) in this group of patients. A total of 351 patients with LC (311 men and 40 women) were reviewed. Smoking status was assessed as tobacco users or non-users. To calculate pack-years of smoking, the average of number of cigarettes smoked per day was divided by 20 to give packs per day, and then multiplied by the total number of years of smoking. OS was the main outcome measure. The mean follow-up was 3.3 ± 1.2 years. Kaplan-Meier plots of OS by use of tobacco revealed significant differences by smoking status (log-rank = 5.44, P smoking was also evident when we subdivided the former and current smokers into ≤7 (mean value) pack-years and >7 pack-years groups (log-rank = 4.27, P smoking retained its independent prognostic significance for OS (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.17, P = 0.02). Our data indicate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with a poor prognosis among patients diagnosed with LC in a dose-dependent manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 'A good method of quitting smoking' or 'just an alternative to smoking'? Comparative evaluations of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette usage by dual users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Coyle, Adrian; Walker, Victoria; Cabrera Torres, Joshelyn; Ordoña, Izobel; Rahman, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The development of e-cigarettes was initially hailed as a resource in facilitating a reduction in or cessation of cigarette smoking. Many users of e-cigarettes are 'dual users', smoking traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The present qualitative study examines the factors that a group of 20 dual users considered to have been influential in their decisions to use e-cigarettes and their comparative evaluations of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Health concerns were not found to be sole motivators. Participants pointed to financial and contextual considerations, particularly peer influence on uptake and continued usage of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes were evaluated as comparable to cigarettes in some ways but not in other important respects such as sensation and satisfaction. Different social evaluations of cigarette and e-cigarette usage were discerned which influenced how participants identified as smokers, 'vapers' or neither. Findings are discussed in relation to social representations, identity and implications for continued e-cigarette usage among dual users.

  8. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidpomoga A.Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1st-2nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  9. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Pidpomoga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1 st-2 nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  10. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaglia, N?ris; Chatkin, Jos?; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-01-01

    Background Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of ni...

  11. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanphanom, Sychareun; Phengsavanh, Alongkon; Hansana, Visanou; Menorath, Sing; Tomson, Tanja

    2009-06-08

    This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3%) but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  12. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menorath Sing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  15. Smoking habits of relatives of patients with cancer: cancer diagnosis in the family is an important teachable moment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Mutlu; Kilickap, Saadettin; Elkiran, Tamer; Akbulut, Hakan; Abali, Huseyin; Yuce, Deniz; Kilic, Diclehan; Turhal, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the rate and habitual patterns of smoking, intentions of cessation, dependence levels and sociodemographic characteristics of relatives of patients with a diagnosis of cancer. This study was designed by the Turkish Oncology Group, Epidemiology and Prevention Subgroup. The relatives of cancer patients were asked to fill a questionnaire and Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence. The median ages of those with lower and higher Fagerstrom scores were 40 years and 42 years, respectively. We found no evidence of variation between the two groups for the remaining sociodemographic variables, including the subject's medical status, gender, living in the same house with the patient, their educational status, their family income, closeness to their cancer patients or spending time with them or getting any help or wanting to get some help. Only 2% of the subjects started smoking after cancer was diagnosed in their loved ones and almost 20% of subjects had quit smoking during the previous year. The Fagerstrom score is helpful in determining who would be the most likely to benefit from a cigarette smoking cessation program. Identification of these people with proper screening methods might help us to pinpoint who would benefit most from these programs.

  16. Comparison of Smoking and Khat Chewing Habits between Medical and Non-Medical Female Students at UST, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubas, Mohammed Abdullah; Wadi, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide problem that kills millions of people. Women smoke much lower than males but the numbers of smoker women are growing up. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of smoking and khat chewing in medical and non-medical female students at University of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen. We used self-administrated questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data from a randomly selected sample of medical and non-medical female students of UST in 2012-2013. Overall, 480 students completed and returned the questionnaire, of them medical students represented 50% of them. The prevalence of smoking was significantly low among female medical students (P=0.045), however, not significantly difference was found between medical and non-medical female students in khat chewing habits (P=0.083). Non-smoker medical female students who tried smoking (45.6%) were significantly lower than non-medical students (54.4%), and curiosity was the main reason for trying smoking. Water pipe was the most common type of smoking among smoker students (78.6%). Out of 26 female students who smoke and chew khat, 18 students reported that they smoke more while they chew khat. Our study highlights the need for increased health education, awareness, and knowledge of the risks of smoking and particularly khat chewing to reduce these habits among female university students especially in non-medical female students.

  17. Shisha Smoking Habit among Dental School Students in the United Arab Emirates: Enabling Factors and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer H. Al-Rawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the present study was to assess shisha smoking among dental school students in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE. In addition, the role of suggested barriers and enabling factors in shisha smoking was also evaluated. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, between February and May 2016. The questions were adapted from previously published water pipe smoking studies. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between shisha smoking and sociodemographic characteristics. Relevant questions were further categorized as enabling factors and barriers for shisha smoking. Results. Three enabling questionnaire items related to social environment were significantly associated with an increased risk of being a current smoker. The most powerful is peer pressure (“friends smoke shisha”, which increased the odds ratio of shisha smoking 11.3 times, followed by smoker sibling with increase in odd ratio by 4.52 times, then the belief of social acceptance with increase in odd ratio by 4.31 times. Conclusion. Shisha smoking is a serious problem among university students. Any intervention program in the university curricula should consider teaching students that shisha is no less risky than cigarettes and is addictive.

  18. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care – Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Molarius

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16–84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  19. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  20. Why are financial incentives not effective at influencing some smokers to quit? Results of a process evaluation of a worksite trial assessing the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Kamyab, Kian; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Process evaluation of a worksite intervention in which employees were offered $750 to complete a cessation program and to quit smoking. Awareness and attitudes about financial incentives were assessed following a randomized controlled trial of 878 smokers at a US-based company. Cessation program attendance was higher in incentive group versus control (20.2% vs 7.1%, P motivated to quit and reported that they would have quit for less money, said incentives were "not at all" or only "somewhat" important. Most nonquitters in the incentive group reported that even $1500 would not have motivated them to quit. Financial incentives are ineffective at motivating some smokers to quit. Internal motivation and readiness to quit need to be sufficiently high for relatively modest incentives to be effective.

  1. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.

  2. Do smoking habits differ between women and men in contemporary Western populations? Evidence from half a million people in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R; Woodward, Mark

    2014-12-30

    Several studies have shown that smoking may confer a greater excess risk for chronic diseases in women compared with men. The reasons for this excess risk of smoking in women are unclear, yet sex differences in smoking habits may play a role. We, thus, characterised sex differences in smoking habits in a contemporary Western population. Cross-sectional population-based study. UK Biobank Resource. 499,797 (54% women) individuals with data on smoking habits. Women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean difference in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily and age at smoking cessation in 5-year birth cohort bands. The women-to-men ever-smoking ratio ranged from 0.57 in the oldest to 0.87 in the youngest birth cohort. In the oldest cohort, born 1935-1939, women started smoking 1.9 years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) later than did men, but in those born after 1959 there was no difference in the age at initiation. The oldest women smoked 5.3 (95% CI 4.7 to 5.9) cigarettes per day fewer than did the oldest men, compared with 2.0 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3) fewer cigarettes smoked per day in the youngest, born 1965-1969. Among quitters, women born before 1945 were, on average, 1.5 years older than their male contemporaries, but this differential was 1 year or less among people born after 1949. Differences in smoking behaviour between women and men have decreased over time. Even past differentials are unlikely to explain the increased susceptibility to smoking-related chronic disease in women compared with men that has previously been observed. Future studies are required to determine whether sex differences in the physiological and biological effects of smoking are responsible for the differential impact of smoking on health in women and men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. [Smoking habits among staff at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, B; Underner, M; Ingrand, P; Meurice, J-C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an inventory of staff in the hospital who smoked to allow better identification of people at risk and thus develop targeted preventive strategies, which we hoped would be more effective. This survey was conducted at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital in March 2008. The sociodemographic characteristics of the population responding and differences in characteristics between smokers and non-smokers were examined. The level of dependence of smokers and patterns of smoking in the workplace were also evaluated. The results were compared with those of the survey "Baromètre tabac personnel hospitalier 2003". The response rate was 57%, with the study population characterized by a high proportion of women (82%). The proportion of smokers was 29%, similar to that found in the general population (30%) but higher than 24% of the survey of hospital staff Tobacco Barometer 2003. The hospital staff is still weakly dependent on tobacco. The attitude to smoking was strongly linked to socioeconomic group and the domestic staff and health care assistants were most likely to smoke and were also the most dependent. Finally, the hospital has itself become a smoke free environment without tobacco. It is essential to promote measures to prevent smoking among hospital staff taking into account its specific features (high proportion of women). Targeted actions should in particular be conducted amongst the groups of workers who are the most affected. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental bad habits breed bad behaviors in youth: exposure to gestational smoke and child impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie A; Pagani, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    In utero exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to have an adverse effect on healthy brain development in childhood. In the present study, we examine whether fetal exposure to mild and heavy smoking is associated with lower levels of impulsivity and cognitive control at age 10. Using a sample of 2120 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between gestational cigarette smoke exposure and fourth grade teacher reports of impulsivity and classroom engagement which represent behavioral indicators of executive functions. When compared to children of non-smokers, children of mothers who reported smoking heavily during pregnancy (10 or more cigarettes per day) were rated by their fourth grade teachers as displaying higher levels of impulsive behavior, scoring.112 standard deviation units higher than children of non-smokers. Children of mothers who smoked heavily were also less engaged in the classroom, scoring.057 standard deviation units lower than children of women who did not smoke. These analyses were adjusted for many potentially confounding child and family variables. Exposure to perinatal nicotine may compromise subsequent brain development. In particular, fetal nicotine may be associated with impairment in areas recruited for the effortful control of behavior in later childhood, a time when task-orientation and industriousness are imperative for academic success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes differs depending on histological type and smoking habit in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Muramatsu, R; Fujita, T; Nagumo, H; Sakurai, T; Noji, S; Takahata, E; Yaguchi, T; Tsukamoto, N; Kudo-Saito, C; Hayashi, Y; Kamiyama, I; Ohtsuka, T; Asamura, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-11-01

    T-cell infiltration in tumors has been used as a prognostic tool in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the influence of smoking habit and histological type on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in NSCLC remains unclear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of TILs (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD20 + , and FOXP3 + ) according to histological type and smoking habit using automatic immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in 218 patients with NSCLC. In multivariate survival analyses of clinical, pathological, and immunological factors, a high ratio of FOXP3 + to CD4 + T cells (FOXP3/CD4) [hazard ratio (HR): 4.46, P smoking habit in AD, a high FOXP3/CD4 ratio was poorly prognostic with a smoking history (HR: 5.21, P smoking habit on the immunological environment may lead to the establishment of immunological diagnosis and appropriate individualized immunotherapy for NSCLC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 200 patients attending Katuri Medical