WorldWideScience

Sample records for smart 3d subsurface

  1. Subsurface Profile Mapping using 3-D Compressive Wave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreek Z A M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical site investigation related to subsurface profile mapping was commonly performed to provide valuable data for design and construction stage based on conventional drilling techniques. From past experience, drilling techniques particularly using borehole method suffer from limitations related to expensive, time consuming and limited data coverage. Hence, this study performs subsurface profile mapping using 3-D compressive wave imaging in order to minimize those conventional method constraints. Field measurement and data analysis of compressive wave (p-wave, vp was performed using seismic refraction survey (ABEM Terraloc MK 8, 7 kg of sledgehammer and 24 units of vertical geophone and OPTIM (SeisOpt@Picker & SeisOpt@2D software respectively. Then, 3-D compressive wave distribution of subsurface studied was obtained using analysis of SURFER software. Based on 3-D compressive wave image analyzed, it was found that subsurface profile studied consist of three main layers representing top soil (vp = 376 – 600 m/s, weathered material (vp = 900 – 2600 m/s and bedrock (vp > 3000 m/s. Thickness of each layer was varied from 0 – 2 m (first layer, 2 – 20 m (second layer and 20 m and over (third layer. Moreover, groundwater (vp = 1400 – 1600 m/s starts to be detected at 2.0 m depth from ground surface. This study has demonstrated that geotechnical site investigation data related to subsurface profiling was applicable to be obtained using 3-D compressive wave imaging. Furthermore, 3-D compressive wave imaging was performed based on non destructive principle in ground exploration thus consider economic, less time, large data coverage and sustainable to our environment.

  2. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  3. 3D modelling of the shallow subsurface of Zeeland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Maljers, D.; Menkovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands aims at building a 3D geological voxel model of the upper 30 m of the subsurface of the Netherlands in order to provide a sound basis for subsurface related questions on, amongst others, groundwater extraction and management, land subsidence studies,

  4. Analysis of steam line break of SMART using RETRAN-3D/INT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2003-01-01

    RETRAN-3D has been modified to be suitable to safety analysis for integral type marine reactor with modular helical-coiled steam generator cassettes. The modified RETRAN-3D, RETRAN-3D/INT, has helical coil heat conductor model and heat transfer coefficient models for tube and shell sides of helical-coiled steam generator. In addition, moving models are added to simulate the effect of ship motions such as inclination, heaving, rolling and so on. RETRAN-3D/INT has been verified with natural circulation experiment conducted in Seoul National University and the analysis results for the first Japanese nuclear ship, MUTSU. In this study, the safety analysis for SMART, which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, is performed to examine the applicability of RETRAN-3D/INT to the safety analysis of SMART. The steam line break is selected as reference case. The break type is assumed to the guillotine break. The loss of offsite power is considered as a coincident event and the failure of single train of passive residual heat removal system is assumed as single failure. From the results, it is found that RETRAN-3D/INT can appropriately simulate the transient of SMART and the improvement of non-condensable gas model is required. (author)

  5. Access to the kinematic information for the velocity model determination by 3-D reflexion tomography; Acces a l'information cinematique pour la determination du modele de vitesse par tomographie de reflexion 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broto, K.

    1999-04-01

    The access to a reliable image of the subsurface requires a kinematically correct velocity depth model.Reflection tomography allows to meet this requirement if a complete and coherent pre-stack kinematic database can be provided. However, in case of complex sub-surfaces, wave propagation may lead to hardly interpretable seismic events in the time data. The SMART method is a sequential method that relies on reflection tomography for updating the velocity model and on the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting kinematic information that is not readily accessible in the time domain. For determining 3-D subsurface velocity models in case of complex structures, we propose the seriated SMART 2-D method as an alternative to the currently inconceivable SMART 3-D method. In order to extract kinematic information from a 3-D pre-stack data set, we combine detours through the 2-D pre-stack depth domain for a number of selected lines of the studied 3-D survey and 3-D reflection tomography for updating the velocity model. The travel-times from the SMART method being independent of the velocity model used for passing through the pre-stack depth migrated domain, the access to 3-D travel-times is ensured, even if they have been obtained via a 2-D domain. Besides, we propose to build a kinematical guide for ensuring the coherency of the seriated 2-D pre-stack depth interpretations and the access to a complete 3-D pre-stack kinematic database when dealing with structures associated with 3-D wave propagation. We opt for a blocky representation of the velocity model in order to be able to cope with complex structures. This representation leads us to define specific methodological rules for carrying out the different steps of the seriated SMART 2-D method. We also define strategies, built from the analysis of first inversion results, for an efficient application of reflection tomography. Besides, we discuss the problem of uncertainties to be assigned to travel-times obtained

  6. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  7. 3D Geological Mapping - uncovering the subsurface to increase environmental understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Mathers, S.; Peach, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geological understanding is required for many disciplines studying natural processes from hydrology to landscape evolution. The subsurface structure of rocks and soils and their properties occupies three-dimensional (3D) space and geological processes operate in time. Traditionally geologists have captured their spatial and temporal knowledge in 2 dimensional maps and cross-sections and through narrative, because paper maps and later two dimensional geographical information systems (GIS) were the only tools available to them. Another major constraint on using more explicit and numerical systems to express geological knowledge is the fact that a geologist only ever observes and measures a fraction of the system they study. Only on rare occasions does the geologist have access to enough real data to generate meaningful predictions of the subsurface without the input of conceptual understanding developed from and knowledge of the geological processes responsible for the deposition, emplacement and diagenesis of the rocks. This in turn has led to geology becoming an increasingly marginalised science as other disciplines have embraced the digital world and have increasingly turned to implicit numerical modelling to understand environmental processes and interactions. Recent developments in geoscience methodology and technology have gone some way to overcoming these barriers and geologists across the world are beginning to routinely capture their knowledge and combine it with all available subsurface data (of often highly varying spatial distribution and quality) to create regional and national geological three dimensional geological maps. This is re-defining the way geologists interact with other science disciplines, as their concepts and knowledge are now expressed in an explicit form that can be used downstream to design process models structure. For example, groundwater modellers can refine their understanding of groundwater flow in three dimensions or even directly

  8. 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites for smart structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, L; Vokoun, D; Šittner, P; Finckh, H

    2012-01-01

    While outstanding functional properties of thin NiTi wires are nowadays well recognized and beneficially utilized in medical NiTi devices, development of 2D/3D wire structures made out of these NiTi wires remains challenging and mostly unexplored. The research is driven by the idea of creating novel 2D/3D smart structures which inherit the functional properties of NiTi wires and actively utilize geometrical deformations within the structure to create new/improved functional properties. Generally, textile technology provides attractive processing methods for manufacturing 2D/3D smart structures made out of NiTi wires. Such structures may be beneficially combined with soft elastomers to create smart deformable composites. Following this route, we carried out experimental work focused on development of 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites involving their design, laboratory manufacture and thermomechanical testing. We describe the manufacturing technology and structural properties of these composites; and perform thermomechanical tests on the composites, focusing particularly on quasistatic tensile properties, energy absorption, damping and actuation under tensile loading. Functional thermomechanical properties of the composites are discussed with regard to the mechanical properties of the components and architecture of the composites. It is found that the composites indeed inherit all important features of the thermomechanical behavior of NiTi wires but, due to their internal architecture, outperform single NiTi wires in some features such as the magnitude of recoverable strain, superelastic damping capacity and thermally induced actuation strain. (paper)

  9. Smart release of doxorubicin loaded on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface with 3D porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liping; Sun, Zhenjie; Wang, Donghui; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhu, Hongqin; Ma, Xiaohan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2018-03-01

    It is important to fabricate an implant possessing environment sensitive drug delivery. In this work, the construction of 3D porous structure on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface and pH sensitive polymer, chitosan, was introduced. The smart release of doxorubicin can be realized on the 3D porous surface of PEEK loading chitosan. We give a feasible explanation for the effect of chitosan on smart drug release according to Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Furthermore, the intracellular drug content of the cell cultured on the samples with highest chitosan is significantly higher at pH 4.0, whereas lower at pH 7.4 than other samples. The smart release of doxorubicin via modification with chitosan onto 3D porous PEEK surface paves the way for the application of PEEK in drug loading platform for recovering bone defect caused by malignant bone tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains a total of 56 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart University: Conceptual Modeling, Part 2 – Smart Education: Research and Case Studies, Part 3Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Education: Software and Hardware Systems, and Part 5 – Smart Technology as a Resource to Improve Education and Professional Training. We believe that the book will serve as a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning. .

  11. An asymptotic homogenization model for smart 3D grid-reinforced composite structures with generally orthotropic constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, E M; Kalamkarov, A L; Georgiades, A V; Challagulla, K S

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive micromechanical model for smart 3D composite structures reinforced with a periodic grid of generally orthotropic cylindrical reinforcements that also exhibit piezoelectric behavior is developed. The original boundary value problem characterizing the piezothermoelastic behavior of these structures is decoupled into a set of three simpler unit cell problems dealing, separately, with the elastic, piezoelectric and thermal expansion characteristics of the smart composite. The technique used is that of asymptotic homogenization and the solution of the unit cell problems permits determination of the effective elastic, piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. The general orthotropy of the constituent materials is very important from the practical viewpoint and makes the analysis much more complicated. Several examples of practical interest are used to illustrate the work including smart 3D composites with cubic and conical embedded grids as well as diagonally reinforced smart structures. It is also shown in this work that in the limiting particular case of 2D grid-reinforced structures with isotropic reinforcements our results converge to earlier published results

  12. 3D Printed "Earable" Smart Devices for Real-Time Detection of Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroki; Chao, Minghan; Gao, Yuji; Wu, Eric; Tai, Li-Chia; Chen, Kevin; Matsuoka, Yasutomo; Iwai, Kosuke; Fahad, Hossain M; Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Lin, Liwei; Javey, Ali

    2017-07-28

    Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare. Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature, which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane (i.e., ear drum) based on an infrared sensor. The device is fully integrated with data processing circuits and a wireless module for standalone functionality. Using this smart earable device, we demonstrate that the core body temperature can be accurately monitored regardless of the environment and activity of the user. In addition, a microphone and actuator are also integrated so that the device can also function as a bone conduction hearing aid. Using 3D printing as the fabrication method enables the device to be customized for the wearer for more personalized healthcare. This smart device provides an important advance in realizing personalized health care by enabling real-time monitoring of one of the most important medical parameters, core body temperature, employed in preliminary medical screening tests.

  13. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  14. 3D Urban Virtual Models generation methodology for smart cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Álvarez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently the use of Urban 3D Models goes beyond the mere support of three-dimensional image for the visualization of our urban surroundings. The three-dimensional Urban Models are in themselves fundamental tools to manage the different phenomena that occur in smart cities. It is therefore necessary to generate realistic models, in which BIM building design information can be integrated with GIS and other space technologies. The generation of 3D Urban Models benefit from the amount of data from sensors with the latest technologies such as airborne sensors and of the existence of international standards such as CityGML. This paper presents a methodology for the development of a three - dimensional Urban Model, based on LiDAR data and the CityGML standard, applied to the city of Lorca.

  15. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  16. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (<1km) lunar subsurface structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  18. Capabilities of seismic and georadar 2D/3D imaging of shallow subsurface of transport route using the Seismobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Zenon; Isakow, Zbigniew; Czarny, Rafał; Pilecka, Elżbieta; Harba, Paulina; Barnaś, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the capabilities of the Seismobile system for shallow subsurface imaging of transport routes, such as roads, railways, and airport runways, in different geological conditions were presented. The Seismobile system combines the advantages of seismic profiling using landstreamer and georadar (GPR) profiling. It consists of up to four seismic measuring lines and carriage with a suspended GPR antenna. Shallow subsurface recognition may be achieved to a maximum width of 10.5 m for a distance of 3.5 m between the measurement lines. GPR measurement is performed in the axis of the construction. Seismobile allows the measurement time, labour and costs to be reduced due to easy technique of its installation, remote data transmission from geophones to accompanying measuring modules, automated location of the system based on GPS and a highly automated method of seismic wave excitation. In this paper, the results of field tests carried out in different geological conditions were presented. The methodologies of acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic and GPR measurements were broadly described. Seismograms and its spectrum registered by Seismobile system were compared to the ones registered by Geode seismograph of Geometrix. Seismic data processing and interpretation software allows for the obtaining of 2D/3D models of P- and S-wave velocities. Combined seismic and GPR results achieved sufficient imaging of shallow subsurface to a depth of over a dozen metres. The obtained geophysical information correlated with geological information from the boreholes with good quality. The results of performed tests proved the efficiency of the Seismobile system in seismic and GPR imaging of a shallow subsurface of transport routes under compound conditions.

  19. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  20. Improved 3D reconstruction in smart-room environments using ToF imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðmundsson, Sigurjón Árni; Pardas, Montse; Casas, Josep R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras in smart-rooms and how this leads to improved results in segmenting the people in the room from the background and consequently better 3D reconstruction of foreground objects. A calibrated rig consisting of one Swissranger SR3100 Time-of...... of eliminating regional artifacts and therefore creating a more robust input for higher level applications such as people tracking or human motion analysis....

  1. Adaptive Probabilistic Tracking Embedded in Smart Cameras for Distributed Surveillance in a 3D Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Fleck

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracking applications based on distributed and embedded sensor networks are emerging today, both in the fields of surveillance and industrial vision. Traditional centralized approaches have several drawbacks, due to limited communication bandwidth, computational requirements, and thus limited spatial camera resolution and frame rate. In this article, we present network-enabled smart cameras for probabilistic tracking. They are capable of tracking objects adaptively in real time and offer a very bandwidthconservative approach, as the whole computation is performed embedded in each smart camera and only the tracking results are transmitted, which are on a higher level of abstraction. Based on this, we present a distributed surveillance system. The smart cameras' tracking results are embedded in an integrated 3D environment as live textures and can be viewed from arbitrary perspectives. Also a georeferenced live visualization embedded in Google Earth is presented.

  2. Adaptive Probabilistic Tracking Embedded in Smart Cameras for Distributed Surveillance in a 3D Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleck Sven

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking applications based on distributed and embedded sensor networks are emerging today, both in the fields of surveillance and industrial vision. Traditional centralized approaches have several drawbacks, due to limited communication bandwidth, computational requirements, and thus limited spatial camera resolution and frame rate. In this article, we present network-enabled smart cameras for probabilistic tracking. They are capable of tracking objects adaptively in real time and offer a very bandwidthconservative approach, as the whole computation is performed embedded in each smart camera and only the tracking results are transmitted, which are on a higher level of abstraction. Based on this, we present a distributed surveillance system. The smart cameras' tracking results are embedded in an integrated 3D environment as live textures and can be viewed from arbitrary perspectives. Also a georeferenced live visualization embedded in Google Earth is presented.

  3. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

  4. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt3M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius; Ham, Hyung Chul

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt3M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt3M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt3M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt3M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  5. 3D seismic imaging of the subsurface for underground construction and drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    3D seismic imaging of underground structure has been carried out in various parts of the world for various purposes. Examples shown below were introduced in the presentation. - CO 2 storage in Ketzin, Germany; - Mine planning at the Millennium Uranium Deposit in Canada; - Planned Forsmark spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden; - Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling: the COSC drilling project in Sweden. The author explained that seismic methods provide the highest resolution images (5-10 m) of deeper (1-5 km) sub-surfaces in the sedimentary environment, but further improvement is required in crystalline rock environments, and the integration of geology, geophysics, and drilling will provide an optimal interpretation. (author)

  6. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  7. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Eun [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Global E3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 120-749 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Hee [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 362-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong-Ahn [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Korea University, Sejong-city 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Soon, Aloysius, E-mail: aloysius.soon@yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr [Global E3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 120-749 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Hyung Chul, E-mail: aloysius.soon@yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Clean Energy and Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt{sub 3}M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt{sub 3}M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt{sub 3}M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  8. Evaluation of 3D printed optofluidic smart glass prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Daniel; Goossen, K W

    2018-01-22

    Smart glass or smart windows are an innovative technology used for thermal management, energy efficiency, and privacy applications. Notable commercially available smart glass relies on an electric stimuli to modulate the glass from a transparent to a translucent mode of operation. However, the current market technologies, such as electrochromic, polymer dispersed liquid crystal, and suspended particle devices are expensive and suffer from solar absorption, poor transmittance modulation, and in some cases, continuous power consumption. The authors of this paper present a novel optofluidic smart glass prototype capable of modulating visible light transmittance from 8% to 85%.

  9. 3-D numerical investigation of subsurface flow in anisotropic porous media using multipoint flux approximation method

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to petroleum reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on the pressure gradient direction but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Furthermore, in complex systems involving the flow of multiphase fluids in which the gravity and the capillarity play an important role, anisotropy can also have important influences. Therefore, there has been great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy when solving the governing conservation laws numerically. Unfortunately, the two-point flux approximation of finite difference approach is not capable of handling full tensor permeability fields. Lately, however, it has been possible to adapt the multipoint flux approximation that can handle anisotropy to the framework of finite difference schemes. In multipoint flux approximation method, the stencil of approximation is more involved, i.e., it requires the involvement of 9-point stencil for the 2-D model and 27-point stencil for the 3-D model. This is apparently challenging and cumbersome when making the global system of equations. In this work, we apply the equation-type approach, which is the experimenting pressure field approach that enables the solution of the global problem breaks into the solution of multitude of local problems that significantly reduce the complexity without affecting the accuracy of numerical solution. This approach also leads in reducing the computational cost during the simulation. We have applied this technique to a variety of anisotropy scenarios of 3-D subsurface flow problems and the numerical results demonstrate that the experimenting pressure field technique fits very well with the multipoint flux approximation

  10. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of "smart" objects disseminated from the largest "Smart City" to the smallest "Smart Home". In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in "smart" environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  11. SMART 3D BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES: LINKING GIS WITH OTHER DOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Knoth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While digitization as well as new technologies and paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT help solving issues within smart factories, they simultaneously trigger new challenges. The creation of smart factories, whose components communicate in an intelligent manner, is located at the frontier of the virtual and the real world. To connect both worlds, spatio-temporal information can be used to structure and integrate data streams, models and other content such as documents in Enterprise Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs. One part of Enterprise SDIs is building information, to support and enhance contextualization of indoor environments and its corresponding information in form of sensor measurements and other digital resources. We identified five major requirements: (1 Three-dimensionality, (2 (Re-use of available data, (3 Use of GIS-principles and standards, (4 Adaptivity, and (5 Completeness. Our novel approach “OLS3D” addresses these requirements through the use of SDI-principles and linked-data strategies. A prototypical implementation was developed in order to show the potential of our approach.

  12. Real-Time and High-Resolution 3D Face Measurement via a Smart Active Optical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Guocai; Xing, Xiuwen

    2017-03-31

    The 3D measuring range and accuracy in traditional active optical sensing, such as Fourier transform profilometry, are influenced by the zero frequency of the captured patterns. The phase-shifting technique is commonly applied to remove the zero component. However, this phase-shifting method must capture several fringe patterns with phase difference, thereby influencing the real-time performance. This study introduces a smart active optical sensor, in which a composite pattern is utilized. The composite pattern efficiently combines several phase-shifting fringes and carrier frequencies. The method can remove zero frequency by using only one pattern. Model face reconstruction and human face measurement were employed to study the validity and feasibility of this method. Results show no distinct decrease in the precision of the novel method unlike the traditional phase-shifting method. The texture mapping technique was utilized to reconstruct a nature-appearance 3D digital face.

  13. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Orsino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifth Generation (5G wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  14. Hearing results using the SMart piston prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Jose N; Semaan, Maroun T; Meier, Josh C; House, John W

    2009-12-01

    SMart, a newly introduced piston prosthesis for stapedotomy, is a nitinol-based, heat-activated, self-crimping prosthesis. We review our hearing results and postoperative complications using this self-crimped piston prosthesis and compare them with those obtained using stainless steel or platinum piston prostheses. Audiometric results using the SMart piston are identical to those obtained using a conventional piston prosthesis. Retrospective chart review. Private neurotologic tertiary referral center. The 416 ears reviewed included 306 with a SMart prosthesis and 110 conventional prostheses. 61% were women. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 (standard deviation [SD], 6.3 mo) and 6.9 months (SD, 7.0 mo) for the 2 groups, respectively. Stapedotomy using the SMart or a conventional (non-SMart) prosthesis. Audiometric hearing results, including pure-tone average (PTA) and air-bone gap (ABG), and prevalence of postoperative complications. Mean postoperative PTA was 32.6 (SD, 16.8) dB for the SMart group and 29.4 (SD, 13.5) dB for the non-SMart group, with ABGs of 7.6 (SD, 8.9) and 6.0 (SD, 5.2) dB, respectively. Mean change (decrease) in ABG was 18.7 (SD, 13.1) dB for the SMart group and 19.9 (SD, 10.3) dB for the non-SMart group. High-frequency bone PTAs showed overclosure of 2.0 (SD, 7.9) dB for the SMart group and 3.6 (SD, 8.6) dB for the non-SMart group. Postoperative vertigo and tinnitus were infrequent. No significant differences in these audiometric outcomes or complication rates were noted between groups. There was no significant difference in rate of gap closure to within 10 dB (78.3 versus 84.2%, SMart and non-SMart, respectively) or 20 dB (94.2 and 98.0%). Compared with conventional stapes prostheses, the nitinol-based SMart is a safe and reliable stapes prosthesis that eliminates manual crimping without significantly altering the audiometric outcome. Complications are rare, but longer follow-up is needed before establishing long-term stability.

  15. The Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART): process evaluation and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Zgibor, Janice C; Peyrot, Mark; Peeples, Malinda; McWilliams, Janis; Koshinsky, Janice; Noullet, William; Siminerio, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of the process evaluation and patient experience in completing the Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART), an instrument within the AADE Outcome System to assist diabetes educators to assess, facilitate, and track behavior change in the provision of diabetes self-management education (DSME). The D-SMART was integrated into computer and telephonic systems at 5 sites within the Pittsburgh Regional Initiative for Diabetes Education (PRIDE) network. Data were obtained from 290 patients with diabetes using the system at these programs via paper-and-pencil questionnaires following baseline D-SMART assessments and electronic system measurement of system performance. Process evaluation included time of completion, understanding content, usability of technology, and satisfaction with the system. Patients were 58% female and 85% Caucasian and had a mean age of 58 years. Fifty-six percent of patients had no more than a high school education, and 78% had Internet access at home. Most patients reported completing the D-SMART at home (78%), in 1 attempt (86%) via the Internet (55%), and in less than 30 minutes. Seventy-six percent believed the questions were easy to understand, and 80% did not need assistance. Age was negatively associated with ease of use. Moreover, 76% of patients believed the D-SMART helped them think about their diabetes, with 67% indicating that it gave the diabetes educator good information about themselves and their diabetes. Most (94%) were satisfied with the D-SMART. Level of satisfaction was independent of the system being used. The D-SMART was easily completed at home in 1 attempt, content was understandable, and patients were generally satisfied with the wording of questions and selection of answers. The D-SMART is easy to use and enhanced communication between the patient and clinician; however, elderly patients may need more assistance. Computer-based and telephonic D-SMARTs

  16. Development of inhomogeneous {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} turbulence model for 3D flow analysis of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. H.; Whang, Y. D.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of the present report is to select and develop a turbulence model that will be implemented in TASS-3D code for 3-D heat and fluid analysis on the integral reactor, SMART-P primary coolant system. The turbulence model was selected with the consideration on the economy, accuracy, theorization and applicability for the complex three dimensional flow, natural convection and the high Reynolds number turbulent flow of SMART-P.On the models investigated in this present study, the standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model of high Reynolds model, the {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model and ERRSM of low Reynolds model were selected out of them finally. The {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model was selected as the applicable turbulence model for three dimensional flow analysis of SMART-P. The problem of original {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model is the amplification of the pressure strain rate in the log region. The amplification is caused by Elliptic Relaxation Equation(ERE). The present model approaches inhomogeneous for the source term of the ERE to reduce the pressure-strain amplification. The source term was decomposed into homogeneous part and inhomogeneous part and derived as a form of variable coefficients of the ERE. The pressure strain and dissipation terms were fully coupled with the source term of the ERE. The pressure diffusion was modified to treat the boundary conditions indirectly and the pressure strain of the inhomogeneous correction ERE was noticeably decreased in both log layer and outer layer. The results of the inhomogeneous correction {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model showed a good agreement with DNS results for channel flows and estimated improved results on the turbulent components in comparison with other models.

  17. Design of a 4D Printing System Using Thermal Sensitive Smart Materials and Photoactivated Shape Changing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Steven Kyle

    4D printing is an emerging additive manufacturing technology that combines 3D printing with smart materials. Current 3D printing technology can print objects with a multitude of materials; however, these objects are usually static, geometrically permanent, and not suitable for multi-functional use. The 4D printed objects can change their shape over time when exposed to different external stimuli such as heat, pressure, magnetic fields, or moisture. In this research, heat and light reactive smart materials are explored as a 4D printing materials. Synthetization of a material that actuates when exposed to stimulus can be a very difficult process, and merging that same material with the ability to be 3D printed can be further difficult. A common 3D printing thermoplastic, poly(lactic) acid (PLA), is used as a shape memory material that is 3D printed using a fused deposition machine (FDM) and combined with nylon fabric for the exploration of smart textiles. The research shows that post printed PLA possesses shape memory properties depending on the thickness of the 3D printed material and the activation temperature. PLA can be thermomechanically trained into temporary shapes and return to its original shape when exposed to high temperatures. PLA can be 3D printed onto nylon fabrics for the creation of the smart textiles. Additionally, a photoisomerable shape changing material is explored because light activation is wireless, controllable, focusable, abundant, causes rapid shape change of the smart material, and induces reversible shape change in the material. This study supports the fundamental research to generate knowledge needed for synthesis of a novel azobenzene shape changing polymer (SCP) and integrating this smart material into objects printed with a 4D printing process using syringe printing. Multiple versions of azobenzene SCP are synthesized that actuate when exposed to 365 nm and 455 nm light. Two SCPs, MeOABHx and DR1Hx, are selected for the 4D printing

  18. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smart Nacre-inspired Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingsong; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2018-03-15

    Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable attention in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites is a good basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated good mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this Concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites, including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites, in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, and so on. We show that diverse smart nanocomposites could be designed by combining various conventional fabrication methods of nacre-inspired nanocomposites with responsive building blocks and interface interactions. The nacre-inspired strategy is versatile for different kinds of smart nanocomposites in extensive applications, such as strain sensors, displays, artificial muscles, robotics, and so on, and may act as an effective roadmap for designing smart nanocomposites in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains a total of 45 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart Education, Part 2 – Smart Educational Technology, Part 3Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Professional Training and Teachers’ Education, and Part 5 – Smart Teaching and Training related Topics.  This book can be a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners  - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning.  .

  1. Smart Book Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  2. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  3. Deployment of Smart 3D Subsurface Contaminant Characterization at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.; Heiser, J.; Kalb, P.; Milian, L.; Newson, C.; Lilimpakas, M.; Daniels, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Historical Site Assessment (BNL 1999) identified contamination inside the Below Grade Ducts (BGD) resulting from the deposition of fission and activation products from the pile on the inner carbon steel liner during reactor operations. Due to partial flooding of the BGD since shutdown, some of this contamination may have leaked out of the ducts into the surrounding soils. The baseline remediation plan for cleanup of contaminated soils beneath the BGD involves complete removal of the ducts, followed by surveying the underlying and surrounding soils, then removing soil that has been contaminated above cleanup goals. Alternatively, if soil contamination around and beneath the BGD is either non-existent/minimal (below cleanup goals) or is very localized and can be ''surgically removed'' at a reasonable cost, the BGD can be decontaminated and left in place. The focus of this Department of Energy Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (DOE ASTD) project was to determine the extent (location, type, and level) of soil contamination surrounding the BGD and to present this data to the stakeholders as part of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) process. A suite of innovative characterization tools was used to complete the characterization of the soil surrounding the BGD in a cost-effective and timely fashion and in a manner acceptable to the stakeholders. The tools consisted of a tracer gas leak detection system that was used to define the gaseous leak paths out of the BGD and guide soil characterization studies, a small-footprint Geoprobe to reach areas surrounding the BGD that were difficult to access, two novel, field-deployed, radiological analysis systems (ISOCS and BetaScint) and a three-dimensional (3D) visualization system to facilitate data analysis/interpretation. All of the technologies performed as well or better than expected and the characterization could not have been completed in the same time or at

  4. Subsurface Investigation using 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar at Teluk Kumbar, Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, YJ; Bruka, MA; Idris, NM; Ismail, NA; Muztaza, NM

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the structure and condition of the subsurface by using 2D resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) methods. The study was conducted at SK Sungai Batu, Teluk Kumbar, Penang Island. For 2D resistivity method, Wenner-Schlumberger array was used while for GPR, 250 MHz antenna was used at the site. The survey consists of 200m length survey line. GPR result shows that there is high intensity of EM. 2D resistivity result shows that the low resistivity region (200 Ωm to 340 Ωm) appears to be at the centre of the survey line from depth 7 m to 13 m. Meanwhile, the higher resistivity region (4000 Ωm to 6000 Ωm) may indicate the bedrock structure of the subsurface, which is the granitic rock. This region is bedrock which rested at depth 14 m and below. In conclusion, data obtained from GPR and 2D resistivity methods can be easily correlated to determine the features of the subsurface.

  5. Working Smarter Not Harder - Developing a Virtual Subsurface Data Framework for U.S. Energy R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Baker, D.; Bauer, J.; Dehlin, M.; Jones, T. J.; Rowan, C.

    2017-12-01

    The data revolution has resulted in a proliferation of resources that span beyond commercial and social networking domains. Research, scientific, and engineering data resources, including subsurface characterization, modeling, and analytical datasets, are increasingly available through online portals, warehouses, and systems. Data for subsurface systems is still challenging to access, discontinuous, and varies in resolution. However, with the proliferation of online data there are significant opportunities to advance access and knowledge of subsurface systems. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) is an online platform designed to address research data needs by improving access to energy R&D products through advanced search capabilities. In addition, EDX hosts private, virtualized computational workspaces in support of multi-organizational R&D. These collaborative workspaces allow teams to share working data resources and connect to a growing number of analytical tools to support research efforts. One recent application, a team digital data notebook tool, called DataBook, was introduced within EDX workspaces to allow teams to capture contextual and structured data resources. Starting with DOE's subsurface R&D community, the EDX team has been developing DataBook to support scientists and engineers working on subsurface energy research, allowing them to contribute and curate both structured and unstructured data and knowledge about subsurface systems. These resources span petrophysical, geologic, engineering, geophysical, interpretations, models, and analyses associated with carbon storage, water, oil, gas, geothermal, induced seismicity and other subsurface systems to support the development of a virtual subsurface data framework. The integration of EDX and DataBook allows for these systems to leverage each other's best features, such as the ability to interact with other systems (Earthcube, OpenEI.net, NGDS, etc.) and leverage custom machine learning algorithms and

  6. Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro

    1998-07-01

    Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.

  7. SMART 3D SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT CHARACTERIZATION AT THE BGRR DEC OMMISSIONING PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEISER, J.; KALB, P.; SULLIVAN, T.; MILIAN, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor is currently on an accelerated decommissioning schedule with a completion date projected for 2005. The accelerated schedule combines characterization with removal actions for the various systems and structures. A major project issue involves characterization of the soils beneath contaminated Below Grade Ducts (BGD), the main air ducts connecting the exhaust plenums with the Fan House. The air plenums experienced water intrusion during BGRR operations and after shutdown. The water intrusions were attributed to rainwater leaks into degraded parts of the system, and to internal cooling water system leaks. If the characterization could provide enough information to show that soil contamination surrounding the BGD is either below cleanup guidelines or is very localized and can be ''surgically removed'' at a reasonable cost, the ducts may be decontaminated and left in place. This will provide significant savings compared to breaking up the 170-ft. long concrete duct, shipping the projected 9,000 m 3 of waste off-site and disposing of it in an approved site

  8. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  9. Application of 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography As A Tool for Mapping Subsurface Cavities in a Kaolin Mining Site at Kankara in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshimiakhe, D.; Jimoh, R.

    2017-12-01

    A Kaolin mining site at Dajin Gwanma in north central Nigeria was investigated to determine the possibility of using 3D ERT to detect subsurface voids created due to mining of kaolin deposit and to perhaps suggest areas prone to subsidence. This study was undertaken on conceptual resistivity model that subsurface voids characterized by higher or lower resistivity than the host, depending on weather the void is in-filled water or not. The data collection was carried out with Terrameter SAS 4000 and ES 464 electrode selector equipment. Dipole-dipole configuration at electrode spacing of 5m was used to acquire the data along parallel profiles laid at equal interval in the study area. While the acquired data along each profile were inverted with 2D algorithm, a script file was created to collate the 2D data set into a 3D format and subsequently inverted using 3D algorithm. A volumetric resistivity model block of the study area was also created using the voxler 4 software. The results show that the voids are characterized by high resistivity (950Ωm-2500Ωm) at depth of between 0-4m and low resistivity (10Ωm-100Ωm) at a depth of 5-30m indicating both air-filled and water-filled voids respectively. The study shows that the voids increase in dimension with depth in NW-SE direction, suggesting that the voids are trending most probably along vertical bedrock joints. It also suggest that voids may overtime grow large enough that the overlying top soil can no longer bridge it, leading to its collapse.

  10. Time-lapse seismic - repeatability versus usefulness and 2D versus 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landro, M.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic has developed rapidly over the past decades, especially for monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs and subsurface storage of CO2. I will review and discuss some of the critical enabling factors for the commercial success of this technology. It was early realized that how well we are able to repeat our seismic experiment is crucial. However, it is always a question of detectability versus repeatability. For marine seismic, there are several factors limiting the repeatability: Weather conditions, positioning of sources and receivers and so on. I will discuss recent improvements in both acquisition and processing methods over the last decade. It is well known that repeated 3D seismic data is the most accurate tool for reservoir monitoring purposes. However, several examples show that 2D seismic data may be used for monitoring purposes despite lower repeatability. I will use examples from an underground blow out in the North Sea, and repeated 2D seismic lines acquired before and after the Tohoku earthquake in 2011 to illustrate this. A major challenge when using repeated 2D seismic for subsurface monitoring purposes is the lack of 3D calibration points and significantly less amount of data. For marine seismic acquisition, feathering issues and crossline dip effects become more critical compared to 3D seismic acquisition. Furthermore, the uncertainties arising from a non-ideal 2D seismic acquisition are hard to assess, since the 3D subsurface geometry has not been mapped. One way to shed more light on this challenge is to use 3D time lapse seismic modeling testing various crossline dips or geometries. Other ways are to use alternative data sources, such as bathymetry, time lapse gravity or electromagnetic data. The end result for all time-lapse monitoring projects is an interpretation associated with uncertainties, and for the 2D case these uncertainties are often large. The purpose of this talk is to discuss how to reduces and control these

  11. 3D shape measurement system developed on mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhoujie; Chang, Meng; Shi, Bowen; Zhang, Qican

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement technology based on structured light has become one hot research field inspired by the increasing requirements. Many methods have been implemented and applied in the industry applications, but most of their equipments are large and complex, cannot be portable. Meanwhile, the popularity of the smart mobile terminals, such as smart phones, provides a platform for the miniaturization and portability of this technology. The measurement system based on phase-shift algorithm and Gray-code pattern under the Android platform on a mobile phone is mainly studied and developed, and it has been encapsulated into a mobile phone application in order to reconstruct 3-D shape data in the employed smart phone easily and quickly. The experimental results of two measured object are given in this paper and demonstrate the application we developed in the mobile platform is effective.

  12. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0. Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ∼ 10 cm shallower and  ∼ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ∼ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and

  13. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  14. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable, Shape-Memory, and Self-Healing Elastomer toward Novel 4D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiao; Chen, Kaijuan; Dunn, Conner K; Wu, Jiangtao; Li, Vincent C F; Qi, H Jerry

    2018-02-28

    The three-dimensional (3D) printing of flexible and stretchable materials with smart functions such as shape memory (SM) and self-healing (SH) is highly desirable for the development of future 4D printing technology for myriad applications, such as soft actuators, deployable smart medical devices, and flexible electronics. Here, we report a novel ink that can be used for the 3D printing of highly stretchable, SM, and SH elastomer via UV-light-assisted direct-ink-write printing. An ink containing urethane diacrylate and a linear semicrystalline polymer is developed for the 3D printing of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network elastomer that can be stretched by up to 600%. The 3D-printed complex structures show interesting functional properties, such as high strain SM and SM -assisted SH capability. We demonstrate that such a 3D-printed SM elastomer has the potential application for biomedical devices, such as vascular repair devices. This research paves a new way for the further development of novel 4D printing, soft robotics, and biomedical devices.

  15. 3D Seismic Imaging using Marchenko Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, A.; Curtis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Marchenko methods are novel, data driven techniques that allow seismic wavefields from sources and receivers on the Earth's surface to be redatumed to construct wavefields with sources in the subsurface - including complex multiply-reflected waves, and without the need for a complex reference model. In turn, this allows subsurface images to be constructed at any such subsurface redatuming points (image or virtual receiver points). Such images are then free of artefacts from multiply-scattered waves that usually contaminate migrated seismic images. Marchenko algorithms require as input the same information as standard migration methods: the full reflection response from sources and receivers at the Earth's surface, and an estimate of the first arriving wave between the chosen image point and the surface. The latter can be calculated using a smooth velocity model estimated using standard methods. The algorithm iteratively calculates a signal that focuses at the image point to create a virtual source at that point, and this can be used to retrieve the signal between the virtual source and the surface. A feature of these methods is that the retrieved signals are naturally decomposed into up- and down-going components. That is, we obtain both the signal that initially propagated upwards from the virtual source and arrived at the surface, separated from the signal that initially propagated downwards. Figure (a) shows a 3D subsurface model with a variable density but a constant velocity (3000m/s). Along the surface of this model (z=0) in both the x and y directions are co-located sources and receivers at 20-meter intervals. The redatumed signal in figure (b) has been calculated using Marchenko methods from a virtual source (1200m, 500m and 400m) to the surface. For comparison the true solution is given in figure (c), and shows a good match when compared to figure (b). While these 2D redatuming and imaging methods are still in their infancy having first been developed in

  16. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.

    2001-07-01

    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  17. Software quality assurance plan for PORFLOW-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheras, S.J.

    1993-03-01

    This plan describes the steps taken by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface and Environmental Modeling Unit personnel to implement software quality assurance procedures for the PORFLOW-3D computer code. PORFLOW-3D was used to conduct radiological performance assessments at the Savannah River Site. software quality assurance procedures for PORFLOW-3D include software acquisition, installation, testing, operation, maintenance, and retirement. Configuration control and quality assurance procedures are also included or referenced in this plan

  18. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  19. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  20. Multimodal Registration and Fusion for 3D Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D vision is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of research interest and has been widely studied. In recent years we witness an increasing interest from the industrial community. This interest is driven by the recent advances in 3D technologies, which enable high precision measurements at an affordable cost. With 3D vision techniques we can conduct advanced manufactured parts inspections and metrology analysis. However, we are not able to detect subsurface defects. This kind of detection is achieved by other techniques, like infrared thermography. In this work, we present a new registration framework for 3D and thermal infrared multimodal fusion. The resulting fused data can be used for advanced 3D inspection in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E applications. The fusion permits the simultaneous visible surface and subsurface inspections to be conducted in the same process. Experimental tests were conducted with different materials. The obtained results are promising and show how these new techniques can be used efficiently in a combined NDT&E-Metrology analysis of manufactured parts, in areas such as aerospace and automotive.

  1. 3D Virtual CH Interactive Information Systems for a smart web browsing experience for desktop PCs and mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scianna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of knowledge on Cultural Heritage (CH has become an element of primary importance for its valorization. At the same time, the diffusion of surveys based on UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV technologies and new methods of photogrammetric reconstruction have opened new possibilities for 3D CH representation. Furthermore the recent development of faster and more stable internet connections leads people to increase the use of mobile devices. In the light of all this, the importance of the development of Virtual Reality (VR environments applied to CH is strategic for the diffusion of knowledge in a smart solution. In particular, the present work shows how, starting from a basic survey and the further photogrammetric reconstruction of a cultural good, is possible to built a 3D CH interactive information system useful for desktop and mobile devices. For this experimentation the Arab-Norman church of the Trinity of Delia (in Castelvetrano-Sicily-Italy has been adopted as case study. The survey operations have been carried out considering different rapid methods of acquisition (UAV camera, SLR camera and smartphone camera. The web platform to publish the 3D information has been built using HTML5 markup language and WebGL JavaScript libraries (Three.js libraries. This work presents the construction of a 3D navigation system for a web-browsing of a virtual CH environment, with the integration of first person controls and 3D popup links. This contribution adds a further step to enrich the possibilities of open-source technologies applied to the world of CH valorization on web.

  2. Rethinking GIS Towards The Vision Of Smart Cities Through CityGML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, C.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities present a substantial growth opportunity in the coming years. The role of GIS in the smart city ecosystem is to integrate different data acquired by sensors in real time and provide better decisions, more efficiency and improved collaboration. Semantically enriched vision of GIS will help evolve smart cities into tomorrow's much smarter cities since geospatial/location data and applications may be recognized as a key ingredient of smart city vision. However, it is need for the Geospatial Information communities to debate on "Is 3D Web and mobile GIS technology ready for smart cities?" This research places an emphasis on the challenges of virtual 3D city models on the road to smarter cities.

  3. 3D sensors and micro-fabricated detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Vià, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Micro-systems based on the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology have been used in miniaturized low power and low mass smart structures in medicine, biology and space applications. Recently similar features found their way inside high energy physics with applications in vertex detectors for high-luminosity LHC Upgrades, with 3D sensors, 3D integration and efficient power management using silicon micro-channel cooling. This paper reports on the state of this development

  4. Smart Grid facets in the world; Les visages de Smart Grid dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcoux, Benoit; Bauchot, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    There is a certain consensus on what is the Smart Grid, but priorities vary from one world region to the next. These differences bring business strategies and objectives that vary from one electrical company to the next. However: Smart Grid programs of electrical companies are based on the same elements. -Smart Grid benefits are mainly gained by a greater integration at all levels. -Implementation priorities vary from one region to the next; the regions studied in this paper are the United States, Quebec, France, Denmark and China. [French] Un certain consensus se forme sur ce que constitue le Smart Grid, mais les priorites varient d'une region du monde a l'autre. Ces differences amenent des strategies et des objectifs d'affaires qui varient d'une entreprise d'electricite a l'autre. Cependant : -Les programmes de Smart Grid des entreprises d'electricite se basent sur les memes elements. -Les benefices du Smart Grid passe avant tout par une plus grande integration a tous les niveaux. -Les priorites d'implantation varient d'une region a l'autre; les regions etudiees dans ce papier sont les etats-Unis, le Quebec, la France, le Danemark et la Chine.

  5. Subsurface temperature of the onshore Netherlands: new temperature dataset and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonté, D.; Wees, J.-D. van; Verweij, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature is a key parameter for geothermal energy prospection in sedimentary basins. Here, we present the results of a 3D temperature modelling using a thermal-tectonic forward modelling method, calibrated with subsurface temperature measurements in the Netherlands. The first step

  6. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Subsurface Imaging. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) noninvasively maps the 3-D resistivity field in the subsurface. It can be used on a scale from feet to kilometers. The 3-D resistivity field can be used to infer subsurface hydrogeological features and provides good resolution mapping of confining layers of various types. ERT imaging has been used for real-time monitoring and process control of remediation processes such as soil heating, pump and treat, steam injection, electrokinetics, Dynamic Underground Stripping (TechID 7), Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation (TechID 1519) and more. ERT can be deployed via rapid and inexpensive installation of electrodes using a Cone Penetrometer (TechID 243). Additional applications are described under TechID 140 (Tanks) and TechID 2120 (Injected Subsurface Barriers); see also the related technology TechID 2121 (EIT)

  7. The Dutch Rhine-Meuse delta in 3D: A validation of model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands aims at building a 3D geological property model of the upper 30 meters of the Dutch subsurface. This model, called GeoTOP, provides a basis for answering subsurface related questions on, amongst others, sand and gravel resources. Modelling is carried out per

  8. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  9. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling : Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fadel, I.E.A.M.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity–density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects)

  10. Calibrated HDRI in 3D point clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the challenges of dynamic smart lighting planning in outdoor urban space. This paper presents findings on how 3D capturing of outdoor environments combined with HDRI establishes a new way for analysing and representing the spatial distribution of light in combination with luminance data.......3D-scanning technologies and point clouds as means for spatial representation introduce a new paradigm to the measuring and mapping of physical artefacts and space. This technology also offers possibilities for the measuring and mapping of outdoor urban lighting and has the potential to meet...

  11. Semantically optiMize the dAta seRvice operaTion (SMART) system for better data discovery and access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Huang, T.; Armstrong, E. M.; Moroni, D. F.; Liu, K.; Gui, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: We present a Semantically optiMize the dAta seRvice operaTion (SMART) system for better data discovery and access across the NASA data systems, Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Clearinghouse and Data.gov to facilitate scientists to select Earth observation data that fit better their needs in four aspects: 1. Integrating and interfacing the SMART system to include the functionality of a) semantic reasoning based on Jena, an open source semantic reasoning engine, b) semantic similarity calculation, c) recommendation based on spatiotemporal, semantic, and user workflow patterns, and d) ranking results based on similarity between search terms and data ontology. 2. Collaborating with data user communities to a) capture science data ontology and record relevant ontology triple stores, b) analyze and mine user search and download patterns, c) integrate SMART into metadata-centric discovery system for community-wide usage and feedback, and d) customizing data discovery, search and access user interface to include the ranked results, recommendation components, and semantic based navigations. 3. Laying the groundwork to interface the SMART system with other data search and discovery systems as an open source data search and discovery solution. The SMART systems leverages NASA, GEO, FGDC data discovery, search and access for the Earth science community by enabling scientists to readily discover and access data appropriate to their endeavors, increasing the efficiency of data exploration and decreasing the time that scientists must spend on searching, downloading, and processing the datasets most applicable to their research. By incorporating the SMART system, it is a likely aim that the time being devoted to discovering the most applicable dataset will be substantially reduced, thereby reducing the number of user inquiries and likewise reducing the time and resources expended by a data center in addressing user inquiries. Keywords: EarthCube; ECHO

  12. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Syahputra, Ahmad [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  13. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  14. Data Processing Methods for 3D Seismic Imaging of Subsurface Volcanoes: Applications to the Tarim Flood Basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tian, Wei; Shi, Yongmin

    2017-08-07

    The morphology and structure of plumbing systems can provide key information on the eruption rate and style of basalt lava fields. The most powerful way to study subsurface geo-bodies is to use industrial 3D reflection seismological imaging. However, strategies to image subsurface volcanoes are very different from that of oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, we process seismic data cubes from the Northern Tarim Basin, China, to illustrate how to visualize sills through opacity rendering techniques and how to image the conduits by time-slicing. In the first case, we isolated probes by the seismic horizons marking the contacts between sills and encasing strata, applying opacity rendering techniques to extract sills from the seismic cube. The resulting detailed sill morphology shows that the flow direction is from the dome center to the rim. In the second seismic cube, we use time-slices to image the conduits, which corresponds to marked discontinuities within the encasing rocks. A set of time-slices obtained at different depths show that the Tarim flood basalts erupted from central volcanoes, fed by separate pipe-like conduits.

  15. 3-D Characterization of Seismic Properties at the Smart Weapons Test Range, YPG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Smart Weapons Test Range (SWTR) lies within the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. SWTR is a new facility constructed specifically for the development and testing of futuristic intelligent battlefield sensor networks...

  16. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  17. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  18. 3D and 4D Seismic Technics Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Marian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Years ago, exploration was done through surface observations and „divining rods“ – now, it is done by satellites, microprocessors, remote sensing, and supercomputers. In the 1970´ s, the exploration success rate was 14 percent, today, it is nearly 29 percent. Not so long ago, three – dimension (3D seismic diagnostic techniques helped recover 25-50 percent of the oil in place – now, 4D seismic helps recover up to 70 percent of the oil in place. 3D and 4D seismic and earth imaging systems also help in understanding the subsurface flow of other fluids, such as groundwater and pollutants.Seismic surveys – a technique in which sound waves are bounced off underground rock struktures to reveal possible oil and gas bearing formation – are now standard fare for the modern petroleum industry. But today’s seismic methods are best at locating „structural traps“ where faults or folds in the underground rock have created zones where oil can become trapped.

  19. Research, development and demonstration. Issue paper - working group 3; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Forskning, udvikling og demonstration. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasiu, A [Siemens A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Troi, A [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Risoe Nationallaboratoriet for Baeredygtig Energi, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Casper [DI Energibranchen, Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 3 was defined as: - An overview of the Danish research and development of smart grids and related areas; - Conducting an analysis of the research and development needs required for the introduction of a smart grid in Denmark. Based on this analysis, provide suggestions for new large research and development projects; - Provide recommendations on how the activities are best carried out taking into account innovation, economic growth and jobs. In the analysis it is explained that Denmark so far has a strong position in several elements of RD and D activities. This position will soon be threatened as several European countries have launched ambitious initiatives to strengthen the national position. The working group recommends that Denmark gives priority to Smart Grids as a national action in order to solve the challenge of technically and economically efficient integration of renewable energy. Smart Grid is a catalyst that strengthens a new green growth industry (cleantech) in Denmark. Research and development has an important role to play in this development. A common vision and roadmap must be established for research institutions, energy companies and industries related to research, development and demonstration of Smart Grid, which can maintain and expand Denmark's global leadership position. As part of this, there is a need to strengthen and market research infrastructures, which can turn Denmark into a global hub for smart grid development. There is a current need to strengthen the advanced technical and scientific research in the complexities of the power system, research on market design, user behavior and smart grid interoperability. (LN)

  20. Research, development and demonstration. Issue paper - working group 3; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Forskning, udvikling og demonstration. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasiu, A. (Siemens A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Troi, A. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ.. Risoe Nationallaboratoriet for Baeredygtig Energi, Roskilde (Denmark)); Andersen, Casper (DI Energibranchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 3 was defined as: - An overview of the Danish research and development of smart grids and related areas; - Conducting an analysis of the research and development needs required for the introduction of a smart grid in Denmark. Based on this analysis, provide suggestions for new large research and development projects; - Provide recommendations on how the activities are best carried out taking into account innovation, economic growth and jobs. In the analysis it is explained that Denmark so far has a strong position in several elements of RD and D activities. This position will soon be threatened as several European countries have launched ambitious initiatives to strengthen the national position. The working group recommends that Denmark gives priority to Smart Grids as a national action in order to solve the challenge of technically and economically efficient integration of renewable energy. Smart Grid is a catalyst that strengthens a new green growth industry (cleantech) in Denmark. Research and development has an important role to play in this development. A common vision and roadmap must be established for research institutions, energy companies and industries related to research, development and demonstration of Smart Grid, which can maintain and expand Denmark's global leadership position. As part of this, there is a need to strengthen and market research infrastructures, which can turn Denmark into a global hub for smart grid development. There is a current need to strengthen the advanced technical and scientific research in the complexities of the power system, research on market design, user behavior and smart grid interoperability. (LN)

  1. A cut-&-paste strategy for the 3-D inversion of helicopter-borne electromagnetic data - I. 3-D inversion using the explicit Jacobian and a tensor-based formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunert, M.; Ullmann, A.; Afanasjew, M.; Börner, R.-U.; Siemon, B.; Spitzer, K.

    2016-06-01

    We present an inversion concept for helicopter-borne frequency-domain electromagnetic (HEM) data capable of reconstructing 3-D conductivity structures in the subsurface. Standard interpretation procedures often involve laterally constrained stitched 1-D inversion techniques to create pseudo-3-D models that are largely representative for smoothly varying conductivity distributions in the subsurface. Pronounced lateral conductivity changes may, however, produce significant artifacts that can lead to serious misinterpretation. Still, 3-D inversions of entire survey data sets are numerically very expensive. Our approach is therefore based on a cut-&-paste strategy whereupon the full 3-D inversion needs to be applied only to those parts of the survey where the 1-D inversion actually fails. The introduced 3-D Gauss-Newton inversion scheme exploits information given by a state-of-the-art (laterally constrained) 1-D inversion. For a typical HEM measurement, an explicit representation of the Jacobian matrix is inevitable which is caused by the unique transmitter-receiver relation. We introduce tensor quantities which facilitate the matrix assembly of the forward operator as well as the efficient calculation of the Jacobian. The finite difference forward operator incorporates the displacement currents because they may seriously affect the electromagnetic response at frequencies above 100. Finally, we deliver the proof of concept for the inversion using a synthetic data set with a noise level of up to 5%.

  2. Regulatory Experience on Safety Smart Transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Smart transmitters are digital I and C equipment which can replace analog transmitters. Non safety grade smart transmitters have been used for I and C systems of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant).. But, recently, smart transmitters have been used for safety grade I and C systems as well as non-safety grade I and C system for SKN 3 and 4. Smart transmitters execute measuring sensor values, generating output signals and adjusting range using software. Also, smart transmitters are basically capable of remote calibration through digital communication. The operating capability is more reliable and effective with remote calibration of smart transmitters, but there is potential vulnerability that causes the result no one wanted such as cyber attacks or software CCF. This paper addresses our regulatory experiences how to evaluate safety smart transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4. Nuclear I and C equipment have increased the use on digital technology in safety system. According that, interest in a postulated software CCF is increasing. The software may be firmware or operating system of digital equipment. During SKN 3 and 4 operating license process, safety grade smart transmitter's adequacy was reviewed such as software V and V processes and equipment qualification. Also, it was analyzed that effect of the software CCFs of smart transmitters under DBA condition. Main concern was whether the postulated smart transmitter's software CCF may lead to an adverse safety consequence. We have future research plan to execute proof tests about our concerns and develop regulatory guide for smart transmitters.

  3. Smart Cities and the Ageing Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik; Kivimäki, Anri; Haukiputo, Lotta

    Due to a growing number of elderly people, it is a necessity to create the cities that are aware of the special needs of all their citizens including the needs of aging populations. This paper shows that by combining smart homes with smart cities, we are able to provide an ICT infrastructure...... population to support independent elderly living. Using ICT in a smart city/home context can provide personalized health care, social services and intelligent community services. Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming important due to economic reasons as well as patients’ preferences. The expected...... and 3D virtual world design. In this paper we will discuss how the recent development in ICT, and its particular components, Internet of Things (IoT), Clouds of Things, the Advanced Artificial Intelligence, can become building blocks between elderly people, smart homes and smart cities. Also, we...

  4. Sensitivity of transpiration to subsurface properties: Exploration with a 1-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2017-06-01

    The amount of moisture transpired by vegetation is critically tied to the moisture supply accessible to the root zone. In a Mediterranean climate, integrated evapotranspiration (ET) is typically greater in the dry summer when there is an uninterrupted period of high insolation. We present a 1-D model to explore the subsurface factors that may sustain ET through the dry season. The model includes a stochastic parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake efficiency, and hydraulic redistribution by plant roots. Model experiments vary the precipitation, the magnitude and seasonality of ET demand, as well as rooting profiles and rooting depths of the vegetation. The results show that the amount of subsurface moisture remaining at the end of the wet winter is determined by the competition among abundant precipitation input, fast infiltration, and winter ET demand. The weathered bedrock retains ˜30% of the winter rain and provides a substantial moisture reservoir that may sustain ET of deep-rooted (>8 m) trees through the dry season. A small negative feedback exists in the root zone, where the depletion of moisture by ET decreases hydraulic conductivity and enhances the retention of moisture. Hence, hydraulic redistribution by plant roots is impactful in a dry season, or with a less conductive subsurface. Suggestions for implementing the model in the CESM are discussed.

  5. Performance of neutron polarimeter SMART-NPOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, S.; Miki, K.; Yako, K.; Kawabata, T.; Kuboki, H.; Sakai, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Suda, K.

    2007-01-01

    The neutron polarimeter SMART-NPOL has been constructed at the RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility for measuring polarization correlations of proton-neutron systems. The SMART-NPOL system consists of 12 parallel neutron counter planes of two dimensionally position-sensitive plastic scintillators with a size of 60x60x3.0cm 3 . Polarimetry measurements were made using the analyzing power of the H1(n-vector,n)H1 reaction occurring in the plastic scintillators. The effective analyzing power of SMART-NPOL was measured with polarized neutrons from the zero-degree Li6(d-vector,n-vector) reaction with an incident deuteron energy of 135MeV/A. The effective analyzing power thus obtained was 0.26±0.01 stat ±0.03 syst and the double scattering efficiency was 1.1x10 -3

  6. Influence of Si wafer thinning processes on (sub)surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Fumihiro, E-mail: fumihiro.inoue@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jourdain, Anne; Peng, Lan; Phommahaxay, Alain; De Vos, Joeri; Rebibis, Kenneth June; Miller, Andy; Sleeckx, Erik; Beyne, Eric [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mono-vacancy free Si-thinning can be accomplished by combining several thinning techniques. • The grinding damage needs to be removed prior to dry etching, otherwise vacancies remain in the Si at a depth around 0.5 to 2 μm after Si wafer thickness below 5 μm. • The surface of grinding + CMP + dry etching is equivalent mono vacancy level as that of grinding + CMP. - Abstract: Wafer-to-wafer three-dimensional (3D) integration with minimal Si thickness can produce interacting multiple devices with significantly scaled vertical interconnections. Realizing such a thin 3D structure, however, depends critically on the surface and subsurface of the remaining backside Si after the thinning processes. The Si (sub)surface after mechanical grinding has already been characterized fruitfully for a range of few dozen of μm. Here, we expand the characterization of Si (sub)surface to 5 μm thickness after thinning process on dielectric bonded wafers. The subsurface defects and damage layer were investigated after grinding, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), wet etching and plasma dry etching. The (sub)surface defects were characterized using transmission microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Although grinding provides the fastest removal rate of Si, the surface roughness was not compatible with subsequent processing. Furthermore, mechanical damage such as dislocations and amorphous Si cannot be reduced regardless of Si thickness and thin wafer handling systems. The CMP after grinding showed excellent performance to remove this grinding damage, even though the removal amount is 1 μm. For the case of Si thinning towards 5 μm using grinding and CMP, the (sub)surface is atomic scale of roughness without vacancy. For the case of grinding + dry etch, vacancy defects were detected in subsurface around 0.5–2 μm. The finished surface after wet etch remains in the nm scale in the strain region. By inserting a CMP step in

  7. Sub-surface defects detection of by using active thermography and advanced image edge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Wang, Gaochao

    2017-01-01

    Active or pulsed thermography is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) tool for inspecting the integrity and anomaly of industrial equipment. One of the recent research trends in using active thermography is to automate the process in detecting hidden defects. As of today, human effort has still been using to adjust the temperature intensity of the thermo camera in order to visually observe the difference in cooling rates caused by a normal target as compared to that by a sub-surface crack exists inside the target. To avoid the tedious human-visual inspection and minimize human induced error, this paper reports the design of an automatic method that is capable of detecting subsurface defects. The method used the technique of active thermography, edge detection in machine vision and smart algorithm. An infrared thermo-camera was used to capture a series of temporal pictures after slightly heating up the inspected target by flash lamps. Then the Canny edge detector was employed to automatically extract the defect related images from the captured pictures. The captured temporal pictures were preprocessed by a packet of Canny edge detector and then a smart algorithm was used to reconstruct the whole sequences of image signals. During the processes, noise and irrelevant backgrounds exist in the pictures were removed. Consequently, the contrast of the edges of defective areas had been highlighted. The designed automatic method was verified by real pipe specimens that contains sub-surface cracks. After applying such smart method, the edges of cracks can be revealed visually without the need of using manual adjustment on the setting of thermo-camera. With the help of this automatic method, the tedious process in manually adjusting the colour contract and the pixel intensity in order to reveal defects can be avoided. (paper)

  8. Conversion of SMART I. Zur Konvertierung von SMART I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyris, J H; Szimmat, J; William, K J [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the conversion of the programming system SMART I on CDC, UNIVAC and IBM computers under the BMFT grant RK 21 I/SBB 31. There were four tasks for the development of a machine-independent SMART-version: a) Updating of the CDC source library (ca. 180.000 Fortran statements); b) Conversion into double precision; c) Primary installation on UNIVAC; d) Primary installation on IBM. The conversion of the SMART I program was carried out in cooperation with the consulting firms RIB, Stuttgart, and IKOSS Stuttgart, under the leadership of ISD.

  9. Plane-Casting: 3D Cursor Control with a SmartPhone

    OpenAIRE

    Katzakis, Nicholas; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Hori, Masahiro; Takemura, Haruo

    2018-01-01

    We present Plane-Casting, a novel technique for 3D object manipulation from a distance that is especially suitable for smartphones. We describe two variations of Plane-Casting, Pivot and Free Plane-Casting, and present results from a pilot study. Results suggest that Pivot Plane-Casting is more suitable for quick, coarse movements whereas Free Plane-Casting is more suited to slower, precise motion. In a 3D movement task, Pivot Plane-Casting performed better quantitatively, but subjects prefer...

  10. The Smart Grid Impact on the Danish DSOs’ Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Sommer, Simon; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    The transformation progress of the smart grid challenges the market players' business models. One of those market players is the Distribution System Operators (DSOs). This paper aims to elaborate how smart grid influences the DSOs' business models with case studies of two Danish DSOs — Energi......Fyn and TREFOR. The main findings indicate that the Danish smart grid transformation process influences the Danish DSOs' business models via four smart grid related factors: (1) smart meters, (2) Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), (3) Bidirectional electricity flow, and (4) R&D. Therefore, the results show...... that the smart grid incrementally not revolutionary influences the Danish DSOs' business models, and the smart grid transformation of the Danish electricity grid is slower than the agenda of the official Danish smart grid development strategy....

  11. Modeling the Dutch subsurface: From paper product towards dissemination of a 3D-digital model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulk, M. den; Doornenbal, J.C.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2015-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands carried out several major mapping projects to construct a consistent, regional-scale petroleum geological framework for the deep subsurface of the Netherlands, both on- and offshore. In the last decade the modeling approach has developed into a fully digital

  12. Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, A.; Ishiyama, K.; Feng, J.

    2016-12-01

    Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE have been compared. In Chang'E-3 mission, subsurface radar sounding at (19.51W, 44.12N) was performed by Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the Yutu rover. The LPR was pulse radar operated at two frequencies: 60 MHz and 500 MHz. During its operation period from December 2013 to January 2014, the LPR observed subsurface echoes along the rover's track with total distance of 114 m. From the observation in 60 MHz, the subsurface echoes from buried regolith layers at depths of 35, 50, 140, 240, and 360 m were reported (Xiao et al., 2015). In SELENE mission, global subsurface radar sounding of the moon was performed by Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft from the polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km. The LRS was chirp radar operated in a frequency range from 4-6 MHz. So the range resolution of LRS was 75 m in vacuum. During operation period from December 2007 to September 2008, subsurface echoes from all areas of the Moon was observed with a lateral resolution of 76 m. From the global observation, the subsurface echoes from the buried regolith layers in the neraside maria including Mare Imbrium at depths of several hundred meters were reported (Ono et al., 2009).In the present study, we focus on SELENE/LRS data obtained at (19.50W, 44.12N) which is the nearest to the Chang'E-3 landing site. While clear and large-scale subsurface reflectors, as found in Ono et al. (2009), are not found in it, we can identify some echo components from the depths of 140 ( 2000 ns), 240 ( 4000 ns), and 360 m ( 6000 ns). Further analyses utilizing high-resolution data from Chang'E-3/LPR and large-scale data from SELENE/LRS, we will be able to determine the thickness and large-scale structures of the buried regolith layers found by the both radars, and discuss their formation processes in volcanic history of Mare Imbrium.

  13. Preliminary Uncertainty Analysis for SMART Digital Core Protection and Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon Seung; In, Wang Kee; Hwang, Dae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed on-line digital core protection and monitoring systems, called SCOPS and SCOMS as a part of SMART plant protection and monitoring system. SCOPS simplified the protection system by directly connecting the four RSPT signals to each core protection channel and eliminated the control element assembly calculator (CEAC) hardware. SCOMS adopted DPCM3D method in synthesizing core power distribution instead of Fourier expansion method being used in conventional PWRs. The DPCM3D method produces a synthetic 3-D power distribution by coupling a neutronics code and measured in-core detector signals. The overall uncertainty analysis methodology which is used statistically combining uncertainty components of SMART core protection and monitoring system was developed. In this paper, preliminary overall uncertainty factors for SCOPS/SCOMS of SMART initial core were evaluated by applying newly developed uncertainty analysis method

  14. Uncertainty Evaluation for SMART Synthesized Power Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Lee, C. C.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, K. H.

    2010-07-01

    This report performs the uncertainty analysis for the SMART synthesis power distribution generated by a SSUN (SMART core SUpporting system coupled by Nuclear design code) code. SSUN runs coupled with the MASTER neutronics code and generates the core 3-D synthesis power distribution by using DPCM3D. The MASTER code plays a role to provide the DPCM3D constants to the SSUN code for the current core states. The uncertainties evaluated in this report are the form of 95%/95% probability/confidence one-sided tolerance limits and can be used in conjunction with Technical Specification limits on these quantities to establish appropriate LCO (Limiting Conditions of Operation) and LSSS (Limiting Safety System Settings) limits. This report is applicable to SMART nuclear reactor using fixed rhodium detector systems. The unknown true power distribution should be given for the uncertainty evaluation of the synthesis power distribution. This report produces virtual distributions for the true power distribution by imposing the CASMO-3/MASTER uncertainty to the MASTER power distribution. Detector signals are generated from these virtual distribution and the DPCM3D constants are from the MASTER power distribution. The SSUN code synthesizes the core 3-D power distribution by using these detector signals and the DPCM3D constants. The following summarizes the uncertainty evaluation procedure for the synthesis power distribution. (1) Generation of 3-D power distribution by MASTER -> Determination of the DPCM3D constants. (2) Generation of virtual power distribution (assumed to be true power distribution) -> Generation of detector signals. (3) Generation of synthesis power distribution. (4) Uncertainty evaluation for the synthesis power distribution. Chi-Square normality test rejects the hypothesis of normal distribution for the synthesis power error distribution. Therefore, the KRUSKAL WALLIS test and the non-parametric statistics are used for data pooling and the tolerance limits. The

  15. 4D ERT Monitoring of Subsurface Water Pipe Leakage During a Controlled Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, C.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P.; Swift, R. T.; Uhlemann, S.; Gunn, D.; Dashwood, B.; Taxil, J.; Curioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    Locating and delineating leakage from subsurface pipelines is an important task for civil engineers. 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows changes in subsurface resistivity to be imaged at a high spatial and temporal resolution in a minimally invasive manner. It is therefore a promising tool to supplement conventional point-sensing techniques to monitor subsurface flow processes. To assess the efficacy of ERT for pipe leakage monitoring several controlled leak experiments were carried out at a test site in Blagdon, Bristol, UK. To simulate the leak, a plastic pipe with a hole was buried below a flat, grassed area at a depth of 0.7 m, representing a standard UK mains water pipe installation. The water table at the site lies well below the surface meaning that the experiment took entirely place in the vadose zone, where changes in resistivity are primarily sensitive to water content variations. The ERT array covered an area of 6.5m x 6.5m around the leak location. Data acquisition was carried out with the BGS PRIME (Proactive Infrastructure Monitoring and Evaluation) system, which facilitates remote scheduling and autonomous ERT data collection and transmission. To obtain the resistivity changes of the subsurface a 4D inversion was carried out using a Gauss-Newton approach with spatial and temporal smoothness constraints. We were able to reliably observe the onset, spread and cessation of the leakage. Measurements from in-situ soil sensors at several depths above and below the leak complemented the ERT data and allowed us to assess their reliability and directly relate them to hydrogeological processes. Moreover, through experimental tests with soil samples from the test area, a Waxman-Smits relation was obtained to directly convert the changes in electrical resistivity to gravimetric soil moisture content. With future experiments on the test site more work is planned towards survey optimization, automated processing and tracking of leakage plumes.

  16. The Role of Subsurface Properties on Transport of Water and Trace Gases: 1D Simulations at Selected Mars Landing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, O.; Gloesener, E.; Dehant, V. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, water ice stability and water vapour transport through porous martian subsurface are studied using a 1D diffusive model. The role of adsorption on water transfer in martian conditions is investigated as well as the range of parameters that have the largest effect on gas transport. In addition, adsorption kinetics is considered to examine its influence on the water vapor exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere. As methane has been detected in the martian atmosphere, the subsurface model is then used to study methane diffusion in the CH4/CO2/H2O system from variable depths under the surface. The results of subsurface gas transport at selected locations/landing sites are shown and implications for present/future observations are discussed.

  17. Improving reservoir performance using new 'smart' well technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggensack, W.D.; Matthews, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The technologies that were available in the past to improve reservoir performance include 3-D seismic, coiled tubing, horizontal wells, and PCP's. Future enabling technologies will also include multi-lateral wells, 'smart' wells, underbalanced drilling, and downhole fluids processing. A description of 'smart' well technology was given, defined as well completions which facilitate downhole monitoring and control of production to achieve maximum reserves recovery. The current development for 'smart' wells is focused on offshore and subsea wells for marginal field development and work-over mitigation, with the emphasis in system design for production control of horizontal and multi-lateral wells. Basic 'smart' well configuration, instrumentation and monitoring systems, applications of 'smart' well technology in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, and future developments and applications for the technology in general, were also discussed. 30 figs

  18. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  19. 3-D numerical investigation of subsurface flow in anisotropic porous media using multipoint flux approximation method

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect

  20. Inverse Problem for 3D coupled Flow-Geomechanics Models and Induced Seismicity: Application to Subsurface Characterization and Seismicity Forecasting in Geologic CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is regarded as a promising technology to mitigate rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere from industrial emissions. However, as a result of the inherent uncertainty that is present in geological structures, assessing the stability of geological faults and quantifying the potential for induced seismicity is a fundamental challenge for practical implementation of CCS. Here we present a formal framework for the solution of the inverse problem associated with coupled flow and geomechanics models of CO2 injection and subsurface storage. Our approach builds from the application of Gaussian Processes, MCMC and posterior predictive analysis to evaluate relevant earthquake attributes (earthquake time, location and magnitude) in 3D synthetic models of CO2 storage under geologic, observational and operational uncertainty. In our approach, we first conduct hundreds of simulations of a high-fidelity 3D computational model for CO2 injection into a deep saline aquifer, dominated by an anticline structure and a fault. This ensemble of realizations accounts for uncertainty in the model parameters (including fault geomechanical and rock properties) and observations (earthquake time, location and magnitude). We apply Gaussian processes (GP) to generate a valid surrogate that closely approximates the behavior of the high fidelity (and computationally intensive) model, and apply hyperparameter optimization and cross-validation techniques in the solution of this multidimensional data-fit problem. The net result of this process is the generation of a fast model that can be effectively used for Bayesian analysis. We then implement Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to determine the posterior distribution of the model uncertain parameters (given some prior distributions for those parameters and given the likelihood defined in this case by the GP model). Our results show that the resulting posterior distributions correctly converge towards the "true

  1. The optical design of 3D ICs for smartphone and optro-electronics sensing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Smartphone require limit space for image system, current lens, used in smartphones are refractive type, the effective focal length is limited the thickness of phone physical size. Other, such as optro-electronics sensing chips, proximity optical sensors, and UV indexer chips are integrated into smart phone with limit space. Due to the requirement of multiple lens in smartphone, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips in a limited space of CPU board in future smart phone, optro-electronics 3D IC's integrated with optical lens or components may be a key technology for 3 C products. A design for reflective lens is fitted to CMOS, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips based on 3-D IC. The reflective lens can be threes times of effective focal lens, and be able to resolve small object. The system will be assembled and integrated in one 3-D IC more easily.

  2. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Bao, J; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Perkins, W; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Ren, H; Thorne, P; Suffield, S; Murray, C; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is a critical mechanism shaping hydrological and biogeochemical processes along a river corridor. Recent studies on quantifying the hyporheic exchange were mostly limited to local scales due to field inaccessibility, computational demand, and complexity of geomorphology and subsurface geology. Surface flow conditions and subsurface physical properties are well known factors on modulating the hyporheic exchange, but quantitative understanding of their impacts on the strength and direction of hyporheic exchanges at reach scales is absent. In this study, a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport is employed to simulate hyporheic exchanges in a 7-km long reach along the main-stem of the Columbia River. Assuming that the hyporheic exchange does not affect surface water flow conditions due to its negligible magnitude compared to the volume and velocity of river water, we developed a one-way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model using the commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+. The model integrates the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable κ-ε two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, and is used to simulate hyporheic exchanges by tracking the free water-air interface as well as flow in the river and the subsurface porous media. The model is validated against measurements from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the stream water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges are influenced by surface water fluid dynamics strongly regulated by upstream dam operations, as well as subsurface structures (e.g. thickness of riverbed and subsurface formation layers) and hydrogeological properties (e.g. permeability). The results

  3. GEOSPATIAL DATA PROCESSING FOR 3D CITY MODEL GENERATION, MANAGEMENT AND VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Toschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of 3D technologies and tools have increased availability and relevance of 3D data (from 3D points to complete city models in the geospatial and geo-information domains. Nevertheless, the potential of 3D data is still underexploited and mainly confined to visualization purposes. Therefore, the major challenge today is to create automatic procedures that make best use of available technologies and data for the benefits and needs of public administrations (PA and national mapping agencies (NMA involved in “smart city” applications. The paper aims to demonstrate a step forward in this process by presenting the results of the SENECA project (Smart and SustaiNablE City from Above – http://seneca.fbk.eu. State-of-the-art processing solutions are investigated in order to (i efficiently exploit the photogrammetric workflow (aerial triangulation and dense image matching, (ii derive topologically and geometrically accurate 3D geo-objects (i.e. building models at various levels of detail and (iii link geometries with non-spatial information within a 3D geo-database management system accessible via web-based client. The developed methodology is tested on two case studies, i.e. the cities of Trento (Italy and Graz (Austria. Both spatial (i.e. nadir and oblique imagery and non-spatial (i.e. cadastral information and building energy consumptions data are collected and used as input for the project workflow, starting from 3D geometry capture and modelling in urban scenarios to geometry enrichment and management within a dedicated webGIS platform.

  4. Geospatial Data Processing for 3d City Model Generation, Management and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Revolti, A.; Soria, G.; Piffer, S.

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments of 3D technologies and tools have increased availability and relevance of 3D data (from 3D points to complete city models) in the geospatial and geo-information domains. Nevertheless, the potential of 3D data is still underexploited and mainly confined to visualization purposes. Therefore, the major challenge today is to create automatic procedures that make best use of available technologies and data for the benefits and needs of public administrations (PA) and national mapping agencies (NMA) involved in "smart city" applications. The paper aims to demonstrate a step forward in this process by presenting the results of the SENECA project (Smart and SustaiNablE City from Above - http://seneca.fbk.eu). State-of-the-art processing solutions are investigated in order to (i) efficiently exploit the photogrammetric workflow (aerial triangulation and dense image matching), (ii) derive topologically and geometrically accurate 3D geo-objects (i.e. building models) at various levels of detail and (iii) link geometries with non-spatial information within a 3D geo-database management system accessible via web-based client. The developed methodology is tested on two case studies, i.e. the cities of Trento (Italy) and Graz (Austria). Both spatial (i.e. nadir and oblique imagery) and non-spatial (i.e. cadastral information and building energy consumptions) data are collected and used as input for the project workflow, starting from 3D geometry capture and modelling in urban scenarios to geometry enrichment and management within a dedicated webGIS platform.

  5. SMART Structures User's Guide - Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Jan L.

    1996-01-01

    Version 3.0 of the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART Structures) is used to generate structural models for conceptual and preliminary-level aerospace designs. Features include the generation of structural elements for wings and fuselages, the integration of wing and fuselage structural assemblies, and the integration of fuselage and tail structural assemblies. The highly interactive nature of this software allows the structural engineer to move quickly from a geometry that defines a vehicle's external shape to one that has both external components and internal components which may include ribs, spars, longerons, variable depth ringframes, a floor, a keel, and fuel tanks. The geometry that is output is consistent with FEA requirements and includes integrated wing and empennage carry-through and frame attachments. This report provides a comprehensive description of SMART Structures and how to use it.

  6. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  7. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 3-D Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Study at the D-Day Pointe du Hoc Historic Site in Normandy, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Guenther, T.; Warden, R. R.

    2007-12-01

    The D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France is one of the most important World War II battlefields. The site remains today a valuable historic cultural resource. However the site is vulnerable to cliff collapses that could endanger the observation post building and U.S. Ranger memorial located just landward of the sea stack, and an anti-aircraft gun emplacement, Col. Rudder's command post, located on the cliff edge about 200 m east of the observation post. A 3-D resistivity tomography incorporating extreme topography is used in this study to provide a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to these two buildings. Multi-electrode resistivity measurements were made across the cliff face and along the top of the cliff around the two at-risk buildings to map major subsurface fracture zones and void spaces that could indicate possible accumulations and pathways of groundwater. The ingress of acidic groundwater through the underlying carbonate formations enlarges pre-existing tectonic fractures via limestone dissolution and weakens the overall structural integrity of the cliff. The achieved 3-D resistivity tomograms provide diagnostic subsurface resistivity distributions. Resistive zones associated with subsurface void spaces have been located. These void spaces constitute a stability geohazard as they become significant drainage routes during and after periods of heavy rainfalls.

  9. Integrated approach to 3-D seismic acquisition geometry analysis : Emphasizing the influence of the inhomogeneous subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The seismic reflection method for imaging of the earth's interior is an essential part of the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources. A seismic survey should be designed such that the acquired data leads to a sufficiently accurate subsurface image. The survey geometry analysis method

  10. Functional Polymers and Nanocomposites for 3D Printing of Smart Structures and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgorny, Milena; Ameli, Amir

    2018-05-16

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has attracted a considerable amount of attention during the past years, being globally recognized as one of the most promising and revolutionary manufacturing technologies. Although the field is rapidly evolving with significant technological advancements, materials research remains a spotlight of interest, essential for the future developments of 3DP. Smart polymers and nanocomposites, which respond to external stimuli by changing their properties and structure, represent an important group of materials that hold a great promise for the fabrication of sensors, actuators, robots, electronics, and medical devices. The interest in exploring functional materials and their 3DP is constantly growing in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing manufacturing demand of complex functional platforms in an efficient manner. In this review, we aim to outline the recent advances in the science and engineering of functional polymers and nanocomposites for 3DP technologies. The report covers temperature-responsive polymers, polymers and nanocomposites with electromagnetic, piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviors, self-healing polymers, light- and pH-responsive materials, and mechanochromic polymers. The main objective is to link the performance and functionalities to the fundamental properties, chemistry, and physics of the materials, and to the process-driven characteristics, in an attempt to provide a multidisciplinary image and a deeper understanding of the topic. The challenges and opportunities for future research are also discussed.

  11. Subsurface probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging techniques that can be used to translate seismic and electromagnetic wave signals into visual representation are briefly discussed. The application of these techniques is illustrated on the example of determining the subsurface structure of a proposed power plant. Imaging makes the wave signals intelligible to the non-geologists. R and D work needed in this area are tabulated

  12. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Alshammari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS.

  13. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Nasser; Alshammari, Talal; Sedky, Mohamed; Champion, Justin; Bauer, Carolin

    2017-05-02

    This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS).

  14. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  15. Investigation on Smart Parts with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors via Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yirong [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-12-10

    The goal of this proposed research is to design, fabricate, and evaluate “smart parts” with embedded sensors for energy systems. The “smart parts” will be fabricated using Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technique with built-in piezoceramic sensors. The objectives of the proposed project are: 1) Fabricate energy system related components with embedded sensors, 2) Evaluate the mechanical properties and sensing functionalities of the “smart parts” with embedded piezoceramic sensors, and 3) Assess in-situ sensing capability of energy system parts. The second year’s research of the research is centered on fabrication of the “smart parts” with considerations of overall material property as well as demonstration of sensing functionalities. The results for the final report are presented here, including all research accomplishment, project management. Details are included such as: how the design and fabrication of sensor packaging could improve the sensor performance, demonstration of “smart parts” sensing capabilities, analysis on the elements that constitute the “smart sensors”, advanced “stop and go” fabrication process, smart injector fabrication using SLM technology, smart injector testing in combustion environments etc. Research results to date have generated several posters and papers.

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  17. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  18. 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiongyao; Sun, Jian; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yinong; ITASC

    2017-01-01

    This book presents research advances in intelligent transportation and smart cities in detail, mainly focusing on green traffic and urban utility tunnels, presented at the 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City (ITASC) held at Tongji University, Shanghai, on May 19–20, 2017. It discusses a number of hot topics, such as the 2BMW system (Bus, Bike, Metro and Walking), transportation safety and environmental protection, urban utility design and application, as well as the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in city design. By connecting the theory and applications of intelligent transportation in smart cities, it enhances traffic efficiency and quality. The book gathers numerous selected papers and lectures, including contributions from respected scholars and the latest engineering advances, to provide guidance to researchers in the field of transportation and urban planning at universities and in related industries. The first conference in the ITASC series sta...

  19. 3D correlation imaging of the vertical gradient of gravity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We present a new 3D correlation imaging approach for vertical gradient of gravity data for deriving a 3D equivalent mass distribution in the subsurface. In this approach, we divide the subsurface space into a 3D regular grid, and then at each grid node calculate a cross correlation between the vertical gradient of the observed gravity data and the theoretical gravity vertical gradient due to a point mass source. The resultant correlation coefficients are used to describe the equivalent mass distribution in a probability sense. We simulate a geological syncline model intruded by a dike and later broken by two vertical faults. The vertical gradient of gravity anomaly of the model is calculated and used to test the approach. The results demonstrate that the equivalent mass distribution derived by the approach reflects the basic geological structures of the model. We also test the approach on the transformed vertical gradient of real Bouguer gravity data from a geothermal survey area in Northern China. The thermal reservoirs are located in the lower portion of the sedimentary basin. From the resultant equivalent mass distribution, we produce the depth distribution of the bottom interface of the basin and predict possible hidden faults present in the basin

  20. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  1. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  2. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  3. 3D Printed Photoresponsive Devices Based on Shape Memory Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Wang, Ting; Wang, Juan; Yu, Jiancan; He, Ke; Qi, Dianpeng; Wan, Changjin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Compared with traditional stimuli-responsive devices with simple planar or tubular geometries, 3D printed stimuli-responsive devices not only intimately meet the requirement of complicated shapes at macrolevel but also satisfy various conformation changes triggered by external stimuli at the microscopic scale. However, their development is limited by the lack of 3D printing functional materials. This paper demonstrates the 3D printing of photoresponsive shape memory devices through combining fused deposition modeling printing technology and photoresponsive shape memory composites based on shape memory polymers and carbon black with high photothermal conversion efficiency. External illumination triggers the shape recovery of 3D printed devices from the temporary shape to the original shape. The effect of materials thickness and light density on the shape memory behavior of 3D printed devices is quantified and calculated. Remarkably, sunlight also triggers the shape memory behavior of these 3D printed devices. This facile printing strategy would provide tremendous opportunities for the design and fabrication of biomimetic smart devices and soft robotics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis of a novel 'smart' bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Nick J; Herlihy, Amy H; So, Po-Wah; Bell, Jimmy D; Bligh, S W Annie

    2007-07-15

    A new synthetic pathway to 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1, 4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-DO3A) chelating agents was developed involving full hydroxyl- and carboxyl-group protection in precursors to product. Two sequences of cyclen-N-functionalisation were subsequently investigated, one successfully, towards synthesis of the novel 'smart' bifunctional Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2 chelate. The longitudinal proton relaxivities of the neutral [Gd-(Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2)] and [Gd-(Gal-DO3A)] complexes were increased by 28% and 37% in the presence of beta-galactosidase, respectively.

  5. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  6. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  7. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  8. Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies

  9. SMART-1 Results and Lessons for Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We summarise SMART-1 lunar highlights relevant for future lunar exploration. SMART-1 has been useful in the preparation of Selene Kaguya, the Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1, Chinese Chang'E 1 , the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LCROSS, and subsequent lunar landers (Google Lunar X-prize, International Lunar Network, Moon-NEXT, cargo and manned landers). SMART-1 is contributing to prepare the next steps for exploration: survey of resources, search for ice, monitoring polar illumination, and mapping of sites for potential landings, international robotic villages and for future human activities and lunar bases. Overview of SMART-1 mission and payload: SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology [1,2,3]. Its first objective has been achieved to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The SMART-1 spacecraft has been launched on 27 Sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and injected in GTO Geostationary Transfer Orbit. The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. SMART-1 science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, featured many innovative instruments and advanced technologies [1], with a miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) [4-6] for fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's sur-face elemental composition. The payload also included two plasma experiments: SPEDE (Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment) and EPDP (Electric propulsion diagnostic Package), an experiment (KaTE) that demonstrated deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio

  10. Intelligent Open Data 3D Maps in a Collaborative Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Pekka Virtanen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D maps have many potential applications, such as navigation and urban planning. In this article, we present the use of a 3D virtual world platform Meshmoon to create intelligent open data 3D maps. A processing method is developed to enable the generation of 3D virtual environments from the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. The article combines the elements needed in contemporary smart city concepts, such as the connection between attribute information and 3D objects, and the creation of collaborative virtual worlds from open data. By using our 3D virtual world platform, it is possible to create up-to-date, collaborative 3D virtual models, which are automatically updated on all viewers. In the scenes, all users are able to interact with the model, and with each other. With the developed processing methods, the creation of virtual world scenes was partially automated for collaboration activities.

  11. Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard

    In this technical report we present the current state of the research conducted during the first part of the PhD period. The PhD thesis “Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid” focuses on ensuring privacy when generating market for energy service providers that develop web services...... for the residential domain in the envisaged smart grid. The PhD project is funded and associated to the EU project “Energy Demand Aware Open Services for Smart Grid Intelligent Automation” (Smart HG) and therefore introduces the project on a system-level. Based on this, we present some of the integration, security...... and privacy challenges that emerge when designing a system architecture and infrastructure. The resulting architecture is a consumer-centric and agent-based design and uses open Internet-based communication protocols for enabling interoperability while being cost-effective. Finally, the PhD report present...

  12. The often neglected yet crucial element in smart grid strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarco, T. [Utility Industry Global Marketing Security, New York, NY (United States); Smith, W. [Intergraph Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Smart grids consist of automation technology that includes selfhealing networks, intelligent applications, and smart meters to improve load management. Electric utilities can benefit from making the transition from existing infrastructure to leading edge smart grid technology which offers better reliability and reduced maintenance costs. The smart grid improves the efficiency of electrical transmission and distribution, whether it involves carbon policies, grid modernization, renewable energy sources or smart end-use devices for the customer. Smart grids are expected to improve scheduling efficiency, dispatch management, transmission line surveillance and cyber security by enabling faster and better decisions from the control room. However, a smart grid control center is prone to human error. Operators must monitor data, locate work crews, analyze power system reports, and survey real-time transmission line data. They must choose optimal network configurations, whether it is to control voltage or to manage system restart following an outage. To do so, they need a system that will allow them to speed their analysis and take action. The true value of a smart grid is being able to see and control several critical applications in one unified system. A common operating picture improves overall situational awareness, reduces costs and increases efficiency in grid operations. The control center of the future will have 2D and 3D graphical visualization of complex real-time data to improve situational awareness, with multiple layers of information, including outages, distribution automation, geographic information systems, network analysis, and workforce management in a unified system. 1 fig.

  13. 2D and 3D Subsurface Geo-electrical Resistivity Imaging of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... water supplies and impact food chains. Heavy metals ... sites, salt brines, acid spills and natural salt-water intrusions. .... Cooper, DF; Grey, S; Raymond, D; Walker, P. (2005). ... ponds at the Western Treatment Plant, Victoria.

  14. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  15. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agent model * market structure * smart traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  16. Street Smarts vs. Book Smarts: The Figured World of Smartness in the Lives of Marginalized, Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Beth

    2007-01-01

    How smartness is defined within schools contributes to low academic achievement by poor and racial/ethnic minority students. Using Holland et al.'s (1998) [Holland, D., Lachicotte, W., Skinner, D., & Cain, C. (Eds.) (1998). "Identity and agency in cultural worlds." Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.] concept of "figured worlds," this paper…

  17. Human guidance of mobile robots in complex 3D environments using smart glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopinsky, Ryan; Sharma, Aneesh; Gupta, Nikhil; Ordonez, Camilo; Collins, Emmanuel; Barber, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In order for humans to safely work alongside robots in the field, the human-robot (HR) interface, which enables bi-directional communication between human and robot, should be able to quickly and concisely express the robot's intentions and needs. While the robot operates mostly in autonomous mode, the human should be able to intervene to effectively guide the robot in complex, risky and/or highly uncertain scenarios. Using smart glasses such as Google Glass∗, we seek to develop an HR interface that aids in reducing interaction time and distractions during interaction with the robot.

  18. High pressure-elevated temperature x-ray micro-computed tomography for subsurface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan; Lebedev, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO 2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e.g. mineral dissolution and/or precipitation over geological times), geo-mechanical rock behaviour (e.g. rock compaction during diagenesis) or fines migration during water production, which can dramatically reduce reservoir permeability (and thus reservoir performance). All above examples are 3D processes, and 2D experiments (as traditionally done for micro-scale investigations) will thus only provide qualitative information; for instance the percolation threshold is much lower in 3D than in 2D. However, with the advent of x-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) - which is now routinely used - this limitation has been overcome, and such pore-scale processes can be observed in 3D at micrometer-scale. A serious complication is, however, the fact that in the subsurface high pressures and elevated temperatures (HPET) prevail, due to the hydrostatic and geothermal gradients imposed upon it. Such HPET-reservoir conditions significantly change the above mentioned physical and chemical processes, e.g. gas density is much higher at high pressure, which strongly affects buoyancy and wettability and thus gas distributions in the subsurface; or chemical reactions are significantly accelerated at increased temperature, strongly affecting fluid-rock interactions and thus diagenesis and deposition of valuable minerals. It is thus necessary to apply HPET conditions to the aforementioned μCT experiments, to be able to mimic subsurface

  19. Smart tourism destinations: ecosystems for tourism destination competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Boes, Kim; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Inversini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – Grounded in service-dominant (S-D) logic, the purpose of this paper is to explore the core components of smartness to present a framework for the development of the smart tourism destination.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The paper explores the core components of smartness through case study analysis of well-established smart cities.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud – The paper conceptualises smartness and argues ICT, leadership, innovation and social capital supported by human capit...

  20. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  1. Laser-induced novel patterns: As smart strain actuators for new-age dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelen, Serap; Özden, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is time for that paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel surfaces. ► We developed novel 3D smart surfaces as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies. ► We analyzed these smart surface morphologies using FEM. ► We estimated their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. ► We gave the optimum operation parameters. - Abstract: Surface morphologies of titanium implants are of crucial importance for long-term mechanical adaptation for following implantation. One major problem is the stress shielding effect which originates from the mismatch of the bone and the implant elasticity. It is time for a paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel smart surfaces to prevent this problem. Several surface treatment methods have traditionally been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium dental implants. The laser micro-machining can be considered as a unique and promising, non-contact, no media, contamination free, and flexible treatment method for modifying surface properties of materials in the biomedical industry. The aim of the present study is two folds; to develop novel 3D smart surfaces which can be acted as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies and irradiation strategies. And analyze these smart surface morphologies using finite element methods in order to estimate their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Novel 3D smart strain actuators were prepared using an ytterbium fiber laser (λ = 1060 nm) with 200–250 ns pulse durations on commercial pure titanium dental implant material specimen surfaces and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  2. Simulation and validation of concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Lin, H. S.

    2009-08-01

    The importance of soil water flow paths to the transport of nutrients and contaminants has long been recognized. However, effective means of detecting concentrated subsurface flow paths in a large landscape are still lacking. The flow direction and accumulation algorithm based on single-direction flow algorithm (D8) in GIS hydrologic modeling is a cost-effective way to simulate potential concentrated flow paths over a large area once relevant data are collected. This study tested the D8 algorithm for simulating concentrated lateral flow paths at three interfaces in soil profiles in a 19.5-ha agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania, USA. These interfaces were (1) the interface between surface plowed layers of Ap1 and Ap2 horizons, (2) the interface with subsoil water-restricting clay layer where clay content increased to over 40%, and (3) the soil-bedrock interface. The simulated flow paths were validated through soil hydrologic monitoring, geophysical surveys, and observable soil morphological features. The results confirmed that concentrated subsurface lateral flow occurred at the interfaces with the clay layer and the underlying bedrock. At these two interfaces, the soils on the simulated flow paths were closer to saturation and showed more temporally unstable moisture dynamics than those off the simulated flow paths. Apparent electrical conductivity in the soil on the simulated flow paths was elevated and temporally unstable as compared to those outside the simulated paths. The soil cores collected from the simulated flow paths showed significantly higher Mn content at these interfaces than those away from the simulated paths. These results suggest that (1) the D8 algorithm is useful in simulating possible concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths if used with appropriate threshold value of contributing area and sufficiently detailed digital elevation model (DEM); (2) repeated electromagnetic surveys can reflect the temporal change of soil water storage

  3. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  4. Alteration of natural "3"7Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    High "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of "3"7Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict "3"7Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating "3"7Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for "3"7Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural "3"7Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of "3"7Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on "3"7Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. - Highlights: • "3"7Ar in the subsurface as a key evidence to detect underground nuclear explosions. • Numerical modeling of "3"7Ar production and transport in variably saturated soil. • Large uncertainty on predicting "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas. • Control of subsurface "3"7Ar temporal variability by water infiltration events. • Limited influence of soil water content on "3"7Ar production.

  5. Construction of BIM-based SMART-ITL Facility Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Bae, Hwang; Hwang, Sang-Chul; Min, Byung-Eui

    2015-01-01

    The flow area and volume are scaled down to 1/49. The ratio of the hydraulic diameter is 1/7. Therefore, SMART-ITL is a large-scale thermalhydraulic test facility with about 45 m height, which is consisted of 10 m underground and 35 m from the ground level. Until now, the management of design data and maintenance of large scale test facilities have been managed based on hard-copy information. Recently, Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division (THSRD) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed Facility Management System (FMS) based Building Information Modeling (BIM) to manage its design data more effectively for these large scale test facilities of SMART-ITL and ATLAS, and this BIM technology has been applied to SMART-ITL at the first. This study proposed a method of effective management and maintenance of design data applied to the SMART-ITL. That is, a FMS was developed based on the BIM technology for SMART-ITL. Figure 2 shows an overview of FMS development process based on BIM technology. SMART-ITL FMS facilitates its management and maintenance more effectively and accurately by 3- dimensional visualization. It enables the shape information of large scale test facilities to be visualized intuitively in a virtual space, and the efficient maintenance of data and instruments is possible by linking 3D shape information

  6. Construction of BIM-based SMART-ITL Facility Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Bae, Hwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Chul; Min, Byung-Eui [DDRsoft Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The flow area and volume are scaled down to 1/49. The ratio of the hydraulic diameter is 1/7. Therefore, SMART-ITL is a large-scale thermalhydraulic test facility with about 45 m height, which is consisted of 10 m underground and 35 m from the ground level. Until now, the management of design data and maintenance of large scale test facilities have been managed based on hard-copy information. Recently, Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division (THSRD) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed Facility Management System (FMS) based Building Information Modeling (BIM) to manage its design data more effectively for these large scale test facilities of SMART-ITL and ATLAS, and this BIM technology has been applied to SMART-ITL at the first. This study proposed a method of effective management and maintenance of design data applied to the SMART-ITL. That is, a FMS was developed based on the BIM technology for SMART-ITL. Figure 2 shows an overview of FMS development process based on BIM technology. SMART-ITL FMS facilitates its management and maintenance more effectively and accurately by 3- dimensional visualization. It enables the shape information of large scale test facilities to be visualized intuitively in a virtual space, and the efficient maintenance of data and instruments is possible by linking 3D shape information.

  7. Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.

  8. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  9. Smart Energy 2012. How smart is the way towards the turnaround in the energy policy; Smart Energy 2012. Wie smart ist der Weg zur Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The contribution under consideration contains fifteen contributions of well-known authors from commercial enterprises, public institutions and universities on smart energy: (1) Smart grids, but surely (Claudia Eckert); (2) Requirements concerning the further development of data protection and data security as part of the technological change (Reinhold Harnisch); (3) Standardization in the smart grid (Harald Orlamuender); (4) IEC 61850 - The standard for energy automation (Georg Harnischmacher); (5) Smart City, the intelligent grid in the city (Michael Laskowski); (6) IKT is a basis for a real smart power distribution system (Justus Bross); (7) Power transparency and optimized building optimization by means of a holistic automation concepts (Joerg Wollert); (8) Distributed architecture for a balancing aggregation of consumption and generation of power in private households (Kilian Hemmeboehle); (9) Development of an e-energy market place and first experiences from the field test in the E-DeMa project (Bernd Werner); (10) Smart metering rollout pilot ''30,000er'' (Axel Lauterkorn); (11) Experiences with the connexion and communication to smart meters in the project eTelligence (Guenter Pistoor); (12) Smart Phoenix - Intelligent energy networks in Dortmund (Roland Brueggemann); (13) Smart planning (C. Engels); Intelligent house control by means of smart metering (Sabine Wieland); (14) Dynamic billing of energy and value-added service in the networked home (Frank C. Bormann).

  10. Organizational, Cultural, and Psychological Determinants of Smart Infusion Pump Work Arounds: A Study of 3 U.S. Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Benjamin B; Perrigino, Matthew; Tucker, Sharon J; Gaston, Cynthia L; Young, Jim; Vermace, Beverly J; Walroth, Todd A; Buening, Natalie R; Skillman, Katherine L; Berndt, Dawn

    2017-09-01

    We investigated nurse perceptions of smart infusion medication pumps to provide evidence-based insights on how to help reduce work around and improve compliance with patient safety policies. Specifically, we investigated the following 3 research questions: (1) What are nurses' current attitudes about smart infusion pumps? (2) What do nurses think are the causes of smart infusion pump work arounds? and (3) To whom do nurses turn for smart infusion pump training and troubleshooting? We surveyed a large number of nurses (N = 818) in 3 U.S.-based health care systems to address the research questions above. We assessed nurses' opinions about smart infusion pumps, organizational perceptions, and the reasons for work arounds using a voluntary and anonymous Web-based survey. Using qualitative research methods, we coded open-ended responses to questions about the reasons for work arounds to organize responses into useful categories. The nurses reported widespread satisfaction with smart infusion pumps. However, they reported numerous organizational, cultural, and psychological causes of smart pump work arounds. Of 1029 open-ended responses to the question "why do smart pump work arounds occur?" approximately 44% of the causes were technology related, 47% were organization related, and 9% were related to individual factors. Finally, an overwhelming majority of nurses reported seeking solutions to smart pump problems from coworkers and being trained primarily on the job. Hospitals may significantly improve adherence to smart pump safety features by addressing the nontechnical causes of work arounds and by providing more leadership and formalized training for resolving smart pump-related problems.

  11. 3D surface reconstruction and FIB microscopy of worn alumina hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, P; Inkson, B J; Rainforth, W M [Department of Engineering Materials, Mappin St., University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Stewart, T [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.rainforth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2008-08-15

    Interest in alumina-on-alumina total hip replacements (THR) continues to grow for the young and active patient due to their superior wear performance and biocompatibility compared to the alternative traditional polymer/metal prostheses. While alumina on alumina bearings offer an excellent solution, a region of high wear, known as stripe wear, is commonly observed on retrieved alumina hip components that poses concern. These in-vivo stripe wear mechanisms can be replicated in vitro by the introduction of micro-separation during the simulated walking cycle in hip joint simulation. However, the understanding of the mechanisms behind the stripe wear processes is relatively poor. 3D topographic reconstructions of titled SEM stereo pairs from different zones have been obtained to determine the local worn surface topography. Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy was applied to examine the subsurface damage across the stripe wear. The paper presents novel images of sub-surface microcracks in alumina along with 3D reconstructions of the worn ceramic surfaces and a classification of four distinct wear zones following microseparation in hip prostheses.

  12. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  13. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  14. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  15. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  16. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  17. 3D printing functional materials and devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Michael C.

    2017-05-01

    The development of methods for interfacing high performance functional devices with biology could impact regenerative medicine, smart prosthetics, and human-machine interfaces. Indeed, the ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of devices possessing unique geometries, properties, and functionalities. Yet, most high quality functional materials are two dimensional, hard and brittle, and require high crystallization temperatures for maximal performance. These properties render the corresponding devices incompatible with biology, which is three-dimensional, soft, stretchable, and temperature sensitive. We overcome these dichotomies by: 1) using 3D printing and scanning for customized, interwoven, anatomically accurate device architectures; 2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for overcoming mechanical discrepancies while retaining high performance; and 3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This three-dimensional blending of functional materials and `living' platforms may enable next-generation 3D printed devices.

  18. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  19. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  20. A novel anisotropic inversion approach for magnetotelluric data from subsurfaces with orthogonal geoelectric strike directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Jan-Philipp; Jones, Alan G.

    2013-12-01

    The key result of this study is the development of a novel inversion approach for cases of orthogonal, or close to orthogonal, geoelectric strike directions at different depth ranges, for example, crustal and mantle depths. Oblique geoelectric strike directions are a well-known issue in commonly employed isotropic 2-D inversion of MT data. Whereas recovery of upper (crustal) structures can, in most cases, be achieved in a straightforward manner, deriving lower (mantle) structures is more challenging with isotropic 2-D inversion in the case of an overlying region (crust) with different geoelectric strike direction. Thus, investigators may resort to computationally expensive and more limited 3-D inversion in order to derive the electric resistivity distribution at mantle depths. In the novel approaches presented in this paper, electric anisotropy is used to image 2-D structures in one depth range, whereas the other region is modelled with an isotropic 1-D or 2-D approach, as a result significantly reducing computational costs of the inversion in comparison with 3-D inversion. The 1- and 2-D versions of the novel approach were tested using a synthetic 3-D subsurface model with orthogonal strike directions at crust and mantle depths and their performance was compared to results of isotropic 2-D inversion. Structures at crustal depths were reasonably well recovered by all inversion approaches, whereas recovery of mantle structures varied significantly between the different approaches. Isotropic 2-D inversion models, despite decomposition of the electric impedance tensor and using a wide range of inversion parameters, exhibited severe artefacts thereby confirming the requirement of either an enhanced or a higher dimensionality inversion approach. With the anisotropic 1-D inversion approach, mantle structures of the synthetic model were recovered reasonably well with anisotropy values parallel to the mantle strike direction (in this study anisotropy was assigned to the

  1. Design and Implementation of a Smart Home System Using Multisensor Data Fusion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Po-Huan; Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Shyan-Lung; Yang, Shih-Chin; Su, Heng-Yi; Chang, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Yuan-Sheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a multisensor data fusion technology-based smart home system by integrating wearable intelligent technology, artificial intelligence, and sensor fusion technology. We have developed the following three systems to create an intelligent smart home environment: (1) a wearable motion sensing device to be placed on residents’ wrists and its corresponding 3D gesture recognition algorithm to implement a convenient automated household appliance control system; (2) a wearable motion sensing device mounted on a resident’s feet and its indoor positioning algorithm to realize an effective indoor pedestrian navigation system for smart energy management; (3) a multisensor circuit module and an intelligent fire detection and alarm algorithm to realize a home safety and fire detection system. In addition, an intelligent monitoring interface is developed to provide in real-time information about the smart home system, such as environmental temperatures, CO concentrations, communicative environmental alarms, household appliance status, human motion signals, and the results of gesture recognition and indoor positioning. Furthermore, an experimental testbed for validating the effectiveness and feasibility of the smart home system was built and verified experimentally. The results showed that the 3D gesture recognition algorithm could achieve recognition rates for automated household appliance control of 92.0%, 94.8%, 95.3%, and 87.7% by the 2-fold cross-validation, 5-fold cross-validation, 10-fold cross-validation, and leave-one-subject-out cross-validation strategies. For indoor positioning and smart energy management, the distance accuracy and positioning accuracy were around 0.22% and 3.36% of the total traveled distance in the indoor environment. For home safety and fire detection, the classification rate achieved 98.81% accuracy for determining the conditions of the indoor living environment. PMID:28714884

  2. Design and Implementation of a Smart Home System Using Multisensor Data Fusion Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Liang; Chou, Po-Huan; Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Shyan-Lung; Yang, Shih-Chin; Su, Heng-Yi; Chang, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Yuan-Sheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2017-07-15

    This paper aims to develop a multisensor data fusion technology-based smart home system by integrating wearable intelligent technology, artificial intelligence, and sensor fusion technology. We have developed the following three systems to create an intelligent smart home environment: (1) a wearable motion sensing device to be placed on residents' wrists and its corresponding 3D gesture recognition algorithm to implement a convenient automated household appliance control system; (2) a wearable motion sensing device mounted on a resident's feet and its indoor positioning algorithm to realize an effective indoor pedestrian navigation system for smart energy management; (3) a multisensor circuit module and an intelligent fire detection and alarm algorithm to realize a home safety and fire detection system. In addition, an intelligent monitoring interface is developed to provide in real-time information about the smart home system, such as environmental temperatures, CO concentrations, communicative environmental alarms, household appliance status, human motion signals, and the results of gesture recognition and indoor positioning. Furthermore, an experimental testbed for validating the effectiveness and feasibility of the smart home system was built and verified experimentally. The results showed that the 3D gesture recognition algorithm could achieve recognition rates for automated household appliance control of 92.0%, 94.8%, 95.3%, and 87.7% by the 2-fold cross-validation, 5-fold cross-validation, 10-fold cross-validation, and leave-one-subject-out cross-validation strategies. For indoor positioning and smart energy management, the distance accuracy and positioning accuracy were around 0.22% and 3.36% of the total traveled distance in the indoor environment. For home safety and fire detection, the classification rate achieved 98.81% accuracy for determining the conditions of the indoor living environment.

  3. Gypsies in the palace: Experimentalist's view on the use of 3-D physics-based simulation of hillslope hydrological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Tromp-Van Meerveld, I.; Peters, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental unit of the landscape, hillslopes are studied for their retention and release of water and nutrients across a wide range of ecosystems. The understanding of these near-surface processes is relevant to issues of runoff generation, groundwater-surface water interactions, catchment export of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, contaminants (e.g. mercury) and ultimately surface water health. We develop a 3-D physics-based representation of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed experimental hillslope using the TOUGH2 sub-surface flow and transport simulator. A recent investigation of sub-surface flow within this experimental hillslope has generated important knowledge of threshold rainfall-runoff response and its relation to patterns of transient water table development. This work has identified components of the 3-D sub-surface, such as bedrock topography, that contribute to changing connectivity in saturated zones and the generation of sub-surface stormflow. Here, we test the ability of a 3-D hillslope model (both calibrated and uncalibrated) to simulate forested hillslope rainfall-runoff response and internal transient sub-surface stormflow dynamics. We also provide a transparent illustration of physics-based model development, issues of parameterization, examples of model rejection and usefulness of data types (e.g. runoff, mean soil moisture and transient water table depth) to the model enterprise. Our simulations show the inability of an uncalibrated model based on laboratory and field characterization of soil properties and topography to successfully simulate the integrated hydrological response or the distributed water table within the soil profile. Although not an uncommon result, the failure of the field-based characterized model to represent system behaviour is an important challenge that continues to vex scientists at many scales. We focus our attention particularly on examining the influence of bedrock permeability, soil anisotropy and

  4. Laser-induced novel patterns: As smart strain actuators for new-age dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celen, Serap, E-mail: serap.celen@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir, 35100 (Turkey); Oezden, Hueseyin [Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir, 35100 (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is time for that paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed novel 3D smart surfaces as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed these smart surface morphologies using FEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We estimated their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We gave the optimum operation parameters. - Abstract: Surface morphologies of titanium implants are of crucial importance for long-term mechanical adaptation for following implantation. One major problem is the stress shielding effect which originates from the mismatch of the bone and the implant elasticity. It is time for a paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel smart surfaces to prevent this problem. Several surface treatment methods have traditionally been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium dental implants. The laser micro-machining can be considered as a unique and promising, non-contact, no media, contamination free, and flexible treatment method for modifying surface properties of materials in the biomedical industry. The aim of the present study is two folds; to develop novel 3D smart surfaces which can be acted as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies and irradiation strategies. And analyze these smart surface morphologies using finite element methods in order to estimate their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Novel 3D smart strain actuators were prepared using an ytterbium fiber laser ({lambda} = 1060 nm) with 200-250 ns pulse durations on commercial pure titanium dental implant material specimen surfaces and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  5. Overview of Simulation Tools for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aim of this report “D2.1 – Overview of Simulation Tools for Smart Grids” is to provide an overview of the different simulation tools available, i.e. developed and in use, at the different research centres. Required new tool capabilities are identified and extensions to the existing packages...... are indicated. An analysis of the emerging power systems challenges together with a review of the main topics regarding smart grids is provided in Chapter 1. The requirements for the simulation tools and the list of available tools in the different research centres and their main characteristic are reported...... in Chapter 2. The main aspects of the different tools and their purpose of analysis are listed in Chapter 3 along with the main topics concerning the new requirements for tools in order to allow a proper study in the smart grid context. Gaps capabilities and model consolidation of the analysed tools...

  6. Efficient Sample Delay Calculation for 2-D and 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Aya; Hager, Pascal A; Bartolini, Andrea; Angiolini, Federico; Arditi, Marcel; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Benini, Luca; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a reference medical diagnostic technique, thanks to its blend of versatility, effectiveness, and moderate cost. The core computation of all ultrasound imaging methods is based on simple formulae, except for those required to calculate acoustic propagation delays with high precision and throughput. Unfortunately, advanced three-dimensional (3-D) systems require the calculation or storage of billions of such delay values per frame, which is a challenge. In 2-D systems, this requirement can be four orders of magnitude lower, but efficient computation is still crucial in view of low-power implementations that can be battery-operated, enabling usage in numerous additional scenarios. In this paper, we explore two smart designs of the delay generation function. To quantify their hardware cost, we implement them on FPGA and study their footprint and performance. We evaluate how these architectures scale to different ultrasound applications, from a low-power 2-D system to a next-generation 3-D machine. When using numerical approximations, we demonstrate the ability to generate delay values with sufficient throughput to support 10 000-channel 3-D imaging at up to 30 fps while using 63% of a Virtex 7 FPGA, requiring 24 MB of external memory accessed at about 32 GB/s bandwidth. Alternatively, with similar FPGA occupation, we show an exact calculation method that reaches 24 fps on 1225-channel 3-D imaging and does not require external memory at all. Both designs can be scaled to use a negligible amount of resources for 2-D imaging in low-power applications and for ultrafast 2-D imaging at hundreds of frames per second.

  7. 3D Geothermal Modelling of the Mount Amiata Hydrothermal System in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fulignati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a subsurface model that helps in visualizing and understanding the structural framework, geology and their interactions with the Mt. Amiata geothermal system. Modelling in 3D provides the possibility to interpolate the geometry of structures and is an effective way of understanding geological features. The 3D modelling approach appears to be crucial for further progress in the reconstruction of the assessment of the geothermal model of Mt. Amiata. Furthermore, this model is used as the basis of a 3D numerical thermo-fluid-dynamic model of the existing reservoir(s. The integration between borehole data and numerical modelling results allows reconstructing the temperature distribution in the subsoil of the Mt. Amiata area.

  8. SMART 3D SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT CHARACTERIZATION AT THE BGRR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEISER, J.; KALB, P.; SULLIVAN, T.; MILIAN, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR), which operated from 1951--1968 is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). As part of this effort, many of the major structures and facilities (e.g., Above Grade Ducts, Cooling Fans, Pile Fan Sump, Transfer Canal and Instruments Houses) are being removed to eliminate contaminants and reduce the footprint of the overall facility. However, a significant cost savings (almost $5M) can potentially be realized if the large concrete Below Grade Ducts (BGD) can be decontaminated and left in place. In order to do this, soils beneath the ducts must be fully characterized to identify areas where contaminants may have leaked, what radioactive and hazardous contaminants remain, and in what concentrations. This information will then be used to evaluate whether discrete areas of localized contaminated soil can be selectively removed or, if the contamination is significant and widespread, and whether the ducts themselves must be removed for complete cleanup. The information generated from this effort is input into the BGRR BGD Characterization Report and an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) currently being prepared to evaluate potential options for the ducts. This FY01 Department of Energy Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (DOE ASTD) project combined a suite of innovative technologies to provide cost-effective characterization of the soils beneath the BGD and present the data in an easily understandable three-dimensional representation of the contaminant concentrations beneath the ducts. Conventional characterization of the soil would have required sampling a very large area in a tight grid pattern to ensure that all areas of potential contamination were evaluated. It is estimated that using baseline techniques would require approximately 2500 samples (costing ∼$1.6M), depending on the level of precision required by regulators. This massive amount of data would then be difficult to

  9. Fast and robust online adaptive planning in stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohoudi, O; Bruynzeel, A M E; Senan, S; Cuijpers, J P; Slotman, B J; Lagerwaard, F J; Palacios, M A

    2017-12-01

    To implement a robust and fast stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) online strategy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). SMART strategy for plan adaptation was implemented with the MRIdian system (ViewRay Inc.). At each fraction, OAR (re-)contouring is done within a distance of 3cm from the PTV surface. Online plan re-optimization is based on robust prediction of OAR dose and optimization objectives, obtained by building an artificial neural network (ANN). Proposed limited re-contouring strategy for plan adaptation (SMART 3CM ) is evaluated by comparing 50 previously delivered fractions against a standard (re-)planning method using full-scale OAR (re-)contouring (FULLOAR). Plan quality was assessed using PTV coverage (V 95% , D mean , D 1cc ) and institutional OAR constraints (e.g. V 33Gy ). SMART 3CM required a significant lower number of optimizations than FULLOAR (4 vs 18 on average) to generate a plan meeting all objectives and institutional OAR constraints. PTV coverage with both strategies was identical (mean V 95% =89%). Adaptive plans with SMART 3CM exhibited significant lower intermediate and high doses to all OARs than FULLOAR, which also failed in 36% of the cases to adhere to the V 33Gy dose constraint. SMART 3CM approach for LAPC allows good OAR sparing and adequate target coverage while requiring only limited online (re-)contouring from clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New tools for subsurface imaging of 3D seismic Node data in hydrocarbon exploration =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Omar

    A aquisicao de dados sismicos de reflexao multicanal 3D/4D usando Ocean Bottom NODES de 4 componentes constitui atualmente um sector de importancia crescente no mercado da aquisicao de dados reflexao sismica marinha na industria petrolifera. Este tipo de dados permite obter imagens de sub-superficie de alta qualidade, com baixos niveis de ruido, banda larga, boa iluminacao azimutal, offsets longos, elevada resolucao e aquisicao de tanto ondas P como S. A aquisicao de dados e altamente repetitiva e portanto ideal para campanhas 4D. No entanto, existem diferencas significativas na geometria de aquisicao e amostragem do campo de ondas relativamente aos metodos convencionais com streamers rebocados a superficie, pelo que e necessario desenvolver de novas ferramentas para o processamento deste tipo de dados. Esta tese investiga tres aspectos do processamento de dados de OBSs/NODES ainda nao totalmente resolvidos de forma satisfatoria: a deriva aleatoria dos relogios internos, o posicionamento de precisao dos OBSs e a implementacao de algoritmos de migracao prestack 3D em profundidade eficientes para obtencao de imagens precisas de subsuperficie. Foram desenvolvidos novos procedimentos para resolver estas situacoes, que foram aplicados a dados sinteticos e a dados reais. Foi desenvolvido um novo metodo para deteccao e correccao de deriva aleatoria dos relogios internos, usando derivadas de ordem elevada. Foi ainda desenvolvido um novo metodo de posicionamento de precisao de OBSs usando multilateracao e foram criadas ferramentas de interpolacao/extrapolacao dos modelos de velocidades 3D de forma a cobrirem a extensao total area de aquisicao. Foram implementados algoritmos robustos de filtragem para preparar o campo de velocidades para o tracado de raios e minimizar os artefactos na migracao Krichhoff pre-stack 3D em profundidade. Os resultados obtidos mostram um melhoramento significativo em todas as situacoes analisadas. Foi desenvolvido o software necessario para o

  11. Ground Penetrating Radar for SMART CITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The use of monitoring and surveillance technologies is now recognized as a reliable option of the overall smart cities management cycle, for the advantages that they offer in terms of: economically sustainable planning of the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance interventions; situational awareness of possible risks factors in view of a reliable early warning; improvement of the security of the communities especially in public environments. In this frame, the abstract will deal with the recent advances in the development and deployment of radar systems for the urban surveillance, exploitation of the subsurface resources and civil engineering structures. In particular, we will present the recent scientific developments and several examples of use of these systems in operational conditions.

  12. Smart homes in transition - Investigating the role of households in the development of smart grids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie

    and black-outs, fuel security, fraud and inaccurate billing. The present PhD project aims to explore the role households play in a sustainable transition of the energy system and takes as its point of departure the Danish smart grid case. Here the smart grid is dominantly framed in relation to the political...

  13. Construction method and application of 3D velocity model for evaluation of strong seismic motion and its cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Hisanori; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Based on experiences of making subsurface structure models for seismic strong motion evaluation, the advantages and disadvantages in terms of convenience and cost for several methods used to make such models were reported. As for the details, gravity and micro-tremor surveys were considered to be highly valid in terms of convenience and cost. However, stratigraphy and seismic velocity structure are required to make accurate 3-D subsurface structures. To realize these, methods for directly examining subsurface ground or using controlled tremor sources (at high cost) are needed. As a result, it was summarized that in modeling subsurface structures, some sort of plan including both types of methods is desirable and that several methods must be combined to match one's intended purposes and budget. (authors)

  14. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  15. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    . In response, the Office of Science, through its Office of Basic Energy Science (BES), convened a roundtable consisting of 15 national lab, university and industry geoscience experts to brainstorm basic research areas that underpin the SubTER goals but are currently underrepresented in the BES research portfolio. Held in Germantown, Maryland on May 22, 2015, the round-table participants developed a basic research agenda that is detailed in this report. Highlights include the following: -A grand challenge calling for advanced imaging of stress and geological processes to help understand how stresses and chemical substances are distributed in the subsurface—knowledge that is critical to all aspects of subsurface engineering; -A priority research direction aimed at achieving control of fluid flow through fractured media; -A priority research direction aimed at better understanding how mechanical and geochemical perturbations to subsurface rock systems are coupled through fluid and mineral interactions; -A priority research direction aimed at studying the structure, permeability, reactivity and other properties of nanoporous rocks, like shale, which have become critical energy materials and exhibit important hallmarks of mesoscale materials; -A cross-cutting theme that would accelerate development of advanced computational methods to describe heterogeneous time-dependent geologic systems that could, among other potential benefits, provide new and vastly improved models of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts; -A cross-cutting theme that would lead to the creation of “geo-architected materials” with controlled repeatable heterogeneity and structure that can be tested under a variety of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical conditions relevant to subsurface systems; -A cross-cutting theme calling for new laboratory studies on both natural and geo-architected subsurface materials that deploy advanced high-resolution 3D imaging and chemical analysis

  16. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    , controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8)

  17. The X'tal cube PET detector with a monolithic crystal processed by the 3D sub-surface laser engraving technique: Performance comparison with glued crystal elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-09-21

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from six sides of the crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of a 3D crystal block with isotropic segments. Each face of the 3D crystal block is covered with a 4×4 array of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). Previously, in order to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. A dense arrangement of multiple micro-cracks carved by the laser beam works efficiently as a scattering wall for the scintillation photons. The X'tal cube with the laser-processed block showed excellent performance with respect to crystal identification and energy resolution. In this work, for characteristics comparison between the laser-processed block and the conventional segmented array block, we made the laser-processed block and two types of segmented array blocks, one with air gaps and the other with glued segmented small crystals. All crystal blocks had 3D grids of 2 mm pitch. The 4×4 MPPC arrays were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. When performance was evaluated using a uniform irradiation of 511 keV, we found that the X'tal cubes with the laser-processed block could easily achieve 2 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification. Also, the average energy resolution of each 3D grid was 11.1±0.7%. On the other hand, the glued segmented array block had a pinched distribution and crystals could not be separated clearly. The segmented array block with air gaps had satisfactory crystal identification performance; however, the laser-processed block had higher crystal identification performance. Also, the energy resolution of the laser-processed block was better than for the segmented array blocks. In summary, we found the laser-processed X'tal cube had

  18. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  19. The advanced magnetovision system for Smart application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jerzy; Wiewiórski, Przemyslaw; Lewandowski, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    An original method, measurement devices and software tool for examination of magneto-mechanical phenomena in wide range of SMART applications is proposed. In many Hi-End market constructions it is necessary to carry out examinations of mechanical and magnetic properties simultaneously. Technological processes of fabrication of modern materials (for example cutting, premagnetisation and prestress) and advanced concept of using SMART structures involves the design of next generation system for optimization of electric and magnetic field distribution. The original fast and higher than million point static resolution scanner with mulitsensor probes has been constructed to measure full components of the magnetic field intensity vector H, and to visualize them into end user acceptable variant. The scanner has also the capability to acquire electric potentials on surface to work with magneto-piezo devices. Advanced electronic subsystems have been applied for processing of results in the Magscaner Vison System and the corresponding software - Maglab has been also evaluated. The Dipole Contour Method (DCM) is provided for modeling different states between magnetic and electric coupled materials and to visually explain the information of the experimental data. Dedicated software collaborating with industrial parametric systems CAD. Measurement technique consists of acquiring a cloud of points similarly as in tomography, 3D visualisation. The actually carried verification of abilities of 3D digitizer will enable inspection of SMART actuators with the cylindrical form, pellets with miniature sizes designed for oscillations dampers in various construction, for example in vehicle industry.

  20. Multifunctional fluorescent sensing of chemical and physical stimuli using smart riboflavin-5'-phosphate/Eu3+ coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Fan; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Chen, Zi-Han; Han, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2018-07-05

    A novel type of stimuli-responsive fluorescent polymers has been developed via the self-assembly of riboflavin-5'-phosphate (RiP) as ligand and europium (III) (Eu 3+ ) as central metal ion coordinated with the ligand. The as-prepared RiP/Eu 3+ coordination polymers (RiP/Eu 3+ CPs) are smart and multifunctional for respectively responding to chemical and physical stimuli, in which RiP acts as the stimuli-responsive fluorescent signal indicator. For sensing chemical stimuli, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA, an anthrax biomarker) having higher bonding force towards Eu 3+ can grab it from smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs through competition reaction, resulting in the release of RiP for highly sensitive and selective DPA monitoring in a mix-and-read fluorescent enhancement format, and the detection limit is as low as 41.5 nM. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been also performed to verify the DPA sensing principle. For sensing physical stimuli, the smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs can be acting as a novel sensory probe for the determination of temperature from 10 °C to 40 °C based on the thermal-induced disruption of the binding between Eu 3+ and RiP and the disassembly of the smart RiP/Eu 3+ CPs accompanying with the recovery of the fluorescence of RiP. This work establishes an effective platform for multifunctional sensing of chemical and physical stimuli utilizing both smart lanthanide nanoscale coordination polymers (LNCPs) and novel sensing strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prototyping Neuroadaptive Smart Antenna for 3G Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To William

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prototyping of a neuroadaptive smart antenna beamforming algorithm using hardware-software implemented RBF neural network and FPGA system-on-programmable-chip (SoPC approach. The aim is to implement the adaptive beamforming unit in a combination of hardware and software by estimating its performance against the fixed real-time constraint based on IMT-2000 family of 3G cellular communication standards.

  2. Nano-structured 3D Electrodes for Li-ion Micro-batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Perre, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    A new challenging application for Li-ion battery has arisen from the rapid development of micro-electronics. Powering Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) such as autonomous smart-dust nodes using conventional Li-ion batteries is not possible. It is not only new batteries based on new materials but there is also a need of modifying the actual battery design. In this context, the conception of 3D nano-architectured Li-ion batteries is explored. There are several micro-battery concepts that a...

  3. Optical fibre sensing in metals by embedment in 3D printed metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. R. J.; Havermann, D.; Schneller, O.; Mathew, J.; Polyzos, D.; MacPherson, W. N.; Hand, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing of structural components in metals has potential to revolutionise the manufacturing industry. Embedded sensing in such structures opens a route towards SMART metals, providing added functionality, intelligence and enhanced performance in many components. Such embedded sensors would be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures by utilizing regenerated fibre Bragg gratings and in-fibre Fabry-Perot cavities.

  4. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  5. Solvent sensitivity of smart 3D-printed nanocomposite liquid sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliheidari, Nahal; Ameli, Amir; Pötschke, Petra

    2018-03-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the 3D printing methods that has attracted significant attention. In this method, small and complex samples with nearly no limitation in geometry can be fabricated layer by layer to form end-use parts. This work investigates the liquid sensing behavior of FDM printed flexible thermoplastic polyurethane, TPU filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs. The sensing capability of printed TPU-MWCNT was studied as a function of MWCNT content and infill density in response to different solvents, i.e., ethanol, acetone and toluene. The solvents were selected based on their widespread use and importance in medical and industrial applications. U-shaped liquid sensors with 2, 3 and 4wt.% MWCNT content were printed at three different infill densities of 50, 75 and 100%. Solvent sensitivity was then characterized by immersing the sensors in the solvents and measuring the resistance evolution over 25s. The results indicated a sensitivity order of acetone > toluene > ethanol, which was in agreement with the predictions of FloryHiggins solubility equation. For all the solvents, the sensitivity was enhanced as the infill density of the printed samples was decreased. This was attributed to the increased surface area to volume ratio and shortened diffusion paths. The MWCNT content was also observed to have a profound effect on the sensitivity; in samples with partial infill, the sensitivity was found to be inversely proportional to the MWCNT content, such that the highest resistance change was obtained for nanocomposites with the lowest MWCNT content of 2wt.%. For instance, a resistance increase of more than 10 times was obtained in 25 s once TPU-2wt.%MWCNT with 50% infill was tested against acetone. The results of this work reveals that highly sensitive liquid sensors can be fabricated with the aid of 3D printing without the need for complex processing methods.

  6. Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport

  7. Development of a 3-D flow analysis computer program for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, H. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. K.; Whang, Y. D.; Kim, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    A 3-D computational fluid dynamics program TASS-3D is being developed for the flow analysis of primary coolant system consists of complex geometries such as SMART. A pre/post processor also is being developed to reduce the pre/post processing works such as a computational grid generation, set-up the analysis conditions and analysis of the calculated results. TASS-3D solver employs a non-orthogonal coordinate system and FVM based on the non-staggered grid system. The program includes the various models to simulate the physical phenomena expected to be occurred in the integral reactor and will be coupled with core dynamics code, core T/H code and the secondary system code modules. Currently, the application of TASS-3D is limited to the single phase of liquid, but the code will be further developed including 2-phase phenomena expected for the normal operation and the various transients of the integrator reactor in the next stage

  8. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  9. 3D Hand Gesture Analysis through a Real-Time Gesture Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Yousefi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D gesture recognition and tracking are highly desired features of interaction design in future mobile and smart environments. Specifically, in virtual/augmented reality applications, intuitive interaction with the physical space seems unavoidable and 3D gestural interaction might be the most effective alternative for the current input facilities such as touchscreens. In this paper, we introduce a novel solution for real-time 3D gesture-based interaction by finding the best match from an extremely large gesture database. This database includes images of various articulated hand gestures with the annotated 3D position/orientation parameters of the hand joints. Our unique matching algorithm is based on the hierarchical scoring of the low-level edge-orientation features between the query frames and database and retrieving the best match. Once the best match is found from the database in each moment, the pre-recorded 3D motion parameters can instantly be used for natural interaction. The proposed bare-hand interaction technology performs in real time with high accuracy using an ordinary camera.

  10. 3D printing application and numerical simulations in a fracture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogeological and mechanical properties in fractured and porous media are fundamental to predicting coupled multiphysics processes in the subsurface. Recent advances in experimental methods and multi-scale imaging capabilities have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials and digital counterparts are now routinely used for numerical simulations to characterize petrophysical and mechanical properties across scales. 3D printing is a very effective and creative technique that reproduce the digital images in a controlled way. For geoscience applications, 3D printing can be co-opted to print reproducible porous and fractured structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks and theoretical algorithms for experimental testing. In this work we used a stereolithography (SLA) method to create a single fracture network. The fracture in shale was first scanned using a microCT system and then the digital fracture network was printed into two parts and assembled. Aperture ranges from 0.3 to 1 mm. In particular, we discuss the design of single fracture network and the progress of printing practices to reproduce the fracture network system. Printed samples at different scales are used to measure the permeability and surface roughness. Various numerical simulations including (non-)reactive transport and multiphase flow cases are performed to study fluid flow characterization. We will also discuss the innovative advancement of 3D printing techniques applicable for coupled processes in the subsurface. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  11. FDM 3D printed coffee glove embedded with flexible electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Bahri, Meznan

    2017-10-31

    With the advances in 3D printing technology, Flexible Electronics can now be exploited to form the so-called “Embedded Electronics”. This paper describes experiences learned from a research project which ran during summer 2016 at KAUST, in collaboration with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Effat University, and aimed at creating a heating coffee glove product operating on double alkaline batteries using Kapton© as a flexible substrate for the circuit. The circuit and its batteries are encapsulated in a 3D printed glove, designed using SolidWorks©. The proposed methodology and techniques applied during this work could be further used in implementing other technologies, such as thermoelectric coolers head patches, smart garments, and flexible smartphones. Limitation and recommendation of the present methodology are also discussed.

  12. 3D Orthogonal Woven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Effective Biomechanical Energy Harvesting and as Self-Powered Active Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Deng, Jianan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Zou, Haiyang; Ding, Wenbo; Dai, Yejing; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-10-01

    The development of wearable and large-area energy-harvesting textiles has received intensive attention due to their promising applications in next-generation wearable functional electronics. However, the limited power outputs of conventional textiles have largely hindered their development. Here, in combination with the stainless steel/polyester fiber blended yarn, the polydimethylsiloxane-coated energy-harvesting yarn, and nonconductive binding yarn, a high-power-output textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with 3D orthogonal woven structure is developed for effective biomechanical energy harvesting and active motion signal tracking. Based on the advanced 3D structural design, the maximum peak power density of 3D textile can reach 263.36 mW m -2 under the tapping frequency of 3 Hz, which is several times more than that of conventional 2D textile TENGs. Besides, its collected power is capable of lighting up a warning indicator, sustainably charging a commercial capacitor, and powering a smart watch. The 3D textile TENG can also be used as a self-powered active motion sensor to constantly monitor the movement signals of human body. Furthermore, a smart dancing blanket is designed to simultaneously convert biomechanical energy and perceive body movement. This work provides a new direction for multifunctional self-powered textiles with potential applications in wearable electronics, home security, and personalized healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  14. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  15. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  16. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  17. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  18. Fabrication of 3D SiO x structures using patterned PMMA sacrificial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqin; Xiang, Quan; Zheng, Mengjie; Bi, Kaixi; Chen, Yiqin; Chen, Keqiu; Duan, Huigao

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanofabrication based on electron-beam lithography (EBL) has drawn wide attention for various applications with its high patterning resolution and design flexibility. In this work, we present a bilayer EBL process to obtain 3D freestanding SiO x structures via the release of the bottom sacrificial layer. This new kind of bilayer process enables us to define various 3D freestanding SiO x structures with high resolution and low edge roughness. As a proof of concept for applications, metal-coated freestanding SiO x microplates with an underlying air gap were fabricated to form asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonators, which can be utilized for colorimetric refractive index sensing and thus also have application potential for biochemical detection, anti-counterfeiting and smart active nano-optical devices.

  19. D Virtual CH Interactive Information Systems for a Smart Web Browsing Experience for Desktop Pcs and Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the diffusion of knowledge on Cultural Heritage (CH) has become an element of primary importance for its valorization. At the same time, the diffusion of surveys based on UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technologies and new methods of photogrammetric reconstruction have opened new possibilities for 3D CH representation. Furthermore the recent development of faster and more stable internet connections leads people to increase the use of mobile devices. In the light of all this, the importance of the development of Virtual Reality (VR) environments applied to CH is strategic for the diffusion of knowledge in a smart solution. In particular, the present work shows how, starting from a basic survey and the further photogrammetric reconstruction of a cultural good, is possible to built a 3D CH interactive information system useful for desktop and mobile devices. For this experimentation the Arab-Norman church of the Trinity of Delia (in Castelvetrano-Sicily-Italy) has been adopted as case study. The survey operations have been carried out considering different rapid methods of acquisition (UAV camera, SLR camera and smartphone camera). The web platform to publish the 3D information has been built using HTML5 markup language and WebGL JavaScript libraries (Three.js libraries). This work presents the construction of a 3D navigation system for a web-browsing of a virtual CH environment, with the integration of first person controls and 3D popup links. This contribution adds a further step to enrich the possibilities of open-source technologies applied to the world of CH valorization on web.

  20. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  1. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  2. One-Step Solvent Evaporation-Assisted 3D Printing of Piezoelectric PVDF Nanocomposite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkhe, Sampada; Turcot, Gabrielle; Gosselin, Frederick P; Therriault, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Development of a 3D printable material system possessing inherent piezoelectric properties to fabricate integrable sensors in a single-step printing process without poling is of importance to the creation of a wide variety of smart structures. Here, we study the effect of addition of barium titanate nanoparticles in nucleating piezoelectric β-polymorph in 3D printable polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and fabrication of the layer-by-layer and self-supporting piezoelectric structures on a micro- to millimeter scale by solvent evaporation-assisted 3D printing at room temperature. The nanocomposite formulation obtained after a comprehensive investigation of composition and processing techniques possesses a piezoelectric coefficient, d 31 , of 18 pC N -1 , which is comparable to that of typical poled and stretched commercial PVDF film sensors. A 3D contact sensor that generates up to 4 V upon gentle finger taps demonstrates the efficacy of the fabrication technique. Our one-step 3D printing of piezoelectric nanocomposites can form ready-to-use, complex-shaped, flexible, and lightweight piezoelectric devices. When combined with other 3D printable materials, they could serve as stand-alone or embedded sensors in aerospace, biomedicine, and robotic applications.

  3. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...

  4. Proof of Concept of Integrated Load Measurement in 3D Printed Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Hinderdael

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research on structural health monitoring systems is focused on direct integration of the system into a component or structure. The latter results in a so-called smart structure. One example of a smart structure is a component with integrated strain sensing for continuous load monitoring. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, now also enables such integration of functions inside components. As a proof-of-concept, the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique was used to integrate a strain sensing element inside polymer (ABS tensile test samples. The strain sensing element consisted of a closed capillary filled with a fluid and connected to an externally mounted pressure sensor. The volumetric deformation of the integrated capillary resulted in pressure changes in the fluid. The obtained pressure measurements during tensile testing are reported in this paper and compared to state-of-the-art extensometer measurements. The sensitivity of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor is primarily a function of the compressibility of the capillary fluid. Air- and watertightness are of critical importance for the proper functioning of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor. Therefore, the best after-treatment procedure was selected on basis of a comparative analysis. The obtained pressure measurements are linear with respect to the extensometer readings, and the uncertainty on the strain measurement of a capillary filled with water (incompressible fluid is ±3.1 µstrain, which is approximately three times less sensitive than conventional strain gauges (±1 µstrain, but 32 times more sensitive than the same sensor based on air (compressible fluid (±101 µstrain.

  5. Secure positioning technique based on encrypted visible light map for smart indoor service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Up; Jung, Gillyoung

    2018-03-01

    Indoor visible light (VL) positioning systems for smart indoor services are negatively affected by both cochannel interference from adjacent light sources and VL reception position irregularity in the three-dimensional (3-D) VL channel. A secure positioning methodology based on a two-dimensional (2-D) encrypted VL map is proposed, implemented in prototypes of the specific positioning system, and analyzed based on performance tests. The proposed positioning technique enhances the positioning performance by more than 21.7% compared to the conventional method in real VL positioning tests. Further, the pseudonoise code is found to be the optimal encryption key for secure VL positioning for this smart indoor service.

  6. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  7. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E. [FOM Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  8. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  9. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  10. 3D structure and conductive thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) was formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional setting. At present-day, it has a large socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production in Germany and France. For the utilisation of this energy resource it is crucial to understand the structure and the observed temperature anomalies in the rift basin. In the framework of the EU-funded "IMAGE" project (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration), we apply a data-driven numerical modelling approach to quantify the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. Therefore, we first build a regional lithospheric-scale 3D structural model, which covers not only the entire URG but also adjacent geological features like the Black Forest and the Vosges Mountains. In particular, we use a multidisciplinary dataset (e.g. well data, seismic reflection data, existing structural models, gravity) to construct the geometries of the sediments, the crust and the lithospheric mantle that control the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production and hence temperatures. By applying a data-based and lithology-dependent parameterisation of this lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and a 3D finite element method, we calculate the steady-state conductive thermal field for the entire region. Available measured temperatures (down to depths of up to 5 km) are considered to validate the 3D thermal model. We present major characteristics of the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and results of the 3D

  11. Researching on Real 3d Modeling Constructed with the Oblique Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youmei; Jiao, Minglian; Shijuan

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of the oblique photogrammetry, many cities have built some real 3D model with this technology. Although it has the advantages of short period, high efficiency and good air angle effect, the near ground view angle of these real 3D models are not very good. With increasing development of smart cities, the requirements of reality, practicality and accuracy on real 3D models are becoming higher. How to produce and improve the real 3D models quickly has become one of the hot research directions of geospatial information. To meet this requirement In this paper, Combined with the characteristics of current oblique photogrammetry modeling and the terrestrial photogrammetry, we proposed a new technological process, which consists of close range sensor design, data acquisition and processing. The proposed method is being tested by using oblique photography images acquired. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr.

    Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields.

    The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification.

    We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole

  13. Usability of Three-dimensional Augmented Visual Cues Delivered by Smart Glasses on (Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Janssen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available External cueing is a potentially effective strategy to reduce freezing of gait (FOG in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Case reports suggest that three-dimensional (3D cues might be more effective in reducing FOG than two-dimensional cues. We investigate the usability of 3D augmented reality visual cues delivered by smart glasses in comparison to conventional 3D transverse bars on the floor and auditory cueing via a metronome in reducing FOG and improving gait parameters. In laboratory experiments, 25 persons with PD and FOG performed walking tasks while wearing custom-made smart glasses under five conditions, at the end-of-dose. For two conditions, augmented visual cues (bars/staircase were displayed via the smart glasses. The control conditions involved conventional 3D transverse bars on the floor, auditory cueing via a metronome, and no cueing. The number of FOG episodes and percentage of time spent on FOG were rated from video recordings. The stride length and its variability, cycle time and its variability, cadence, and speed were calculated from motion data collected with a motion capture suit equipped with 17 inertial measurement units. A total of 300 FOG episodes occurred in 19 out of 25 participants. There were no statistically significant differences in number of FOG episodes and percentage of time spent on FOG across the five conditions. The conventional bars increased stride length, cycle time, and stride length variability, while decreasing cadence and speed. No effects for the other conditions were found. Participants preferred the metronome most, and the augmented staircase least. They suggested to improve the comfort, esthetics, usability, field of view, and stability of the smart glasses on the head and to reduce their weight and size. In their current form, augmented visual cues delivered by smart glasses are not beneficial for persons with PD and FOG. This could be attributable to distraction, blockage of visual

  14. Lithological, grain-size and architectural trends in the holocene Rhine-Meuse delta-insights from 3D voxel models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands systematically produces 3D voxel models for answering subsurface related questions. The unique combination of vast amounts of borehole data and the voxelbased approach makes the models valuable new sources for exploring the Quaternary fluvial record. The

  15. Predicting the Stochastic Properties of the Shallow Subsurface for Improved Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroujkova, A.; Vynne, J.; Bonner, J.; Lewkowicz, J.

    2005-12-01

    Strong ground motion data from numerous explosive field experiments and from moderate to large earthquakes show significant variations in amplitude and waveform shape with respect to both azimuth and range. Attempts to model these variations using deterministic models have often been unsuccessful. It has been hypothesized that a stochastic description of the geological medium is a more realistic approach. To estimate the stochastic properties of the shallow subsurface, we use Measurement While Drilling (MWD) data, which are routinely collected by mines in order to facilitate design of blast patterns. The parameters, such as rotation speed of the drill, torque, and penetration rate, are used to compute the rock's Specific Energy (SE), which is then related to a blastability index. We use values of SE measured at two different mines and calibrated to laboratory measurements of rock properties to determine correlation lengths of the subsurface rocks in 2D, needed to obtain 2D and 3D stochastic models. The stochastic models are then combined with the deterministic models and used to compute synthetic seismic waveforms.

  16. VR versus LF: towards the limitation-free 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Tibor; Kara, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of 3D technologies shows a cyclical learning curve with a series of hypes and dead ends, with mistakes and consequences. 3D images contain significantly more information than the corresponding 2D ones. 3D display systems should be built on more pixels, or higher speed components. For true 3D, this factor is in the order of 100x, which is a real technological challenge. If not fulfilled, the capabilities of 3D systems will be compromised: headgears will be needed, or the viewers should be positioned or tracked, single-user devices, lack of parallax, missing cues, etc. The temptation is always there: why to provide all the information, just what the person absorbs that moment (subjective or objective visualization). Virtual Reality (VR) glasses have been around for more than two decades. With the latest technical improvements, VR became the next hype. 3D immersion was added as a new phenomenon; however, VR represents an isolated experience, and still requires headgears and a controlled environment. Augmented Reality (AR) in this sense is different. Will the VR/AR hype with the headgears be a dead end? While VR headsets may sell better than smart glasses or 3D TV glasses, also consider that using the technology may require a set of behavioral changes that the majority of people do not want to make. Displays and technologies that restrict viewers, or cause any discomfort will not be accepted on the long term. The newer wave of 3D is forecasted to 2018-2020, answering the need for unaided, limitation-free 3D experience. Light Field (LF) systems represent the next-generation in 3D. The HoloVizio system, having a capacity in the order of 100x, offers natural, restrictions-free 3D experience on a full field of view, enabling collaborative use for an unlimited number of viewers, even in a wider, immersive space. As a scalable technology, the display range goes from monitor-style units, through automotive 3D HUDs, screen-less solutions, up to cinema systems

  17. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  18. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    -, č. 81 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Smart traders * price movements * smart traders concept Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  19. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  20. Oblique Photogrammetry Supporting 3d Urban Reconstruction of Complex Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Ramos, M. M.; Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Legat, K.; Fassi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate 3D city models represent an important source of geospatial information to support various "smart city" applications, such as space management, energy assessment, 3D cartography, noise and pollution mapping as well as disaster management. Even though remarkable progress has been made in recent years, there are still many open issues, especially when it comes to the 3D modelling of complex urban scenarios like historical and densely-built city centres featuring narrow streets and non-conventional building shapes. Most approaches introduce strong building priors/constraints on symmetry and roof typology that penalize urban environments having high variations of roof shapes. Furthermore, although oblique photogrammetry is rapidly maturing, the use of slanted views for façade reconstruction is not completely included in the reconstruction pipeline of state-of-the-art software. This paper aims to investigate state-of-the-art methods for 3D building modelling in complex urban scenarios with the support of oblique airborne images. A reconstruction approach based on roof primitives fitting is tested. Oblique imagery is then exploited to support the manual editing of the generated building models. At the same time, mobile mapping data are collected at cm resolution and then integrated with the aerial ones. All approaches are tested on the historical city centre of Bergamo (Italy).

  1. 3D-Monitoring Big Geo Data on a seaport infrastructure based on FIWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo; Suárez, José Pablo; Trujillo, Agustín; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Many organizations of all kinds are using new technologies to assist the acquisition and analysis of data. Seaports are a good example of this trend. Seaports generate data regarding the management of marine traffic and other elements, as well as environmental conditions given by meteorological sensors and buoys. However, this enormous amount of data, also known as Big Data, is useless without a proper system to organize, analyze and visualize it. SmartPort is an online platform for the visualization and management of a seaport data that has been built as a GIS application. This work offers a Rich Internet Application that allows the user to visualize and manage the different sources of information produced in a port environment. The Big Data management is based on the FIWARE platform, as well as "The Internet of Things" solutions for the data acquisition. At the same time, Glob3 Mobile (G3M) framework has been used for the development of map requirements. In this way, SmartPort supports 3D visualization of the ports scenery and its data sources.

  2. 3D-Monitoring Big Geo Data on a seaport infrastructure based on FIWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo; Suárez, José Pablo; Trujillo, Agustín; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, José Miguel

    2018-04-01

    Many organizations of all kinds are using new technologies to assist the acquisition and analysis of data. Seaports are a good example of this trend. Seaports generate data regarding the management of marine traffic and other elements, as well as environmental conditions given by meteorological sensors and buoys. However, this enormous amount of data, also known as Big Data, is useless without a proper system to organize, analyze and visualize it. SmartPort is an online platform for the visualization and management of a seaport data that has been built as a GIS application. This work offers a Rich Internet Application that allows the user to visualize and manage the different sources of information produced in a port environment. The Big Data management is based on the FIWARE platform, as well as "The Internet of Things" solutions for the data acquisition. At the same time, Glob3 Mobile (G3M) framework has been used for the development of map requirements. In this way, SmartPort supports 3D visualization of the ports scenery and its data sources.

  3. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  4. 3D Printing with Nucleic Acid Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    By relying on specific DNA:DNA interactions as a “smart glue”, we have assembled microparticles into a colloidal gel that can hold its shape. This gel can be extruded with a 3D printer to generate centimeter size objects. We show four aspects of this material: (1) The colloidal gel material holds its shape after extrusion. (2) The connectivity among the particles is controlled by the binding behavior between the surface DNA and this mediates some control over the microscale structure. (3) The use of DNA-coated microparticles dramatically reduces the cost of DNA-mediated assembly relative to conventional DNA nanotechnologies and makes this material accessible for macroscale applications. (4) This material can be assembled under biofriendly conditions and can host growing cells within its matrix. The DNA-based control over organization should provide a new means of engineering bioprinted tissues. PMID:25984570

  5. Evaluation of SmartStax and SmartStax PRO maize against western corn rootworm and northern corn rootworm: efficacy and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Graham P; Carroll, Matthew W; Evans, Sean P; Rule, Dwain M; Willse, Alan R; Clark, Thomas L; Storer, Nicholas P; Flannagan, Ronald D; Samuel, Luke W; Meinke, Lance J

    2017-09-01

    Cases of western corn rootworm (WCR) field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 and other corn rootworm (CRW) control traits have been reported. Pyramid products expressing multiple CRW traits can delay resistance compared to single trait products. We used field studies to assess the pyramid CRW corn products, SmartStax (expressing Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax PRO (expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and DvSnf7), at locations with high WCR densities and possible Cry3Bb1 resistance, and to assess the reduction in adult emergence attributable to DvSnf7 and other traits. Insect resistance models were used to assess durability of SmartStax and SmartStax PRO to WCR resistance. SmartStax significantly reduced root injury compared to non-CRW-trait controls at all but one location with measurable WCR pressure, while SmartStax PRO significantly reduced root injury at all locations, despite evidence of Cry3Bb1 resistance at some locations. The advantage of SmartStax PRO over SmartStax in reducing root damage was positively correlated with root damage on non-CRW-trait controls. DvSnf7 was estimated to reduce WCR emergence by approximately 80-95%, which modeling indicated will improve durability of Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 compared to SmartStax. The addition of DvSnf7 in SmartStax PRO can reduce root damage under high WCR densities and prolong Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 durability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  7. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ik Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  8. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman

    2017-10-01

    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  9. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  10. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  11. Ladm and Interlis as a Perfect Match for 3d Cadastre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogianni, E.; Dimopoulou, E.; Quak, W.; Van Oosterom, P.

    2017-10-01

    Standardization in land administration domain has been expanded to 3D and even 4D representations, adopting a multipurpose character, in order to become the foundation of a sustainable and smart economic development. At the moment, although the potential benefits of 3D Cadastre is argued to be enormous and there are plenty of standards related to 3D Cadastre while others enhancing the role of 3D Cities, there is no complete solution for 3D Cadastre. That being so, the last years, there has been a rapid increase in the integration, harmonization and implementation support of such standards. In this context, the integration of 3D legal spaces with 3D physical objects is gaining ground, as the (invisible) legal boundaries do not always match with the physical counterparts, leading to obscure situations. LADM, the International Standard for land administration, was proved to be one of the best candidates to unambiguously represent 3D Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities. On the other side, spatial data models and virtual city models manage 3D urban structures without focusing on legal aspects. Many researchers have explored integrations between those aspects giving promising results. In this direction, apart from international standards, also national standards have been developed to enable the communication between land information systems. One of the most representatives is INTERLIS, a Swiss standard, a precise, standardized Object Relational modelling language on the conceptual level, which allows for automated quality control. Thus, in this paper the focus is given on how INTERLIS and LADM complement each other in the actual implementation of land administration systems. Main challenges among others in the context of this research include: 1. extensible hierarchical and versioned code lists in INTERLIS models, 2. formally define LADM constraints in INTERLIS, 3. discuss 3D geometry types and 4. introduce a holistic LADM/INTERLIS approach for country profiles.

  12. RESEARCHING ON REAL 3D MODELING CONSTRUCTED WITH THE OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the oblique photogrammetry, many cities have built some real 3D model with this technology. Although it has the advantages of short period, high efficiency and good air angle effect, the near ground view angle of these real 3D models are not very good. With increasing development of smart cities, the requirements of reality, practicality and accuracy on real 3D models are becoming higher. How to produce and improve the real 3D models quickly has become one of the hot research directions of geospatial information. To meet this requirement In this paper, Combined with the characteristics of current oblique photogrammetry modeling and the terrestrial photogrammetry, we proposed a new technological process, which consists of close range sensor design, data acquisition and processing. The proposed method is being tested by using oblique photography images acquired. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Investigating the Surface and Subsurface in Karstic Regions – Terrestrial Laser Scanning versus Low-Altitude Airborne Imaging and the Combination with Geophysical Prospecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining measurements of the surface and subsurface is a promising approach to understand the origin and current changes of karstic forms since subterraneous processes are often the initial driving force. A karst depression in south-west Germany was investigated in a comprehensive campaign with remote sensing and geophysical prospecting. This contribution has two objectives: firstly, comparing terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and low-altitude airborne imaging from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV regarding their performance in capturing the surface. Secondly, establishing a suitable way of combining this 3D surface data with data from the subsurface, derived by geophysical prospecting. Both remote sensing approaches performed satisfying and the established digital elevation models (DEMs differ only slightly. These minor discrepancies result essentially from the different viewing geometries and post-processing concepts, for example whether the vegetation was removed or not. Validation analyses against high-accurate DGPS-derived point data sets revealed slightly better results for the DEMTLS with a mean absolute difference of 0.03 m to 0.05 m and a standard deviation of 0.03 m to 0.07 m (DEMUAV: mean absolute difference: 0.11 m to 0.13 m; standard deviation: 0.09 m to 0.11 m. The 3D surface data and 2D image of the vertical cross section through the subsurface along a geophysical profile were combined in block diagrams. The data sets fit very well and give a first impression of the connection between surface and subsurface structures. Since capturing the subsurface with this method is limited to 2D and the data acquisition is quite time consuming, further investigations are necessary for reliable statements about subterraneous structures, how these may induce surface changes, and the origin of this karst depression. Moreover, geophysical prospecting can only produce a suspected image of the subsurface since the apparent resistivity is measured

  14. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  15. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  16. Challenging 'smart' in smart city strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Knudsen, Jacob

    and development. Focusing on processes of citizen participation and co-creation as the main driving force, we introduce a concept of 'smart city at eye level'. The introduction of new media technology and new media uses need to emerge from a profound understanding of the wants, needs and abilities of the citizens......Smart city strategies concern the improvement of economic and political efficiency and the enabling of social, cultural and urban development (Hollands 2008) and covers a variety of fields from improving infrastructures, social and cultural development, resilience strategies (e.g. green energy......), improving schools, social welfare institutions, public and private institutions etc. The 'smart' in smart city strategies implies that these efforts are accomplished by the introduction and embedding of smart media technology into the very fabric of society. This is often done in a top-down and technology...

  17. Development of a smart city planning support tool using the cooperative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kobayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of environmental burdens is currently required. In particular, proposing a new approach for the construction of a smart city using renewable energy is important. The technological development of a smart city is founded building equipment and infrastructure. However, planning methods and their techniques using the collaboration approach with residents are only just developing. This study aimed to develop a support tool for the construction of a smart city using renewable energy while facilitating consensus-building efforts among residents using the method for a cooperative housing development. We organized the supporting methods for the construction of residential area using the cooperative method. Then, we developed supporting tools that interface the computer with these methods. We examined the support techniques for the construction of a residential area using renewable energy technology by analyzing Japanese cases of a smart city. Moreover, we developed a support tool for the construction of a smart city on a trial basis. We integrated the smart city construction tools and the cooperative housing construction support tool. This tool has a 3D modeling system that helps residents to easily understand the space image as a result of the examination. We also developed a professional supporting tool that residents can consider for cost-effectiveness in renewable energy and its environmental load reduction rate for the planning of a smart city.

  18. Evaluation of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography using the timing monitoring function of contrast material (Smart Prep technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    The Smart Prep technique for gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (3D-MRA) was evaluated in clinical practice. By monitoring signal intensity in the region of interest (tracking volume) in the target vessel, start timing after contrast injection can be optimized using the Smart Prep technique. Successful triggering was obtained in the chest, abdomen, and pelvic areas in about 80% of the cases in this study. Failures with this technique were mainly due to changes in tracking volume caused by patient motion and respiration. We noted that the scan started earlier than expected in the thoracic aorta when part of the heart or pulmonary artery was included in the tracking volume. Thus, care must be taken in defining the size and location of the tracking volume in gadolinium-enhanced 3D-MRA using the Smart Prep technique. (author)

  19. Comparison between Hydrogen and Methane Fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    scramjet using a cavity based flame holder in the T4 shock tunnel at The University of Queensland, as well as a companion fundamental CFD study. The...shock tunnel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Airbreathing Engines, Hypersonics , Propulsion, AOARD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...Report Comparison between hydrogen, methane and ethylene fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8 Professor Michael K. Smart Chair of Hypersonic Propulsion

  20. Realisering af Smart City/Smart House i Nordjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    beskriver tankerne, visionerne og perspektiverne i forhold til at realisere Smart House-konceptet i Region Nordjylland. Smart House-tankerne er baseret på at bygge smarte huse og smarte byggekomponenter til fremtidens brugere, hvor den nyeste teknologi indenfor byggematerialer kombineres med nye værdier....... Formålet med Smart House Nordjylland er at flytte byggeindustriens og forskernes fokus fra en indbyrdes konkurrence lokalt til et udviklende innovationssamarbejde, som sigter mod det globale marked. På denne måde kan regionen skabe et udstillingsvindue indenfor fremtidens byggeri gennem en interaktion...

  1. Smart Home Dashboard. The intelligent energy management; Smart Home Dashboard. Das intelligente Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopczynski, Martin; Ghiglieri, Marco [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Due to an increasingly smarter environment, however smart home components are used in households. A variety of household appliances can be monitored and controlled by smart plugs. An advantage of this development is the individual investigation of devices in terms of individual power consumption. However, the usability of the end user side also increases proportional to the number of existing devices. A possible access of external market participants is not currently implemented without major security problems. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the Smart Home Dashboard, which provides a comprehensive power management. The smart home dashboard is intuitively operable and meets current safety standards. The aim of this paper is: (1) Adjustment of the handling of the recorded data to the current privacy policy; (2) Enforcement of the privacy of the end user by means of the implementation of smart grid protection objectives; (3) Providing a secure access for remote participants.

  2. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  3. Nuclear Safety in A Post-Fukushima ERDA: Moving Forward with smart Mobile Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H. [PHILOSOPHIA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    . Experienced workers can support remote learners. One can obtain the various LOCAity information with the GNPs technology. One can glimpse the electric cable or piping behind the wall through handy cameras and gain mechanical specification or manual for them. High performance mobile devices can show high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) contents. The NPP operators can train themselves with full 3D VR emergency program installed in their smart mobile device. The NPP smart device system makes it possible for operators to gate information about the real time distribution of the radioactivity so that they can manage the source term by accessing to the main control system. Also, complex calculational simulation such as severe accident and thermohydraulic analyses can be made on the smart mobile devices. As such, the smart mobile technology possesses unlimited potential to improve nuclear power industry combining various functional ideas. This technology should inexorably speed up the development of nuclear power industry and enhance market competitiveness. All these innovative wonders should, however, be supported by the security policy for information network. This technology is based on the strong network technology. These has recently been a NPP hacking accident in the U. S. The same kind of accident is deemed possible in Korea by North Korean hackers. The Republic of Korea ought first to be equipped with powerful technology and policies for network security so as to safely move forward with the smart mobile technology with immeasurable potential.

  4. Nuclear Safety in A Post-Fukushima ERDA: Moving Forward with smart Mobile Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    workers can support remote learners. One can obtain the various LOCAity information with the GNPs technology. One can glimpse the electric cable or piping behind the wall through handy cameras and gain mechanical specification or manual for them. High performance mobile devices can show high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) contents. The NPP operators can train themselves with full 3D VR emergency program installed in their smart mobile device. The NPP smart device system makes it possible for operators to gate information about the real time distribution of the radioactivity so that they can manage the source term by accessing to the main control system. Also, complex calculational simulation such as severe accident and thermohydraulic analyses can be made on the smart mobile devices. As such, the smart mobile technology possesses unlimited potential to improve nuclear power industry combining various functional ideas. This technology should inexorably speed up the development of nuclear power industry and enhance market competitiveness. All these innovative wonders should, however, be supported by the security policy for information network. This technology is based on the strong network technology. These has recently been a NPP hacking accident in the U. S. The same kind of accident is deemed possible in Korea by North Korean hackers. The Republic of Korea ought first to be equipped with powerful technology and policies for network security so as to safely move forward with the smart mobile technology with immeasurable potential

  5. Detection and Localization of Subsurface Two-Dimensional Metallic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.

    2009-04-01

    probably locate the target) and extract the center position of the object. We also consider some other localization-connected aspects. For example how to obtain a likely estimation of the soil permittivity and of the cylinders radius. Finally, when multiple objects are present, we refine our localization procedure by performing a Clustering Analysis of the crossing pattern. In particular, we apply the K-means algorithm to extract the coordinates of the objects centroids and the clusters extension. References [1] Şahin A., Miller L., "Object Detection Using High Resolution Near-Field Array Processing", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.39, no.1, Jan. 2001, pp. 136-141. [2] Gross F.B., "Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications", Mc.Graw-Hill 2005. [3] Hoaglin D.C., "A Poisonnes Plot", The American Statistician, vol.34, no.3 August 1980, pp.146-149.

  6. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.Su

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  7. Smart Cities and the Idea of Smartness in Urban Development - A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husár, Milan; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Ceren Varış, Sıla

    2017-10-01

    occurs when smart city is viewed as means to make investments from city budgets by any price, by promoting use of smart technologies as the only way forward, as necessity. Many companies, including technological giants IBM and CISCO already participate on many smart city projects supplying technologies for smart city projects. In this study, we are looking into two case studies, the city of Dholera in India and city of Songdo in South Korea, both pompous large scale projects. Smart City technologies are growing market which is projected to be annually worth 20 billion dollars by 2020 [19], with IBM participating in 2000 projects accounting for 3 billion dollars [19]. There are many concerns about these developments, among them the issue of equity, whose purposes the projects are serving, how these initiatives are developing cities and the general idea of smartness in urban context. The research concludes that the ambiguity of smart city definition allowing multiple interpretations is frequently bent and used to promote the lobbying of strong players in cities and in private sector.

  8. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  9. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d

  10. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  11. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2017-07-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  12. SmartCell: An Energy Efficient Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture for Stream-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents SmartCell, a novel coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture, which tiles a large number of processor elements with reconfigurable interconnection fabrics on a single chip. SmartCell is able to provide high performance and energy efficient processing for stream-based applications. It can be configured to operate in various modes, such as SIMD, MIMD, and systolic array. This paper describes the SmartCell architecture design, including processing element, reconfigurable interconnection fabrics, instruction and control process, and configuration scheme. The SmartCell prototype with 64 PEs is implemented using 0.13  m CMOS standard cell technology. The core area is about 8.5  , and the power consumption is about 1.6 mW/MHz. The performance is evaluated through a set of benchmark applications, and then compared with FPGA, ASIC, and two well-known reconfigurable architectures including RaPiD and Montium. The results show that the SmartCell can bridge the performance and flexibility gap between ASIC and FPGA. It is also about 8% and 69% more energy efficient than Montium and RaPiD systems for evaluated benchmarks. Meanwhile, SmartCell can achieve 4 and 2 times more throughput gains when comparing with Montium and RaPiD, respectively. It is concluded that SmartCell system is a promising reconfigurable and energy efficient architecture for stream processing.

  13. Biomaterials-based 3D cell printing for next-generation therapeutics and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Park, Ju Young; Gao, Ge; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2018-02-01

    Building human tissues via 3D cell printing technology has received particular attention due to its process flexibility and versatility. This technology enables the recapitulation of unique features of human tissues and the all-in-one manufacturing process through the design of smart and advanced biomaterials and proper polymerization techniques. For the optimal engineering of tissues, a higher-order assembly of physiological components, including cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules, should meet the critical requirements for tissue morphogenesis and vascularization. The convergence of 3D cell printing with a microfluidic approach has led to a significant leap in the vascularization of engineering tissues. In addition, recent cutting-edge technology in stem cells and genetic engineering can potentially be adapted to the 3D tissue fabrication technique, and it has great potential to shift the paradigm of disease modeling and the study of unknown disease mechanisms required for precision medicine. This review gives an overview of recent developments in 3D cell printing and bioinks and provides technical requirements for engineering human tissues. Finally, we propose suggestions on the development of next-generation therapeutics and diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of SMART steam generator cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    Basic design development for the steam generator to be installed in the integral reactor SMART has been performed. Optimization of the steam generator shape, determination of the basic dimension and confirmation of the structural strength have been carried out. Individual steam generator cassette can be replaced in the optimized design concept of steam generator. Shape design of the steam generator cassette has been done on the computer based on 3-D CAE strategy. The structural integrity of the developed steam generator was investigated by performing the dynamic analysis for the steam generator cassette, flow induced vibration analysis for the tube bundle, and the thermo-mechanical analysis for the module header and tube. As for the manufacturing of steam generator, the numerical and the experimental simulation have been carried to control the amount of spring back and to eliminate residual stress. SMART steam generator cassette was developed by a sequential research of the aforementioned activities

  15. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged over the past few years as a subset of the smart city concept, aiming to provide tourists with solutions that address specific travel related needs. Dubai is an emerging tourism destination that has implemented smart city and smart tourism platforms to engage various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to identify best practices related to Dubai’s smart city and smart tourism. In so doing, Dubai’s mission and vision along with key dimensions and pillars are identified in relation to the advancements in the literature while highlighting key resources and challenges. A Smart Tourism Dynamic Responsive System (STDRS framework is proposed while suggesting how Dubai may able to enhance users’ involvement and their overall experience.

  16. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    particular by working to develop storage solutions at all levels within the grid, and by preparing to introduce electric vehicles. Developing solutions for tomorrow: strong willingness of public authorities in France to develop Smart Grids has notably led to the creation of support mechanisms for innovation and for demonstration projects, and to a strategic business sector plan dedicated to Smart Grids. Related competencies have also emerged, in the development of market design, and cyber security. The French Smart Grid vision focuses on mastering complexity, on large scale deployments, and on the development of systems showing a high degree of dependability and reliable functioning. World leaders, mid-cap companies and small businesses specialized in the full range of Smart Grid technologies: operators of electrical and telecommunications networks, equipment and component manufacturers, software engineering companies, data centre managers etc. Over 100 Smart Grid projects are currently underway in France. Strong R and D and innovation capacity: some 20 demonstration projects have started up under the Smart Grids segment of the Investments for the Future programme. France ranks first in Europe for Smart Grid investments

  17. Concurrency Control in the Problem of Automatic Substitution of the Dataflow Network Agent on Smart-M3 Platform and in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Balandin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes implementation of dataflow networks based on Smart-M3 platform for use cases related to the Internet of Things. The mechanism for automatic substitution of computational agents created on top of Smart-M3 platform is described. The paper reviews concurrency issues of the developed solution regarding Smart-M3 platform, as well as in the broader context of the Internet of Things.

  18. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  19. Development of a custom-made "smart-sphere" to assess incipient entrainment by rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Alexakis, Athanasios; Trinder, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The most widely applied criterion for sediment incipient motion in engineering applications is the time- and space-averaged approach of critical Shields shear stress. Nonetheless, in the recent years published research has highlighted the importance of turbulence fluctuations in sediment incipient motion and its stochastic character. The present experimental study investigates statistically the link of the response of a "smart-pebble" to hydrodynamics in near-critical flow conditions and discusses how such a device can be utilized in engineering design. A set of specifically designed fluvial experiments monitoring the entrainment conditions for a "smart-pebble", were carried out in a tilting, recirculating flume in turbulent flow conditions while three-dimensional flow measurements were obtained with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The "smart-pebble" employed herein is a custom-made instrumented sphere with 7 cm diameter, which has a number of sensors embedded within its waterproof 3D-printed plastic shell. Specifically, the "smart-pebble" is equipped with miniaturized, off the shelf, low-cost, three-dimensional acceleration, orientation and angular displacement sensors. A 3D-printed local micro topography of known geometry was installed in the flume's test section and the "smart-pebble" was placed there in order to facilitate the analysis. Every time the "smart-sphere" is displaced by the flow a downstream located pin blocks its full entrainment. This allows for continuous recording of the entrainment events due to the passage of energetic events, after which the "smart-pebble" returns to its resting pocket. The "smart-pebble" device under such a configuration allows the recording of normally indiscernible (with the naked eye) vibrations, twitching motions, and full entrainments for the studied particle, allowing its analysis from a Langrangian framework. During the incipient motion experiments the retrieved data are stored in an internal memory unit or

  20. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  1. Smart business for smart users? : A social science agenda for developing smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbong, G.P.J.; Verkade, N.; Verhees, B.; Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Höffken, J.I.; Beaulieu, A.; de Wilde, J.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of smart grids is very attractive. However, it is not yet clear what the future smart grid will look like. Although most researchers acknowledge that users will play a more prominent role in smart grids, there is a lot of uncertainty on this issue. To counter the strong techno-logical

  2. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  3. Design of Flow Big Data System Based on Smart Pipeline Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As telecom operators to build intelligent pipe more and more, analysis and processing of big data technology to deal the huge amounts of data intelligent pipeline generated has become an inevitable trend. Intelligent pipe describes operational data, sales data; operator’s pipe flow data make the value for e-commerce business form and business model in mobile e-business environment. Intelligent pipe is the third dimension of 3 D pipeline mobile electronic commerce system. Intelligent operation dimensions make the mobile e-business three-dimensional artifacts. This paper discusses the smart pipeline theory, smart pipeline flow big data system, their system framework and core technology.

  4. Numerical Simulation for Frictional Loss and Local Loss of a 5*5 SMART Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Pil; Kim, Seong Jin; Kwon, Hyuk; Seo, Kyong-Won; Hwang, Dae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The results showed good agreement with experimental data and/or reasonable values. However, these results were dependent on computational meshes and turbulence models and it still remains important issues in CFD analysis. The aim of present work is to assess the pressure drop in a 5*5 SMART rod bundle using 3D CFD code with various computational meshes and turbulence models. In the present work, 3D CFD code was utilized to investigate pressure drop in a SMART 5*5 rod bundle. The predicted pressure drop was strongly dependent with computational meshes and turbulence models. Based on CFD results in this study, least five of six meshes within the subchannel gap are required to get reliable result which is insensitive to the number of meshes. The friction factor predicted by k - ε model is good agreement with McAdams's correlation while SST model overestimate McAdams's correlation. However, it is difficult to judge performance of turbulence model because of lock of experimental data for a 5*5 SMART bare rod bundle. For nominal condition (Re-194,000) of SMART, SST model predict k-factor of MV and IFM grid as 1.304 and 0.748, respectively. This value is reasonable as compared with designed k-factor, 1.320 and 0.78

  5. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  6. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  7. Comparison between Hydrogen, Methane and Ethylene Fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    scramjet using a cavity based flame holder in the T4 shock tunnel at The University of Queensland, as well as a companion fundamental CFD study. The...shock tunnel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Airbreathing Engines, Hypersonics , Propulsion, AOARD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...Report Comparison between hydrogen, methane and ethylene fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8 Professor Michael K. Smart Chair of Hypersonic Propulsion

  8. Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

  9. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  10. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  11. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  12. The smart energy world from a competition point of view. An interaction between smart customers, smart market and smart grids; Die Smarte Energiewelt aus wettbewerblicher Sicht. Ein Zusammenspiel aus Smarten Kunden, Smart Market und Smarten Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Everybody is talking about the ''Energiewende, the Smart Energy World and about ''Smart Market / Smart Grids'', but almost no one knows, what it exactly means. But the ''Energiewende'' is already coming. The entire energy sector and particularly the elctricity industry are evolving towards decentralized structures mainly based on renewable energies. Not only the growth in fluctuating power generation from renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaic but also their consumption on a local basis are calling for new ways of decentralized managing energy and for further developed market rules. The interaction of all stakeholders (customer, market players, grid operators, authorities) in a Smart Market/Smart Grid environment is required to successfully implement an efficient ''Energiewende''. Derived from the different interests of these stakeholders, the paper describes a system and roles within this system. It shows how Smart Market and Smart Grid can interact corresponding to the guidelines of German Regulator recently published. (orig.)

  13. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  14. Investigating Integration Capabilities Between Ifc and Citygml LOD3 for 3d City Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, G.; Pispidikis, I.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2017-10-01

    Smart cities are applied to an increasing number of application fields. This evolution though urges data collection and integration, hence major issues arise that need to be tackled. One of the most important challenges is the heterogeneity of collected data, especially if those data derive from different standards and vary in terms of geometry, topology and semantics. Another key challenge is the efficient analysis and visualization of spatial data, which due to the complexity of the physical reality in modern world, 2D GIS struggles to cope with. So, in order to facilitate data analysis and enhance the role of smart cities, the 3rd dimension needs to be implemented. Standards such as CityGML and IFC fulfill that necessity but they present major differences in their schemas that render their integration a challenging task. This paper focuses on addressing those differences, examining the up to date research work and investigates an alternative methodology in order to bridge the gap between those Standards. Within this framework, a generic IFC model is generated and converted to a CityGML Model, which is validated and evaluated on its geometrical correctness and semantical coherence. General results as well as future research considerations are presented.

  15. Researches of smart materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Y.; Tani, J.

    2000-01-01

    The choice of sensor and actuator material as well as optimum design to combine the actuator element with the host structure become very essential to develop a smart materials and structures. In the present paper, first, the present state and issues of the main solid actuators are described from the viewpoint of material science and engineering. Next, the developments of smart materials and systems using shape memory materials in Japan are introduced. Shape memory TiNi fiber reinforced/Al or polymer matrix composites have been fabricated to confirm the enhancements of fracture toughness (K-value) by utilizing the compression stresses caused by shape memory shrinkage of embedded TiNi fibers. Sudden failure prevention system for structures are also proposed by combining non-destructive acoustic emission detecting system with suppression of crack-tip stress intensity by shape memory shrinkage effect. Lastly, the research project scheme and several targets on smart actuator development are introduced, which are imposed on the Tohoku University team in the Japanese National Project (1998∝2002 A.D.) on smart materials and structure system by NEDO/MITI. (orig.)

  16. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  17. 3D vadose zone modeling using geostatistical inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, C.F.; Lee, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In developing a 3D model of the 600 ft thick interbedded basalt and sediment complex that constitutes the vadose zone at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) geostatistical data were captured for 12--15 parameters (e.g. permeability, porosity, saturation, etc. and flow height, flow width, flow internal zonation, etc.). This two scale data set was generated from studies of subsurface core and geophysical log suites at RWMC and from surface outcrop exposures located at the Box Canyon of the Big Lost River and from Hell's Half Acre lava field all located in the general RWMC area. Based on these currently available data, it is possible to build a 3D stochastic model that utilizes: cumulative distribution functions obtained from the geostatistical data; backstripping and rebuilding of stratigraphic units; an ''expert'' system that incorporates rules based on expert geologic analysis and experimentally derived geostatistics for providing: (a) a structural and isopach map of each layer, (b) a realization of the flow geometry of each basalt flow unit, and (c) a realization of the internal flow parameters (eg permeability, porosity, and saturation) for each flow. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Fusion of smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies research, systems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

      This monograph book is focused on the recent advances in smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies. The Contributions include:   ·         Smart Gamification and Smart Serious Games. ·         Fusion of secure IPsec-based Virtual Private Network, mobile computing and rich multimedia technology. ·         Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-game Approach. ·         Evaluation of Student Knowledge using an e-Learning Framework. ·         The iTEC Eduteka. ·         3D Virtual Worlds as a Fusion of Immersing, Visualizing, Recording, and Replaying Technologies. ·         Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull. The book is directed to researchers, students and software developers working in the areas of education and information technologies.  

  19. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  20. Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering with Authentication in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Beom Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to the supplier or utility from each smart meter at short intervals has an advantage for the electricity supplier’s planning and management purposes, it threatens user privacy by disclosing fine-grained consumption data and usage behavior to utility providers. In this study, we propose a distributed incremental data aggregation scheme where all smart meters on an aggregation path are involved in routing the data from the source meter to the collection unit. User privacy is preserved by symmetric homomorphic encryption, which allows smart meters to participate in the aggregation without seeing any intermediate or final result. Aggregated data is further integrated with an aggregate signature to achieve data integrity and smart meter authentication in such a way that dishonest or fake smart meters cannot falsify data en route. Only the collection unit can obtain the aggregated data and verify its integrity while the individual plain data are not exposed to the collection unit. Therefore, user privacy and security are improved for the smart metering in a smart grid network.

  1. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  2. An advanced mutual-authentication algorithm using 3DES for smart card systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly used two-factor user authentication mechanisms nowadays is based on smart card and personal identity number or password. A scheme of this type is usually known as, a smart card based password authentication. The core feature...

  3. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  4. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  5. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, Edward T. [Kansas City Power & Light Company, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  6. Context-Aware AAL Services through a 3D Sensor-Based Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of Ambient Assisted Living solutions is to provide assistive technologies and services in smart environments allowing elderly people to have high quality of life. Since 3D sensing technologies are increasingly investigated as monitoring solution able to outperform traditional approaches, in this work a noninvasive monitoring platform based on 3D sensors is presented providing a wide-range solution suitable in several assisted living scenarios. Detector nodes are managed by low-power embedded PCs in order to process 3D streams and extract postural features related to person’s activities. The feature level of details is tuned in accordance with the current context in order to save bandwidth and computational resources. The platform architecture is conceived as a modular system suitable to be integrated into third-party middleware to provide monitoring functionalities in several scenarios. The event detection capabilities were validated by using both synthetic and real datasets collected in controlled and real-home environments. Results show the soundness of the presented solution to adapt to different application requirements, by correctly detecting events related to four relevant AAL services.

  7. Basic design report of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Zee, Q. S.; Lee, D. J.; Park, K. B.; Koo, I. S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. I.

    2002-03-01

    KAERI has been developing a 330MWt integral reactor, SMART and its application system since 1997. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. The SMART system can produce portable water of 40.000m 3 /day using the MED-TVC desalination process and about 90MW of electricity. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as inherent safety and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment-friendly. The objective of this design report is to provide the overall information on the basic design of SMART NSSS, and the applied technologies. The information covers mainly NSSS design with some information on the desalination system. For the secondary system, only the information directly related to the coupling with NSSS are covered

  8. An integral effect test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yeon Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyoung Ho; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Park, Rae Joon; Lee, Won Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Yi, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWth integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) developed by KAERI and had obtained standard design approval (SDA) from Korean regulatory authority on July 2012. In this SMART design main components including a pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps and steam generators are installed in a reactor pressure vessel without any large connecting pipes. As the LBLOCA scenario is inherently excluded, its safety systems could be simplified only to ensure the safety during the SBLOCA scenarios and the other system transients. An integral effect test loop for the SMART (SMART ITL), or called as FESTA, had been designed to simulate the integral thermal hydraulic behavior of the SMART. The objectives of the SMART ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of reactor systems and components and the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurred in the system during normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of the SMART. The integral effect test data will also be used to validate the related thermal hydraulic models of the safety analysis code such as TASS/SMR S, which is used for performance and accident analysis of the SMART design. This paper introduces the scaling analysis and scientific design of the integral test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL and its scaling analysis results.

  9. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  10. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  11. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  13. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  14. Smart thermal networks for smart cities - Introduction of concepts and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. R.; Pol, O.; Basciotti, D.; Page, J.

    2012-10-01

    In order to contribute to high living standards, climate mitigation and energy supply security, future urban energy systems require a holistic approach. In particular an intelligent integration of thermal networks is necessary. This paper will briefly present the "smart city" concept and introduce an associated definition for smart thermal networks defined on three levels: 1. the interaction with urban planning processes and the interface to the overall urban energy system, 2. the adaptation of the temperature level and 3. supply and demand-side management strategies.

  15. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  16. Subsurface Flow and Contaminant Transport Documentation and User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-07-28

    This report documents a finite element code designed to model subsurface flow and contaminant transport, named FACT. FACT is a transient three-dimensional, finite element code designed to simulate isothermal groundwater flow, moisture movement, and solute transport in variably saturated and fully saturated subsurface porous media. The code is designed specifically to handle complex multi-layer and/or heterogeneous aquifer systems in an efficient manner and accommodates a wide range of boundary conditions. Additionally, 1-D and 2-D (in Cartesian coordinates) problems are handled in FACT by simply limiting the number of elements in a particular direction(s) to one. The governing equations in FACT are formulated only in Cartesian coordinates.

  17. Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen

  18. Smart grids for smart cities: Smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieny, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids are currently a hot topic. Growing numbers of municipalities are experimenting with smart grids as the foundation for tomorrow's smart cities. And yet, end users are struggling to understand the innovative new energy distribution models just over the horizon. Our energy system is at a crossroads. And the coming years will tell us whether smart grids - whether they integrate renewable energy sources or not - will develop as a hybrid industry combining energy and IT or emerge as a full-fledged sector in and of itself. First and foremost, smart grids must be considered from a local, micro-economic standpoint, but one that also takes into account issues and interactions at the regional, national, EU, and global levels. Today, fighting climate change is a major challenge at both the national and global levels. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit established a framework for crucial initiatives to combat climate change. The EU and France followed suit with their Climate and Energy Package and Grenelle de l'environnement environmental agenda. These policies set forth measures to fight climate change and to adapt to its impacts on people and the economy. France, for instance, set two basic targets to be achieved by 2020: - Make renewable energy a priority by promoting the development of energy from renewable sources to achieve the target of 23% renewables in the final energy mix. - Promote energy savings and increase energy efficiency by 20% and limit global warming to less than 2 deg. C over pre-industrial temperatures in industrialized nations by 2050 (around 1.2 deg. C above current temperatures). Tomorrow's grids will have to be smarter, which means incorporating information and communication technologies to provide the responsiveness and enhanced communication capabilities needed to meet the following challenges: - Integrating electricity from renewable sources; - Controlling demand; - Managing peak consumption; - Promoting widespread adoption of

  19. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  20. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  1. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation

  2. 3D printing-assisted interphase engineering of polymer composites: Concept and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szebenyi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduced a general concept to create smart, (multifunctional interphases in polymer composites with layered reinforcements, making use of 3D printing. The concept can be adapted for both thermoplastic and thermoset matrix-based composites with either thermoplastic- or thermoset-enriched interphases. We showed feasibility using an example of a composite containing a thermoset matrix/thermoplastic interphase. Carbon fiber unidirectional reinforcing layers were patterned with poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL through 3D printing, then infiltrated with an amine-cured epoxy (EP. The corresponding composites were subjected to static and dynamic flexure tests. The PCL-rich interphase markedly improved the ductility in static tests without deteriorating the flexural properties. Its effect was marginal in Charpy impact tests, which can be explained with effects of specimen and PCL pattern sizes. The PCL-rich interphase ensured self-healing when triggered by heat treatment above the melting temperature of PCL.

  3. SmartInspect: Smart Contract Inspection Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo , Santiago; Rocha , Henrique ,; Denker , Marcus; Ducasse , Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts are embedded procedures stored with the data they act upon. Debugging deployed Smart Contracts is a difficult task since once deployed, the code cannot be reexecuted and inspecting a simple attribute is not easily possible because data is encoded. In this technical report, we present SmartInspect to address the lack of inspectability of a deployed contract. Our solution analyses the contract state by using decompilation techniques and a mirror-based architecture to represent t...

  4. Intelligent SUBsurface Quality : Intelligent use of subsurface infrastructure for surface quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Lafleur, F.; van de Ven, F.H.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Broere, W.; Laumann, S.J.; Klaassen, R.G.; Marinetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the urban renewal of (delta) metropolises and concentrates on the question how to design resilient, durable (subsurface) infrastructure in urban renewal projects using parameters of the natural system – linking in an efficient way (a) water cycle, (b) soil and subsurface

  5. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  6. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  7. Dynamic Supply Chain Design and Operations Plan for Connected Smart Factories with Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Do Chung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in smart factories and smart supply chains has been increasing, and researchers have emphasized the importance and the effects of advanced technologies such as 3D printers, the Internet of Things, and cloud services. This paper considers an innovation in dynamic supply-chain design and operations: connected smart factories that share interchangeable processes through a cloud-based system for personalized production. In the system, customers are able to upload a product design file, an optimal supply chain design and operations plan are then determined based on the available resources in the network of smart factories. The concept of smart supply chains is discussed and six types of flexibilities are identified, namely: design flexibility, product flexibility, process flexibility, supply chain flexibility, collaboration flexibility, and strategic flexibility. Focusing on supply chain flexibility, a general planning framework and various optimization models for dynamic supply chain design and operations plan are proposed. Further, numerical experiments are conducted to analyze fixed, production, and transportation costs for various scenarios. The results demonstrate the extent of the dynamic supply chain design and operations problem, and the large variation in transportation cost.

  8. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-03-07

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  9. SmartCampusAAU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all ma...... major mobile platforms (Android, iPhone and Windows Phone) and supports both device- and infrastructure-based positioning. SmartCampusAAU also offers a publicly available OData backend that allows researchers to share radio map and location tracking data.......This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all...

  10. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  11. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  12. SERENITY in e-Business and Smart Item Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Azzedine; Khoury, Paul El; Seguran, Magali; Sinha, Smriti Kumar

    SERENITY Artefacts, like Class, Patterns, Implementations and Executable Components for Security & Dependability (S&D) in addition to Serenity Runtime Framework (SRF) are discussed in previous chapters. How to integrate these artefacts with applications in Serenity approach is discussed here with two scenarios. The e-Business scenario is a standard loan origination process in a bank. The Smart Item scenario is an Ambient intelligence case study where we take advantage of Smart Items to provide an electronic healthcare infrastructure for remote healthcare assistance. In both cases, we detail how the prototype implementations of the scenarios select proper executable components through Serenity Runtime Framework and then demonstrate how these executable components of the S&D Patterns are deployed.

  13. Generic Dynamic Environment Perception Using Smart Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, Radu; Itu, Razvan; Petrovai, Andra

    2016-10-17

    The driving environment is complex and dynamic, and the attention of the driver is continuously challenged, therefore computer based assistance achieved by processing image and sensor data may increase traffic safety. While active sensors and stereovision have the advantage of obtaining 3D data directly, monocular vision is easy to set up, and can benefit from the increasing computational power of smart mobile devices, and from the fact that almost all of them come with an embedded camera. Several driving assistance application are available for mobile devices, but they are mostly targeted for simple scenarios and a limited range of obstacle shapes and poses. This paper presents a technique for generic, shape independent real-time obstacle detection for mobile devices, based on a dynamic, free form 3D representation of the environment: the particle based occupancy grid. Images acquired in real time from the smart mobile device's camera are processed by removing the perspective effect and segmenting the resulted bird-eye view image to identify candidate obstacle areas, which are then used to update the occupancy grid. The occupancy grid tracked cells are grouped into obstacles depicted as cuboids having position, size, orientation and speed. The easy to set up system is able to reliably detect most obstacles in urban traffic, and its measurement accuracy is comparable to a stereovision system.

  14. Sector smart meter audit review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-31

    This paper presented the results of an electricity distributor sector smart meter audit review conducted by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) for the period of January 1, 2006 to September 30, 2009. The review summarized the results of a questionnaire related to distributors' smart meter regulatory accounting treatment. Seventy-eight distributors responded to the survey. The review included details of: (1) total investments in smart metering initiative for capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating maintenance and administrative expenses (OM and A), (2) funding dollars received by the distributors, (3) board-approved recoveries for CAPEX and OM and A, (4) recorded stranded meter costs, and (5) number of smart meters installed in the review period. The audit review demonstrated that some distributors incorrectly recorded carrying charges related to smart meter OM and A expenses, and that some smart meter transactions were recorded in accounts other than OEB established accounts in the general ledger. Results of the audit will be used to provide further accounting assistance to electricity distributors. 7 tabs.

  15. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the

  16. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  17. Nucleic-acid characterization of the identity and activity of subsurface microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    Nucleic-acid approaches to characterizing naturally occurring microorganisms in their habitats have risen to prominence during the last decade. Extraction of deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) and ribonucleic-acid (RNA) biomarkers directly from environmental samples provides a new means of gathering information in microbial ecology. This review article defines: (1) the subsurface habitat; (2) what nucleic-acid procedures are; and (3) the types of information nucleic-acid procedures can and cannot reveal. Recent literature examining microbial nucleic acids in the terrestrial subsurface is tabulated and reviewed. The majority of effort to date has focused upon insights into the identity and phylogeny of subsurface microorganisms afforded by analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Given the power of nucleic-acid-based procedures and their limited application to subsurface habitats to date, many future opportunities await exploration. Au cours des derniers dix ans, les approches basées sur les acides nucléiques sont apparues et devenues essentielles pour caractériser dans leurs habitats les microorganismes existant à l'état naturel. L'extraction directe de l'ADN et de l'ARN, qui sont des biomarqueurs, d'échantillons environnementaux a fourni un nouveau moyen d'obtenir des informations sur l'écologie microbienne. Cet article synthétique définit 1) l'habitat souterrain, 2) ce que sont les procédures basées sur les acides nucléiques, 3) quel type d'informations ces procéedures peuvent et ne peuvent pas révéler. Les travaux récemment publiés concernatn les acides nucléiques microbiens dans le milieu souterrain terrestre sont catalogués et passés en revue. La majorité des efforts pour obtenir es données s'est concentrée sur l'identité et la phylogénie des microorganismes souterrains fournies par l'analyse de leurs gènes 16S rRNA. Étant donné la puissance des procédures basées sur les acides nucléiques et leur application limitée aux habitats souterrains

  18. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  19. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is

  20. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals’ Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs’ behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals’ quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog’s shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  1. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  2. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  3. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B; Meldrum, Philip I; Oxby, Lucy S; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E; Binley, Andrew; Graham, James; Smith, Nicholas T; Atherton, Nick

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photothermal coherence tomography for 3-D visualization and structural non-destructive imaging of a wood inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Pantea; Sfarra, Stefano; Gargiulo, Gianfranco; Sivagurunathan, Koneshwaran; Mandelis, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the suitability of truncated correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT) for the non-destructive imaging of a replica of a real inlay to identify subsurface features that often are invisible areas of vulnerability and damage. Defects of inlays involve glue-rich areas, glue-starved areas, termite attack, insect damage, and laminar splitting. These defects have the potential to result in extensive damage to the art design layers of inlays. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging technique to visualize and determine the location of defects within the sample. The recently introduced TC-PCT modality proved capable of providing 3-D images of specimens with high axial resolution, deep subsurface depth profiling capability, and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, in this study the authors used TC-PCT to image a fabricated inlay sample with various natural and artificial defects in the middle and top layers. The inlay in question reproduces to scale a piece of art preserved in the "Mirror room" of the Castle Laffitte in France. It was built by a professional restorer following the ancient procedure named element by element. Planar TC-PCT images of the inlay were stacked coherently to provide 3-D visualization of areas with known defects in the sample. The experimental results demonstrated the identification of defects such as empty holes, a hole filled with stucco, subsurface delaminations and natural features such as a wood knot and wood grain in different layers of the sample. For this wooden sample that has a very low thermal diffusivity, a depth range of 2 mm was achieved.

  5. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  8. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  9. Smart Cities - Smart Homes and Smart Home Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Faanes, Erlend Kydland

    2014-01-01

    This master’s thesis consists of two articles where the first article is theoretical and the second is the empirical study. Article I The purpose with this paper is to explore and illuminate how smart home and smart home technology can contribute to enhance health and Quality of Life in elderly citizens and allow them to live longer in their home. The paper provides a brief introduction to health promotion and highlights the thesis theoretical framework and foundation of Aaron Antonov...

  10. Wearable smart systems: from technologies to integrated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, A

    2011-01-01

    Wearable technology and integrated systems, so called Smart Wearable Systems (SWS) have demonstrated during the last 10-15 years significant advances in terms of, miniaturisation, seamless integration, data processing & communication, functionalisation and comfort. This is mainly due to the huge progress in sciences and technologies e.g. biomedical and micro & nano technologies, but also to a strong demand for new applications such as continuous personal health monitoring, healthy lifestyle support, human performance monitoring and support of professionals at risk. Development of wearable systems based of smart textile have, in addition, benefited from the eagerness of textile industry to develop new value-added apparel products like functionalized garments and smart clothing. Research and development in these areas has been strongly promoted worldwide. In Europe the major R&D activities were supported through the Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) priority of the R&D EU programs. The paper presents and discusses the main achievements towards integrated systems as well as future challenges to be met in order to reach a market with reliable and high value-added products.

  11. Subsurface Science Program Bibliography, 1985--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Subsurface Science Program sponsors long-term basic research on (1) the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that control the reactivity, mobilization, stability, and transport of chemical mixtures in subsoils and ground water; (2) hydrogeology, including the hydraulic, microbiological, and geochemical properties of the vadose and saturated zones that control contaminant mobility and stability, including predictive modeling of coupled hydraulic-geochemical-microbial processes; and (3) the microbiology of deep sediments and ground water. TWs research, focused as it is on the natural subsurface environments that are most significantly affected by the more than 40 years of waste generation and disposal at DOE sites, is making important contributions to cleanup of DOE sites. Past DOE waste-disposal practices have resulted in subsurface contamination at DOE sites by unique combinations of radioactive materials and organic and inorganic chemicals (including heavy metals), which make site cleanup particularly difficult. The long- term (10- to 30-year) goal of the Subsurface Science Program is to provide a foundation of fundamental knowledge that can be used to reduce environmental risks and to provide a sound scientific basis for cost-effective cleanup strategies. The Subsurface Science Program is organized into nine interdisciplinary subprograms, or areas of basic research emphasis. The subprograms currently cover the areas of Co-Contaminant Chemistry, Colloids/Biocolloids, Multiphase Fluid Flow, Biodegradation/ Microbial Physiology, Deep Microbiology, Coupled Processes, Field-Scale (Natural Heterogeneity and Scale), and Environmental Science Research Center

  12. Swappable Batteries: IoTizing Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sanchis, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Viabildad de implementación de baterías eléctricas Viabilitat d'implementació de bateries elèctriques Sensitivity analysis of EV taxi design parameters (and alternative fleet) using smart swappable batteries including a TCO of a town's vehicle infrastructure.

  13. 3D Printing of Thermo-Responsive Methylcellulose Hydrogels for Cell-Sheet Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochis, Andrea; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Sorrentino, Rita; Contessi Negrini, Nicola; Grassi, Federico; Leigheb, Massimiliano; Rimondini, Lia; Farè, Silvia

    2018-04-10

    A possible strategy in regenerative medicine is cell-sheet engineering (CSE), i.e., developing smart cell culture surfaces from which to obtain intact cell sheets (CS). The main goal of this study was to develop 3D printing via extrusion-based bioprinting of methylcellulose (MC)-based hydrogels. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing MC powder in saline solutions (Na₂SO₄ and PBS). MC-based hydrogels were analyzed to investigate the rheological behavior and thus optimize the printing process parameters. Cells were tested in vitro on ring-shaped printed hydrogels; bulk MC hydrogels were used for comparison. In vitro tests used murine embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) and endothelial murine cells (MS1), and the resulting cell sheets were characterized analyzing cell viability and immunofluorescence. In terms of CS preparation, 3D printing proved to be an optimal approach to obtain ring-shaped CS. Cell orientation was observed for the ring-shaped CS and was confirmed by the degree of circularity of their nuclei: cell nuclei in ring-shaped CS were more elongated than those in sheets detached from bulk hydrogels. The 3D printing process appears adequate for the preparation of cell sheets of different shapes for the regeneration of complex tissues.

  14. 3D Printing of Thermo-Responsive Methylcellulose Hydrogels for Cell-Sheet Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cochis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A possible strategy in regenerative medicine is cell-sheet engineering (CSE, i.e., developing smart cell culture surfaces from which to obtain intact cell sheets (CS. The main goal of this study was to develop 3D printing via extrusion-based bioprinting of methylcellulose (MC-based hydrogels. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing MC powder in saline solutions (Na2SO4 and PBS. MC-based hydrogels were analyzed to investigate the rheological behavior and thus optimize the printing process parameters. Cells were tested in vitro on ring-shaped printed hydrogels; bulk MC hydrogels were used for comparison. In vitro tests used murine embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 and endothelial murine cells (MS1, and the resulting cell sheets were characterized analyzing cell viability and immunofluorescence. In terms of CS preparation, 3D printing proved to be an optimal approach to obtain ring-shaped CS. Cell orientation was observed for the ring-shaped CS and was confirmed by the degree of circularity of their nuclei: cell nuclei in ring-shaped CS were more elongated than those in sheets detached from bulk hydrogels. The 3D printing process appears adequate for the preparation of cell sheets of different shapes for the regeneration of complex tissues.

  15. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%.

  16. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  17. Deep Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) WIPL-D Models of Buried Sub-Surface Radiators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norgard, John D; Wicks, Michael C; Musselman, Randy L

    2005-01-01

    .... A new Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) concept is proposed in this paper to use subsurface radiators, delivered as earth penetrating non-explosive, electronic e-bombs, as the source of strong radiated transmissions for GPR experiments...

  18. Towards smart environments using smart objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Martin; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Münch, Ulli

    2011-01-01

    Barcodes, RFID, WLAN, Bluetooth and many more technologies are used in hospitals. They are the technological bases for different applications such as patient monitoring, asset management and facility management. However, most of these applications exist side by side with hardly any integration and even interoperability is not guaranteed. Introducing the concept of smart objects inspired by the Internet of Things can improve the situation by separating the capabilities and functions of an object from the implementing technology such as RFID or WLAN. By aligning technological and business developments smart objects have the power to transform a hospital from an agglomeration of technologies into a smart environment.

  19. Interpretation of 2D Resistivity with Engineering Characterisation of Subsurface Exploration in Nusajaya Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akip Tan, S. N. Mohd; Dan, M. F. Md; Edy Tonnizam, M.; Saad, R.; Madun, A.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    2-D resistivity technique and pole-dipole array with spacing of 2 m electrode and total spacing of 80 m were adopted to map and characterize the shallow subsurface in a sedimentary area at Nusajaya, Johor. Geological field mapping and laboratory testing were conducted to determine weathering grades. Res2Dinv software was used to generate the inversion model resistivity. The result shows sandstone contains iron mineral (30-1000ohm-m) and weathered sandstone (500-1000 ohm-m). The lowest layer represents sandstone and siltstone with the highest range from 1500 through 5000 ohm-m. The weathering grade IV and V of sandstone in the actual profile indicates the range from 30 to 1000 ohm-m, whereas grade II and III in ground mass matched the higest range. Overall, the increase of weathering grade influenced both the physical properties and strength of rocks.

  20. Smart homes with smartphones : Creating a Smart home application for smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Lärka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis was to evaluate the field of Smart home applications run on mobile platforms such as smart phones. This was at the time a relatively new field that has attracted the attention of Smart phone giants like Apple and Google. This raised the question whether or not the users willingness to embrace the technology. To evaluate the field, a literature study was conducted covering the Smart home technology, and Apple’s and Google’s Smart home solutions. The rendered in a...

  1. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  2. ABS-SmartComAgri: An Agent-Based Simulator of Smart Communication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks for Debugging in Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magariño, Iván; Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime

    2018-03-27

    Smart communication protocols are becoming a key mechanism for improving communication performance in networks such as wireless sensor networks. However, the literature lacks mechanisms for simulating smart communication protocols in precision agriculture for decreasing production costs. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator of smart communication protocols for efficiently managing pesticides. The simulator considers the needs of electric power, crop health, percentage of alive bugs and pesticide consumption. The current approach is illustrated with three different communication protocols respectively called (a) broadcast, (b) neighbor and (c) low-cost neighbor. The low-cost neighbor protocol obtained a statistically-significant reduction in the need of electric power over the neighbor protocol, with a very large difference according to the common interpretations about the Cohen's d effect size. The presented simulator is called ABS-SmartComAgri and is freely distributed as open-source from a public research data repository. It ensures the reproducibility of experiments and allows other researchers to extend the current approach.

  3. Structural Analysis of Lunar Subsurface with Chang'E 3 Lunar Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lai, Jialong; Tang, Zesheng

    2015-04-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information for our understanding of lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E 3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in-situ detector, Chang'E 3 LPR has higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars such as Chandrayaan-1 and Kaguya. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E 3 in Mare Imbrium. First, filter method and amplitude recover algorithms are introduced for data processing to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Next, based on the processed LPR data, we present the methods to determine the interfaces between layers. A three-layered structure of the shallow surface of the Moon has been observed. The corresponding real part of relative dielectric constant is inverted with deconvolution method. The average dielectric constants of the surface, second and third layer is 2.8, 3.2 and 3.6, respectively. The phenomenon that the average dielectric constant increases with the depth is consistent with prior art. With the obtained dielectric constants, the thickness of each layer can be calculated. One possible geological picture of the observed three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is lunar regolith with its thickness ranging from 0.59 m to 0.9 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding thickness is between 3.6m to 3.9m, which is in good agreement with the model of ejecta blanket thickness (height) as a function of distance from the crater center proposed by Melosh in 1989. The third layer is regarded as early lunar regolith with 4

  4. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  5. New solutions and applications of 3D computer tomography image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Ira; Kroll, Julia; Verl, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    As nowadays the industry aims at fast and high quality product development and manufacturing processes a modern and efficient quality inspection is essential. Compared to conventional measurement technologies, industrial computer tomography (CT) is a non-destructive technology for 3D-image data acquisition which helps to overcome their disadvantages by offering the possibility to scan complex parts with all outer and inner geometric features. In this paper new and optimized methods for 3D image processing, including innovative ways of surface reconstruction and automatic geometric feature detection of complex components, are presented, especially our work of developing smart online data processing and data handling methods, with an integrated intelligent online mesh reduction. Hereby the processing of huge and high resolution data sets is guaranteed. Besides, new approaches for surface reconstruction and segmentation based on statistical methods are demonstrated. On the extracted 3D point cloud or surface triangulation automated and precise algorithms for geometric inspection are deployed. All algorithms are applied to different real data sets generated by computer tomography in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new tools. Since CT is an emerging technology for non-destructive testing and inspection more and more industrial application fields will use and profit from this new technology.

  6. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  7. 3D Geo-Structures Visualization Education Project (3dgeostructuresvis.ucdavis.edu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    Students of field-based geology must master a suite of challenging skills from recognizing rocks, to measuring orientations of features in the field, to finding oneself (and the outcrop) on a map and placing structural information on maps. Students must then synthesize this information to derive meaning from the observations and ultimately to determine the three-dimensional (3D) shape of the deformed structures and their kinematic history. Synthesizing this kind of information requires sophisticated visualizations skills in order to extrapolate observations into the subsurface or missing (eroded) material. The good news is that students can learn 3D visualization skills through practice, and virtual tools can help provide some of that practice. Here I present a suite of learning modules focused at developing students' ability to imagine (visualize) complex 3D structures and their exposure through digital topographic surfaces. Using the software 3DVisualizer, developed by KeckCAVES (keckcaves.org) we have developed visualizations of common geologic structures (e.g., syncline, dipping fold) in which the rock is represented by originally flat-lying layers of sediment, each with a different color, which have been subsequently deformed. The exercises build up in complexity, first focusing on understanding the structure in 3D (penetrative understanding), and then moving to the exposure of the structure at a topographic surface. Individual layers can be rendered as a transparent feature to explore how the layer extends above and below the topographic surface (e.g., to follow an eroded fold limb across a valley). The exercises are provided using either movies of the visualization (which can also be used for examples during lectures), or the data and software can be downloaded to allow for more self-driven exploration and learning. These virtual field models and exercises can be used as "practice runs" before going into the field, as make-up assignments, as a field

  8. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  9. Subsurface data visualization in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing

  10. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    settings. Farmingdale State College held three international conferences on energy and sustainability and Smart Grid related technologies and policies. These conferences, in addition to public seminars increased understanding and acceptance of Smart Grid transformation by the general public, business, industry, and municipalities in the Long Island and greater New York region. - JOB CREATION: Provided training for the Smart Grid and clean energy jobs of the future at both Farmingdale and Stony Brook. Stony Brook focused its “Cradle to Fortune 500” suite of economic development resources on the opportunities emerging from the project, helping to create new technologies, new businesses, and new jobs. To achieve these features, LIPA and its sub-recipients, FSC and SBU, each have separate but complementary objectives. At LIPA, the Smart Energy Corridor (1) meant validating Smart Grid technologies; (2) quantifying Smart Grid costs and benefits; and (3) providing insights into how Smart Grid applications can be better implemented, readily adapted, and replicated in individual homes and businesses. LIPA installed 2,550 AMI meters (exceeding the 500 AMI meters in the original plan), created three “smart” substations serving the Corridor, and installed additional distribution automation elements including two-way communications and digital controls over various feeders and capacitor banks. It gathered and analyzed customer behavior information on how they responded to a new “smart” TOU rate and to various levels of information and analytical tools.

  11. Analysing the origin of rain- and subsurface water in seasonal wetlands of north-central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kanamori, Hironari; Kambatuku, Jack R.; Kotani, Ayumi; Asai, Kazuyoshi; Mizuochi, Hiroki; Fujioka, Yuichiro; Iijima, Morio

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the origins of rain- and subsurface waters of north-central Namibia’s seasonal wetlands, which are critical to the region’s water and food security. The region includes the southern part of the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) of the Cuvelai Basin, a transboundary river basin covering southern Angola and northern Namibia. We analysed stable water isotopes (SWIs) of hydrogen (HDO) and oxygen (H2 18O) in rainwater, surface water and shallow groundwater. Rainwater samples were collected during every rainfall event of the rainy season from October 2013 to April 2014. The isotopic ratios of HDO (δD) and oxygen H2 18O (δ 18O) were analysed in each rainwater sample and then used to derive the annual mean value of (δD, δ 18O) in precipitation weighted by each rainfall volume. Using delta diagrams (plotting δD vs. δ 18O), we showed that the annual mean value was a good indicator for determining the origins of subsurface waters in the CSSWs. To confirm the origins of rainwater and to explain the variations in isotopic ratios, we conducted atmospheric water budget analysis using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) data and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data. The results showed that around three-fourths of rainwater was derived from recycled water at local-regional scales. Satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and complementary satellite data from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) series implied that the isotopic ratios in rainwater were affected by evaporation of raindrops falling from convective clouds. Consequently, integrated SWI analysis of rain-, surface and subsurface waters, together with the atmospheric water budget analysis, revealed that shallow groundwater of small wetlands in this region was very likely to be recharged from surface waters originating from local rainfall, which was

  12. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Lobaccaro, Gabriele; Carlucci, Salvatore; Löfström, Erica

    2016-01-01

    In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investiga...

  13. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  14. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  15. Smart thermal networks for smart cities – Introduction of concepts and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basciotti D.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to high living standards, climate mitigation and energy supply security, future urban energy systems require a holistic approach. In particular an intelligent integration of thermal networks is necessary. This paper will briefly present the “smart city” concept and introduce an associated definition for smart thermal networks defined on three levels: 1. the interaction with urban planning processes and the interface to the overall urban energy system, 2. the adaptation of the temperature level and 3. supply and demand-side management strategies.

  16. Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid or the future of power industry; Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid oder die Zukunft der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for smart grids, energy information networks, smart metering, new tariffs offering incentives for load shifting to household customers and load reduction options to energy providers are discussed increasingly. The privacy protection of customers being threatened by detailed consumption profiles also needs attention. Practitioners and researches from enterprises and research institutions present results from their field of work in nine papers. This book mainly focusses on three topics: 'Energy 2020', 'Data protection and data security within smart grids' and 'Smart grid and energy information networks'. On the one hand this volume addresses researchers and practitioners from enterprises and research institutions, on the other hand teachers and students dealing with questions concerning the energy market of the future. (orig.)

  17. Resistivity imaging of Aluto-Langano geothermal field using 3-D magnetotelluric inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkose, Biruk Abera; Mizunaga, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) method is a widely used geophysical method in geothermal exploration. It is used to image subsurface resistivity structures from shallow depths up to several kilometers of depth. Resistivity imaging using MT method in high-enthalpy geothermal systems is an effective tool to identify conductive clay layers that cover the geothermal systems and to detect a potential reservoir. A resistivity model is vital for deciding the location of pilot and production sites at the early stages of a geothermal project. In this study, a 3-D resistivity model of Aluto-Langano geothermal field was constructed to map structures related to a geothermal resource. The inversion program, ModEM was used to recover the 3-D resistivity model of the study area. The 3-D inversion result revealed the three main resistivity structures: a high-resistivity surface layer related to unaltered volcanic rocks at shallow depth, underlain by a conductive zone associated with the presence of conductive clay minerals, predominantly smectite. Beneath the conductive layer, the resistivity increases gradually to higher values related to the formation of high-temperature alteration minerals such as chlorite and epidote. The resistivity model recovered from 3-D inversion in Aluto-Langano corresponds very well to the conceptual model for high-enthalpy volcanic geothermal systems. The conductive clay cap is overlying the resistive propylitic upflow zone as confirmed by the geothermal wells in the area.

  18. Robust Control of Wide Bandgap Power Electronics Device Enabled Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tong

    In recent years, wide bandgap (WBG) devices enable power converters with higher power density and higher efficiency. On the other hand, smart grid technologies are getting mature due to new battery technology and computer technology. In the near future, the two technologies will form the next generation of smart grid enabled by WBG devices. This dissertation deals with two applications: silicon carbide (SiC) device used for medium voltage level interface (7.2 kV to 240 V) and gallium nitride (GaN) device used for low voltage level interface (240 V/120 V). A 20 kW solid state transformer (SST) is designed with 6 kHz switching frequency SiC rectifier. Then three robust control design methods are proposed for each of its smart grid operation modes. In grid connected mode, a new LCL filter design method is proposed considering grid voltage THD, grid current THD and current regulation loop robust stability with respect to the grid impedance change. In grid islanded mode, micro synthesis method combined with variable structure control is used to design a robust controller for grid voltage regulation. For grid emergency mode, multivariable controller designed using Hinfinity synthesis method is proposed for accurate power sharing. Controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) testbed considering 7-SST system is setup with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The real TMS320F28335 DSP and Spartan 6 FPGA control board is used to interface a switching model SST in RTDS. And the proposed control methods are tested. For low voltage level application, a 3.3 kW smart grid hardware is built with 3 GaN inverters. The inverters are designed with the GaN device characterized using the proposed multi-function double pulse tester. The inverter is controlled by onboard TMS320F28379D dual core DSP with 200 kHz sampling frequency. Each inverter is tested to process 2.2 kW power with overall efficiency of 96.5 % at room temperature. The smart grid monitor system and fault interrupt devices (FID

  19. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  20. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  1. Development of NSSS Simulation Engine for SMART Simulator Using the Best Estimate Code, MARS3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. D.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, Sung Chul; Suh, Yong Suk; Suh, Jae Seung

    2011-01-01

    Limited computational capability and crude thermalhydraulic modeling in early 1980s forced the use of overly simplified physical models and assumptions for a real-time calculation at the cost of fidelity. Rapid advances in computer technology make it possible to improve the fidelity of the simulator models. These efforts have been made based on RELAP5 in the US, and CATHARE2 in France. The NSSS thermalhydraulic engines adopted in the most domestic fullscope power plant simulators have been replaced with RELAP5 based engines which were provided by US vendors. Since the technology dependency of the NSSS T/H engine by foreign vendors, it may cause difficulties in maintenance and model improvement. KAERI has started to develop a realistic NSSS calculation engine based on the best-estimate code MARS 3.1 for the SMART full-scope simulator. Even though we are developing the NSSS calculation engine for SMART simulator, it can be easily extended to light water reactors and GEN-IV reactors, etc. The verification of the NSSS calculation engine for SMART simulator has been conducted by an integrated test in the simulator environment, Jade 4.0, developed by GSE of Windows 2003. This paper briefly presents our efforts for the NSSS calculation engine for SMART simulator and verification test results of SAT (Site Acceptance Test)

  2. Preliminary Study of 2-D Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Modeling to Analyze Subsurface Resistivity Distribution and its Application to the Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji Hapsoro, Cahyo; Purqon, Acep; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2017-07-01

    2-D Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) has been successfully conducted to illustrate the value of Electric field distribution under the Earth surface. Electric field compared by magnetic field is used to analyze resistivity and resistivity is one of physical properties which very important to determine the reservoir potential area of geothermal systems as one of renewable energy. In this modeling we used Time Domain Electromagnetic method because it can solve EM field interaction problem with complex geometry and to analyze transient problems. TDEM methods used to model the value of electric and magnetic fields as a function of the time combined with the function of distance and depth. The result of this modeling is Electric field intensity value which is capable to describe the structure of the Earth’s subsurface. The result of this modeling can be applied to describe the Earths subsurface resistivity values to determine the reservoir potential of geothermal systems.

  3. Overview - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  4. SmartR: an open-source platform for interactive visual analytics for translational research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzinger, Sascha; Gu, Wei; Satagopam, Venkata; Eifes, Serge; Rege, Kavita; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Schneider, Reinhard

    2017-07-15

    In translational research, efficient knowledge exchange between the different fields of expertise is crucial. An open platform that is capable of storing a multitude of data types such as clinical, pre-clinical or OMICS data combined with strong visual analytical capabilities will significantly accelerate the scientific progress by making data more accessible and hypothesis generation easier. The open data warehouse tranSMART is capable of storing a variety of data types and has a growing user community including both academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. tranSMART, however, currently lacks interactive and dynamic visual analytics and does not permit any post-processing interaction or exploration. For this reason, we developed SmartR , a plugin for tranSMART, that equips the platform not only with several dynamic visual analytical workflows, but also provides its own framework for the addition of new custom workflows. Modern web technologies such as D3.js or AngularJS were used to build a set of standard visualizations that were heavily improved with dynamic elements. The source code is licensed under the Apache 2.0 License and is freely available on GitHub: https://github.com/transmart/SmartR . reinhard.schneider@uni.lu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Two dimentional modeling of subsurface structure over upper Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subsurface lithology obtained from 2D modelling of the residual field showed the presence of two lithological units. The sedimentary rock unit underlined by the basement rock consists of shales, sandstones, limestones, siltstones, clay and non-marine facies. The Basement rock units were composed of pegmatite, ...

  6. Occupancy-driven smart register for building energy saving (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjie; Wang, Ya S.

    2017-04-01

    The new era in energy-efficiency building is to integrate automatic occupancy detection with automated heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC), the largest source of building energy consumption. By closing off some air vents, during certain hours of the day, up to 7.5% building energy consumption could be saved. In the past, smart vent has received increasing attention and several products have been developed and introduced to the market for building energy saving. For instance, Ecovent Systems Inc. and Keen Home Inc. have both developed smart vent registers capable of turning the vent on and off through smart phone apps. However, their products do not have on-board occupancy sensors and are therefore open-loop. Their vent control was achieved by simply positioning the vent blade through a motor and a controller without involving any smart actuation. This paper presents an innovative approach for automated vent control and automatic occupancy (human subjects) detection. We devise this approach in a smart register that has polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame with embedded Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. SMAs belong to a class of shape memory materials (SMMs), which have the ability to `memorise' or retain their previous form when subjected to certain stimulus such as thermomechanical or magnetic variations. And it can work as actuators and be applied to vent control. Specifically, a Ni-Ti SMA strip will be pre-trained to a circular shape, wrapped with a Ni-Cr resistive wire that is coated with thermally conductive and electrically isolating material. Then, the SMA strip along with an antagonistic SMA strip will be bonded with PZT sensor and thermal sensors, to be inserted into a 3D printed mould which will be filled with silicone rubber materials. In the end, a demoulding process yields a fully integrated blade of the smart register. Several blades are installed together to form the smart register. The PZT sensors can feedback the shape of the actuator for precise

  7. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is b......Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  8. The smart - development and technology; Der smart - Entwicklung und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goppelt, G.

    1999-06-01

    The smart is the first representative of a radically new vehicle concept, with minimum space requirements and trend-setting in terms of ecology, safety, and individualism. The new design is not rooted in any tradition. The contribution describes the development process and constructional features of the smart. [Deutsch] Der smart ist der erste Vertreter eines voellig neuen Fahrzeugkonzepts. Bei kleinstem Raumbedarf soll er neue Massstaebe bei Oekologie, Sicherheit und Individualitaet setzen. Entstanden ist eine konsequente Neukonstruktion, die sich von bisherigen Traditionen loest. In diesem Beitrag sind der Entwicklungsprozess sowie die Konstruktionsmerkmale des smart beschrieben. (orig.)

  9. Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Jo; Bahr, Ryan; Hester, Jimmy; Kimionis, John; Nauroze, Abdullah; Su, Wenjing; Tehrani, Bijan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc "on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and "rugged" packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of "nearperpetual" wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly "green") wearable RF electronics and "smart-skin conformal sensors.

  10. Characterizing 3-D flow velocity in evolving pore networks driven by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnicki, K. N.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding reactive flow in geomaterials is important for optimizing geologic carbon storage practices, such as using pore space efficiently. Flow paths can be complex in large degrees of geologic heterogeneities across scales. In addition, local heterogeneity can evolve as reactive transport processes alter the pore-scale morphology. For example, dissolved carbon dioxide may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in heterogeneous cementation (and/or dissolution) and evolving flow conditions. Both path and flow complexities are important and poorly characterized, making it difficult to determine their evolution with traditional 2-D transport models. Here we characterize the development of 3-D pore-scale flow with an evolving pore configuration due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation and dissolution. A simple pattern of a microfluidic pore network is used initially and pore structures will become more complex due to precipitation and dissolution processes. At several stages of precipitation and dissolution, we directly visualize 3-D velocity vectors using micro particle image velocimetry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Measured 3-D velocity vectors are then compared to 3-D simulated flow fields which will be used to simulate reactive transport. Our findings will highlight the importance of the 3-D flow dynamics and its impact on estimating reactive surface area over time. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.

  11. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  12. Telecommunication Technologies for Smart Grid Projects with Focus on Smart Metering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Andreadou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a study of the smart grid projects realised in Europe and presents their technological solutions with a focus on smart metering Low Voltage (LV applications. Special attention is given to the telecommunications technologies used. For this purpose, we present the telecommunication technologies chosen by several European utilities for the accomplishment of their smart meter national roll-outs. Further on, a study is performed based on the European Smart Grid Projects, highlighting their technological options. The range of the projects analysed covers the ones including smart metering implementation as well as those in which smart metering applications play a significant role in the overall project success. The survey reveals that various topics are directly or indirectly linked to smart metering applications, like smart home/building, energy management, grid monitoring and integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. Therefore, the technological options that lie behind such projects are pointed out. For reasons of completeness, we also present the main characteristics of the telecommunication technologies that are found to be used in practice for the LV grid.

  13. TOF Imaging in Smart Room Environments towards Improved People Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðmundsson, Sigurjón Árni; Larsen, Rasmus; Aanæs, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In this Paper we present the use of Time-of-Flight (TOF) cameras in Smart-rooms and how this leads to improved results in segmenting the people in the room from the background and consequently better 3D reconstruction of the people. A calibrated rig of one Swissranger SR3100 Time-of-flight range ...... regional artifacts and therefore a more robust input for higher level applications such people tracking or human motion analysis....

  14. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  15. HOUSe-KEEPER, A Vendor-independent Architecture for Easy Management of Smart Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    Home-networking is gaining momentum. In a couple of months, Windows XP will be launched with the connected home experience as one of its core areas of interest. In the medium term at least, there will be more than one home networking "middleware" in a smart home, a home populated with smart, e.g., Web-enabled or network-enabled, devices. Nevertheless, the home system will have to present a global and complete view of smart devices in the home without excluding devices from one or more d...

  16. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  17. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanjie

    high-power (moment of about 6800 Am2) vertical-array DTAC system was designed, developed and tested on controlled buried targets and surface interference to illustrate that the DTAC system was insensitive to surface interference even with a high-power transmitter and having higher resolution by using the large-moment transmitter. From the theoretical and practical analysis and tests, several characteristics of the DTAC method were found: (1) The DTAC method can null out the effect of 1D layered and 2D structures, because magnetic fields are orientation independent which lead to no difference among the null vector directions. This characteristic allows for the measurements of smaller subsurface targets; (2) The DTAC method is insensitive to the orientation errors. It is a robust EM null coupling method. Even large orientation errors do not affect the measured target responses, when a reference frequency and one or more data frequencies are used; (3) The vertical-array DTAC method is effective in reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to the surface interference, e.g., fences, vehicles, power line and buildings; (4) The DTAC method is a high-resolution EM sounding method. It can distinguish the depth and orientation of subsurface targets; (5) The vertical-array DTAC method can be adapted to a variety of rapidly moving survey applications. The transmitter moment can be scaled for effective study of near-surface targets (civil engineering, water resource, and environmental restoration) as well as deep targets (mining and other natural-resource exploration).

  18. Approach for smart application to desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Moon Hee; Kim Si-Hwan

    1998-01-01

    A 330 MWt integral reactor, SMART, and an integrated nuclear seawater desalination system coupled with SMART are currently under conceptual development at KAERI. The SMART will provide energy to the desalination system either in the form of heat or electricity, or both. The integrated nuclear desalination system aims to produce about 40,000 m 3 /day potable water from seawater for demonstration purposes. The remaining energy produced by SMART will be converted into electrical energy. Several important factors are especially considered in the process of SMART and its application system development. The development emphasizes the adoption of technically proven and advanced technology, measures to secure the safety and reliability of the reactor system, consideration of the desalination process for coupling with SMART, a licensing strategy for SMART and the integrated nuclear desalination system, and international cooperation for promoting nuclear desalination with the SMART development program. The current effort to establish the concept of SMART and its application for desalination is being pursued intensively to secure the safety and reliability of SMART, to prove the implemented concepts/technology considering the coupling with the desalination process, and to formulate an optimum licensing approach. This paper aims to present the technical and strategic approach of SMART and its application system. (author)

  19. From smart city to smart destination. The case of three Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bédard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several cities around the world are self-proclaimed "smart" by integrating, in varying degrees, new technologies in the different spheres of the city. Nevertheless, despite this effervescence around the smart city, the concept requires more conceptualization from the researchers. This is even more important when it comes time to distinguishing between smart city and smart destination. The relationship between these two concepts is blurred and the transition from the smart city to the smart destination is not automatic. This situation is explained by the fact that the intrinsic characteristics of their respective target populations, being the citizens and the tourists, are different. This article compares three Canadian cities in the province of Quebec with the aim of demonstrating that the realization of a smart destination project requires the adaptation of governance structure and the involvement of all the stakeholders and more particularly in tourism.

  20. Comparative Geometrical Accuracy Investigations of Hand-Held 3d Scanning Systems - AN Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Lindstaedt, M.; Starosta, D.

    2018-05-01

    Hand-held 3D scanning systems are increasingly available on the market from several system manufacturers. These systems are deployed for 3D recording of objects with different size in diverse applications, such as industrial reverse engineering, and documentation of museum exhibits etc. Typical measurement distances range from 0.5 m to 4.5 m. Although they are often easy-to-use, the geometric performance of these systems, especially the precision and accuracy, are not well known to many users. First geometrical investigations of a variety of diverse hand-held 3D scanning systems were already carried out by the Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning Lab of the HafenCity University Hamburg (HCU Hamburg) in cooperation with two other universities in 2016. To obtain more information about the accuracy behaviour of the latest generation of hand-held 3D scanning systems, HCU Hamburg conducted further comparative geometrical investigations using structured light systems with speckle pattern (Artec Spider, Mantis Vision PocketScan 3D, Mantis Vision F5-SR, Mantis Vision F5-B, and Mantis Vision F6), and photogrammetric systems (Creaform HandySCAN 700 and Shining FreeScan X7). In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data was acquired by measurements with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  1. Survey report on smart-tribo-mechanics; Smart tribo mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey results of smart-tribo-mechanics are described. For the smart-tribo-mechanics differing from the conventional tribology, an intelligent system is constructed by making full use of various science and technology ranging from basic to application, to solve problems. Self-diagnosis and self-remediation, active control, passive control, and smart-biotribo-mechanics are typical methods. Electronics, telecommunication, healthcare, and new biotechnology are new and advanced application areas. In these areas, tribology to control and act to the material surface in the atomic and molecular scale should be the key technology. In addition, the smart-tribo-mechanics is expected to be used for sustaining basic industry, such as material, transportation, and life industries. 101 refs., 67 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Development of core design/analysis technology for integral reactor; verification of SMART nuclear design by Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Hong, In Seob; Han, Beom Seok; Jeong, Jong Seong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project is to verify neutronics characteristics of the SMART core design as to compare computational results of the MCNAP code with those of the MASTER code. To achieve this goal, we will analyze neutronics characteristics of the SMART core using the MCNAP code and compare these results with results of the MASTER code. We improved parallel computing module and developed error analysis module of the MCNAP code. We analyzed mechanism of the error propagation through depletion computation and developed a calculation module for quantifying these errors. We performed depletion analysis for fuel pins and assemblies of the SMART core. We modeled a 3-D structure of the SMART core and considered a variation of material compositions by control rods operation and performed depletion analysis for the SMART core. We computed control-rod worths of assemblies and a reactor core for operation of individual control-rod groups. We computed core reactivity coefficients-MTC, FTC and compared these results with computational results of the MASTER code. To verify error analysis module of the MCNAP code, we analyzed error propagation through depletion of the SMART B-type assembly. 18 refs., 102 figs., 36 tabs. (Author)

  3. Overview Smart Hotel di Indonesia yang Merupakan Trend Baru dalam Industri Perhotelan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Adiati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we can find out many taglines featuring the word Smart Hotel or Smart Traveler. Smart traveler is those who travel in a smart way. We called it smart because they choose the accomodation and the transportation wisely, in accordance with requirements and budget. Meanwhile Smart Hotel tagline comes up since there are many smart travelers who travel a lot to the cities around the world. Smart Hotels are hotels who try to accommodate the current market demands. The latest trend for the travelers is only a clean and comfort accommodation with affordable price but covers all the basic things needed for the travelers. Nowadays, travelers pass most of the time out of the hotel for doing business or either for visiting tourism objects. Typical smart hotels are hotels with 2 stars or 3 stars rating. Even though it is 2 or 3 star hotel, the service is as good as the higher ratings.Some of the hotel management or hotel group try to suite the demand by releasing 2 star or 3 star brand. And in the future, the 2 star or 3 star hotel is the hotel who will rapidly grow and take the majority market since the price is affordable and suites the budget. 

  4. New Results and Synthesis from SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2012-07-01

    We present new SMART-1 results recently published and give a synthesis of mission highlights and legacy. SMART-1 demonstrated the use of Solar Electric Propulsion that will be useful for Bepi-Colombo and future deep-space missions, tested new technologies for spacecraft and instruments miniaturisation, and provided an opportunity for science [1-12]. The SMART-1 spacecraft operated on a science orbit for 18 months until impact on 3 September 2006. To date, 72 refereed papers and more than 325 conference or technical papers have been published based on SMART-1 (see ADS on SMART-1 scitech website). The SMART-1 data are accessible on the ESA Planetary Science Archive PSA [13]. Recent SMART-1 published results using these archives include: Multi-angular photometry of Mare and specific regions to diagnose the regolith roughness and to constrain models of light re ection and scattering [14] that can be extended to understand the surface of other moons and asteroids; the SMART-1 impact observed from Earth was modelled using laboratory experiments predicting the size of asymmetric crater and ejecta [15]; the lunar North and South polar illumination was mapped and monitored over the entire year, permitting to identify SMART-1 peaks of quasi-eternal light" and to derive their topography [16, 17]; SMART-1 was also used for radio occultation experiments [18], and the X-Ray Solar Monitor data were used for activity and are studies of the Sun as a star in conjunction with GOES AND RHESSI [19] or to design future coronal X-ray instruments [20]. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E 1, the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the LCROSS impact, and to characterise potential sites relevant for lunar science and future exploration. Credits and links: we acknowledge members of SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team and collaborators. SMART-1 Scitech or public websites: sci.esa.int/smart-1 or www.esa.int/smart-1 References [1] Foing

  5. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  6. Seismic characterisation of subsurface structural features of parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of thirty-four migrated 2D seismic reflection lines and two composite well logs have been interpreted with a view to unravel the subsurface geological ... The interpretation procedure includes horizon identification, fault mapping, timing of horizons at selected shot points, posting of times, time-depth conversion and ...

  7. Book-Smart, Not Street-Smart: Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts and The Social Workings of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. C. Levy

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques blockchain-based “smart contracts,” which aim to automatically and securely execute obligations without reliance on a centralized enforcement authority. Though smart contracts do have some features that might serve the goals of social justice and fairness, I suggest that they are based on a thin conception of what law does, and how it does it. Smart contracts focus on the technical form of contract to the exclusion of the social contexts within which contracts operate, an...

  8. Dune advance into a coastal forest, equatorial Brazil: A subsurface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buynevich, Ilya V.; Filho, Pedro Walfir M. Souza; Asp, Nils E.

    2010-06-01

    A large active parabolic dune along the coast of Pará State, northern Brazil, was analyzed using aerial photography and imaged with high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to map the subsurface facies architecture and point-source anomalies. Most high-amplitude (8-10 dB) subsurface anomalies are correlated with partially buried mangrove trees along the leading edge (slipface) of the advancing dune. Profiles along a 200-m long basal stoss side of the dune reveal 66 targets, most of which lie below the water table and are thus inaccessible by other methods. Signal amplitudes of point-source anomalies are substantially higher than those associated with the reflections from continuous subsurface features (water table, sedimentary layers). When complemented with exposures and excavations, GPR provides the best means of rapid continuous imaging of the geological record of complex interactions between vegetation and aeolian deposition.

  9. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lobaccaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investigates technologies for smart homes. The technical descriptions of the systems are presented and point out advantages and disadvantages of each technology and product today available on the market. Barriers, challenges, benefits and future trends regarding the technologies and the role of users have also been discussed.

  10. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.

  11. Attitudes towards Smart Phones and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2  Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.

  12. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.

  13. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs

  14. Towards a smart learning environment for smart city governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, R.; Ludlow, D.; Computer Science and Creative Technology; Centre for Sustainable Planning

    2016-01-01

    Educational services provided to various stakeholders need to be actively developed to accommodate the diversity of learning models and to get the advantages of available resources (e.g. data) in smart cities governance. Despite the substantial literature on smart cities, for Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and its related domains such as learning analytics and big data, little effort has been given to the creation of connectivity to smart cities governance to meet stakeholders’ demands, e...

  15. Street Stories - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  16. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  17. Signal processing for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  18. Smart Sensor Network for Aircraft Corrosion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Network Elements – Hub, Network capable application processor ( NCAP ) – Node, Smart transducer interface module (STIM)  Corrosion Sensing and...software Transducer software Network Protocol 1451.2 1451.3 1451.5 1451.6 1451.7 I/O Node -processor Power TEDS Smart Sensor Hub ( NCAP ) IEEE 1451.0 and

  19. Overview - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.

  20. Towards the Smart World. Smart Platform: Infrastructure and Analytics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author outlines the 'smart world' concept and how technology (smart infrastructure, analytics) can foster smarter cities, smarter regions and a smarter world....

  1. Imaging the Antarctic Ice Sheet Subsurface with the HF GPR TAPIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Berthelier, J.; Reineix, A.; Ney, R.; Bonaimé, S.; Corbel, C.

    2006-12-01

    An HF impulse polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) operating at very low frequencies (ranging from ~2 to 8MHz) has been developed in the frame of the NetLander mission. This instrument, named TAPIR (Terrestrial And Planetary Investigation by Radar), was designed to probe the Martian subsurface down to kilometric depth and search for potential water reservoirs. Although the NetLander mission was cancelled in 2003, the interest on the exploration of Martian subsurface was recently enhanced by the promising observations of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on board of the ESA Mars Express orbiter. In particular, MARSIS detected the base of the North Polar Layered Deposits, penetrating up to ~1.8km the ice-rich upper layer of the underground. Such results suggest that TAPIR, which operates in the same frequency range as MARSIS and can performed a higher number of coherent integrations, is able to reach deeper structures. Yet, in contrast with classical GPRs, TAPIR can not move onto the surface and thus won't provide 2D or 3D scan of the subsurface. To retrieve, in spite of this NetLander restraint, the 3D distribution of the reflecting facets of the underground, the instrument was equipped with two electrical dipoles and a rotating magnetic sensor. These antennas allow to derive, from the measured values of 5 components of the wave field, the direction of arrival of the reflected waves hence the inclination of the buried reflectors. The first validation of this innovative concept was carried out during the RANETA (RAdar of NEtlander in Terre Adélie) campaign organized by the Institute Paul-Emile Victor in January-February 2004. This campaign took place on the Antarctic ice sheet close to the French-Italian Cap Prudhomme station. 8 soundings of the ice shelf were performed on various sites corresponding to different altitudes above the sea level (ranging from ~285m to ~1100m). We shall provide a detailed description of the

  2. Energy management of internet data centers in smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

  3. A smart refrigerator of smart grids; Een slimme koelkast voor slimme netten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennings, M.C. [NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Building Brains has been set up by TNO as a cooperative and started September 21, 2009. The aim of the project was to answer the question how the energy consumption in the Netherlands can be reduced by 50% up to 2030 or how the built environment can be made energy-neutral. This issue of the magazine is dedicated to Building Brains project. One of the research topics of the BuiLding Brains program was smart grids. A smart grid is an electricity net augmented with ICT. Smart grids have several advantages like balance supply and demand and peak shaving. ECN, the Energy research Centre of the NetherLands, has developed a smart grid technology: PowerMatcher. NXP semiconductors has developed a prototype of a smart refrigerator by adding a low-cost microcontroller and an RF transceiver to an existing fridge, and developed a deeply embedded PowerMatcher agent. [Dutch] Building Brains is een door TNO opgezet samenwerkingsproject dat op 21 september 2009 van start ging. Het doel van het project is antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe tot 2030 het energiegebruik in Nederland kan worden gehalveerd of hoe de gebouwde omgeving energieneutraal kan worden gemaakt. Deze aflevering van het tijdschrift TVVL is vrijwel geheel gewijd aan het Building Brains project. De titel koelkast is ontwikkeld door NXP-semiconductors in werkpakket 3 van het kenniswerkersproject Building Brains. De koelkast is gebaseerd op de PowerMatcher-technologie van ECN. De oplossing is kosteneffectief (initieel en operationeel) en gerealiseerd met bestaande NXP-chips.

  4. Street Stories - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.

  5. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.

  6. Traffic Information Systems for Smart Mobility as part of Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suske, David; Touko Tcheumadjeu, Louis Calvin; Sohr, Alexander; Xiaoxu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The unlimited and unrestricted mobility of people and goods in urban areas is one of the key factors for economic and social development of the city. Today with the availability of smart technologies and various intelligent transportation and telematics solutions the Smart Mobility as part of a Smart City is possible to maintain the mobility ecosystem in the city. But to make the urban mobility smart by assuring the sustainability, safety, low emission and comfort in urban transport new mobil...

  7. Smart houses for a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.J. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Karnouskos, S.; Weidlich, A. [SAP Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, (Germany); Nestle, D.; Strauss, P. [The Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik ISET, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N. [Institute Computers Communications Systems ICCS, National Technical University of Athens NTUA, Athens (Greece); Buchholz, B.; Drenkard, S. [MVV Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lioliou, V. [Public Power Corporation PPC, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Innovative technologies and concepts will emerge as we move towards a more dynamic, service-based, market-driven infrastructure, where energy efficiency and savings can be facilitated by interactive distribution networks. A new generation of fully interactive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure has to be developed to support the optimal exploitation of the changing, complex business processes and to enable the efficient functioning of the deregulated energy market for the benefit of citizens and businesses. The architecture of such distributed system landscapes must be designed and validated, standards need to be created and widely supported, and comprehensive, reliable IT applications will need to be implemented. The collaboration between a smart house and a smart grid is a promising approach which, with the help of ICT can fully unleash the capabilities of the smart electricity network.

  8. Smartness and Italian Cities. A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Boscacci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities have been recently recognized as the most pleasing and attractive places to live in; due to this, both scholars and policy-makers pay close attention to this topic. Specifically, urban “smartness” has been identified by plenty of characteristics that can be grouped into six dimensions (Giffinger et al. 2007: smart Economy (competitiveness, smart People (social and human capital, smart Governance (participation, smart Mobility (both ICTs and transport, smart Environment (natural resources, and smart Living (quality of life. According to this analytical framework, in the present paper the relation between urban attractiveness and the “smart” characteristics has been investigated in the 103 Italian NUTS3 province capitals in the year 2011. To this aim, a descriptive statistics has been followed by a regression analysis (OLS, where the dependent variable measuring the urban attractiveness has been proxied by housing market prices. Besides, a Cluster Analysis (CA has been developed in order to find differences and commonalities among the province capitals.The OLS results indicate that living, people and economy are the key drivers for achieving a better urban attractiveness. Environment, instead, keeps on playing a minor role. Besides, the CA groups the province capitals a

  9. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m 3 ) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources

  10. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m{sup 3}) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources.

  11. Final report SmartProofS. Results of projects of the SmartProofS program; Eindrapport SmartProofS. Projectresultaten van het SmartProofS programma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoorik, P.; Westerga, R. [Energy Valley, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The SmartProofs program aims to develop tools which must show that the principle of a Smart Power System (SPS) works and how. An SPS can ensure that the supply and demand of electricity in the grid is balanced, even in case more decentralized energy techniques will be put into use. This final report summarizes the main results and conclusions of the SmartProofs program. As part of the SPS program attention is paid to the impacts on the girds, the effects of centralized and decentralized management, disaster resilience, pricing models, potential benefits of control and new business models [Dutch] Het SmartProofs programma heeft tot doel om een concept van een Smart Power System (SPS) te ontwikkelen waarmee kan worden aangetoond dat het principe van een SPS werkt en op welke manier. Een SPS kan zorgen dat het aanbod van elektriciteit op het net op elk moment van de dag overeenkomt met de vraag, ook als er straks veel meer decentrale energietechnieken gebruikt worden waarmee zowel de vraag als het aanbod van elektriciteit onvoorspelbaar wordt. Dit eindrapport geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste resultaten en conclusies van het SmartProofs programma. Het programma heeft in de werkpakketten deelvraagstukken rondom SmartProofS onderzocht rondom de effecten op onze energienetten, de effecten van zowel centrale- als decentrale aansturing, disaster resilience, prijsmodellen, mogelijke baten van aansturing en nieuwe business modellen.

  12. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world’s population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities...... the “smart” vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the “big challenges” and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits......% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants....

  13. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sajid Khan; Mina Woo; Kichan Nam; Prakash K. Chathoth

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged o...

  14. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  15. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  16. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  17. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  18. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  19. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  20. The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for veterans with traumatic brain injury: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Jak, Amy J; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Lohr, James B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive impairments and persistent postconcussive symptoms that limit functional recovery, including return to work. We evaluated a 12 wk compensatory cognitive training intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) in the context of supported employment for Veterans with mild to moderate TBI. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of supported employment plus CogSMART or enhanced supported employment that controlled for therapist attention (control). CogSMART sessions were delivered by the employment specialist and included psychoeducation regarding TBI; strategies to improve sleep, fatigue, headaches, and tension; and compensatory cognitive strategies in the domains of prospective memory, attention, learning and memory, and executive functioning. Compared with controls, those assigned to supported employment plus CogSMART demonstrated significant reductions in postconcussive symptoms (Cohen d = 0.97) and improvements in prospective memory functioning (Cohen d = 0.72). Effect sizes favoring CogSMART for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depressive symptom severity, and attainment of competitive work within 14 wk were in the small to medium range (Cohen d = 0.35-0.49). Those who received CogSMART rated the intervention highly. Results suggest that adding CogSMART to supported employment may improve postconcussive symptoms and prospective memory. These effects, as well as smaller effects on psychiatric symptoms and ability to return to work, warrant replication in a larger trial.

  3. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  4. Microbial activity in the terrestrial subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.P.; Bollag, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the layers under the earth's crust. Only in recent years have techniques for sampling the deeper subsurface been developed to permit investigation of the subsurface environment. Prevailing conditions in the subsurface habitat such as nutrient availability, soil composition, redox potential, permeability and a variety of other factors can influence the microflora that flourish in a given environment. Microbial diversity varies between geological formations, but in general sandy soils support growth better than soils rich in clay. Bacteria predominate in subsurface sediments, while eukaryotes constitute only 1-2% of the microorganisms. Recent investigations revealed that most uncontaminated subsurface soils support the growth of aerobic heteroorganotrophic bacteria, but obviously anaerobic microorganisms also exist in the deeper subsurface habitat. The microorganisms residing below the surface of the earth are capable of degrading both natural and xenobiotic contaminants and can thereby adapt to growth under polluted conditions. (author) 4 tabs, 77 refs

  5. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-11-02

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world's population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the "smart" vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the "big challenges" and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants.

  6. Impacts of a CAREER Award on Advancing 3D Visualization in Geology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, M. I.

    2011-12-01

    CAREER awards provide a unique opportunity to develop educational activities as an integrated part of one's research activities. This CAREER award focused on developing interactive 3D visualization tools to aid geology students in improving their 3D visualization skills. Not only is this a key skill for field geologists who need to visualize unseen subsurface structures, but it is also an important aspect of geodynamic research into the processes, such as faulting and viscous flow, that occur during subduction. Working with an undergraduate student researcher and using the KeckCAVES developed volume visualization code 3DVisualizer, we have developed interactive visualization laboratory exercises (e.g., Discovering the Rule of Vs) and a suite of mini-exercises using illustrative 3D geologic structures (e.g., syncline, thrust fault) that students can explore (e.g., rotate, slice, cut-away) to understand how exposure of these structures at the surface can provide insight into the subsurface structure. These exercises have been integrated into the structural geology curriculum and made available on the web through the KeckCAVES Education website as both data-and-code downloads and pre-made movies. One of the main challenges of implementing research and education activities through the award is that progress must be made on both throughout the award period. Therefore, while our original intent was to use subduction model output as the structures in the educational models, delays in the research results required that we develop these models using other simpler input data sets. These delays occurred because one of the other goals of the CAREER grant is to allow the faculty to take their research in a new direction, which may certainly lead to transformative science, but can also lead to more false-starts as the challenges of doing the new science are overcome. However, having created the infrastructure for the educational components, use of the model results in future

  7. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  8. The legal framework for data privacy and protection in smart metering and smart grids; Der Rechtsrahmen beim Datenschutz fuer Smart Metering und Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, Markus [Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The legal framework for data privacy and protection in Smart Meter and Smart Grid applications has been substantially changed through modifications of the German law on the supply of electricity and gas (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz - EnWG), especially through its sections 21c et seq. Nonetheless, these modifications have on partially attained the goal of the reform, to create a secure legal framework for the use of Smart Meters and Smart Grids, and some of the newly introduced regulations actually decrease the security of the framework through the use of systematically incorrect terminology. This article gives an overview of the content of the key regulations and the issues to be resolved which result from them. (orig.)

  9. Three-D Google Earth bases geospatial visualization tool for the smart grid distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. [Enterprise Horizons, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Smart grids can be used to liberalize markets, ensure reliability and reduce the environmental footprint of electric utilities. This presentation discussed a geo-spatial visualization tool for smart grid distribution. The visualization tool can be used to visualize transmission lines, substations, and is capable of viewing millions of topographical components. The tool was designed to track and monitor the health of assets and to increase awareness of vulnerabilities, vegetation, and regional demographics. The tool is also capable of identifying potential issues before a rolling blackout situation as well as anticipating islanding spike events. The visualization tool can be segmented by population and industrial belts, and is able to provide diagnostics on power factor turbulence for congestion bottlenecks. When used for transmission line and substation siting, the tool can provide terrain feasibility analyses and environmental impact analyses. Weather-based demand forecasting can be used to determine critical customers impacted by potential outages. CAD drawings can be used to visualize assets in virtual reality and can be linked to consumer indexing and smart metering initiatives. It was concluded that the web-based tool can also be used for workforce and dispatch management. tabs., figs.

  10. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SMART-NPA evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, G. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWt integral reactor which is currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for desalination and electricity generation. SMART-NPA is the second user interface part of TASS/SMR in order to improve GUI(Graphic User Interface). Using SMART-NPA the analyzer not only can see the running status of SMART but make change of major SMART parameters. TASS/SMR, the calculation part, was written in Fortran whereas the first user interface part, called TASSWin, was written in Visual C{sup ++}. For these reason, the ActiveX control was chosen as the solution of SMART-NPA development. The five ActiveX controls were built in Visual Basic. They were Overview, Primary, Secondary, PRHRS and Control Panel ActiveX controls. They were contained in tab control, and can easily selected by user. They could communicate with TASSWin using many interface functions. The graph screens were also developed for the display of major variable's trend. The purpose of this report is the verification of SMART-NPA. The input decks were 100-200-100% power maneuvering operation, Feed Line Break Accident and user's input on Control Panel. The results of SMART-NPA for these cases were compared with the results of TASS/SMR stand alone version. The comparison results were same respectively. And all screens of SMART-NPA reflected the calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was verified. 9 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  12. Extending Topological Approaches to Microseismic-Derived 3D Fracture Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, T.; Bosman, K.; Baig, A.; Ardakani, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fracture topology is important for determining the fluid-flow characteristics of a fracture network. In most unconventional petroleum applications, flow through subsurface fracture networks is the primary source of production, as matrix permeability is often in the nanodarcy range. Typical models of reservoir discrete fracture networks (DFNs) are constructed using fracture orientation and average spacing, without consideration of how the connectivity of the fracture network aids the percolation of hydrocarbons back to the wellbore. Topological approaches to DFN characterization have been developed and extensively used in analysis of outcrop data and aerial photography. Such study of the surface expression of fracture networks is straight-forward, and the physical form of the observed fractures is directly reflected in the parameters used to describe the topology. However, this analysis largely ignores the three-dimensional nature of natural fracture networks, which is difficult to define accurately in geological studies. SMTI analysis of microseismic event distributions can produce DFNs, where each event is represented by a penny-shaped crack with radius and orientation determined from the frequency content of the waveforms and assessment of the slip instability of the potential fracture planes, respectively. Analysis of the geometric relationships between a set of fractures can provide details of intersections between fractures, and thus the topological characteristics of the fracture network. Extension of existing 2D topology approaches to 3D fracture networks is non-trivial. In the 2D case, a fracture intersection is a single point (node), and branches connect adjacent nodes along fractures. For the 3D case, intersection "nodes" become lines, and connecting nodes to find branches becomes more complicated. There are several parameters defined in 2D topology to quantify the connectivity of the fracture network. Equivalent quantities must be defined and calibrated

  13. PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA BERBASIS SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Subali Noto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran menggunakan  modifikasi model 4-D (menjadi 3D Thiagarajan yaitu sebagai berikut: (1 pendefinisian, (2 perancangan, dan (3 pengembangan. Perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan adalah (1 Silabus, (2 Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP, (3 Modul. Data diperoleh melalui  lembar validasi, tes prestasi belajar. Data diolah dengan deskriptif, analisis uji banding sample t test. Proses pengembangan perangkat menghasilkan: 1. Perangkat pembelajaran adalah valid setelah melalui revisi berdasarkan penilaian para ahli dan teman sejawat. Hasil penilaian akhirnya diperoleh rata-rata nilai validitas Silabus 3.36, RPP 3.24, dan validitas Modul 3.23 (skor tertinggi 4 termasuk kriteria valid, 2. Implementasi perangkat pembelajaran menyatakan prestasi belajar siswa kelas uji coba perangkat dengan rata-rata 70.33 lebih baik dari pada prestasi belajar siswa pada kelas kontrol dengan rata-rata  60,60. Berdasarkan hasil perangkat valid dan pembelajaran efektif menunjukkan pengembangan perangkat tercapai. Kata Kunci    : perangkat pembelajaran, SMART     ABSTRACT Developing a teaching intruments using a modified model of 4-D (to 3D Thiagarajan is as follows: (1 Definition, (2 Design, and (3 Development. Teaching instruments was developed (1 Syllabus, (2 Lesson Plan, (3 Module. Data obtained through the sheet validation, test learning achievement. The data were processed with descriptive and comparative analysis sample t test. Development process instruments resulted in: 1. Teaching instruments is valid after revision based on the assessment of experts and peers. Assessment results finally obtained an average value Syllabus validity 3,36; Lesson Plan 3,24; and validity module is 3,23 (highest score 4 include a valid criterion, 2. Implementation of the stated learning class student achievement test instruments with an average of 70,33 better than the learning achievement of students in the control class with an

  14. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  15. Economic Evaluation of SMART Deployment in the MENA Region using DEEP 5..0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Man-Ki; Zee, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Some countries have officially announced that the development of atomic energy is essential to meet the growing nation's requirements for energy to generate electricity, produce desalination water, and reduce reliance on depleting hydrocarbon resources. SMART (system-integrated modular advanced reactor) is a small-sized advanced integral reactor with a rated thermal power of 330 MW. It can produce 100 MW of electricity, or 90 MW of electricity and 40,000 tons of desalinated water concurrently, which is sufficient for 100,000 residents. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of proven technologies and advanced design features. SMART aims at achieving enhanced safety and improved economics; the enhancement of safety and reliability is realized by incorporating inherent safety-improving features and reliable passive safety systems. The improvement in the economics is achieved through a system simplification, component modularization, reduction of construction time, and high plant availability. The standard design approval assures the safety of the SMART system. The economics of SMART are evaluated for the deployment in MENA region in this study. DEEP 5.0 software was selected for the economic evaluation of SMART plant. By using the collected technical and economic data as the input data into DEEP program, the power and water costs are calculated. Electric power and fresh water production costs for the case of SMART deployment at the MENA region is evaluated using the DEEP 5.0 software in this study. Technical input data are prepared on the basis of the local environmental conditions of the MENA region. The results show that the SMART plant can supply 94 MWe to an external grid system with 40,000 m{sup 3}/d of fresh water. The power and water costs are calculated for the various specific construction costs.

  16. Economic Evaluation of SMART Deployment in the MENA Region using DEEP 5..0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Man-Ki; Zee, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Some countries have officially announced that the development of atomic energy is essential to meet the growing nation's requirements for energy to generate electricity, produce desalination water, and reduce reliance on depleting hydrocarbon resources. SMART (system-integrated modular advanced reactor) is a small-sized advanced integral reactor with a rated thermal power of 330 MW. It can produce 100 MW of electricity, or 90 MW of electricity and 40,000 tons of desalinated water concurrently, which is sufficient for 100,000 residents. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of proven technologies and advanced design features. SMART aims at achieving enhanced safety and improved economics; the enhancement of safety and reliability is realized by incorporating inherent safety-improving features and reliable passive safety systems. The improvement in the economics is achieved through a system simplification, component modularization, reduction of construction time, and high plant availability. The standard design approval assures the safety of the SMART system. The economics of SMART are evaluated for the deployment in MENA region in this study. DEEP 5.0 software was selected for the economic evaluation of SMART plant. By using the collected technical and economic data as the input data into DEEP program, the power and water costs are calculated. Electric power and fresh water production costs for the case of SMART deployment at the MENA region is evaluated using the DEEP 5.0 software in this study. Technical input data are prepared on the basis of the local environmental conditions of the MENA region. The results show that the SMART plant can supply 94 MWe to an external grid system with 40,000 m 3 /d of fresh water. The power and water costs are calculated for the various specific construction costs

  17. Modernization of Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) Technology and Methods - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    3  3  HISTORY OF SMART USE...A-19  Figure A-16. Example of an EPA Air Particulate Matter Report from Venice , LA for 28 April 2010...developing an improved data collection program to satisfy the requirements of the SMART Protocol. 3 HISTORY OF SMART USE The project team evaluated the

  18. Smart infrastructure design for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; KUMRAI, Teerawat; DONG, Mianxiong; KISHIGAMI, Jay (Junichi); GUO, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is one of the keywords to describe smart cities, aiming at efficient public transport, smart parking, enhanced road safety, intelligent traffic management, onvehicle entertainment, and so on. In ITS, Roadside Unit (RSU) deployment should be well-designed due to it serves as a service provider and a gateway to the Internet for vehicular users. In this article, we propose an RSU deployment strategy which maximizes the communication coverage and reduces t...

  19. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  20. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-06-18

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  1. Smart grids in the Grenoble area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Grenoble-Isere combines a long history of leadership in the energy industry with world-class scientific research in the fields of hydropower, nuclear energy, hydrogen and fuel cells, making it an international hub for developments in new energy technologies. Grenoble-Isere is also home to unrivalled expertise in IT, with: - Industry-leading expertise in software (from embedded software to networks); - A strong track record in the fabrication of sophisticated electronic components to regulate energy production and consumption. A Chair for Industrial Excellence in Smart Grids was established in 2012 in Grenoble in recognition of the city's academic and research programs in this exciting field. This document presents: 1 - Smart grids: specificities, challenges, context (What exactly are we talking about? Smart grids, keystone of the energy transition. A very propitious context. The French context: strong public sector support); 2 - Smart grids in the Grenoble area (A local ecosystem favorable to the smart grids dynamic. Expertise in energy and digital technologies at the serving smart grids. New Energy Technologies: a strong positioning in hydroelectricity and the hydrogen energy vector); 3 - Unique to the Grenoble area: scientific and partnership expertise (Electrical and digital engineering: two essential disciplines. Numerous public/private partnerships for the research and experimentation phase. Moving from experimental stages into true industrialization); Appendix 1: Fact sheet on high profile corporations; Appendix 2: Company lists

  2. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  3. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  4. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  5. Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Soh, Chee-Kiong; Bhalla, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    "Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics" presents the latest developments in structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomechanics using smart materials. The book mainly focuses on piezoelectric, fibre optic and ionic polymer metal composite materials. It introduces concepts from the very basics and leads to advanced modelling (analytical/ numerical), practical aspects (including software/ hardware issues) and case studies spanning civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, including bridges, rocks and underground structures. This book is intended for practicing engineers, researchers from academic and R&D institutions and postgraduate students in the fields of smart materials and structures, structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomedical engineering. Professor Chee-Kiong Soh and Associate Professor Yaowen Yang both work at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Dr. Suresh Bhalla is an A...

  6. The U.S. Smart Grid Revolution. KEMA's Perspectives for Job Creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-13

    Smart Grid is a vision for the electric delivery system of the future. The Smart Grid envisions an entirely transformed electrical infrastructure. It will embody a network of devices as vast, interconnected, automated, and interactive as the Internet. Utilities and consumers will accrue returns through the convergence of power delivery and information technologies to achieve improved reliability, reduced O and M costs, avoidance of new capacity, and increased customer satisfaction. Smart Grid includes advanced sensing, control, communications, and analytic technologies such as Advanced Metering and T and D Automation. The GridWise Alliance believes that Smart Grid will: Utilize information technologies to revolutionize energy systems as they have revolutionized other aspects of U.S. business; Create value for all participants by developing and deploying technology solutions that cross enterprise and regulatory boundaries; Enhance security and reliability through an information-rich power grid that is flexible and adaptive; and Empower consumers to benefit from their participation in the operation of the power grid. This job creation analysis focuses in detail on the Advanced Metering and T and D automation aspects of Smart Grid, but also touches on the related new business opportunities around energy services, renewable installation and services, and home automation.

  7. Ida's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  8. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  9. Influence of Mg2+ on CaCO3 precipitation during subsurface reactive transport in a homogeneous silicon-etched pore network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Victoria [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhang, Changyong [Exxon Mobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hess, Nancy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fouke, Bruce W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Valocchi, Albert J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) geochemical reactions exert a fundamental control on the evolution of porosity and permeability in shallow-to-deep subsurface siliciclastic and limestone rock reservoirs. As a result, these carbonate water-rock interactions play a critically important role in research on groundwater remediation, geological carbon sequestration, and hydrocarbon exploration. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of Mg2+ concentration on CaCO3 crystal morphology, precipitation rate, and porosity occlusion under flow and mixing conditions similar to those in subsurface aquifers.

  10. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  11. Smart Home, Smart Grid, Smart Meter - digitale Konzepte und das Recht an Daten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker genannt Döhmann, Indra

    Modernes Energiemanagement setzt auf ein intelligent gesteuertes Energieinformationsnetz, das Smart Grid. In diesem ist der Smart Meter, die intelligente Messstelle beim Nutzer, ein zentrales Instrument für den wechselseitigen Austausch von Informationen. Allerdings werfen die über diverse Gesetze forcierten Informationsströme erhebliche datenschutzrechtliche Fragen auf. Der Beitrag stellt zentrale datenschutzrechtliche Leitlinien und Probleme vor und behandelt auch offene Fragestellungen.

  12. Educating the smart city: Schooling smart citizens through computational urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williamson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with the ‘smart city’, the idea of the ‘smart school’ is emerging in imaginings of the future of education. Various commercial, governmental and civil society organizations now envisage education as a highly coded, software-mediated and data-driven social institution. Such spaces are to be governed through computational processes written in computer code and tracked through big data. In an original analysis of developments from commercial, governmental and civil society sectors, the article examines two interrelated dimensions of an emerging smart schools imaginary: (1 the constant flows of digital data that smart schools depend on and the mobilization of analytics that enable student data to be used to anticipate and shape their behaviours; and (2 the ways that young people are educated to become ‘computational operatives’ who must ‘learn to code’ in order to become ‘smart citizens’ in the governance of the smart city. These developments constitute an emerging educational space fabricated from intersecting standards, technologies, discourses and social actors, all infused with the aspirations of technical experts to govern the city at a distance through both monitoring young people as ‘data objects’ and schooling them as active ‘computational citizens’ with the responsibility to compute the future of the city.

  13. The Smart Ring Experience in l’Aquila (Italy: Integrating Smart Mobility Public Services with Air Quality Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Gabriella Villani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the historical center of l’Aquila (Italy. We describe our pilot experience performed during an experimental on-demand public service electric bus, “SmartBus”, which was equipped with a multi-parametric air quality low-cost gas electrochemical sensor platform, “NASUS IV”. For five days (28–29 August 2014 and 1–3 September 2014, the sensor platform was installed inside the SmartBus and measured air quality gas compounds (nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide during the service. Data were collected and analyzed on the bases of an air quality index, which provided qualitative insights on the air status potentially experienced by the users. The results obtained are in agreement with the synoptic meteorological conditions, the urban background air quality reference measurements and the potential traffic flow variations. Furthermore, they indicated that the air quality status was influenced by the gas component NO 2 , followed by H 2 S, SO 2 and CO. We discuss the features of our campaign, and we highlight the potential, limitations and key factors to consider for future project designs.

  14. Smart practice: smart card design considerations in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R A; Pacheco, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent innovations in microelectronics and advances in cryptography are driving the appearance of a new generation of smart cards with wider applications; this has important repercussions for our society in the coming years. Essentially, these breakthroughs include built-in microprocessors capable of generating cryptographic transactions (e.g.,Jelectronic blinded signatures, digital pseudonyms, and digital credentials), developments toward a single electronic card offering multi-access to services such as transport, telecommunications, health, financial, and entertainment (Universal Access Services), and incorporation of personal identification technologies such as voice, eye, or skin pattern recognition. For example, by using electronic representatives or cryptographic blinded signatures, a smart card can be used for multi transactions across different organizations and under different generated pseudonyms. These pseudonyms are capable of recognizing an individual unambiguously, while none of her records can be linked [1]. Moreover, tamper-proof electronic observers would make smart cards a very attractive technology for high-security based applications, such as those in the health care field. New trends in smart card technology offer excellent privacy and confidentiality safeguards. Therefore, smart cards constitute a promising technology for the health sector in Australia and other countries around the world in their pursuit of technology to support the delivery of quality care services. This paper addresses the main issues and the key design criteria which may be of strategic importance to the success of future smart card technology in the health care sector.

  15. 2-D Resistivity Assessment of Subsurface Characterization and its Engineering and Environmental Implications at SiLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Jia, Teoh Ying; Anderson, A. B.; Tonnizam, Edy; Taqiuddin Zakaria, Muhamad

    2017-04-01

    The role of geophysics in Environmental Earth Sciences and Engineering is considered. In the developing era, geophysics has mainly contributed in investigation of new constructions such as tunnels, road, dams and high-rise buildings. This study was carried out to assess the foundation depths around a construction site in the Southern Industrial & Logistics Clusters (SiLC), Nusajaya, Johor using 2-D resistivity method. The 2-D resistivity method was carried out with a view to characterize different subsurface geological and to provide the engineering and environmental geophysical characterization of the study area. Measurements of eight 2-D resistivity profile using Pole-dipole array with 2 m minimum electrode spacing was taken with the use of ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 and ES10-64C selector. The results are presented as inversion model resistivity with the outline of the survey line. The inversion model resistivity from L1-L8 obtained is characterized by resistivity range of 1-8000 ohm-m. This range indicates the occurrence of silt, clay, sandy clay and sand whose ranges are; 10-100 ohm-m, 1-100 ohm-m, 100-800 ohm-m and 100-3000 ohm-m respectively. However, there was a boulder with range of >5000 ohm-m and saturated zone (1-20 ohm-m) which may indicate the weak zones of the study area. The 2-D resistivity method is not intended to replace borings, except in specific cases where information gathered would be sufficient to address the intended engineering and environmental purpose.

  16. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  17. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäck, A

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS ® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS ® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta 4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDose TM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry Check TM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific

  18. In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile Structures: Final Report on Project F08-AR06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shrink cement grout or epoxy resin in the gap between old and new steel , shown in Figure 19. This was the reason why the perforated piles needed to...be made liquid-tight with cement grout or epoxy. Other- wise, the material injected between the old and new steel would be lost be- hind the old steel ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile

  19. Power Line Communications for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Torsten Berger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication, that is, using the electricity infrastructure for data transmission, is experiencing a renaissance in the context of Smart Grid. Smart Grid objectives include the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the electricity supply chain, securing reliable electricity delivery, and using the existing electrical infrastructure more efficiently. This paper surveys power line communications (PLCs in the context of Smart Grid. The specifications G3-PLC, PRIME, HomePlug Green PHY, and HomePlug AV2, and the standards IEEE 1901/1901.2 and ITU-T G.hn/G.hnem are discussed.

  20. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    events (NB:_times may be subject to change after major manoeuvre of SMART-1 on 25 August. Please check updates on: www.esa.int/smart1): [ ] Sunday 3 September: Monitoring of SMART-1 Moon impact Opening times for media: 06:00 to 10:00 06:30 - 09:00 Press will be briefed on the latest flight operations and can follow live SMART-1 telemetry, right before estimated impact at 07:41 CEST in ESOC Main Control Room, together with leading European mission operations and science experts and in relation with ground based observers. [ ] Monday 4 September: Summary Press Conference on SMART-1 mission Opening times for media: 10:00 - 13:00 / Press-conference from 11:00 to 12:00 11:00 - Welcome to ESA/ESOC by Gaele Winters, ESA Director of Operations - Introduction, by ESA’s Director of Science, David Southwood 11:05 - Flight operations, ground operations concepts and lunar impact, by Octavio Camino, ESA 11:15 - Spacecraft technology achievements with emphasis on solar-electric propulsion , by Giorgio Saccoccia, ESA 11:20 - Lunar science: - scientific mission overview by Bernard Foing, ESA - lunar imaging, by Jean-Luc Josset (principal investigator for AMIE) - the Moon in X-rays - mineralogy, by Manuel Grande (principal investigator for D-CIXS) - ground observations campaign, by Prof. Pascale Ehrenfreund, Leiden Observatory 11:50 - Conclusions: Heritage for future lunar missions, International cooperation with India and China, by Gerhard Schwehm, ESA 11:55 - Q&A moderated by Jocelyne Constantin-Landeau, ESA (Individual interviews afterwards)

  1. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, S.; Zdinak, A.P.; Lodman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  2. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nammoon; Kim, Youngok

    2011-10-04

    In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  3. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and