WorldWideScience

Sample records for small volume biological

  1. Impact of 18FDG-PET/CT on biological target volume (BTV) definition for treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Faria, Sergio; Dean, Geoffrey; Lisbona, Robert; Parker, William; Kaufman, Chris; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2007-01-01

    This work represents our effort to test feasibility of FDG-based PET/CT on target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment planning of NSCLC patients. Different methods have been developed to enable more precise target outlining using PET: Qualitative Visual Method, CTV=2.5 SUV units, linear SUV threshold function method, and CTV=40% Iso of Maximum Uptake Value. We are proposing reconstruction of three biological target volumes: necrotic BTV (same as PTV created by radiation oncologist using CT data), proliferating BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio 1:3) and hypoxic BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio of 1:19). Two IMRT plans were created and compared to the conventional treatment plan: 'conservative' IMRT plan delivers 52.5 Gy to the necrotic BTV and 65 Gy to the hypoxic BTV; 'radical' IMRT plan delivers 30 Gy to necrotic BTV, 52.5 Gy to proliferating BTV and 65 Gy to hypoxic BTV. Use of BTVs in IMRT plans is attractive because it increases dose to targets considered to need higher doses. It reduces considerably dose to heart and spinal cord, organs considered to limit dose escalation approaches in NSCLC treatment. 'Conservative' IMRT approach can be understood as a PET/CT-based concomitant boost to the tumor expressing the highest FDG uptake. 'Radical' plan implies deviation from the traditional uniform dose target coverage approach, with the intention of achieving better surrounding tissue sparing and ultimately allowing for dose escalation protocols relying on biologically based treatment planning

  2. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  3. Small volume target for F-18 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicioli, M.; Schuler, J.; Marchand, P.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    In order to reduce the volume of O-18 enriched water used for each F-18 production for research a small volume target of 1 ml has been designed at IPHC. The designed is derived from ACSI 3.8ml F-18 target and uses both water and Helium cooling. After one year of use production yield is reported.

  4. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  5. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  7. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  8. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume I; Space and Its Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Gazenko, Oleg G.; Grigoryev, Anatoliy I.

    1993-01-01

    these other objects. In Chapter 3, Marov describes the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their history and origin, and their environmental conditions, and in Chapter 4 Owen provides similar information about Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, "The Outer Planets of the Solar System." Morrison provides a thorough discussion of "Asteroids, Comets, and Other Small Bodies" in Chapter 5. The understanding of these relics of the formation of the solar system may form the center of our ability to understand the origin of solar systems in general, and of the critical role that the beginning of the solar system had on the prospects for the origin of life and its continued survival and evolution in the face of their recurrent impacts on Earth. In Chapter 6, the first chapter of the third part, Rummel describes the area of "Exobiology," the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of the origin and evolution of the universe. The same processes that have given rise to life on Earth may have given rise to life elsewhere. In Chapter 7, the "Earth and the Biosphere," the nature and function of the Earth are discussed as a specific instance of planetary and biological evolution. The effects of biological processes on the Earth under the influence of human activities are also addressed by Moore and Bartlett in Chapter 7. The final chapter in this section concerns the prospects that life in the universe may be widespread; "SETI," the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, by Billingham and Tarter, presents the arguments for conducting a search for evidence of life elsewhere in the galaxy, and describes the various methods proposed for conducting such a search. While SETI has a distinctly exploration al character, more direct means are available for exploring the solar system around us. The fourth part of the volume addresses this subject of space exploration. Considering the prospects for research on space biology and medicine, the means

  9. Small Business Management Volume III: Curriculum. An Adult Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    The small business management adult education program outlined in this curriculum guide is designed to help small business entrepreneurs solve their business management problems and attain the goals they have established for their businesses and their families. (An instructor's manual and practice problems are in separate volumes.) The 3-year…

  10. Do new anesthesia ventilators deliver small tidal volumes accurately during volume-controlled ventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Patricia R; McDonough, Joseph M; Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2008-05-01

    During mechanical ventilation of infants and neonates, small changes in tidal volume may lead to hypo- or hyperventilation, barotrauma, or volutrauma. Partly because breathing circuit compliance and fresh gas flow affect tidal volume delivery by traditional anesthesia ventilators in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a circle breathing system has become a common approach to minimizing the risk of mechanical ventilation for small patients, although delivered tidal volume is not assured during PCV. A new generation of anesthesia machine ventilators addresses the problems of VCV by adjusting for fresh gas flow and for the compliance of the breathing circuit. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of new anesthesia ventilators to deliver small tidal volumes. Four anesthesia ventilator systems were evaluated to determine the accuracy of volume delivery to the airway during VCV at tidal volume settings of 100, 200, and 500 mL under different conditions of breathing circuit compliance (fully extended and fully contracted circuits) and lung compliance. A mechanical test lung (adult and infant) was used to simulate lung compliances ranging from 0.0025 to 0.03 L/cm H(2)O. Volumes and pressures were measured using a calibrated screen pneumotachograph and custom software. We tested the Smartvent 7900, Avance, and Aisys anesthesia ventilator systems (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) and the Apollo anesthesia ventilator (Draeger Medical, Telford, PA). The Smartvent 7900 and Avance ventilators use inspiratory flow sensors to control the volume delivered, whereas the Aisys and Apollo ventilators compensate for the compliance of the circuit. We found that the anesthesia ventilators that use compliance compensation (Aisys and Apollo) accurately delivered both large and small tidal volumes to the airway of the test lung under conditions of normal and low lung compliance during VCV (ranging from 95.5% to 106.2% of the set tidal volume

  11. Methods of small parameter in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Banasiak, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents new tools for modeling multiscale biological processes. Natural processes are usually driven by mechanisms widely differing from each other in the time or space scale at which they operate and thus should be described by appropriate multiscale models. However, looking at all such scales simultaneously is often infeasible, costly, and provides information that is redundant for a particular application. Hence, there has been a growing interest in providing a more focused description of multiscale processes by aggregating variables in a way that is relevant and preserves the salient features of the dynamics. The aim of this book is to present a systematic way of deriving the so-called limit equations for such aggregated variables and ensuring that the coefficients of these equations encapsulate the relevant information from the discarded levels of description. Since any approximation is only valid if an estimate of the incurred error is available, the tools described allow for proving tha...

  12. KCNQ1 channels sense small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2003-01-01

    Many important physiological processes involve changes in cell volume, e.g. the transport of salt and water in epithelial cells and the contraction of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we show that voltage-gated KCNQ1 channels, which are strongly expressed in epithelial cells or cardiomyocytes......, and KCNQ4 channels, expressed in hair cells and the auditory tract, are tightly regulated by small cell volume changes when co-expressed with aquaporin 1 water-channels (AQP1) in Xenopus oocytes. The KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 current amplitudes precisely reflect the volume of the oocytes. By contrast, the related...... KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels, which are prominently expressed in neurons, are insensitive to cell volume changes. The sensitivity of the KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels to cell volume changes is independent of the presence of the auxiliary KCNE1-3 subunits, although modulated by KCNE1 in the case of KCNQ1...

  13. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution for Patients in Traumatic Haemorrhagic Shock. ... The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock ...

  14. Thermodynamics of small systems two volumes bound as one

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Terrel L

    1994-01-01

    This authoritative summary of the basics of small system, or nonmacroscopic, thermodynamics was written by the field's founder. Originally published in two volumes, the text remains essential reading in an area in which the practical aim is to derive equations that provide interconnections among various thermodynamic functions. Part I introduces the basics of small system thermodynamics, exploring environmental variables, noting throughout the ways in which small thermodynamic systems differ operationally from macroscopic systems. Part II explores binding on macromolecules and aggregation, completes the discussion of environmental variables, and includes brief summaries of certain special topics, including electric and magnetic fields, spherical drops and bubbles, and polydisperse systems.

  15. Biological modelling of fuzzy target volumes in 3D radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, S.; Kampen, M. van; Waschek, T.; Engenhart, R.; Schlegel, W.

    1995-01-01

    increase in NTCP is then calculated for a homogeneous dose distribution extending the boundaries of the volume considered towards the maximal PTV. Results: The behavior of the model and its dependence on the input parameters was investigated for the case of a brain tumor. Going from the minimal PTV towards the maximal PTV, the TCP increases show a sigmoidal shape. The increase in NTCP depends for each patient on the relative position of the organs at risk with respect to the region of uncertainty. We use the model as input into a computer assisted expert system based on Fuzzy Logic. Output of the Fuzzy system is the target volume which, for each individual patient, leads to the best compromise between high tumor control probability on one side and a low risk of complications on the other side. With this system the extent of the target volume towards noncritical structures is large, whereas the boundaries near an organ at risk within the region of uncertainty are strongly influenced by the partial volume of that organ at risk irradiated. Conclusion: At present biological models, in particular of TCP, suffer from a lack of data for the biological input parameters, especially for the density and distribution of clonogenic cells. The better these input parameters become established in the future, the more the model described here will serve as an important aid for the radiotherapist in the definition of the optimal target volume

  16. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  17. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  18. Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

  19. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  20. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.; Cheze-Le-Rest, C.; Pradier, O.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ( 18 F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  1. HCCR TBS LOCA and ICE into small confined volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2016-01-01

    KAERI has participated in the development of HCCR (Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector) TBS (Test Blanket System) as a member of the KO TBM Team. Conceptual design review of this system had been performed in 2015 and after resolving the chits, the final approval was achieved in March 2016. This safety issue is one of the category II chits in the CDR and resolution strategy was already approved, however, safety analysis should be done until PDR (Preliminary Design Review). In this paper, model and nodalization for the accident are given and preliminary result is included. Nominal design pressure of HCS loop is 8 MPa, therefore, as indicated in the figure below. During the break of cooling pipe between TBM and Shield, the high pressure coolant will ingress to the 'interspace' between TBM, Shield and Frame. The coolant will be released through the front gaps between TBM and Frame towards VV primary vacuum. Accident analysis about HCCR TBS LOCA and ICE into small confined volume has been done successfully. Inverspace volume is compatibly small volume for 8MPa helium loop rupture, which causes fast pressure build-up the space but it decrease within 10 seconds. It is expected that other type of TBM has almost the same behavior

  2. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  3. Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Muñoz, Inés G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Urban, Volker S. [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications.The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS.The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for

  4. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  5. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  6. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  7. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  8. Advancing Small Satellite Electronics Heritage for Microfluidic Biological Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce; Mazmanian, Edward; Tapio, Eric

    2016-01-01

    DLR's Eu:CROPIS (Euglena and Combined Regenerative Organic-Food Production in Space) mission, launching in 2017, will carry multiple biological payloads into a sun-synchronous orbit, including NASA Ames' PowerCell experiment. PowerCell will attempt to characterize the viability of synthetic biology at micro-g, Lunar, and Martian gravity levels. PowerCell experiment requirements demand an electronic system similar to previous microfluidic biology payloads, but with an expanded feature set. As such, the system was based on PharmaSat (Diaz-Aguado et al. 2009), a previous successful biology payload from NASA Ames, and improved upon. Newer, more miniaturized electronics allow for greater capability with a lower part count and smaller size. Two identical PowerCell enclosures will fly. Each enclosure contains two separate and identical experiments with a 48-segment optical density measurement system, grow light system, microfluidic system for nutrient delivery and waste flushing, plus thermal control and environmental sensing/housekeeping including temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration. Electronics consist of a single Master PCB that interfaces to the spacecraft bus and regulates power and communication, plus LED, Detector, and Valve Manifold PCBs for each experiment. To facilitate ease of reuse on future missions, experiment electronics were designed to be compatible with a standard 3U small sat form factor and power bus, or to interface with a Master power/comm PCB for use in a larger satellite as in the case of PowerCell's flight on Eu:CROPIS.

  9. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  10. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  11. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD 2 ) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD 2 verification with pair t -test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D 90% , 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D 2cc , and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD 2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p -values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  12. A Small-Volume, Low-Cost, and Versatile Continuous Culture Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick Matteau

    Full Text Available Continuous culture devices can be used for various purposes such as establishing reproducible growth conditions or maintaining cell populations under a constant environment for long periods. However, commercially available instruments are expensive, were not designed to handle small volumes in the milliliter range, and can lack the flexibility required for the diverse experimental needs found in several laboratories.We developed a versatile continuous culture system and provide detailed instructions as well as a graphical user interface software for potential users to assemble and operate their own instrument. Three culture chambers can be controlled simultaneously with the proposed configuration, and all components are readily available from various sources. We demonstrate that our continuous culture device can be used under different modes, and can easily be programmed to behave either as a turbidostat or chemostat. Addition of fresh medium to the culture vessel can be controlled by a real-time feedback loop or simply calibrated to deliver a defined volume. Furthermore, the selected light-emitting diode and photodetector enable the use of phenol red as a pH indicator, which can be used to indirectly monitor the bulk metabolic activity of a cell population rather than the turbidity.This affordable and customizable system will constitute a useful tool in many areas of biology such as microbial ecology as well as systems and synthetic biology.

  13. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Biological and Environmental Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  14. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  15. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  16. Small Business Management. Instructor's Manual. Volume I. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, Joseph A.; And Others

    The instructor's manual is one of four prepared as a guide in conducting a small Business Management course for American Indians to prepare them for jobs as owners/managers of their own businesses and for management positions with business owned by bonds, cooperatives, and others. The manual contains lesson plans, suggested methodologies, and…

  17. Small-volume amnioinfusion: a potential stimulus of intrapartum fetal heart rate accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Flaherty, Nina; Pinette, Michael G; Blackstone, Jacquelyn; Cartin, Angelina

    2004-02-01

    We describe a recurrent nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern in which small-volume amnioinfusions apparently evoked fetal heart rate accelerations suggested fetal well-being, allowing that progressive labor that culminated in the vaginal delivery of a healthy infant.

  18. E-beam direct write versus reticle/stepper technology for ASICS in small volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pros and cons of using e-beam direct writing or reticles plus optical/UV steppers in fast prototyping and the small volume production of ASICs are discussed. The main conclusion is that fast prototyping is best achieved by e-beam direct write whereas small volume production of ASICs is best done via reticles and optical/UV stepping provided that the reticles are made in-house rather than by commercial maskhouses

  19. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtai...

  20. Parsing partial molar volumes of small molecules: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2011-04-28

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for a number of small solutes of various chemical natures. We repeated our computations using modified pair potentials, first, in the absence of the Coulombic term and, second, in the absence of the Coulombic and the attractive Lennard-Jones terms. Comparison of our results with experimental data and the volumetric results of Monte Carlo simulation with hard sphere potentials and scaled particle theory-based computations led us to conclude that, for small solutes, the partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potential in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume. On the other hand, MD simulations carried out with the pair interaction potentials containing only the repulsive Lennard-Jones term produce unrealistically large partial molar volumes of solutes that are close to their excluded volumes. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the reported schemes for parsing partial molar volume data on small solutes. In particular, our determined interaction volumes() and the thickness of the thermal volume for individual compounds are in good agreement with empirical estimates. This work is the first computational study that supports and lends credence to the practical algorithms of parsing partial molar volume data that are currently in use for molecular interpretations of volumetric data.

  1. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D. H.; Huh, S. J.; Ahn, Y. C.; Kim, D. Y.; Wu, H. G.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, D. R.; Shin, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  2. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 49, Recombination at the DNA level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains full papers prepared by the participants to the 1984 Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme is entitled Recombination at the DNA level. The volume consists of 93 articles grouped into subject areas entitled chromosome mechanics, yeast systems, mammalian homologous recombination, transposons, mu, plant transposons/T4 recombination, topoisomerase, resolvase and gyrase, Escherichia coli general recombination, RecA, repair, leukaryotic enzymes, integration and excision of bacteriophage, site-specific recombination, and recombination in vitro

  3. The biological application of small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    The short history of small animal PET is reviewed in the context of its application in the laboratory. Early work has demonstrated a role for the technique in both drug development and in the in vivo monitoring of neuroreceptor function with time. As spatial resolution approaches 1 mm, challenges in quantification remain. However, the ability to carry out animal PET studies that are analogous to human PET will form an important bridge between laboratory and clinical sciences

  4. Low power digital communication in implantable devices using volume conduction of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Lee, Heung-No; Sclabassi, R J; Sun, Mingui

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the data communication problem of implantable devices using fundamental theories in communications. We utilize the volume conduction property of biological tissues to establish a digital communications link. Data obtained through animal experiments are used to analyze the time and frequency response of the volume conduction channel as well as to characterize the biological signals and noises present in the system. A low power bandwidth efficient channel-coded modulation scheme is proposed to conserve battery power and reduce the health risks associated.

  5. Dose-volume correlation in radiation-related late small-bowel complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Boer, R.W. de; hart, A.A.M.; Barteling, H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the volume of irradiated small bowel on late small-bowel tolerance was studied, taking into account the equivalent total dose ant type of pre-irradiation surgical procedure. A method was developed to estimate small-bowel volumes in the high-bowel volumes were measured for three-field and AP-PA pelvic treatments (165 cm 3 and 400 cm 3 , respectively), extended AP-PA treatment of para-aortic and iliac nodes (1000 cm 3 ). In a retrospective study of 111 patientst irradiated after surgery for rectal or recto-sigmoid cancer to a dose of 45-50 Gy in 5 weeks, extended AP-PA pelvic treatment (n = 27) resulted in a high incidence of severe small-bowel complications (37%), whereas for limited (three-field) pelvic treatment (n = 84) the complication rate was 6%. These complication data together with data from the literature on postoperative radiation-related small-bowel complications were analysed using the maximum likelihood method to fit the data to the logistic form of the dose-response relation, taking the volume effect into account by a power law. The analysis indicated that the incidence of radiation-related small-bowel compllications was higher after rectal surgery than after other types of surgery, which might be explained by the development of more adhesions. For both types of surgery a volume exponent of the power-law of 0.26 ± 0.05 was established. This means that if the small-bowel volume is increased by a factor of 2, the total dose has to be reduced by 17% for the same incidence of small-bowel complications. (author). 45 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Small non coding RNAs in adipocyte biology and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Scheideler, Marcel

    2017-11-15

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions world-wide and constitutes a substantial risk factor for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. So far, regulation of energy intake by dietary and pharmacological treatments has met limited success. The main interest of current research is focused on understanding the role of different pathways involved in adipose tissue function and modulation of its mass. Whole-genome sequencing studies revealed that the majority of the human genome is transcribed, with thousands of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNA), which comprise small and long ncRNAs. ncRNAs regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Numerous studies described the involvement of ncRNAs in the pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity and associated metabolic disorders. ncRNAs represent potential diagnostic biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on small ncRNAs involved in the formation and function of adipocytes and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  8. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  9. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  10. Minding your Own Small Business - An Introductory Curriculum for Small Business Management. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nancy; And Others

    Ten units on the basic knowledge and skills needed to manage a small business are provided in this curriculum guide designed for use with secondary and postsecondary students. Unit topics include forms of businesses, marketing, location, systems and records, promotion, pricing, human relations, financing a business, and effects of business…

  11. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  12. MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, Sonja; Kuehle, Christiane A.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Barkhausen, Joerg; Herbig, Sebastian; Haag, Sebastian; Lauenstein, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

  13. From early lessons to new frontiers: The worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Youngman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, the tiny soil nematode C. elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNAi pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  14. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  15. 40 CFR 1045.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions related to the transition to new emission standards. See § 1045.145. (2) More flexible arrangements for creating engine families for high-performance engines. See § 1045.230. (3) Assigned... small-volume engine manufacturer, we will work with you to determine a reasonable schedule for complying...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume... companies; (iv) Vehicles and/or engines imported or distributed by all firms where the vehicles and/or...-use verification testing to have a minimum odometer mileage of 75 percent of the full useful life...

  17. Target volume determination in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer-facts and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, L.; Bujko, K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the precise target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy is required by ICRU Report 50 and 62, this task in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often controversial and strict accordance with ICRU requirements is hard to achieve. The Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) definition depends mainly on the imaging method used. We discuss the use of new imaging modalities, like PET, in GTV definition. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) definition remains a separate, and still unresolved problem, especially in the part concerning the Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI). Nowadays, there is no unified attitude among radiation oncologists regarding the necessity and extent of ENI. The common use of combined treatment modalities and the tendency to dose escalation, both increasing the potential toxicity, result in the more frequent use of involved-fields techniques. Problems relating to margins during Planning Target Volume (PTV) of lung cancer irradiation are also discussed. Another issue is the Interclinician variability in target volumes definition, especially when there is data indicating that the GTV, as defined by 3 D-treatment planning in NSCLC radiotherapy, may be highly prognostic for survival. We postulate that special attention should be paid to detailed precision of target volume determination in departmental and trial protocols. Careful analysis of patterns of failures from ongoing protocols will enable us to formulate the guidelines for target volume definition in radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  18. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E; Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Sperling, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  19. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); Mathew, D [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tanny, S [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NY (United States); Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  20. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  1. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  2. A semantic web ontology for small molecules and their biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jooyoung; Davis, Melissa J; Newman, Andrew F; Ragan, Mark A

    2010-05-24

    A wide range of data on sequences, structures, pathways, and networks of genes and gene products is available for hypothesis testing and discovery in biological and biomedical research. However, data describing the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules have not been well-integrated with these resources. Semantically rich representations of chemical data, combined with Semantic Web technologies, have the potential to enable the integration of small molecule and biomolecular data resources, expanding the scope and power of biomedical and pharmacological research. We employed the Semantic Web technologies Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) to generate a Small Molecule Ontology (SMO) that represents concepts and provides unique identifiers for biologically relevant properties of small molecules and their interactions with biomolecules, such as proteins. We instanced SMO using data from three public data sources, i.e., DrugBank, PubChem and UniProt, and converted to RDF triples. Evaluation of SMO by use of predetermined competency questions implemented as SPARQL queries demonstrated that data from chemical and biomolecular data sources were effectively represented and that useful knowledge can be extracted. These results illustrate the potential of Semantic Web technologies in chemical, biological, and pharmacological research and in drug discovery.

  3. Small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with polymerized human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Catalina; Yalcin, Ozlem; Palmer, Andre F; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is used as a plasma expander; however, albumin is readily eliminated from the intravascular space. The objective of this study was to establish the effects of various-sized polymerized HSAs (PolyHSAs) during small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock on systemic parameters, microvascular hemodynamics, and functional capillary density in the hamster window chamber model. Polymerized HSA size was controlled by varying the cross-link density (ie, molar ratio of glutaraldehyde to HSA). Hemorrhage was induced by controlled arterial bleeding of 50% of the animal's blood volume (BV), and hypovolemic shock was maintained for 1 hour. Resuscitation was implemented in 2 phases, first, by infusion of 3.5% of the BV of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) then followed by infusion of 10% of the BV of each PolyHSA. Resuscitation provided rapid recovery of blood pressure, blood gas parameters, and microvascular perfusion. Polymerized HSA at a glutaraldehyde-to-HSA molar ratio of 60:1 (PolyHSA(60:1)) provided superior recovery of blood pressure, microvascular blood flow, and functional capillary density, and acid-base balance, with sustained volume expansion in relation to the volume infused. The high molecular weight of PolyHSA(60:1) increased the hydrodynamic radius and solution viscosity. Pharmacokinetic analysis of PolyHSA(60:1) indicates reduced clearance and increased circulatory half-life compared with monomeric HSA and other PolyHSA formulations. In conclusion, HSA molecular size and solution viscosity affect central hemodynamics, microvascular blood flow, volume expansion, and circulation persistence during small-volume resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. In addition, PolyHSA can be an alternative to HSA in pathophysiological situations with compromised vascular permeability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal halides vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanov, D. V.; Sukhanov, V. B.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    Investigation of the energy characteristics of copper, manganese, lead halide vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume 90 cm3 was made. The optimal operating pulse repetition rates, temperatures, and buffer gas pressure for gas discharge tubes with internal and external electrodes are determined. Under identical pump conditions, such systems are not inferior in their characteristics to standard metal halide vapor lasers. It is shown that the use of a zeolite halogen generator provides lifetime laser operation.

  5. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtain required parts; 2) assembly of the dialyzer; and 3) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyser takes about 1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1–24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane employed. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume nonenzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading, and vesicle microscopy. PMID:26020615

  6. Quantification of Tumor Volume Changes During Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Jana; Ford, Eric; Redmond, Kristin; Zhou, Jessica; Wong, John; Song, Danny Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for lung cancer is limited by normal tissue toxicity. We evaluated sequential computed tomography (CT) scans to assess the possibility of adaptively reducing treatment volumes by quantifying the tumor volume reduction occurring during a course of radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients underwent RT for Stage I-III non-small-cell lung cancer with conventional fractionation; 15 received concurrent chemotherapy. Two repeat CT scans were performed at a nominal dose of 30 Gy and 50 Gy. Respiration-correlated four-dimensional CT scans were used for evaluation of respiratory effects in 17 patients. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on simulation and all individual phases of the repeat CT scans. Parenchymal tumor was evaluated unless the nodal volume was larger or was the primary. Subsequent image sets were spatially co-registered with the simulation data for evaluation. Results: The median GTV reduction was 24.7% (range, -0.3% to 61.7%; p 100 cm 3 vs. 3 , and hilar and/or mediastinal involvement vs. purely parenchymal or pleural lesions. A tendency toward a greater volume reduction with increasing dose was seen, although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated significant alterations in the GTV seen on repeat CT scans during RT. These observations raise the possibility of using an adaptive approach toward RT of non-small-cell lung cancer to minimize the dose to normal structures and more safely increase the dose directed at the target tissues.

  7. Biological intrusion barriers for large-volume waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    intrusion of plants and animals into shallow land burial sites with subsequent mobilization of toxic and radiotoxic materials has occured. Based on recent pathway modeling studies, such intrusions can contribute to the dose received by man. This paper describes past work on developing biological intrusion barrier systems for application to large volume waste site stabilization. State-of-the-art concepts employing rock and chemical barriers are discussed relative to long term serviceability and cost of application. The interaction of bio-intrusion barrier systems with other processes affecting trench cover stability are discussed to ensure that trench cover designs minimize the potential dose to man. 3 figures, 6 tables

  8. The RNAi Universe in Fungi: A Varied Landscape of Small RNAs and Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2017-09-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.

  9. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].

  10. Volume dose ratios relevant for alanine dosimetry in small, 6 MV photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard O.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Behrens, Claus F.

    2012-01-01

    therapy). To this end, we here present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study with DOSRZnrc that investigated the influence of field and detector size for small 6 MV photon beams. The study focusses on doses averaged over the volume of the detector rather than point doses.The ratio of volume...... averaged doses to water (D¯W) and alanine (D¯det) was found to be approximately 1.025 for most situations studied, and a constant ratio is likely to be representative for many applications in radiation therapy. However, D¯W/D¯det was found to be as low as 0.9908 ± 0.0037 in situations where one might...... expect significant deviations from charged particle equilibrium (i.e. at shallow depths and when the field size was smaller than the range of the secondary electrons). These effects therefore need consideration when finite-size alanine dosimeters are used under such conditions....

  11. Deviations in expected price impact for small transaction volumes under fee restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M.; Hendricks, D.; Gebbie, T.; Wilcox, D.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the occurrence of an anomaly in the price impacts of small transaction volumes following a change in the fee structure of an electronic market. We first review evidence for the existence of a master curve for price impact on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). On attempting to re-estimate a master curve after fee reductions, it is found that the price impact corresponding to smaller volume trades is greater than expected relative to prior estimates for a range of listed stocks. We show that a master curve for price impact can be found following rescaling by an appropriate liquidity proxy, providing a means for practitioners to approximate price impact curves without onerous processing of tick data.

  12. Improvement of 137Cs analysis in small volume seawater samples using the Ogoya underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K.; Kanazawa University, Ishikawa; Aoyama, M.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs in seawater is one of the most powerful tracers of water motion. Large volumes of samples have been required for determination of 137 Cs in seawater. This paper describes improvement of separation and purification processes of 137 Cs in seawater, which includes purification of 137 Cs using hexachloroplatinic acid in addition to ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) precipitation. As a result, we succeeded the 137 Cs determination in seawater with a smaller sample volume of 10 liter by using ultra-low background gamma-spectrometry in the Ogoya underground facility. 137 Cs detection limit was about 0.1 mBq (counting time: 10 6 s). This method is applied to determine 137 Cs in small samples of the South Pacific deep waters. (author)

  13. Small-scale laser based electron accelerators for biology and medicine: a comparative study of the biological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Luca; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Baffigi, Federica; Basta, Giuseppina; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Borghini, Andrea; Candiano, Giuliana C.; Casarino, Carlo; Cresci, Monica; Di Martino, Fabio; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Ghetti, Francesco; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Giulietti, Antonio; Köster, Petra; Lenci, Francesco; Levato, Tadzio; Oishi, Yuji; Russo, Giorgio; Sgarbossa, Antonella; Traino, Claudio; Gizzi, Leonida A.

    2013-05-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators based on the Laser Wakefield Acceleration process has entered a mature phase to be considered as alternative devices to conventional radiofrequency linear accelerators used in medical applications. Before entering the medical practice, however, deep studies of the radiobiological effects of such short bunches as the ones produced by laser-driven accelerators have to be performed. Here we report on the setup, characterization and first test of a small-scale laser accelerator for radiobiology experiments. A brief description of the experimental setup will be given at first, followed by an overview of the electron bunch characterization, in particular in terms of dose delivered to the samples. Finally, the first results from the irradiation of biological samples will be briefly discussed.

  14. Description and performance of a prototype PET system for small volume imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.; Hogan, M.J.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario; Dinsdale, H.B.; Howse, D.C.N.; Kulick, J.; Mak, H.B.; Stewart, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype positron emission tomography (PET) system has been designed for high-resolution imaging of small volumes. The detectors use Pb converter stacks and multiwire proportional counters (MWPC); the data acquisition components and image reconstruction methods are also described briefly. The performance of the system is discussed in terms of sensitivity, count rate capability, spatial resolution, and scattered background. Three examples of metabolic or transport imaging demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the system. These are blood flow to bone, cerebral glucose uptake, and nutrient translocation in plants. The performance of the prototype has been sufficiently promising that an improved system is under development. (orig.)

  15. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  17. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  18. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  19. Temperature-dependent phase transitions in zeptoliter volumes of a complex biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Proksch, Roger; King, William P; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Contera, Sonia Antoranz

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50-60 deg. C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 ± 5 deg. C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  20. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  1. Small wastewater treatment plants in mountain areas: combination of septic tank and biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoir, S; Philip, H; Rambaud, A

    2007-01-01

    Research work has been carried out for more than 20 years by Eparco and the University of Montpellier (France) on the application of biological wastewater treatment processes for small communities. This research has led to a new process which is particularly suitable for remote populations, taking into account several specificities such as as the seasonal fluctuations in the population, the accessibility of the site, the absence of a power supply on site, the reduced area of land available and the low maintenance. Thus, the process, which combines a septic tank operating under anaerobic conditions and a biological aerobic filter, is a solution for wastewater treatment in mountain areas. This paper presents the process and three full-scale applications in the region of the Alps.

  2. Biologic lung volume reduction in advanced upper lobe emphysema: phase 2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, Gerard J; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Strange, Charlie; Dransfield, Mark; Gotfried, Mark; Leeds, William; McLennan, Geoffrey; Refaely, Yael; Tewari, Sanjiv; Krasna, Mark; Celli, Bartolome

    2009-05-01

    Biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) is a new endobronchial treatment for advanced emphysema that reduces lung volume through tissue remodeling. Assess the safety and therapeutic dose of BioLVR hydrogel in upper lobe predominant emphysema. Open-labeled, multicenter phase 2 dose-ranging studies were performed with BioLVR hydrogel administered to eight subsegmental sites (four in each upper lobe) involving: (1) low-dose treatment (n = 28) with 10 ml per site (LD); and (2) high-dose treatment (n = 22) with 20 ml per site (HD). Safety was assessed by the incidence of serious medical complications. Efficacy was assessed by change from baseline in pulmonary function tests, dyspnea score, 6-minute walk distance, and health-related quality of life. After treatment there were no deaths and four serious treatment-related complications. A reduction in residual volume to TLC ratio at 12 weeks (primary efficacy outcome) was achieved with both LD (-6.4 +/- 9.3%; P = 0.002) and HD (-5.5 +/- 9.4%; P = 0.028) treatments. Improvements in pulmonary function in HD (6 mo: DeltaFEV(1) = +15.6%; P = 0.002; DeltaFVC = +9.1%; P = 0.034) were greater than in LD patients (6 mo: DeltaFEV(1) = +6.7%; P = 0.021; DeltaFVC = +5.1%; P = 0.139). LD- and HD-treated groups both demonstrated improved symptom scores and health-related quality of life. BioLVR improves physiology and functional outcomes up to 6 months with an acceptable safety profile in upper lobe predominant emphysema. Overall improvement was greater and responses more durable with 20 ml per site than 10 ml per site dosing. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00435253 and NCT 00515164).

  3. [The concept of small volume resuscitation for preclinical trauma management. Experiences in the Air Rescue Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Hauke, J; Kohler, J; Lampl, L

    2013-04-01

    Prompt hemorrhage control and adequate fluid resuscitation are the key components of early trauma care. However, the optimal resuscitation strategy remains controversial. In this context the small volume resuscitation (SVR) concept with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions is a new strategy. This was a retrospective study in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service over a 5-year period. Included were all major trauma victims if they were candidates for SVR (initially 4 ml HyperHaes/kg body weight, followed by conventional fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and colloids). Demographic data, type and cause of injury and injury severity score (ISS) were recorded and the amount of fluid volume and the hemodynamic profile were analyzed. Negative side-effects as well as sodium chloride serum levels on hospital admission were recorded. A total of 342 trauma victims (male 70.2%, mean age 39.0 ± 18.8 years, ISS 31.6 ± 16.9, ISS>16, 81.6%) underwent prehospital SVR. A blunt trauma mechanism was predominant (96.8%) and the leading cause of injury was motor vehicle accidents (61.5%) and motorcycle accidents (22.3%). Multiple trauma and polytrauma were noted in 87.4% of the cases. Predominant was traumatic brain injury (73.1%) as well as chest injury (73.1%) followed by limb injury (69.9%) and abdominal/pelvic trauma (45.0%). Within the whole study group in addition to 250 ml HyperHaes, mean volumes of 1214 ± 679 ml lactated Ringers and 1288 ± 954 ml hydroxethylstarch were infused during the prehospital treatment phase. There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of crystalloids and colloids infused regarding the subgroups multisystem trauma (ISS>16), severe traumatic brain injury (GCS80 mmHg significantly less colloids (1035 ± 659 ml vs. 1288 ± 954 ml, pconcept of small volume resuscitation provides early and effective hemodynamic control. Clinical side-effects associated with bolus infusion of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are rare.

  4. WE-B-304-02: Treatment Planning Evaluation and Optimization Should Be Biologically and Not Dose/volume Based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of radiotherapy treatment planning is to find a treatment that will yield a high tumor control probability (TCP) with an acceptable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Yet most treatment planning today is not based upon optimization of TCPs and NTCPs, but rather upon meeting physical dose and volume constraints defined by the planner. It has been suggested that treatment planning evaluation and optimization would be more effective if they were biologically and not dose/volume based, and this is the claim debated in this month’s Point/Counterpoint. After a brief overview of biologically and DVH based treatment planning by the Moderator Colin Orton, Joseph Deasy (for biological planning) and Charles Mayo (against biological planning) will begin the debate. Some of the arguments in support of biological planning include: this will result in more effective dose distributions for many patients DVH-based measures of plan quality are known to have little predictive value there is little evidence that either D95 or D98 of the PTV is a good predictor of tumor control sufficient validated outcome prediction models are now becoming available and should be used to drive planning and optimization Some of the arguments against biological planning include: several decades of experience with DVH-based planning should not be discarded we do not know enough about the reliability and errors associated with biological models the radiotherapy community in general has little direct experience with side by side comparisons of DVH vs biological metrics and outcomes it is unlikely that a clinician would accept extremely cold regions in a CTV or hot regions in a PTV, despite having acceptable TCP values Learning Objectives: To understand dose/volume based treatment planning and its potential limitations To understand biological metrics such as EUD, TCP, and NTCP To understand biologically based treatment planning and its potential limitations

  5. Finite element analysis of cylindrical indentation for determining plastic properties of materials in small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y Charles; Kurapati, Siva N V R K; Yang Fuqian

    2008-01-01

    The cylindrical indentation is analysed, using the finite element method, for determining the plastic properties of elastic-plastic materials and the effect of strain hardening. The results are compared with those obtained from spherical indentation, the commonly used technique for measuring plastic properties of materials in small volumes. The analysis shows that the deformation under a cylindrical indenter quickly reaches a fully plastic state and that the size (diameter) of the plastic zone remains constant during further indentation. The indentation load is proportional to the indentation depth at large indentation depth, from which the indentation pressure P m at the onset of yielding can be readily extrapolated. The analysis of cylindrical indentation suggests that it does not need parameters such as impression radius (a) and contact stiffness (S) for determining the plastic behaviour of materials. Thus, the cylindrical indentation can suppress the uncertainties in measuring material properties

  6. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  7. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  8. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    detection of small molecules by means of FA in complex biological samples.

  9. SU-E-T-623: Polarity Effects for Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Cobalt-60 Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y; Bhatnagar, J; Huq, M Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the polarity effects for small volume ionization chambers in {sup 60}Co gamma-ray beams using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. Methods: Measurements were made for 7 small volume ionization chambers (a PTW 31016, an Exradin A14, 2 Capintec PR0-5P, and 3 Exradin A16) using a PTW UNIDOSwebline Universal Dosemeter and an ELEKTA solid water phantom with proper inserts. For each ion chamber, the temperature/pressure corrected electric charge readings were obtained for 16 voltage values (±50V, ±100V, ±200V, ±300V, ±400V, ±500V, ±600V, ±700V). For each voltage, a five-minute leakage charge reading and a series of 2-minute readings were continuously taken during irradiation until 5 stable signals (less than 0.05% variation) were obtained. The average of the 5 reading was then used for the calculation of the polarity corrections at the voltage and for generating the saturation curves. Results: The polarity effects are more pronounced at high or low voltages than at the medium voltages for all chambers studied. The voltage dependence of the 3 Exradin A16 chambers is similar in shape. The polarity corrections for the Exradin A16 chambers changes rapidly from about 1 at 500V to about 0.98 at 700V. The polarity corrections for the 7 ion chambers at 300V are in the range from 0.9925 (for the PTW31016) to 1.0035 (for an Exradin A16). Conclusion: The polarity corrections for certain micro-chambers are large even at normal operating voltage.

  10. Density-viscosity product of small-volume ionic liquid samples using quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Glen; Hardacre, Chris; Ge, Rile; Doy, Nicola; Allen, Ray W K; MacInnes, Jordan M; Bown, Mark R; Newton, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Quartz crystal impedance analysis has been developed as a technique to assess whether room-temperature ionic liquids are Newtonian fluids and as a small-volume method for determining the values of their viscosity-density product, rho eta. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a 5-MHz fundamental frequency quartz crystal induced by a water-miscible room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimiclazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), were measured. From coupled frequency shift and bandwidth changes as the concentration was varied from 0 to 100% ionic liquid, it was determined that this liquid provided a Newtonian response. A second water-immiscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][NTf2], with concentration varied using methanol, was tested and also found to provide a Newtonian response. In both cases, the values of the square root of the viscosity-density product deduced from the small-volume quartz crystal technique were consistent with those measured using a viscometer and density meter. The third harmonic of the crystal was found to provide the closest agreement between the two measurement methods; the pure ionic liquids had the largest difference of approximately 10%. In addition, 18 pure ionic liquids were tested, and for 11 of these, good-quality frequency shift and bandwidth data were obtained; these 12 all had a Newtonian response. The frequency shift of the third harmonic was found to vary linearly with square root of viscosity-density product of the pure ionic liquids up to a value of square root(rho eta) approximately 18 kg m(-2) s(-1/2), but with a slope 10% smaller than that predicted by the Kanazawa and Gordon equation. It is envisaged that the quartz crystal technique could be used in a high-throughput microfluidic system for characterizing ionic liquids.

  11. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  12. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV{sub bldder}), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV{sub sb}), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV{sub sb}). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb}. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI (p<0.04), HDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01), LDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV{sub sb} but does not with LDV{sub sb} (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI, TV{sub bladder} and HDV{sub sb}, TV{sub bladder} and LDV{sub sb} . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV{sub bladder} has significant negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb} (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order

  13. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2013-01-01

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV bldder ), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV sb ), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV sb ). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV sb and LDV sb . Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV sb and BMI (p<0.04), HDV sb and TV bladder (p<0.01), LDV sb and TV bladder (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV sb but does not with LDV sb (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV sb and BMI, TV bladder and HDV sb , TV bladder and LDV sb . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV sb (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV bladder has significant negative correlation with HDV sb and LDV sb (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order to reduce the small bowel toxicity in rectal radiotherapy, if patients' BMI is above 23

  14. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  15. Customer choice? A perspective from a representative for the small volume consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachowich, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The whole idea behind Alberta's decision to deregulate its' electric power industry was to provide more choice to consumers. The author, a representative of residential utility customers in utility hearings as well as in the deregulation of electric industry restructuring process, presents his views about choice and the small consumer who is eligible for the regulated rate option tariff (RROT). There are about 1 million of such customers who are free to exercise choice at any time and leave the RROT provider for commodity service from a retailer. There are two tiers within the RROT which is of significance, because these two tiers promote the real need for customer choice to be active in the electric power industry. The author cautioned that if there is no viable level of retail electric market development by January 2004 or January 2006, there will not be any workable customer choice for consumers coming from RROT. The author also described the experience of those customers that were not RROT eligible from late 2000 to early 2001. Experience from other industries such as the telecom and natural gas industry, provide a comparative analysis of whether customer choice works. The author concludes that it does not work for the small volume customer and suggests that perhaps stable rates and reliable service would be more appealing for consumers

  16. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  17. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, G; Slater, J [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, A [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  18. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  19. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  20. Tracking of Short Distance Transport Pathways in Biological Tissues by Ultra-Small Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segmehl, Jana S.; Lauria, Alessandro; Keplinger, Tobias; Berg, John K.; Burgert, Ingo

    2018-03-01

    In this work, ultra-small europium-doped HfO2 nanoparticles were infiltrated into native wood and used as trackers for studying penetrability and diffusion pathways in the hierarchical wood structure. The high electron density, laser induced luminescence, and crystallinity of these particles allowed for a complementary detection of the particles in the cellular tissue. Confocal Raman microscopy and high-resolution synchrotron scanning wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements were used to detect the infiltrated particles in the native wood cell walls. This approach allows for simultaneously obtaining chemical information of the probed biological tissue and the spatial distribution of the integrated particles. The in-depth information about particle distribution in the complex wood structure can be used for revealing transport pathways in plant tissues, but also for gaining better understanding of modification treatments of plant scaffolds aiming at novel functionalized materials.

  1. Small group gender ratios impact biology class performance and peer evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya

    2018-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.

  2. Geochemical pathways and biological uptake of radium in small Canadian Shield lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslein, R.H.; Slavicek, E.

    1984-01-01

    The sediment-water interactions and biological uptake of 226 Ra are described for four small Canadian Shield lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, Kenora, Ontario. A single addition of 226 Ra was made to each lake between 1970 and 1976. Approximately 90 percent of the added 226 Ra initially sorbed to the sediments. Outflow from the lakes showed losses of only 5-11 percent 226 Ra per year. Models are proposed for adsorption and outflow of 226 Ra from lakes. Biological uptake and long-term 226 Ra concentrations were measured in three species of macrophytes, crayfish, and five species of fish. Bioaccumulation ranged from 1100 to 5000 in macrophytes, 705 in crayfish, from 30 to 80 in large trout (Salvelinus namaycush), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and from 230 to 1200 in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), pearl dace (Semotilus margarita), and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). The concept of Ra/Ca ratio in organisms versus water and food is used to explain the differences in bioaccumulation. 226 Ra is discriminated against versus calcium by fish but favoured by macrophytes and crayfish

  3. On-Chip Spyhole Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sensitive Biomarker Detection in Small Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoqin; Qiao, Liang; Stauffer, Géraldine; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H.

    2018-03-01

    A polyimide microfluidic chip with a microhole emitter (Ø 10-12 μm) created on top of a microchannel by scanning laser ablation has been designed for nanoelectrospray ionization (spyhole-nanoESI) to couple microfluidics with mass spectrometry. The spyhole-nanoESI showed higher sensitivity compared to standard ESI and microESI from the end of the microchannel. The limits of detection (LOD) for peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS reached 50 pM, which was 600 times lower than that with standard ESI. The present microchip emitter allows the analysis of small volumes of samples. As an example, a small cell lung cancer biomarker, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), was detected by monitoring the transition of its unique peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS. NSE at 0.2 nM could be well identified with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) of 50, and thereby its LOD was estimated to be 12 pM. The potential application of the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS in cancer diagnosis was further demonstrated with the successful detection of 2 nM NSE from 1 μL of human serum. Before the detection, the serum sample spiked with NSE was first depleted with immune spin column, then desalted by centrifugal filter device, and finally digested by trypsin, without any other complicated preparation steps. The concentration matched the real condition of clinical samples. In addition, the microchips can be disposable to avoid any cross contamination. The present technique provides a highly efficient way to couple microfluidics with MS, which brings additional values to various microfluidics and MS-based analysis.

  4. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  5. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure blood use and lower mortality compared to historic controls of patients refusing blood. Transfusion reductions with HBOC use have been modest. Two HBOCs (Hemopure and Polyheme) are now in new or planned large-scale multicenter prehospital trials of trauma treatment. A new implementation of small volume resuscitation is closed-loop resuscitation (CLR), which employs microprocessors to titrate just enough fluid to reach a physiologic target . Animal studies suggest less risk of rebleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhage and a reduction in fluid needs with CLR. The first clinical application of CLR was treatment of burn shock and the US Army. Conclusions: Independently sponsored civilian trauma trials and clinical evaluations in operational combat conditions of

  6. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  8. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  9. The Dose-Volume Relationship of Small Bowel Irradiation and Acute Grade 3 Diarrhea During Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, John M.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Wallace, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has found a highly significant relationship between the irradiated small-bowel volume and development of Grade 3 small-bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. This study tested the previously defined parameters in a much larger group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 consecutive patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy for rectal cancer had treatment planning computed tomographic scans with small-bowel contrast that allowed the small bowel to be outlined with calculation of a small-bowel dose-volume histogram for the initial intended pelvic treatment to 45 Gy. Patients with at least one parameter above the previously determined dose-volume parameters were considered high risk, whereas those with all parameters below these levels were low risk. The grade of diarrhea and presence of liquid stool was determined prospectively. Results: There was a highly significant association with small-bowel dose-volume and Grade 3 diarrhea (p ≤ 0.008). The high-risk and low-risk parameters were predictive with Grade 3 diarrhea in 16 of 51 high-risk patients and in 4 of 45 low-risk patients (p = 0.01). Patients who had undergone irradiation preoperatively had a lower incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea than those treated postoperatively (18% vs. 28%; p = 0.31); however, the predictive ability of the high-risk/low-risk parameters was better for preoperatively (p = 0.03) than for postoperatively treated patients (p = 0.15). Revised risk parameters were derived that improved the overall predictive ability (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The highly significant dose-volume relationship and validity of the high-risk and low-risk parameters were confirmed in a large group of patients. The risk parameters provided better modeling for the preoperative patients than for the postoperative patients

  10. Usefulness of Oncoplastic Volume Replacement Techniques after Breast Conserving Surgery in Small to Moderate-sized Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korean women, many of whom have small to moderate-sized breasts, it is difficult to cover a partial breast defect using oncoplastic volume displacement techniques after removal of an adequate volume of tissue during oncologic surgery. In such cases, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques are more useful.MethodsFrom January 2007 to December 2011, 104 women underwent a total of 107 breast-conserving surgeries with various kinds of oncoplastic volume replacement techniques. We used latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g. In case with a resection mass less than 150 g, we used regional flaps such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps such as an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP flap.ResultsThe mean age was 46.1 years, and the average follow-up interval was 10.3 months. The patients underwent oncoplastic volume replacement techniques with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (n=9, thoracoepigastric flap (n=7, ICAP flap (n=25, TDAP flap (n=12, and LD flap (n=54. There was one case of congestion in an LD flap, and two cases of fat necrosis in an ICAP flap. Most of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.ConclusionsOncoplastic volume replacement techniques can be reliable and useful for the correction of breast deformity after breast-conserving surgery, especially in patients with small to moderate-sized breasts.

  11. Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Sheng; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Tung-Yi; Huang, Yu-Li; Shaio, Men-Fang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2017-07-01

    supporting the need for proper control and regulations at hot spring recreational waters in order to avoid health risks from this pathogen. Finally, we have developed a small volume procedure for detecting V. corneae in water samples and this has proved to be very useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self Absorbed Fraction for Electrons and Beta Particles in Small Spherical Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Absorbed fraction and target organ mass are important parameters of internal dosimetry calculations that define the geometry of the system. Standard MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry) formalism assumes that the absorbed fraction for non-penetrating radiations (e.g., electrons, beta particles) is 1. This may not be correct in cases where dimensions of organs/tissues are comparable with the ranges of electrons/beta particles. Such is the case for example in radiodine ablation of thyroid remnant tissue. In this work the self-absorbed fraction (source and target volumes are the same) for monoenergetic electrons and beta particles is calculated for small spherical volumes of various sizes and unit density. Absorbed fraction can be expressed as an integral of the product of two quantities: (a) Scaled beta dose point kernel (mean absorbed dose rate per activity of the point source in infinite homogenous medium), F β ; (b) special geometrical reduction factor (GRF). F β is calculated using EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) code for transport of electrons and photons. MC source code calculates the deposition of energy inside concentric spherical shells around the isotropic point source of electrons/beta particles in infinite medium (water). Shell thickness was δr=0.02·X 90 , where X 90 represents the radius of the sphere inside which 90% of the source energy is absorbed. Number of concentric spherical shells was 100, 10000 electron histories were started in each program run, and 10 runs were repeated for statistical reason. Numerical integration of the product of F β , calculated by MC program, and GRF for sphere was done using Simpson method. Absorbed fractions were calculated for spheres with mass from 0.01-20 g (r = 0.13 - 1.68 cm). Results are given for monoenergetic electrons with kinetic energy T=0.2, 0.4, 1.0 MeV, and for three beta emitters 1 31I , 3 2P , 9 0Y . For quantitative dosimetric protocols in radioiodine ablation therapy, results for 1 31I are of

  13. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes in infectious and inflammatory disease: implications for biologics-small molecule drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Pankajini; Taneja, Guncha; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Ghose, Romi

    2017-06-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are primarily down-regulated during infectious and inflammatory diseases, leading to disruption in the metabolism of small molecule drugs (smds), which are increasingly being prescribed therapeutically in combination with biologics for a number of chronic diseases. The biologics may exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effect, which may in turn affect the expression/activity of DMEs. Thus, patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases undergoing biologic/smd treatment can have complex changes in DMEs due to combined effects of the disease and treatment. Areas covered: We will discuss clinical biologics-SMD interaction and regulation of DMEs during infection and inflammatory diseases. Mechanistic studies will be discussed and consequences on biologic-small molecule combination therapy on disease outcome due to changes in drug metabolism will be highlighted. Expert opinion: The involvement of immunomodulatory mediators in biologic-SMDs is well known. Regulatory guidelines recommend appropriate in vitro or in vivo assessments for possible interactions. The role of cytokines in biologic-SMDs has been documented. However, the mechanisms of drug-drug interactions is much more complex, and is probably multi-factorial. Studies aimed at understanding the mechanism by which biologics effect the DMEs during inflammation/infection are clinically important.

  14. Echocardiography underestimates stroke volume and aortic valve area: implications for patients with small-area low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Calvin W L; Khaw, Hwan J; Luo, Elton; Tan, Shuwei; White, Audrey C; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2014-09-01

    Discordance between small aortic valve area (AVA; area (LVOTarea) and stroke volume alongside inconsistencies in recommended thresholds. One hundred thirty-three patients with mild to severe AS and 33 control individuals underwent comprehensive echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stroke volume and LVOTarea were calculated using echocardiography and MRI, and the effects on AVA estimation were assessed. The relationship between AVA and MPG measurements was then modelled with nonlinear regression and consistent thresholds for these parameters calculated. Finally the effect of these modified AVA measurements and novel thresholds on the number of patients with small-area low-gradient AS was investigated. Compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea (n = 40; -0.7 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 1.3), stroke volumes (-6.5 mL/m(2); 95% CI, -28.9 to 16.0) and consequently, AVA (-0.23 cm(2); 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.59). Moreover, an AVA of 1.0 cm(2) corresponded to MPG of 24 mm Hg based on echocardiographic measurements and 37 mm Hg after correction with MRI-derived stroke volumes. Based on conventional measures, 56 patients had discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Using MRI-derived stroke volumes and the revised thresholds, a 48% reduction in discordance was observed (n = 29). Echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea, stroke volume, and therefore AVA, compared with MRI. The thresholds based on current guidelines were also inconsistent. In combination, these factors explain > 40% of patients with discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A small molecule (pluripotin as a tool for studying cancer stem cell biology: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D Mertins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSC are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance and heterogeneity. Bona fide CSC purified from tumor biopsies are limited in supply and this hampers study of CSC biology. Furthermore, purified stem-like CSC subpopulations from existing tumor lines are unstable in culture. Finding a means to overcome these technical challenges would be a useful goal. In a first effort towards this, we examined whether a chemical probe that promotes survival of murine embryonic stem cells without added exogenous factors can alter functional characteristics in extant tumor lines in a fashion consistent with a CSC phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The seven tumor lines of the NCI60 colon subpanel were exposed to SC-1 (pluripotin, a dual kinase and GTPase inhibitor that promotes self-renewal, and then examined for tumorigenicity under limiting dilution conditions and clonogenic activity in soft agar. A statistically significant increase in tumor formation following SC-1 treatment was observed (p<0.04. Cloning efficiencies and expression of putative CSC surface antigens (CD133 and CD44 were also increased. SC-1 treatment led to sphere formation in some colon tumor lines. Finally, SC-1 inhibited in vitro kinase activity of RSK2, and another RSK2 inhibitor increased colony formation implicating a role for this kinase in eliciting a CSC phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings validate a proof of concept study exposure of extant tumor lines to a small molecule may provide a tractable in vitro model for understanding CSC biology.

  16. On small things in water moving around: Purcell's contributions to biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Howard

    2012-02-01

    I went to see Purcell after finishing my course work for the Ph.D. (1961) to ask whether I might join his group. ``But I don't have any graduate students,`` he said. ``Why is that?'' I asked. ``I can't think of anything to do,'' he replied. That was a wipe out. After I had finished my Ph.D. with Ramsey on the hydrogen maser (1964), Ed and I came up with an idea that led to work on sedimentation field-flow fractionation (PNAS 1967). We had hoped this method would be useful for biology, but problems of adsorption of proteins to surfaces stood in the way. Then I moved over to the biology department and got interested in the motile behavior of bacteria (1968). Here was a subject that I thought Ed would really enjoy. There were wonderful movies made by Norbert Pfennig of experiments done by Theodor Engelmann in the 1880's. We found a 16-mm projector and looked at these movies on Ed's office wall. Ed's first comment proved seminal, ''How can such a small cell swim in a straight line?'' We thought about how cells count molecules in their environment and wrote ``Physics of chemoreception,'' (Biophys. J.,1977). In the meantime, Ed gave a memorable lecture at Viki Weisskopf's retirement symposium, his classic ``Life at low Reynolds number'' (Am. J. Phys. 1977). Ed really wanted to understand what it would be like to swim like a bacterium! He wasn't very interested in what the literature had to say about such a problem, he wanted to think it through for himself. My role was straight man. I very much enjoyed the ride.

  17. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  18. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  19. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Hepatic transplantation outcomes for carefully selected cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: experience at a small- to medium-volume centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic transplantation outcomes for cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a small- to medium-volume centre are not fully known due to relative novelty of patient selection criteria. AIM: To determine hepatic transplantation outcomes for HCC at a small- to medium-volume centre. Patients and methods Hepatocellular carcinoma patients were listed for transplantation according to the International Guideline and further categorized as those fulfilling or exceeding Milan or University of San Francisco (UCSF) criteria on explanted liver morphology. Outcomes including mortality, retransplantation, and tumour recurrence rate were analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients had HCC and on explanted liver morphology, Milan and UCSF criteria met 15 and 18 patients, respectively. Patients and graft survival at 3 months, 1 and 5 years were 100, 96, 84, and 88, 84, 77%, respectively. Outcomes favoured Milan criteria but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic transplantation for HCC at a small-to medium-volume transplant centre had comparable survival outcomes to high-volume centres.

  1. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  2. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad [University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  3. Very small embryonic-like stem cells: implications in reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Unni, Sreepoorna; Parte, Seema; Anand, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) whereas primordial follicles (PFs) are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  4. Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells: Implications in Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs whereas primordial follicles (PFs are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  5. 40 CFR 80.250 - How is the small refiner sulfur baseline and volume determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...=Baseline volume. VI=Volume of gasoline batch i. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced from....245(a)(3); or, for a foreign refinery, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported... gasoline produced and imported into the U.S. pursuant to § 80.245(c)(2)). i = Individual batch of gasoline...

  6. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  7. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with 103 Pd, 125 I, or 131 Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( TUMOR D 90 ) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( OAR D 10 ) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published α/β and μ parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., TUMOR 7 BED 10 and OAR 7 BED 10 ). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on TUMOR BEDVH and OAR BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: TUMOR D 90 values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for 103 Pd, 125 I, and 131 Cs, respectively. Corresponding TUMOR 7 BED 10 values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, TUMOR 7 BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused TUMOR 7 BED 10 to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of OAR α/β values, OAR 7 BED 10 varied by up to 41%, 3.1%, and 1.4% for the lens, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland, respectively. Conclusions: BEDVH permits evaluation of the

  8. Australian Biology Test Item Bank, Years 11 and 12. Volume II: Year 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Sewell, Jeffrey J., Ed.

    This document consists of test items which are applicable to biology courses throughout Australia (irrespective of course materials used); assess key concepts within course statement (for both core and optional studies); assess a wide range of cognitive processes; and are relevant to current biological concepts. These items are arranged under…

  9. Australian Biology Test Item Bank, Years 11 and 12. Volume I: Year 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Sewell, Jeffrey J., Ed.

    This document consists of test items which are applicable to biology courses throughout Australia (irrespective of course materials used); assess key concepts within course statement (for both core and optional studies); assess a wide range of cognitive processes; and are relevant to current biological concepts. These items are arranged under…

  10. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  12. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  13. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 μm could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  14. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  15. Clinical, pathologic, and biologic features associated with BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarella, Stephanie; Ogino, Atsuko; Nishino, Mizuki; Butaney, Mohit; Shen, Jeanne; Lydon, Christine; Yeap, Beow Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Johnson, Bruce E; Jänne, Pasi A

    2013-08-15

    BRAF mutations are found in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We examined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NSCLC harboring BRAF mutations. Using DNA sequencing, we successfully screened 883 patients with NSCLC for BRAF mutations between July 1, 2009 and July 16, 2012. Baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between patients with and without BRAF mutations. Wild-type controls consisted of patients with NSCLC without a somatic alteration in BRAF, KRAS, EGFR, and ALK. In vitro studies assessed the biologic properties of selected non-V600E BRAF mutations identified from patients with NSCLC. Of 883 tumors screened, 36 (4%) harbored BRAF mutations (V600E, 18; non-V600E, 18) and 257 were wild-type for BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, and ALK negative. Twenty-nine of 36 patients with BRAF mutations were smokers. There were no distinguishing clinical features between BRAF-mutant and wild-type patients. Patients with advanced NSCLC with BRAF mutations and wild-type tumors showed similar response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) to platinum-based combination chemotherapy and no difference in overall survival. Within the BRAF cohort, patients with V600E-mutated tumors had a shorter PFS to platinum-based chemotherapy compared with those with non-V600E mutations, although this did not reach statistical significance (4.1 vs. 8.9 months; P = 0.297). We identified five BRAF mutations not previously reported in NSCLC; two of five were associated with increased BRAF kinase activity. BRAF mutations occur in 4% of NSCLCs and half are non-V600E. Prospective trials are ongoing to validate BRAF as a therapeutic target in NSCLC. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Biologic Evaluation of Diabetes and Local Recurrence in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuebin; Liu, Yongjun; Mani, Haresh; Olson, Jeffrey; Clawson, Gary; Caruso, Carla; Bruggeman, Richard; Varlotto, John M; Zander, Dani S; Rassaei, Negar

    2017-01-01

    A recent multicenter study led by our institution demonstrated that local recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was significantly more frequent in patients with diabetes, raising the possibility of different tumor biology in diabetics. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in local tumor recurrence and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated differences of tumor microenvironment between patients with and without diabetes by examining expression of EMT markers. Seventy-nine NSCLC patients were selected from the cohort of our early multicenter study. These patients were classified into 4 groups: 39 with adenocarcinoma with (n = 19) and without (n = 20) diabetes, and 40 with squamous cell carcinoma with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) diabetes. Immunohistochemical expression of eight EMT markers was analyzed, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vimentin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, HtrA1, and beta-catenin. Five markers (E-cadherin, HtrA1, TGF-β, IGF-1R and vimentin) demonstrated significantly higher expression in diabetics than in non-diabetics in both histology types. N-cadherin had higher expression in diabetics, though the difference did not reach statistical significance. EGFR showed a higher expression in diabetics in squamous cell carcinoma only. Beta-catenin was the only marker with no difference in expression between diabetics versus non-diabetics. Our findings suggest that diabetes is associated with enhanced EMT in NSCLC, which may contribute to growth and invasiveness of NSCLC.

  17. Construction of a liposome dialyzer for the preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E; Kamat, Neha P; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-06-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for the rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges (Slide-A-Lyzer cassettes), and it consists of a reactor with two 300-μl chambers and a 1.56-cm(2) dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: (i) disassembling the dialysis cartridges to obtain the required parts, (ii) assembling the dialyzer and (iii) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyzer takes ∼1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1-24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane used. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume non-enzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading and vesicle microscopy.

  18. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload oxygen from plasma hemoglobin as well as facilitate RBC

  19. Practical guidelines for small-volume additions of uninhibited water to waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Wiersma, B.J.; Zapp, P.E.; Pike, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Allowable volumes of uninhibited water additions to waste tanks are limited to volumes in which hydroxide and nitrite inhibitors reach required concentrations by diffusion from the bulk waste within five days. This diffusion process was modeled conservatively by Fick's second law of diffusion. The solution to the model was applied to all applicable conditions which exist in the waste tanks. Plant engineers adapted and incorporated the results into a practical working procedure for controlling and monitoring the addition of uninhibited water. Research, technical support, and field engineers worked together to produce an effective solution to a potential waste tank corrosion problem

  20. Feasibility Study for Establishing a Small Business Management Course at Harper. Volume XVII, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeck, James K.; Lucas, John A.

    In 1988, a survey was conducted to determine the feasibility of offering a new degree credit program in Small Business Management at William Rainey Harper College, in Illinois. All 3,170 former students who had taken a non-credit seminar in the Small Business Department in Continuing Education were surveyed regarding their interest in small…

  1. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  2. Simulation of biological flow and transport in complex geometries using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, David

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simulation capability to model multiscale flow and transport in complex biological systems based on algorithms and software infrastructure developed under the SciDAC APDEC CET. The foundation of this work is a new hybrid fluid-particle method for modeling polymer fluids in irregular microscale geometries that enables long-time simulation of validation experiments. Both continuum viscoelastic and discrete particle representations have been used to model the constitutive behavior of polymer fluids. Complex flow environment geometries are represented on Cartesian grids using an implicit function. Direct simulation of flow in the irregular geometry is then possible using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods without loss of geometric detail. This capability has been used to simulate biological flows in a variety of application geometries including biomedical microdevices, anatomical structures and porous media

  3. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  4. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  5. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 6: Deep-sea biology, biological processes and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Hargrave, B.T.; Roe, H.S.J.; Sibuet, M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the biological description of selected sites, the means by which radionuclides could result in human exposure via seafood pathways, and the doses likely to be received by, and effects on, the deep-sea fauna

  6. The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, Kathy L.; Frazier, Robert C.; Yan Di; Huang, Raywin R.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V 15 ) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy

  7. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  8. A small great history of the sister Societies of Developmental Biology in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeirim, Isabel; Aréchaga, Juan

    2009-01-01

    We revise the historical evolution of the societies devoted to Developmental Biology from the early activities of the Institut International dEmbryologie (IIE), founded in 1911, with particular emphasis on the more recent constitution of the Spanish Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarrollo (SEBD), founded in 1994, and the Portuguese Sociedade Portuguesa de Biologia do Desenvolvimento (SPBD), founded in 2006. We also describe the role played by The International Journal of Developmental Biology (IJDB) in the constitution of the SEBD and its projection and support to international Developmental Biology societies and individual researchers in the world, according to its mission to be a non-for-profit publication for scientists, by scientists.

  9. The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Bartelink, H.; Bosset, J.F.; Horiot, J.C.; Cionini, L.; Hamers, J.P.; Leer, J.W.H.; van Glabbele, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm 3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm 3 . This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm 3 ) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

  10. 'DRF-G - Grenoble Department of Fundamental Research. Activity report 1985, Nr 20. Volume II: 'Chemical Physics' 'Biology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains synthetic reports of researches performed in chemistry, in the field of biological and medical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance, and in biology during the 1981-1983 period or only during 1983. As far as chemistry is concerned, the following topics have been addressed: conducting organic polymers, organic and analytic electrochemistry, coordination chemistry, molecular dynamics, vegetal macromolecules, nucleic acids. As far as biology is concerned, the following topics have been addressed: systems associated with membranes, metalloproteins, cell biology and differentiation, immuno-chemistry, haematology, vegetal physiology, structural studies of proteins. Staff lists of researchers are provided for chemistry laboratories and biology laboratories, as well a list of publications

  11. Propulsion and Power Supplies for Unmanned Vehicles. Volume I. Engines for Small Propeller-Driven RPVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    AVAILABILIT -K-NSA~imA ON BACK CCVERAp o 1!icrW2I Appowed ior PDitdt160 r/AGARD-AR- -A--/f Volume I 1’ NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR...fishing surveillance-type activity, and many others. These applications include operation over densely populated areas ana over water . The RPV’s for these

  12. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    gizzard shad, pumpkin - seeds, rock bass, carp and golden shiner larvae were observed (Tables C1-C3, Volume 2). Figure 5 displays total seasonal...carp, pumpkin - seeds, yellow perch and gizzard shad scattered throughout the samples. From July through September, carp, pumpkinseeds and gizzard...cottonwoods to 9 m in height. In wet pockets, particularly east of the service road which parallels Fuhrmann Boulevard, Phragmites forms an almost pure

  13. Novel tendencies in developing small-angle neutron scattering methods for studying the structure of biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyuk, I.

    1995-01-01

    In recent 20 years thermal neutron scattering has been acknowledged an important instrument for structural studies in molecular biology. The methods of neutron diffraction of high resolution, which are not discussed in this paper, have already permitted to obtain a detailed representation of the course of proteolytic reactions and have arisen a number of new problems connected with the localization of water molecules and the H-D exchange. The methods of low resolution widely used due to a relative simplicity of the experiment have been successfully applied for both solving structural problems per se and investigating the changes in the structure when macromolecules perform their biological functions. The most promising are novel experimental approaches: the triple isotopic substitution method and the method of spin dynamic polarization. These methods ensure solving structural problems at a higher resolution than the dimensions of the macromolecules studied. Installation of new experimental instruments makes neutron measurements more accessible, and development of direct methods for interpretation of experimental data using the apparatus of spherical harmonics opens new possibilities for small-angle neutron scattering making it a necessary element for interpretation of diffraction data of monocrystals of intricate biological macromolecules. The paper presents a brief account of the tendencies in theoretical development and practical use of small-angle scattering for studying biological macromolecules. Special attention is given to the studies carried out in the Laboratory of Neutron Physics on a unique pulse IBR-2 reactor. (author) 14 refs

  14. The BREAST-V: a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small, medium, and large breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Benedetto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ferri, Germano; Campanale, Antonella; Sorotos, Micheal; Santanelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    Breast volume assessment enhances preoperative planning of both aesthetic and reconstructive procedures, helping the surgeon in the decision-making process of shaping the breast. Numerous methods of breast size determination are currently reported but are limited by methodologic flaws and variable estimations. The authors aimed to develop a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small to large breasts based on anthropomorphic values. Ten anthropomorphic breast measurements and direct volumes of 108 mastectomy specimens from 88 women were collected prospectively. The authors performed a multivariate regression to build the optimal model for development of the predictive formula. The final model was then internally validated. A previously published formula was used as a reference. Mean (±SD) breast weight was 527.9 ± 227.6 g (range, 150 to 1250 g). After model selection, sternal notch-to-nipple, inframammary fold-to-nipple, and inframammary fold-to-fold projection distances emerged as the most important predictors. The resulting formula (the BREAST-V) showed an adjusted R of 0.73. The estimated expected absolute error on new breasts is 89.7 g (95 percent CI, 62.4 to 119.1 g) and the expected relative error is 18.4 percent (95 percent CI, 12.9 to 24.3 percent). Application of reference formula on the sample yielded worse predictions than those derived by the formula, showing an R of 0.55. The BREAST-V is a reliable tool for predicting small to large breast volumes accurately for use as a complementary device in surgeon evaluation. An app entitled BREAST-V for both iOS and Android devices is currently available for free download in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. Diagnostic, II.

  15. COMPARISON OF THORACIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE DETECTION OF INDUCED SMALL VOLUME PNEUMOTHORAX IN THE HORSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, Jessica; David, Florent; Hunt, Luanne Michelle; Relave, Fabien; Blond, Laurent; Pinilla, Manuel; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Small volume pneumothorax can be challenging to diagnose in horses. The current standard method for diagnosis is standing thoracic radiography. We hypothesized that thoracic ultrasonography would be more sensitive. Objectives of this prospective, experimental study were to describe a thoracic ultrasound method for detection of small volume pneumothorax in horses and to compare results of radiography and ultrasound in a sample of horses with induced small volume pneumothorax. Six mature healthy horses were recruited for this study. For each horse, five 50 ml air boluses were sequentially introduced via a teat cannula into the pleural space. Lateral thoracic radiographs and standardized ultrasound (2D and M-mode) examinations of both hemithoraces were performed following administration of each 50 ml air bolus. Radiographs and ultrasound images/videos were analyzed for detection of pneumothorax by four independent investigators who were unaware of treatment status. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and agreement among investigators (Kappa test, κ) were calculated for radiography, 2D and M-mode ultrasound. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared exact test with significance set at P pneumothorax detection (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Specificity and positive predictive values were similar for all three imaging modalities (P = 1). Agreement between investigators for pneumothorax detection was excellent for 2D ultrasound (κ = 1), very good for M-mode ultrasound (κ = 0.87), and good for radiography (κ = 0.79). Findings from this experimental study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography as a diagnostic method for detecting pneumothorax in horses. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume XLVII, Part 1. Structures of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings for the 47th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology are presented. This symposium focused on the Structure of DNA. Topics presented covered research in the handedness of DNA, conformational analysis, chemically modified DNA, chemical synthesis of DNA, DNA-protein interactions, DNA within nucleosomes, DNA methylation, DNA replication, gyrases and topoisomerases, recombining and mutating DNA, transcription of DNA and its regulation, the organization of genes along DNA, repetitive DNA and pseudogenes, and origins of replication, centromeres, and teleomeres

  17. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  18. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  19. Classification of natural formations based on their optical characteristics using small volumes of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, N. S.; Kovalev, A. A.; Plyuta, V. Y.

    1986-02-01

    A computer algorithm has been developed to classify the spectral bands of natural scenes on Earth according to their optical characteristics. The algorithm is written in FORTRAN-IV and can be used in spectral data processing programs requiring small data loads. The spectral classifications of some different types of green vegetable canopies are given in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. Extracellular fluid volume expansion and third space sequestration at the site of small bowel anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S T; Kapadia, C R; Johnson, A W; Radcliffe, A G; Dudley, H A

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal surgery is usually associated with the parenteral administration of sodium and water, sometimes in amounts considerably in excess of excretory capacity. We have studied the effect of this situation on the water content of the gut at and 5 cm from a single-layer end-to-end anastomosis in the rabbit. Water content was measured by desiccation. One group of animals (group 1) did not receive intravenous therapy. The second group (group 2) received 5 ml kg-1 h-1 of Hartmann's solution during the operative period and thereafter to a total volume of 200 ml by 48 h. In group 1 there was a 5-10 per cent increase in tissue weight both at the anastomotic site and at 5 cm (P less than 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test) on the first 3 days. Thereafter, water content at the anastomosis persisted, but resolved in normal gut. In group 2 a further 5 per cent increase in weight over group 1 occurred (P less than 0.01), persistent at the anastomotic site over 5 days, though resolving elsewhere after 2 days. Extracellular fluid volume expansion exaggerates an anatomical third space present in the region of an anastomosis. At the suture line, oedema so induced is persistent and could be deleterious.

  1. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  2. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  3. Prognostic value of intraventricular bleeding in spontaneous intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage of small volume: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes Lima, Telmo Tiburcio; Prandini, Mirto Nelso; Gallo, Pasquale; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2012-04-01

    The literature is controversial on whether intraventricular bleeding has a negative impact on the prognosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Nevertheless, an association between intraventricular bleeding and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage volumes has been consistently reported. To evaluate the prognostic value of intraventricular bleeding in deep intraparenchymal hypertensive spontaneous hemorrhage with a bleeding volume bleeding was calculated by the LeRoux scale. Clinical data, including neurological complications, were collected daily during hospitalization. Neurological outcome was evaluated 30 days after the event by using the Glasgow outcome scale. Patients were assigned to 1 of 3 groups according to intraventricular bleeding: Control, no intraventricular bleeding; LR 1, intraventricular bleeding with LeRoux scale scores of 1 to 8; or LR 2, intraventricular bleeding with LeRoux scale scores >8. There were no significant differences among groups concerning age, mean blood pressure, and time from onset to brain CT scan. Patients with greater intraventricular bleeding presented lower initial Glasgow coma scale scores, increased ventricular index and width of temporal horns, increased number of clinical and neurological complications, and longer hospitalization. Furthermore, their relative risk for unfavorable clinical outcome was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.25-2.49). Intraventricular bleeding with a LeRoux scale score >8 appears to have a negative effect on deep spontaneous intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage of small volume.

  4. ESTRO ACROP guidelines for target volume definition in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Ricardi, Umberto; Geets, Xavier; Belderbos, Jose; Pöttgen, Christoph; Dziadiuszko, Rafal; Peeters, Stephanie; Lievens, Yolande; Hurkmans, Coen; Slotman, Ben; Ramella, Sara; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; McDonald, Fiona; Manapov, Farkhad; Putora, Paul Martin; LePéchoux, Cécile; Van Houtte, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays a major role in the curative treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the ACROP committee was asked by the ESTRO to provide recommendations on target volume delineation for standard clinical scenarios in definitive (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant RT for locally advanced NSCLC. The guidelines given here are a result of the evaluation of a structured questionnaire followed by a consensus discussion, voting and writing procedure within the committee. Hence, we provide advice for methods and time-points of diagnostics and imaging before the start of treatment planning and for the mandatory and optional imaging to be used for planning itself. Concerning target volumes, recommendations are given for GTV delineation of primary tumour and lymph nodes followed by issues related to the delineation of CTVs for definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy. In the context of PTV delineation, recommendations about the management of geometric uncertainties and target motion are given. We further provide our opinions on normal tissue delineation and organisational and responsibility questions in the process of target volume delineation. This guideline intends to contribute to the standardisation and optimisation of the process of RT treatment planning for clinical practice and prospective studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tho, Lye Mun; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V 5 , V 1 , etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V 15 . Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  6. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  7. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of...

  8. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Small Items of Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    contaminated with CWAs. May cause hardening or swelling of the sealant, which may weaken the seal. Rivet Stainless steel Not expected to have any effect...fallout, and nuclear survivability, which covers initial nu- clear weapon effects including Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). Combat Developer . A...EA environmental assessment ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center EMP electromagnetic pulse FD/SC Failure Definition/Scoring Criteria FM

  9. Small Displacement Detection of Biological Signals Using the Cyclic Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new signal processing method called the Cyclic Frequency method is proposed for small displacement detection of vital signals such as heart rate and respiration using the CW radar method. We have presented experimental results of small displacement detection to confirm the validity of the method. The displacement amplitude 2.5 mm can be detected with a propagation frequency of 24.15 GHz. We may increase the propagation frequency for smaller displacement amplitude or target velocity.

  10. The efficient neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination with small active volume scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Van Chuan; Nguyen Duc Hoa; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Nguyen Ngoc Anh; Tuong Thi Thu Huong; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Dinh Khang

    2016-01-01

    A small detector with EJ-301 liquid scintillation was manufactured for the study on the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination. In this research, four algorithms, including Threshold crossing time (TCT), Pulse gradient analysis (PGA), Charge comparison method (CCM), and Correlation pattern recognition (CPR) were developed and compared in terms of their discrimination effectiveness between neutrons and gamma rays. The figures of merits (FOMs) obtained for 100 ÷ 2000 keVee (keV energy electron equivalent) neutron energy range show the charge comparison method was the most efficient of the four algorithms. (author)

  11. In vivo assessment of the tolerance dose of small liver volumes after single-fraction HDR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Jens; Seidensticker, Max; Luedemann, Lutz; Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Hengst, Susanne; Mohnike, Konrad; Cho, Chie Hee; Lopez Haenninen, Enrique; Al-Abadi, Hussain; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess a dose-response relationship for small volumes of liver parenchyma after single-fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five liver metastases were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day before and 3 days and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after therapy. MR sequences included T1-w gradient echo (GRE) enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted gadobenate dimeglumine. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D dosimetry data and evaluated by two radiologists. The reviewers indicated the border of hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema) or hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function). Based on the total 3D data, a dose-volume histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for either edema or function loss as the D 90 , i.e., the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results: Between 3 days and 6 weeks, the extension of the edema increased significantly from the 12.9 Gy isosurface to 9.9 Gy (standard deviation [SD], 3.3 and 2.6). No significant change was detected between 6 and 12 weeks. After 24 weeks, the edematous tissue had shrunk significantly to 14.7 Gy (SD, 4.2). Three days postbrachytherapy, the D 90 for hepatocyte function loss reached the 14.9 Gy isosurface (SD, 3.9). At 6 weeks, the respective zone had increased significantly to 9.9 Gy (SD, 2.3). After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunction volume had decreased significantly to the 11.9 Gy and 15.2 Gy isosurface, respectively (SD, 3 and 4.1). Conclusions: The 95% interval from 7.6 to 12.2 Gy found as the minimal hepatocyte tolerance after 6 weeks accounts for the radiobiologic variations found in CT-guided brachytherapy, including heterogeneous dose rates by variable catheter arrays

  12. Expedient construction of small molecule macroarrays via sequential palladium- and copper-mediated reactions and their ex situ biological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Reto; Breitbach, Anthony S; Blackwell, Helen E

    2012-05-01

    We report the highly efficient syntheses of a series of focused libraries in the small molecule macroarray format using Suzuki-Miyaura and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (or "click") reactions. The libraries were based on stilbene and triazole scaffolds, which are known to have a broad range of biological activities, including quorum-sensing (QS) modulation in bacteria. The library products were generated in parallel on the macroarray in extremely short reaction times (~10-20 min) and isolated in excellent purities. Biological testing of one macroarray library post-cleavage (ex situ) revealed several potent agonists of the QS receptor, LuxR, in Vibrio fischeri. These synthetic agonists, in contrast to others that we have reported, were only active in the presence of the native QS signal in V. fischeri, which is suggestive of a different mode of activity. Notably, the results presented herein showcase the ready compatibility of the macroarray platform with chemical reactions that are commonly utilized in small molecule probe and drug discovery today. As such, this work serves to expand the utility of the small molecule macroarray as a rapid and operationally straightforward approach toward the synthesis and screening of bioactive agents.

  13. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Kathleen; Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna; Jacques, David A.; Duff, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users

  14. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickinger, M.; Doll, K.; Roloff, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    .5±2.1 vs. 10.3±3.3cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60min, the base excess decreased from 5.5±6.9 to 4.7±6.2mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6±5.7 to 6.8±5.4mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic...... had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9±4.8 to 2.1±4.4L/100kg vs. 7.0±4.5 to 4.9±3.8L/100kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first...... 10 min of therapy from 7.3±3.5 to 10.8±3.4cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time.Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9...

  15. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Poetter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on 'Radiotherapy and Oncology'. These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted.

  16. Radiation, an ideal cytotoxic for the study of cell biology in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are highly polarised with the proliferative compartment sometimes subdivided into units of proliferation in many instances. My interests have been in trying to understand how many cellular constituents exist, what their function is and intercommunicants are that ensure appropriate steady state cell replacement rates. Radiation has proved to be a valuable tool to induce cell death, reproductive sterilisation, and regenerative proliferation in these systems, the responses to which can provide information on the number of regenerative cells (a function associated with stem cells). Such studies have helped define the epidermal proliferative units and the structurally similar units on the dorsal surface of the tongue. The radiation responses considered in conjunction with a wide range of cell kinetic lineage tracking and somatic mutation studies with complex mathematical modelling, provide insights into the functioning of the poliferative units (crypts) of the small intestine. Comparative studies have then been undertaken with the crypts in the large bowel. In the small intestine, which rarely develops cancer, various protective mechanisms have evolved to ensure the genetic integrity of the stem cell compartment. Stem cells in the small intestinal crypts have an intolerance of genotoxic damage (including that induced by very low doses of radiation), they do not undergo cell cycle arrest and repair but commit an altruistic p53 dependent cell suicide (apoptosis). This process is compromised in the large bowel by bcl-2 expression. Recent studies have suggested a second genome protection mechanism operating in the stem cells of the small intestinal crypts that may also have a p53 dependence. Such studies have allowed the cell lineages and genome protection mechanisms operating in the small intestinal crypts to be defined

  17. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wujie; Luo Xiaoshu; Jiang Pinqun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  18. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  19. In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Magda; Skou, Soren; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented for sim...... in incidental sample purification. Hence, this versatile microfluidic device enables investigation of experimentally induced structural changes under dynamically controllable sample conditions. (C) 2014 International Union of Crystallography......Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented...

  20. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  1. PERFORMANSI BIOLOGIS CALON INDUK PATIN JAMBAL (Pangasius djambal PADA VOLUME BAK DAN CARA AERASI BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Patin jambal is one of Indonesia indigenous species which is threatened to extinction in Java open water due to development progress as well as over fishing. Further mass production of patin jambal seeds in hatchery faces the unsustainable supply of spawner. Tank size and aeration technique are suspected to affect patin jambal spawner production in captivity since the fish is a riverine species. The experiment aims at providing a suitable environment for such a fish to grow to be productive spawners. Four circular concrete tanks are used to assure maximum water circulation; two tanks were filled with 10 m3 and the other with 20 m3 fresh surface water at equal depth, 130 cm. The surface water was gravitationally flowed from the surface into 2 tanks and from the bottom into 2 other tanks at 0.6-1.0 L sec-1. The fish weighted 1.5 kg each was stocked at 7 female and 3 male into each of 10 m3 tank and at 15 females and 5 males into each of 20 m3 tank.  The experimental units were arranged in a completely randomized design with pseudo replication. The fish fed commercial artificial diet at 3% of biomass weight a day. Fish in the 20 m3 tank equipped with bottom water inlet gained weight 0.601 % day-1 and consequently grew faster (P<0.05 than fish in the other tanks.  Fish in the same tank was also biologically mature faster than fish in the other tanks; four males and one male were found to reach gonad maturity stage IV which was not found in the other tanks. Obviously, a 20 m3 concrete tank equipped with bottom water inlet is suitable for patin jambal spawner production at 15 females to 5 males ratio.

  2. Adamantoylated biologically active small peptides and glycopeptides structurally related to the bacterial peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruža; Vranešić, Branka; Tomić, Srdjanka

    2013-01-01

    A large number of novel synthetic compounds representing smaller parts of original peptidoglycan molecules have been synthesized and found to possess versatile biological activity, particularly immunomodulating properties. A series of compounds containing the adamantyl residues coupled to peptides and glycopeptides characteristic for bacterial peptidoglycan was described. The new adamantylpeptides and adamantylglycopeptides were prepared starting from N-protected racemic adamantylglycine and dipeptide L-Ala-D-isoglutamine. The adamantyl glycopeptides were obtained by coupling the adamantyltripeptides with alpha-D-mannose moiety through spacer molecule of fixed chirality. Since the starting material was D,L-(adamantyl-glycine) the condensation products with the dipeptide were mixtures of diastereoisomers. The obtained diastereoisomers were separated, characterized, and tested for immunostimulating activity. An HPLC method for purity testing was developed and adapted for the particular compounds.

  3. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging: an efficient tool to assess liver volume and intrahepatic vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Raptis, Dimitri A; Boss, Andreas; Pfammater, Thomas; Tschuor, Christoph; Tian, Yinghua; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael

    2014-04-01

    To develop a noninvasive technique to assess liver volumetry and intrahepatic portal vein anatomy in a mouse model of liver regeneration. Fifty-two C57BL/6 male mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver using a 4.7 T small animal MRI system after no treatment, 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), or selective portal vein embolization. The protocol consisted of the following sequences: three-dimensional-encoded spoiled gradient-echo sequence (repetition time per echo time 15 per 2.7 ms, flip angle 20°) for volumetry, and two-dimensional-encoded time-of-flight angiography sequence (repetition time per echo time 18 per 6.4 ms, flip angle 80°) for vessel visualization. Liver volume and portal vein segmentation was performed using a dedicated postprocessing software. In animals with portal vein embolization, portography served as reference standard. True liver volume was measured after sacrificing the animals. Measurements were carried out by two independent observers with subsequent analysis by the Cohen κ-test for interobserver agreement. MRI liver volumetry highly correlated with the true liver volume measurement using a conventional method in both the untreated liver and the liver remnant after 70% PH with a high interobserver correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98 for untreated liver [P anatomy was excellent (Cohen κ value = 0.925). This protocol may be used for noninvasive liver volumetry and visualization of portal vein anatomy in mice. It will serve the dynamic study of new strategies to enhance liver regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  5. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  6. A systems biology approach for miRNA-mRNA expression patterns analysis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Ali; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is a prevalent and heterogeneous subtype of lung cancer accounting for 85 percent of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, incorporate into regulation of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs' expression has provided further layers of complexity to the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of different diseases and malignancies. Although, until now considerable number of studies has been carried out to illuminate this complexity in NSCLC, they have remained less effective in their goal due to lack of a holistic and integrative systems biology approach which considers all natural elaborations of miRNAs' function. It is able to reliably nominate most affected signaling pathways and therapeutic target genes by deregulated miRNAs during a particular pathological condition. Herein, we utilized a holistic systems biology approach, based on appropriate re-analyses of microarray datasets followed by reliable data filtering, to analyze integrative and combinatorial deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction network in NSCLC, aiming to ascertain miRNA-dysregulated signaling pathway and potential therapeutic miRNAs and mRNAs which represent a lion' share during various aspects of NSCLC's pathogenesis. Our systems biology approach introduced and nominated 1) important deregulated miRNAs in NSCLCs compared with normal tissue 2) significant and confident deregulated mRNAs which were anti-correlatively targeted by deregulated miRNA in NSCLCs and 3) dysregulated signaling pathways in association with deregulated miRNA-mRNAs interactions in NSCLCs. These results introduce possible mechanism of function of deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in NSCLC that could be used as potential therapeutic targets.

  7. Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Sven; Vogel, Wouter V; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Dijkema, Tim; Terhaard, Chris H J; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2018-05-03

    Diagnostic imaging continues to evolve, and now has unprecedented accuracy for detecting small nodal metastasis. This influences the tumor load in elective target volumes and subsequently has consequences for the radiotherapy dose required to control disease in these volumes. Small metastases that used to remain subclinical and were included in elective volumes, will nowadays be detected and included in high-dose volumes. Consequentially, high-dose volumes will more often contain low-volume disease. These target volume transformations lead to changes in the tumor burden in elective and "gross" tumor volumes with implications for the radiotherapy dose prescribed to these volumes. For head and neck tumors, nodal staging has evolved from mere palpation to combinations of high-resolution imaging modalities. A traditional nodal gross tumor volume in the neck typically had a minimum diameter of 10-15 mm, while nowadays much smaller tumor deposits are detected in lymph nodes. However, the current dose levels for elective nodal irradiation were empirically determined in the 1950s, and have not changed since. In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A biological small sewage treatment plant without outside power supply. Eine biologische Hausklaeranlage ohne Fremdenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Flussbau und Landwirtschaftlichen Wasserbau; Voigtlaender, G [Hochschule fuer Architektur und Bauwesen, Weimar (German Democratic Republic). Wissenschaftsbereich Versorgungsanlagen; Lopp, H [VEB Kombinat Wassertechnik und Projektierung Wasserwirtschaft (KWP), Halle (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-07-01

    The paper presented deals with the development of a small sewage treatment plant operating without supply of energy. Purification of sewage is achieved in a three-step process: Sedimentation tank, anaerobic reactor and aerobic reactor. The efficiency of the anaerobic reactor - as against the efficiency of a common septic tank - is significantly increased by arranging a number of plates in the reactor, on which anaerobic biomass can grow. Further degradation of sewage compounds and nitrification - also effected by adhering microorganisms - occurs in the aerobic biomass are made of a semipermeable plastic film and arranged in such a way as to ensure simultaneous supply of oxygen needed by aerobic organism. The paper reports the results of investigations under laboratory conditions as well as results - available so far - or investigations in technical scale. (orig.).

  9. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A Colello; Mazaro, S J; Amaral, L L; Rego, E M; Oliveira, H F; Pavoni, J F

    2017-03-02

    This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  10. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colello Bruno

    Full Text Available This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current, the radiometric survey (leakage radiation and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1 and remained stable for long (constant and short (repeatability intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer. The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  11. Small-volume potentiometric titrations: EPR investigations of Fe-S cluster N2 in mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John J; Salvadori, Enrico; Bridges, Hannah R; Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-09-01

    EPR-based potentiometric titrations are a well-established method for determining the reduction potentials of cofactors in large and complex proteins with at least one EPR-active state. However, such titrations require large amounts of protein. Here, we report a new method that requires an order of magnitude less protein than previously described methods, and that provides EPR samples suitable for measurements at both X- and Q-band microwave frequencies. We demonstrate our method by determining the reduction potential of the terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster (N2) in the intramolecular electron-transfer relay in mammalian respiratory complex I. The value determined by our method, E m7 =-158mV, is precise, reproducible, and consistent with previously reported values. Our small-volume potentiometric titration method will facilitate detailed investigations of EPR-active centres in non-abundant and refractory proteins that can only be prepared in small quantities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Respiratory-Gated Helical Computed Tomography of Lung: Reproducibility of Small Volumes in an Ex Vivo Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Dinkel, Julien; Bolte, Hendrik; Welzel, Thomas; Hoffmann, Beata M.Sc.; Thierfelder, Carsten; Mende, Ulrich; Debus, Juergen; Heller, Martin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Motion-adapted radiotherapy with gated irradiation or tracking of tumor positions requires dedicated imaging techniques such as four-dimensional (4D) helical computed tomography (CT) for patient selection and treatment planning. The objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of spatial information for small objects on respiratory-gated 4D helical CT using computer-assisted volumetry of lung nodules in a ventilated ex vivo system. Methods and Materials: Five porcine lungs were inflated inside a chest phantom and prepared with 55 artificial nodules (mean diameter, 8.4 mm ± 1.8). The lungs were respirated by a flexible diaphragm and scanned with 40-row detector CT (collimation, 24 x 1.2 mm; pitch, 0.1; rotation time, 1 s; slice thickness, 1.5 mm; increment, 0.8 mm). The 4D-CT scans acquired during respiration (eight per minute) and reconstructed at 0-100% inspiration and equivalent static scans were scored for motion-related artifacts (0 or absent to 3 or relevant). The reproducibility of nodule volumetry (three readers) was assessed using the variation coefficient (VC). Results: The mean volumes from the static and dynamic inspiratory scans were equal (364.9 and 360.8 mm 3 , respectively, p = 0.24). The static and dynamic end-expiratory volumes were slightly greater (371.9 and 369.7 mm 3 , respectively, p = 0.019). The VC for volumetry (static) was 3.1%, with no significant difference between 20 apical and 20 caudal nodules (2.6% and 3.5%, p = 0.25). In dynamic scans, the VC was greater (3.9%, p = 0.004; apical and caudal, 2.6% and 4.9%; p = 0.004), with a significant difference between static and dynamic in the 20 caudal nodules (3.5% and 4.9%, p = 0.015). This was consistent with greater motion-related artifacts and image noise at the diaphragm (p <0.05). The VC for interobserver variability was 0.6%. Conclusion: Residual motion-related artifacts had only minimal influence on volumetry of small solid lesions. This indicates a high reproducibility of

  13. Molecular image-guided radiation treatment planing using biological target volume (BTV)for advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Makoto; Bou, Sayuri; Satou, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroki; Saga, Yusuke; Aoyama, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Kawamura, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    As the biological mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation become clear at molecular level, 'precision therapy' is attracting a great attention, in which the irradiation dose and area are determined in consideration of these molecular mechanism. For this sophisticated radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the tumor morphology and proliferation/activation of cancer cells before radiation treatment planning. Generally, cancer cells start to proliferate when their activity levels increase, and subsequently primary tumor or metastatic tumor that can De recognized by CT scan or MRI start to develop. Thus, when proliferation of cancer cells occurs and tumor start to develop, a vast amount of energy is required for proliferation and cancer cells obtain a part of this energy from glucose in the body. Therefore, we can get the information on the status of metabolism and density of cancer cells by PET using F-18-FDG, which is structurally similar to glucose. It is a general belief that, when conducting evaluation using F18-FDG-PET, evaluation of proliferation of cancer cells before tumor formation might be possible at the cell level by evaluating and visualizing glucose metabolism in cancer cells that proliferate in a manner that they cannot be visualized morphologically by using CT scan or MRI. Therefore, when performing sophisticated precision radiotherapy, it is important to implement radiation treatment plan including information obtained from FDG-PET imaging. Many studies have reported usefulness of FDG-PET imaging for esophagus cancer so far, indicating the efficacy of using FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan of esophagus cancer as well. However, few studies have described how to use FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan for esophagus cancer. In this review, therefore, we will outline the usefulness of molecular image-guided radiation treatment plan, in which biological target volume (BTV) and the actual radiation treatment plan using FDG

  14. Thermodynamics of small systems by nanocalorimetry: From physical to biological nano-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden, J.-L.; Guillou, H.; Lopeandia, A.F.; Richard, J.; Heron, J.-S.; Souche, G.M.; Ong, F.R.; Vianay, B.; Bourgeois, O.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane based nanocalorimeters have been developed for ac-calorimetry experiments. It has allowed highly sensitive measurements of heat capacity from solid state physics to complex systems like polymers and proteins. In this article we review what has been developed in ac-calorimetry toward the measurement of very small systems. Firstly, at low temperature ac-calorimetry using silicon membrane permits the measurement of superconducting sample having geometry down to the nanometer scale. New phase transitions have been found in these nanosystems illustrated by heat capacity jumps versus the applied magnetic field. Secondly, a sensor based on ultra-thin polymer membrane will be presented. It has been devoted to thermal measurements of nanomagnetic systems at intermediate temperature (20-300 K). Thirdly, three specific polyimide membrane based sensors have been designed for room temperature measurements. One is devoted to phase transitions detection in polymer, the second one to protein folding/unfolding studies and the third one will be used for the study of heat release in living cells. The possibility of measuring systems out of equilibrium will be emphasized.

  15. morphforge: a toolbox for simulating small networks of biologically detailed neurons in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad structure of a modelling study can often be explained over a cup of coffee, butconverting this high-level conceptual idea into graphs of the final simulation results may requiremany weeks of sitting at a computer. Although models themselves can be complex, oftenmany mental resources are wasted working around complexities of the software ecosystemsuch as fighting to manage files, interfacing between tools and data formats, finding mistakesin code or working out the units of variables. morphforge is a high-level, Python toolboxfor building and managing simulations of small populations of multicompartmental biophysicalmodel neurons. An entire in silico experiment, including the definition of neuronal morphologies,channel descriptions, stimuli, visualisation and analysis of results can be written within a singleshort Python script using high-level objects. Multiple independent simulations can be createdand run from a single script, allowing parameter spaces to be investigated. Consideration hasbeen given to the reuse of both algorithmic and parameterisable components to allow bothspecific and stochastic parameter variations. Some other features of the toolbox include: theautomatic generation of human-readable documentation (e. g. PDF-files about a simulation; thetransparent handling of different biophysical units; a novel mechanism for plotting simulationresults based on a system of tags; and an architecture that supports both the use of establishedformats for defining channels and synapses (e. g. MODL files, and the possibility to supportother libraries and standards easily. We hope that this toolbox will allow scientists to quicklybuild simulations of multicompartmental model neurons for research and serve as a platform forfurther tool development.

  16. Biologic characteristics of the side population of human small cell lung cancer cell line H446.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Huan; Huang, Yu-Zheng; Yan, Ru-Hong; Liu, Fen-Ju; Zhang, Jun-Ning

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has presented new targets and orientations for tumor therapy. The major difficulties in researching CSCs include their isolation and purification. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the side population (SP) cells in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line H446, which lays the foundation for the isolation and purification of CSCs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to sort SP and non-SP (NSP) cells from H446. Both subgroups were cultivated to survey the capacity to form into suspended tumor cell spheres. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expression levels of the mRNA of CD133, ABCG2, and nucleostemin in both subgroups. The capacity of proliferation and the differences in drug resistance of both subgroups and unsorted cells were tested by the MTT method. The differentiation ability of both subgroups was determined by FACS. Proliferation was determined by subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice. The percent of Hoechst 33342 negative cells was about (5.1 +/- 0.2)% in H446 by fluorescence microscopy. The percent of SP cells was (6.3 +/- 0.1)% by flow cytometry. SP cells had a stronger capability of forming into tumor spheres than NSP cells. The mRNA expression levels of ABCG2, CD133, and nucleostemin in SP cells were 21.60 +/- 0.26, 7.10 +/- 0.14, and 1.02 +/- 0.08 folds higher than that in NSP cells (P 0.05, respectively). In vivo, SP cells showed better proliferative ability and tougher viability when treated with drugs. SP cells can differentiate into NSP cells, but NSP cells cannot differentiate into SP cells. SP cells had a greater ability to form tumors. The H446 cell line contained some SP cells with stem cell properties. CD133 and ABCG2 may be cancer stem cell markers of SCLC.

  17. Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure organization of the chromatin in biological cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iashina, E G; Grigoriev, S V; Bouwman, W G; Duif, C P; Filatov, M V

    2017-01-01

    Spin-echo small-angle scattering (SESANS) technique is a method to measure the structure of materials from nano- to micrometer length scales. This method could be important for studying the packaging of DNA in the eukaryotic cell. We measured the SESANS function from chicken erythrocyte nuclei which is well fitted by the exponential function G ( z ) = exp(− z / ξ ), where ξ is the correlation length of a nucleus (in experimental data ξ = 3, 3 μ m). The exponential decay of G ( z ) corresponds to the logarithmic pair correlation function γ ( r ) = ln( ξ / r ). As the sensitivity of the SESANS signal depends on the neutron wavelength, we propose the SESANS setup with the changeable wavelength in the range from 2 to 12 Å. Such option allows one to study in great detail the internal structure of the biological cell in the length scale from 10 −2 μ m to 10 μ m. (paper)

  18. Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure organization of the chromatin in biological cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashina, E. G.; Bouwman, W. G.; Duif, C. P.; Filatov, M. V.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spin-echo small-angle scattering (SESANS) technique is a method to measure the structure of materials from nano- to micrmeter length scales. This method could be important for studying the packaging of DNA in the eukaryotic cell. We measured the SESANS function from chicken erythrocyte nuclei which is well fitted by the exponential function G(z) = exp(-z/ξ), where ξ is the correlation length of a nucleus (in experimental data ξ = 3, 3 μm). The exponential decay of G(z) corresponds to the logarithmic pair correlation function γ(r) = ln(ξ/r). As the sensitivity of the SESANS signal depends on the neutron wavelength, we propose the SESANS setup with the changeable wavelength in the range from 2 to 12 Å. Such option allows one to study in great detail the internal structure of the biological cell in the length scale from 10-2 μm to 10 μm.

  19. Interleaved 3D-CNNs for joint segmentation of small-volume structures in head and neck CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuhua; Xiang, Lei; Nie, Dong; Shao, Yeqin; Zhang, Huan; Shen, Dinggang; Wang, Qian

    2018-02-26

    Accurate 3D image segmentation is a crucial step in radiation therapy planning of head and neck tumors. These segmentation results are currently obtained by manual outlining of tissues, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure. Automatic segmentation provides an alternative solution, which, however, is often difficult for small tissues (i.e., chiasm and optic nerves in head and neck CT images) because of their small volumes and highly diverse appearance/shape information. In this work, we propose to interleave multiple 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D-CNNs) to attain automatic segmentation of small tissues in head and neck CT images. A 3D-CNN was designed to segment each structure of interest. To make full use of the image appearance information, multiscale patches are extracted to describe the center voxel under consideration and then input to the CNN architecture. Next, as neighboring tissues are often highly related in the physiological and anatomical perspectives, we interleave the CNNs designated for the individual tissues. In this way, the tentative segmentation result of a specific tissue can contribute to refine the segmentations of other neighboring tissues. Finally, as more CNNs are interleaved and cascaded, a complex network of CNNs can be derived, such that all tissues can be jointly segmented and iteratively refined. Our method was validated on a set of 48 CT images, obtained from the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) Challenge 2015. The Dice coefficient (DC) and the 95% Hausdorff Distance (95HD) are computed to measure the accuracy of the segmentation results. The proposed method achieves higher segmentation accuracy (with the average DC: 0.58 ± 0.17 for optic chiasm, and 0.71 ± 0.08 for optic nerve; 95HD: 2.81 ± 1.56 mm for optic chiasm, and 2.23 ± 0.90 mm for optic nerve) than the MICCAI challenge winner (with the average DC: 0.38 for optic chiasm, and 0.68 for optic nerve; 95HD: 3.48 for

  20. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration. Final Report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, J. Wesley; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Doster, J. Michael; Edwards, Robert M.; Lewis, Kenneth D.; Turinsky, Paul; Coble, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  1. Metabolically active tumour volume segmentation from dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET studies in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, Lieke L; Frings, Virginie; Hoekstra, Otto S; Kenny, Laura M; Aboagye, Eric O; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) can be used to assess tumour proliferation. A kinetic-filtering (KF) classification algorithm has been suggested for segmentation of tumours in dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate KF segmentation and its test-retest performance in [(18)F]FLT PET in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nine NSCLC patients underwent two 60-min dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET scans within 7 days prior to treatment. Dynamic scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) as well as with ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM). Twenty-eight lesions were identified by an experienced physician. Segmentation was performed using KF applied to the dynamic data set and a source-to-background corrected 50% threshold (A50%) was applied to the sum image of the last three frames (45- to 60-min p.i.). Furthermore, several adaptations of KF were tested. Both for KF and A50% test-retest (TRT) variability of metabolically active tumour volume and standard uptake value (SUV) were evaluated. KF performed better on OSEM- than on FBP-reconstructed PET images. The original KF implementation segmented 15 out of 28 lesions, whereas A50% segmented each lesion. Adapted KF versions, however, were able to segment 26 out of 28 lesions. In the best performing adapted versions, metabolically active tumour volume and SUV TRT variability was similar to those of A50%. KF misclassified certain tumour areas as vertebrae or liver tissue, which was shown to be related to heterogeneous [(18)F]FLT uptake areas within the tumour. For [(18)F]FLT PET studies in NSCLC patients, KF and A50% show comparable tumour volume segmentation performance. The KF method needs, however, a site-specific optimisation. The A50% is therefore a good alternative for tumour segmentation in NSCLC [(18)F]FLT PET studies in multicentre studies. Yet, it was observed that KF has the potential to subsegment

  2. Automation and remote access of EMBL small angle X-ray scattering beamline X33 dedicated to biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weifeng Shang; Roessle, M.; Blanchet, C.; Zozulya, A.; Franke, D.; Petoukhov, M.; Kikhney, A.; Svergun, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The small-angle X-ray scattering beamline X33 of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) at the DORIS III storage ring (HASYLAB/DESY) has been dedicated to structural studies of non-crystalline biological systems for more than two decades. In the last several years, the introduction of new optical systems (monochromator, mirror, slits etc) and detector systems (large area image plate Mar345 and PILATUS 1M) leads to an improvement of photon flux by a factor of 3 and a reduction of the exposure time by a factor of 7. Moreover, an automated sample changer has been constructed and in operation since August 2007. The data analysis pipeline consisting of the program suite yields the radius of gyration and forward scattering intensity using Guinier analysis (AutoRg), pair distance distribution function p(r) using indirect Fourier transform method (AutoGNOM), and bead models using ab initio shape determination (DAMMIN and DAMMIF). The results of these analysis which are immediately available after each measurement provides an invaluable tool for data quality control during the data collection. Furthermore, works on remote control of the integrated data collection and analysis software is ongoing and expected to be operated in late 2009 where users can send their samples and control the measurements at home institutes. (author)

  3. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the 18F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C.; Muret, A. de; Barillot, I.

    2008-01-01

    The 18 F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV threshold = 0.307 Sub average + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I threshold = β I average +I noise with β 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had 18 F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I max 40 and I max 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using β = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using β = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle's et al. method seems to be the most accurate for tumours over 2 cm of

  4. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-03: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Radiosurgery Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, AJ [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small volume proton radiosurgery targets using a triplet combination of quadrupole rare earth permanent magnet Halbach cylinder assemblies Methods: Fourteen quadrupole magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into k=3 Halbach cylinders with various field gradients (100 to 250 T/m) were designed and manufactured. Triplet combinations of the magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Unmodulated 127 MeV proton beams with initial diameters of 3 to 20 mm were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth and transverse dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and EBT3 film, respectively. This data was compared with unfocused passively collimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further investigate the potential of triplet magnetic focusing. Results: Experimental results using 150 T/m gradient magnets and 15 to 20 mm initial diameter beams show peak to entrance dose ratios that are ∼ 43 to 48 % larger compared with spot size matched 8 mm collimated beams (ie, transverse profile full-widths at 90% maximum dose match within 0.5 mm of focused beams). In addition, the focusing beams were ∼ 3 to 4.4 times more efficient per MU in dose to target delivery. Additional results using different magnet combinations will also be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that triplet magnetic focusing could reduce entrance dose and beam number while delivering dose to small (∼≤ 10 mm diameter) radiosurgery targets in less time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however other treatment sites can be also envisioned. This project was sponsored with funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1).

  5. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  6. Fiber Fabry-Perot Force Sensor with Small Volume and High Performance for Assessing Fretting Damage of Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peijian; Wang, Ning; Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Measuring the radial collision force between the steam generator tube (SGT) and the tube support plate (TSP) is essential to assess the fretting damage of the SGT. In order to measure the radial collision force, a novel miniaturized force sensor based on fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) was designed, and the principle and characteristics of the sensor were analyzed in detail. Then, the F-P force sensor was successfully fabricated and calibrated, and the overall dimensions of the encapsulated fiber F-P sensor were 17 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm (L × W × H). The sensor works well in humid, high pressure (10 MPa), high temperature (350 °C), and vibration (40 kHz) environments. Finally, the F-P force sensors were installed in a 1:1 steam generator test loop, and the radial collision force signals between the SGT and the TSP were obtained. The experiments indicated that the F-P sensor with small volume and high performance could help in assessing the fretting damage of the steam generator tubes.

  7. Teaching practices and professional development of biology professors at small, private, liberal arts colleges in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Sarah Elizabeth Bradford

    Science teaching in pre-college institutions has been undergoing reform in recent years, particularly since 1996, when the National Science Education Standards were published. This reform includes inquiry-based teaching, student-centered classrooms, authentic assessment, and collaborative learning. Professional development is also recommended in the Standards document as the means for preparing teachers for reform-based teaching in pre-college classrooms. In post-secondary institutions, there is no curriculum-governing body to institute reform, and college faculty have devised their own standards and methods for teaching science, most often in the form of lecture and traditional procedure-driven laboratory exercises. This study was conducted to find examples of reform-based biology teaching in small, private, liberal arts colleges in the Southeast, where teaching innovations may be more likely to occur due to the size and independence of the schools. Professional development opportunities were also examined, since these would be important in the development of new curricula and methods of teaching. Data were collected from 151 participants, representing 78.3% of these colleges in eight southeastern states, by survey and from three volunteers by on-site interviews. Teaching was the main responsibility reported by all respondents, with both lower and upper level biology courses taught by all participants. Significant differences were found in the use of reform-based teaching in lower level biology courses versus upper level biology courses. Overall average use of inquiry-based teaching was 70.5%, while student-centered learning was reported on average by 57% of respondents, authentic assessment was reported on average by 56.6% of respondents, and collaborative learning was reported on average by 56% of respondents. Professional development opportunities most frequently used were reported to be journal, books, and videotapes. Multivariate regression analyses revealed

  8. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynde, Søren, E-mail: kynde@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nagy, Gergely [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kohlbrecher, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.kohlbrecher@psi.ch [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Arleth, Lise, E-mail: arleth@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-11

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm{sup 3}, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ/λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  9. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Dose Escalation to Biological Tumor Volumes of Prostate Cancer Patients Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Insitute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States); Sajo, E [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Houari, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Insitute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies have shown that radiation boosting could help reduce prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence. Biological tumor volumes (BTV) are a high priority for such radiation boosting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of radiation boosting of real patient BTVs using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from gold-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS) during brachytherapy. Methods: The BTVs of 12 patients having prostate adenocarcinoma identified with positron emission tomography (PET) and CT scanner using C-11 labeled tracer [11C]acetate were investigated. The initial GNP concentration and time to achieve a dose enhancement effect (DEF) of 2 was simulated using the freely downloadable software RAID APP. The investigations were carried out for low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources (BTS) described in AAPM Task Group report 43: Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103. In first case, we used 7 mg/g and 18 mg/g of GNP initial concentrations to estimate the time needed for released GNP to achieve a DEF of 2 for the different BTS, and compare with clinically relevant treatment times. In second case, we calculated the initial concentration of GNPs needed to achieve a DEF of 2 during the time the BTS would typically deliver 50%, 70% and 90% of the total dose. Results: For an initial concentration of 18 mg/g, when using Cs-131, and Pd-103, a DEF of 2 could only be achieved for BTV of 3.3 cm3 and 1 cm3 respectively. Meanwhile a DEF of 2 could be achieved for all 12 BTVs when using I-125. To achieve a DEF of 2 for all patients using Cs-131 and Pd-103, much higher initial concentrations would have to be used than have been typically employed in pre-clinical studies. Conclusion: The I-125 is the most viable BTS that can be employed with GBS to guide dose painting treatment planning for localized PCa.

  10. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  11. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3′SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6′SL and 3′FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3′SL and 6′SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3′FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives. PMID:29372119

  12. CoMiniGut-a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Maria; Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3'SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6'SL and 3'FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3'SL and 6'SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3'FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives.

  13. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wiese

    2018-01-01

    abundance of Proteobacteria. The subsequent study on the influence of HMOs on two infant GM communities, revealed the strongest bifidogenic effect for 3′SL for both infants. Inter-individual differences of infant GM, especially with regards to the occurrence of Bacteroidetes and differences in bifidobacterial species composition, correlated with varying degrees of HMO utilization foremost of 6′SL and 3′FL, indicating species and strain related differences in HMO utilization which was also reflected in SCFAs concentrations, with 3′SL and 6′SL resulting in significantly higher butyrate production compared to 3′FL. In conclusion, the increased throughput of CoMiniGut strengthens experimental conclusions through elimination of statistical interferences originating from low number of repetitions. Its small working volume moreover allows the investigation of rare and expensive bioactives.

  14. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 1. Army Projects, Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards from FY 1989 SBIR Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    THE PROGRESS OF THERAPY ARE IMPORTANT FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SEPTIC SHOCK DUE TO THERMAL INJURY OR BIOLOGICAL WARFARE WHERE INFECTIONS RESULT IN A HIGH...JEEP) NECESSITATES THE USE OF ELECTRICALLY SHORT ANTENNAS SUCH AS SHORT WHIPS AND SMALL LOOPS. THE CONVENTIONAL APPROACH USES A POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGNED...TIER ASSESSMENT OF THE DECREMENT OF PERFORMANCE TO HUMAN EXPOSED TO WEAPONS SYSTEMS EMISSIONS. WE PLAN TO EMPLOY MINIATURE PIGS AND SMALL PRIMATE DURING

  15. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  16. Critical assessment of the performance of electronic moisture analyzers for small amounts of environmental samples and biological reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, M

    2001-12-01

    Two electronic moisture analyzers were critically evaluated with regard to their suitability for determining moisture in small amounts (environmental matrices such as leaves, needles, soil, peat, sediments, and sewage sludge, as well as various biological reference materials. To this end, several homogeneous bulk materials were prepared which were subsequently employed for the development and optimization of all analytical procedures. The key features of the moisture analyzers included a halogen or ceramic heater and an integrated balance with a resolution of 0.1 mg, which is an essential prerequisite for obtaining precise results. Oven drying of the bulk materials in a conventional oven at 105 degrees C until constant mass served as reference method. A heating temperature of 65degrees C was found to provide accurate and precise results for almost all matrices investigated. To further improve the accuracy and precision, other critical parameters such as handling of sample pans, standby temperature, and measurement delay were optimized. Because of its ponderous heating behavior, the performance of the ceramic radiator was inferior to that of the halogen heater, which produced moisture results comparable to those obtained by oven drying. The developed drying procedures were successfully applied to the fast moisture analysis (1.4-6.3 min) of certified biological reference materials of similar provenance to the investigated the bulk materials. Moisture results for 200 mg aliquots ranged from 1.4 to 7.8% and good agreement was obtained between the recommended drying procedure for the reference materials and the electronic moisture analyzers with absolute uncertainties amounting to 0.1% and 0.2-0.3%, respectively.

  17. Targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer: biology, rationale, and preclinical results from a radiation oncology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raben, David; Helfrich, Barb; Bunn, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This presents an opportune target for new treatment strategies designed to selectively interfere with the cancer cell growth cycle. Recent investigations into the biology of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways have reminded us of the complexity of cancer cell communications from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Multiple pathways are activated with stimulation of the autocrine and paracrine EGFR loop, from the ras-raf-MEK activation of ERK 1/2 to the P13K-Akt pathway, each playing an important role in cancer cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that molecules targeting the EGFR, either through extracellular blockade or intracellular interference with the EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase, reversibly or irreversibly, inhibit cancer cell growth. Potent antitumor effects have been observed in human tumor xenograft models. Preclinical studies have also demonstrated cooperative effects when anti-EGFR agents are combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Many of these agents have now entered into advanced human clinical trials with modest dose-related toxicity despite chronic administration. Encouraging response rates with single-agent targeted therapy have been reported in heavily pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In addition, agents targeting the angiogenic pathway, which plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis, may play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of anti-EGFR agents. This article will focus on the biology, rationale, and preclinical studies with targeted anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic therapies for the management of NSCLC

  18. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soe, Rikke; Macaulay, Nanna; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    in Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents upon swelling of the oocytes and a reduction in the current when the oocytes were shrunk. The volume-dependent changes in channel activity were not due to changes in the kinetics of the channels. These findings implicate a putative functional interaction between...... the Kir channels and aquaporins via small, fast cell volume changes in the glial cells....... channels and aquaporins is therefore debated. To test a possible volume-sensitivity of the Kir channels, the Kir4.1 or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without co-expression of aquaporins and subsequently exposed to cell volume alterations. Our results show an increase...

  19. Variability of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes with quantitative gated SPECT: influence of algorithm, pixel size and reconstruction parameters in small and normal-sized hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, Anne-Sophie; Vervaet, Ann; Dobbeleir, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Several software packages are commercially available for quantification of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes from myocardial gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), all of which display a high reproducibility. However, their accuracy has been questioned in patients with a small heart. This study aimed to evaluate the performances of different software and the influence of modifications in acquisition or reconstruction parameters on LVEF and volume measurements, depending on the heart size. In 31 patients referred for gated SPECT, 64 2 and 128 2 matrix acquisitions were consecutively obtained. After reconstruction by filtered back-projection (Butterworth, 0.4, 0.5 or 0.6 cycles/cm cut-off, order 6), LVEF and volumes were computed with different software [three versions of Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS), the Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT) and the Stanford University (SU-Segami) Medical School algorithm] and processing workstations. Depending upon their end-systolic volume (ESV), patients were classified into two groups: group I (ESV>30 ml, n=14) and group II (ESV 2 to 128 2 were associated with significantly larger volumes as well as lower LVEF values. Increasing the filter cut-off frequency had the same effect. With SU-Segami, a larger matrix was associated with larger end-diastolic volumes and smaller ESVs, resulting in a highly significant increase in LVEF. Increasing the filter sharpness, on the other hand, had no influence on LVEF though the measured volumes were significantly larger. (orig.)

  20. Patterns of failure after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer: Implications for postoperative radiation therapy volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Light, Kim L.C.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze local-regional patterns of failure after surgical resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis included 61 patients who underwent resection of NSCLC at Duke University Medical Center. Inclusion into the study required the following: margin-negative resection, no neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), first recurrence involving a local-regional site, and imaging studies available for review. Sites of intrathoracic disease recurrence were documented. Diagrams were constructed that illustrated sites of failure on the basis of lobe of primary tumor. Failure rates were compared by application of a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: All patients had CT imaging for review, and 54% also had PET imaging. The median number of local-regional recurrent sites was two (range, 1-6). For all patients, the most common site of failure was the bronchial stump/staple line (44%), which was present more often in those who had a wedge resection than in those who had a more radical procedure (79% vs. 34%, p = 0.005). Patients with initial nodal involvement (pN1-2) were not more likely to have involvement of the mediastinum than were patients with pN0 disease (64% vs. 72%, p = 0.72), but were more likely to have involvement of the supraclavicular fossa (27% vs. 4%, p = 0.04). Mediastinal involvement, without overt evidence of hilar involvement, occurred in 59% of patients. Left-sided tumors tended to involve the contralateral mediastinum more frequently than did right-sided tumors. Patterns of failure after resection are diagrammed and follow a fairly predictable pattern on the basis of involved lobe. Conclusions: These data may help clinicians construct postoperative RT volumes that are smaller than ones traditionally utilized, which may improve the therapeutic ratio

  1. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

  2. Estimation of tumor volume and its prognostic significance to study the biological behavior of carcinoma of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi Dawson

    2016-01-01

    Results: The median age of the patients in this group was 47.5 years, with a range of 30–80 years. The major histological type of carcinoma among 40 cases is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (in 90% of cases, and 10% had adenocarcinoma. Pathological staging of the carcinoma cervix showed stage Ib, IIa, IIb, and IVa (35%, 20%, 40%, and 5%. Tumor volume estimated on pathological specimens of 40 cases ranged from 230 cumm to 49,760 cumm with a mean of 14,844 cumm. 12 (30% cases had tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm, 12 (30% cases had tumor volume <5000 cumm and 16 (40% cases had tumor volume between 5000 and 15,000 cumm. 17% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed lymph node metastases, whereas 67% (out of 12cases of cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed lymph node metastases. 67% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed 0/4 organs involvement, whereas all cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more than one organ involvement among vagina, uterus, parametrium or bladder/rectum. Fibronectin positivity was seen in 22 out of 44 cases (55%. Macrophages were seen surrounding the group of tumor cells by LN5 immunostaining. Conclusion: Tumor volume can be considered as an independent prognostic factor to assess the spread of the tumor. Cases with tumor volume <5000 cumm show low risk in terms of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis and those with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more organ spread. Fibronectin positivity carries some importance in low-risk cases. For macrophages, further detailed study needs to be carried out.

  3. SU-C-202-04: Adapting Biologically Optimized Dose Escalation Based On Mid-Treatment PET/CT for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P; Kuo, L; Yorke, E; Hu, Y; Lockney, N; Mageras, G; Deasy, J; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a biological modeling strategy which incorporates the response observed on the mid-treatment PET/CT into a dose escalation design for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: FDG-PET/CT was acquired midway through standard fractionated treatment and registered to pre-treatment planning PET/CT to evaluate radiation response of lung cancer. Each mid-treatment PET voxel was assigned the median SUV inside a concentric 1cm-diameter sphere to account for registration and imaging uncertainties. For each voxel, the planned radiation dose, pre- and mid-treatment SUVs were used to parameterize the linear-quadratic model, which was then utilized to predict the SUV distribution after the full prescribed dose. Voxels with predicted post-treatment SUV≥2 were identified as the resistant target (response arm). An adaptive simultaneous integrated boost was designed to escalate dose to the resistant target as high as possible, while keeping prescription dose to the original target and lung toxicity intact. In contrast, an adaptive target volume was delineated based only on the intensity of mid-treatment PET/CT (intensity arm), and a similar adaptive boost plan was optimized. The dose escalation capability of the two approaches was compared. Result: Images of three patients were used in this planning study. For one patient, SUV prediction indicated complete response and no necessary dose escalation. For the other two, resistant targets defined in the response arm were multifocal, and on average accounted for 25% of the pre-treatment target, compared to 67% in the intensity arm. The smaller response arm targets led to a 6Gy higher mean target dose in the adaptive escalation design. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that adaptive dose escalation to a biologically resistant target predicted from a pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT may be more effective than escalation based on the mid-treatment PET/CT alone. More plans and ultimately clinical

  4. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that

  5. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd; Koelsch, Uwe; Rüdiger, Mario

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (V L ). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg −1 , and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N 2 . After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate V L . All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. V L (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL −1 versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL −1 ; P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased V L by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST. (paper)

  6. Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Bernardino

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km 2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse

  7. Masked volume wise principal component analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razifar, Pasha; Hennings, Joakim; Monazzam, Azita; Hellman, Per; Långström, Bengt; Sundin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In previous clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies novel approaches for application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on dynamic PET images such as Masked Volume Wise PCA (MVW-PCA) have been introduced. MVW-PCA was shown to be a feasible multivariate analysis technique, which, without modeling assumptions, could extract and separate organs and tissues with different kinetic behaviors into different principal components (MVW-PCs) and improve the image quality. In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours. MTO-PET was performed before and 3 days after starting per oral cortisone treatment. The whole dataset, reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) 0–45 minutes after the tracer injection, was used to study the tracer pharmacokinetics. Early, intermediate and late pharmacokinetic phases could be isolated in this manner. The MVW-PC1 images correlated well to the conventionally summed image data (15–45 minutes) but the image noise in the former was considerably lower. PET measurements performed by defining 'hot spot' regions of interest (ROIs) comprising 4 contiguous pixels with the highest radioactivity concentration showed a trend towards higher SUVs when the ROIs were outlined in the MVW-PC1 component than in the summed images. Time activity curves derived from '50% cut-off' ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment. In addition to the clear decrease in image noise and the improved contrast between different structures with MVW-PCA, the results indicate that the definition of ROIs may be more accurate and precise in MVW-PC1 images than in conventional summed images. This might improve the precision of PET

  8. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  9. Development of Small-Volume, High-Precision, and Reliable Cryogenic Linear Actuators by Using Novel Intermetallic Compounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space missions often involve ultra-cold environments, and cryogenic actuators must be mechanically robust for long-term cyclic work, generate high power per volume,...

  10. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales; Diffusionseffekte in volumenselektiver NMR auf kleinen Laengenskalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-21

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 {mu}m could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  11. Analysis of primary tumor metabolic volume during chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roengvoraphoj, Olarn; Eze, Chukwuka; Li, Minglun; Dantes, Maurice; Taugner, Julian [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Wijaya, Cherylina [Asklepios Fachkliniken Muenchen-Gauting, Department of Pulmonology, Munich (Germany); Tufman, Amanda; Huber, Rudolf Maria [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich and Thoracic Oncology Centre Munich, Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, Internal Medicine V, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany); Belka, Claus; Manapov, Farkhad [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); German Centre for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M) (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has an established role in the initial diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. However, a prognostic value of PET/CT during multimodality treatment has not yet been fully clarified. This study evaluated the role of primary tumor metabolic volume (PT-MV) changes on PET/CT before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A total of 65 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) UICC stage IIIA/B (TNM 7th Edition) were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (sequential or concurrent setting). PET/CT was acquired before the start, at the end of the third week, and 6 weeks following CRT. Median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 16 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12-20). In all, 60 (92.3%) patients were eligible for pre-treatment (pre-PT-MV), 28 (43%) for mid-treatment (mid-PT-MV), and 53 (81.5%) for post-treatment (post-PT-MV) volume analysis. Patients with pre-PT-MV >63 cm{sup 3} had worse OS (p < 0.0001). A reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV of >15% improved OS (p = 0.001). In addition, patients with post-PT-MV > 25 cm{sup 3} had significantly worse outcome (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, performance status (p = 0.002, hazard ratio [HR] 0.007; 95% CI 0.00-0.158), pre-PT-MV1 < 63 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.027, HR 3.98; 95% CI 1.17-13.49), post-PT-MV < 25 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.013, HR 11.90; 95% CI 1.70-83.27), and a reduction from mid-PT-MV to post-PT-MV > 15% (p = 0.004, HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.02-0.31) correlated with improved OS. Our results demonstrated that pre- and post-treatment PT-MV, as well as an at least 15% reduction in mid- to post-PT-MV, significantly correlates with OS in patients with inoperable locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F-2-Fluor-2-desoxy-D-Glukose und Computertomographie ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) hat sich in der initialen

  12. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  13. Changes of the liver volume and the Child-Pugh score after high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Young Yih; Kang, Sang Won; Paik, Seung Woon

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the safety of high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with small HCC who were treated with high dose hypofractionated RT between 2006 and 2009. The serial changes of the liver volumetric parameter were analyzed from pre-RT and follow-up (FU) computed tomography (CT) scans. We estimated linear time trends of whole liver volume using a linear mixed model. The serial changes of the Child-Pugh (CP) scores were also analyzed in relation to the volumetric changes. Mean pre-RT volume of entire liver was 1,192.2 mL (range, 502.6 to 1,310.2 mL) and mean clinical target volume was 14.7 mL (range, 1.56 to 70.07 mL). Fourteen (87.5%) patients had 4 FU CT sets and 2 (12.5%) patients had 3 FU CT sets. Mean interval between FU CT acquisition was 2.5 months. After considering age, gender and the irradiated liver volume as a fixed effects, the mixed model analysis confirmed that the change in liver volume is not significant throughout the time course of FU periods. Majority of patients had a CP score change less than 2 except in 1 patient who had CP score change more than 3. The high dose hypofractionated RT for small HCC is relatively safe and feasible in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.

  14. The incidence of inclusion of the sigmoid colon and small bowel in the planning target volume in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerleer, G.O. de; Vakaet, L.; Neve, W.J. de; Villeirs, G.M.; Delrue, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: in radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is considered the dose-limiting organ. The incidence of overlap between the sigmoid colon and/or small bowel and the planning target volume (PTV) as well as the dose to sigmoid colon and small bowel were investigated. Patients and methods: the CT data of 75 prostate cancer patients were analyzed. The clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of prostate and seminal vesicles. The PTV was defined as a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV with a 10-mm margin in craniocaudal and a 7-mm margin in the other directions. All patients were planned to a mean CTV dose of at least 76 Gy. Minimum CTV dose was set at 70 Gy. Dose inhomogeneity within the CTV was kept between 12% and 17%. Sigmoid colon was defined upward from the level where the rectum turned in a transverse plane. Contrast-filled small bowel was contoured on all slices where it was visible. The presence of sigmoid colon and/or small bowel in close vicinity to or overlapping with the PTV was recorded. For each case, the dose to the sigmoid colon and small bowel was calculated. Results: the PTV was found to overlap with the sigmoid colon in 60% and with the small bowel in 19% of the cases. In these patients, mean maximum dose to the sigmoid colon was 76.2 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 70.0-80.7 Gy). Mean maximum dose to the small bowel was 74.9 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 68.0-80.0 Gy). Conclusion: when systematically investigating the anatomic position of sigmoid colon and small bowel in patients accepted for prostate irradiation, parts of both organs were often observed in close vicinity to the PTV. Apart from the rectum, these organs may be dose-limiting in prostate radiotherapy. (orig.)

  15. The incidence of inclusion of the sigmoid colon and small bowel in the planning target volume in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerleer, G.O. de; Vakaet, L.; Neve, W.J. de [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gent Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Villeirs, G.M.; Delrue, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Gent Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2004-09-01

    Background and purpose: in radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is considered the dose-limiting organ. The incidence of overlap between the sigmoid colon and/or small bowel and the planning target volume (PTV) as well as the dose to sigmoid colon and small bowel were investigated. Patients and methods: the CT data of 75 prostate cancer patients were analyzed. The clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of prostate and seminal vesicles. The PTV was defined as a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV with a 10-mm margin in craniocaudal and a 7-mm margin in the other directions. All patients were planned to a mean CTV dose of at least 76 Gy. Minimum CTV dose was set at 70 Gy. Dose inhomogeneity within the CTV was kept between 12% and 17%. Sigmoid colon was defined upward from the level where the rectum turned in a transverse plane. Contrast-filled small bowel was contoured on all slices where it was visible. The presence of sigmoid colon and/or small bowel in close vicinity to or overlapping with the PTV was recorded. For each case, the dose to the sigmoid colon and small bowel was calculated. Results: the PTV was found to overlap with the sigmoid colon in 60% and with the small bowel in 19% of the cases. In these patients, mean maximum dose to the sigmoid colon was 76.2 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 70.0-80.7 Gy). Mean maximum dose to the small bowel was 74.9 Gy (5th-95th percentile: 68.0-80.0 Gy). Conclusion: when systematically investigating the anatomic position of sigmoid colon and small bowel in patients accepted for prostate irradiation, parts of both organs were often observed in close vicinity to the PTV. Apart from the rectum, these organs may be dose-limiting in prostate radiotherapy. (orig.)

  16. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J.; Scott, Suzanne; Mohr, Magni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training soccer group (SG, n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training vibration group (VG, n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive......%, p = 0.04), with no changes in VG or CO (timegroup effect: p = 0.03 and p = 0.03). Submaximal exercise HR was also reduced in SG after 16 weeks of training (6% ± 5% of HRmax, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes...

  17. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers; Comparaison de six methodes de segmentation du volume tumoral sur la {sup 18}F-FDG TEP-TDM avec le volume de reference anatomopathologique dans les cancers bronchopulmonaires non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Muret, A. de [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    The {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV{sub threshold} = 0.307 Sub{sub average} + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I{sub threshold} = {beta} I{sub average} +I{sub noise} with {beta} 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I{sub max} 40 and I{sub max} 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using {beta} = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using {beta} = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle

  18. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  19. Evaluation of the AGCU Expressmarker 16 and 22 PCR Amplification Kits Using Biological Samples Applied to FTA Micro Cards in Reduced Volume Direct PCR Amplification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ogden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of the  Wuxi AGCU ScienTech Incorporation (HuiShan, Wuxi, China AGCU Expressmarker 16 (EX 16 and 22 (EX22 short tandem repeat (STR amplification kits in reduced reaction volumes using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification workflows. The commercially available PowerPlex® 21 (PP21 System (Promega, Wisconsin, USA, which follows similar direct workflows, was used as a reference. Anticoagulate blood applied to chemically impregnated  FTA TM Micro Cards (GE Healthcare UK Limited, Amersham Place, Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, HP7 9NA, UK was used to represent a complex biological sample. Allelic concordance, first-pass success rate, average peak heights, heterozygous peak height ratios (HPHRs, and intracolor and intercolor peak height balance were determined. In reduced volume PCR reactions, the performances of both the EX16 and EX22 STR amplification kits were comparable to that of the PP21 System. The level of performance was maintained at PCR reaction volumes, which are 40% of that recommended. The EX22 and PP21 System kits possess comparable overlapping genome coverage. This study evaluated the performance of the AGCU EX16 and EX22 STR amplification kits in reduced PCR reaction volumes using direct workflows in combination with whole blood applied to FTA TM Micro Cards. Allelic concordance, first-pass success rate, average peak heights, HPHRs, and intracolor and intercolor peak height balance were determined. A concordance analysis was completed that compared the performance of the EX16 and EX22 kits using human blood applied to FTA Micro Cards in combination with full, half, and reduced PCR reaction volumes. The PP21 System (Promega was used as a reference kit. Where appropriate, the distributions of data were assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. For normally-distributed data, statistics were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA and for nonparametric data the Wilcoxon

  20. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkle, Joshua H.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferguson, Mark K. [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Hai-Yan [First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Chenpeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, RenJi Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Xuee [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-08-15

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub WB}) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTV{sub WB} to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTV{sub WB}, MTV{sub WB} may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTV{sub WB} in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTV{sub WB}, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTV{sub WB}. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p < 0.01), between IIIA and IIIB patients (p < 0.01), and between the stage IIIA patients with low MTV{sub WB} (below 29.2 mL) and the stage IIIA patients with high MTV{sub WB} (above 29.2 mL) (p < 0.01). There was no OS difference between the low MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA and the cohort of stage IIB patients (p = 0.485), or between the high MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA patients and the cohort of stage IIIB patients (p = 0.459). Similar risk-stratification capacity of MTV{sub WB} was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in

  1. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  2. 40 CFR 1054.635 - What special provisions apply for small-volume engine and equipment manufacturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions apply as specified in this part. (b) If you are a small business (as defined by the Small Business... be expected to fulfill future regulatory obligations and administrative judgments. We may also... before you certify your engines for the next model year, we might allow you to use assigned deterioration...

  3. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible

  4. The impact of time between staging PET/CT and definitive chemo-radiation on target volumes and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Plumridge, Nikki; Herschtal, Alan; Bressel, Mathias; Ball, David; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the impact of treatment delays on radiation therapy (RT) target volumes and overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent two baseline FDG PET/CT scans. Material and methods: Patients underwent a staging (PET1) and RT planning (PET2) FDG PET/CT scan. At PET1 all patients were eligible for radical chemo-RT. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT and those treated palliatively because PET2 showed progression. RT target volumes were contoured using PET1 and PET2. Normal tissue doses were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT. Results: Eighty-two patients underwent PET2 scans between October 2004 and February 2007. Of these, 21 had a prior PET1 scan, median 23 days apart (range 8–176 days). Six patients (29%) were unsuitable for radical RT after PET2; five received palliative treatment and one received no treatment. Patients treated palliatively had significantly worse OS and PFS than patients treated radically p < 0.001. Mean RT tumour volume increased from 105cc to 198cc (p < 0.005) between scans. Conclusions: Disease progression while awaiting initiation of curative RT in NSCLC is associated with larger treatment volumes and worse survival

  5. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 8-12, 1993). Volume 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 18 papers: "Human DNA Fingerprinting by Polymerase Chain Reaction" (M. V.…

  6. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (13th, Laramie, Wyoming, June 11-15, 1991). Volume 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Testing Issues of Foraging and Flocking Behavior" (C. C.…

  7. Devising of the method for the determination of small and very small amounts of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical version of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Samczynski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The newly modified version of the method for the determination of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical NAA based on selective post irradiation separation of Cd using ion exchange rasin Retardion 11A8 is presented. The conditions necessary for the selective retaining of Cd on the column exploiting both anionic and cationic ion exchange function of the resin have been discussed. Depending on the composition of the external solution, cadmium existing in the form of either anionic chloride complexes or cationic amine species is taken up by quaternary ammonium or carboxylate functional groups, respectively while accompanying elements are eluted. The elaborated method was further verified by determine Cd content in several certified biological reference materials using neutron activation analysis. The ion exchange separation procedure assures very high radiochemical purity of the cadmium fraction. Decontamination factors obtained for Mo, Sb, Na, Zn, Co, Sc amounted to 10 3 - 10 6 . Detection limit for Cd was 0.5 μg kg -1 . Analytical results show good agreement with the certified values. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  8. Molecular biologic study about the non-small cell lung carcinoma (2) : p53 gene alteration in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Ho; Zo, Jae Ill; Paik, Hee Jong; Kim, Mi Hee

    1996-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to identify of the p53 and 3p gene alteration in non-small cell lung cancer patients residing in Korea. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the p53 and 3p gene alterations and the clinicopathologic results of lung cancer patients. And we have investigated the role of PCR-LOH in analyzing tumor samples for LOH of defined chromosomal loci. We have used the 40 samples obtained from the lung cancer patients who were diagnosed and operated curatively at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. We have isolated the high molecular weight. DNA from the tumors and normal tissues. And we have amplified the DNA with PCR method and used the microsatellite assay method to detect the altered p53 and 3p gene. The conclusions were as follow: 1) The 3p gene alteration was observed in 9/39 (23.1%) and p53 gene alteration was observed in 15/40 (37.5%) of resected non-small cell lung cancer. 2) There was no correlations between the 3p or p53 gene alterations and prognosis of patients, but further study is necessary. 3) PCR-LOH is a very useful tool for analyzing small amount of tumor samples for loss of heterozygosity of defined chromosomal loci. (author). 10 refs

  9. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...... aerial photography. To address this issue, surface elevation in low contrast areas was measured manually at point locations and interpolated using a universal kriging approach. We conclude that ground-based SfM is well suited to establish high-quality DEMs of smaller glaciers. Provided favorable...

  10. The Relationship between the Introvert and Extravert Dichotomy and Small Unit Recruiting Volume Production within the Watertown Recruiting Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-22

    RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...Unit Recruiting Volume Production Within The Watertown Recruiting Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. Half dozen of one, six billion of the other: What can small- and large-scale molecular systems biology learn from one another?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Ian A; Raj, Arjun

    2015-10-01

    Small-scale molecular systems biology, by which we mean the understanding of a how a few parts work together to control a particular biological process, is predicated on the assumption that cellular regulation is arranged in a circuit-like structure. Results from the omics revolution have upset this vision to varying degrees by revealing a high degree of interconnectivity, making it difficult to develop a simple, circuit-like understanding of regulatory processes. We here outline the limitations of the small-scale systems biology approach with examples from research into genetic algorithms, genetics, transcriptional network analysis, and genomics. We also discuss the difficulties associated with deriving true understanding from the analysis of large data sets and propose that the development of new, intelligent, computational tools may point to a way forward. Throughout, we intentionally oversimplify and talk about things in which we have little expertise, and it is likely that many of our arguments are wrong on one level or another. We do believe, however, that developing a true understanding via molecular systems biology will require a fundamental rethinking of our approach, and our goal is to provoke thought along these lines. © 2015 Mellis and Raj; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. The effect of small specimen volume on the deformation of Zircaloy-4 PWR cladding under mainly convective cooling by steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakden, M.M.; Reynolds, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Creep rupture tests were performed in flowing steam on single rod specimens of 17x17 type PWR Zircaloy-4 cladding 460 mm long. They were tested at temperatures between 640 deg.C and 985 deg.C with internal pressures in the range 1.00-9.65 MPa (gauge) (145-1400 lb/in 2 ). The internal free volume was limited to 2.9 ml. Axially extended 'carrot' shaped deformations were produced, the range of temperatures and pressures over which these occurred was found to be similar to that observed in previous tests conducted with a much larger free volume. The main result of limiting the internal volume was that straining of the specimens was accompanied by a more rapid drop in the internal pressure than occurred previously, and which reduced the extent of the deformation compared with that seen in the earlier work. However, diametral strains in excess of 33% were observed which would result in mechanical interaction of neighbouring bulges if this occurred in a multi-rod array. (author)

  13. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    of ice, corresponding to roughly a quarter of its 1985 volume (148.6 ± 47.6 10 m) and a thinning rate of 0.60 ± 0.11 m a. The computations are challenged by a relatively large fraction of the 1985 DEM (∼50% of the glacier surface) being deemed unreliable owing to low contrast (snow cover) in the 1985......Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  15. Normal tissue complication probabilities: dependence on choice of biological model and dose-volume histogram reduction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction schemes and models of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) on ranking of radiation treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Data for liver complications in humans and for spinal cord in rats were used to derive input parameters of four different NTCP models. DVH reduction was performed using two schemes: 'effective volume' and 'preferred Lyman'. DVHs for competing treatment plans were derived from a sample DVH by varying dose uniformity in a high dose region so that the obtained cumulative DVHs intersected. Treatment plans were ranked according to the calculated NTCP values. Results: Whenever the preferred Lyman scheme was used to reduce the DVH, competing plans were indistinguishable as long as the mean dose was constant. The effective volume DVH reduction scheme did allow us to distinguish between these competing treatment plans. However, plan ranking depended on the radiobiological model used and its input parameters. Conclusions: Dose escalation will be a significant part of radiation treatment planning using new technologies, such as 3-D conformal radiotherapy and tomotherapy. Such dose escalation will depend on how the dose distributions in organs at risk are interpreted in terms of expected complication probabilities. The present study indicates considerable variability in predicted NTCP values because of the methods used for DVH reduction and radiobiological models and their input parameters. Animal studies and collection of standardized clinical data are needed to ascertain the effects of non-uniform dose distributions and to test the validity of the models currently in use

  16. Effects of reduced return activated sludge flows and volume on anaerobic zone performance for a septic wastewater biological phosphorus removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Daniel; Elias, Steven L; Randall, Andrew Amis

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) performance was found to be adequate with reduced return-activated sludge (RAS) flows (50% of available RAS) to the anaerobic tank and smaller-than-typical anaerobic zone volume (1.08 hours hydraulic retention time [HRT]). Three identical parallel biological nutrient removal pilot plants were fed with strong, highly fermented (160 mg/L volatile fatty acids [VFAs]), domestic and industrial wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. The pilot plants were operated at 100, 50, 40, and 25% RAS (percent of available RAS) flows to the anaerobic tank, with the remaining RAS to the anoxic tank. In addition, varying anaerobic HRT (1.08 and 1.5 hours) and increased hydraulic loading (35% increase) were examined. The study was divided into four phases, and the effect of these process variations on EBPR were studied by having one different variable between two identical systems. The most significant conclusion was that returning part of the RAS to the anaerobic zone did not decrease EBPR performance; instead, it changed the location of phosphorous release and uptake. Bringing less RAS to the anaerobic and more to the anoxic tank decreased anaerobic phosphorus release and increased anoxic phosphorus release (or decreased anoxic phosphorus uptake). Equally important is that, with VFA-rich influent wastewater, excessive anaerobic volume was shown to hurt overall phosphorus removal, even when it resulted in increased anaerobic phosphorus release.

  17. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  18. Quantitative in vivo assessment of radiation injury of the liver using Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI: tolerance dose of small liver volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Maciej

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Hepatic radiation toxicity restricts irradiation of liver malignancies. Better knowledge of hepatic tolerance dose is favourable to gain higher safety and to optimize radiation regimes in radiotherapy of the liver. In this study we sought to determine the hepatic tolerance dose to small volume single fraction high dose rate irradiation. Materials and methods 23 liver metastases were treated by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy. MRI was performed 3 days, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after therapy. MR-sequences were conducted with T1-w GRE enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted Gd-EOB-DTPA. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D-dosimetry data. The reviewer indicated the border of hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function or hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema. Based on the volume data, a dose-volume-histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for edema or function loss as the D90, i.e. the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results At six weeks post brachytherapy, the hepatocyte function loss reached its maximum extending to the former 9.4Gy isosurface in median (i.e., ≥9.4Gy dose exposure led to hepatocyte dysfunction. After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunctional volume had decreased significantly to a median of 11.4Gy and 14Gy isosurface, respectively, as a result of repair mechanisms. Development of edema was maximal at six weeks post brachytherapy (9.2Gy isosurface in median, and regeneration led to a decrease of the isosurface to a median of 11.3Gy between 6 and 12 weeks. The dose exposure leading to hepatocyte dysfunction was not significantly different from the dose provoking edema. Conclusion Hepatic injury peaked 6 weeks after small volume irradiation. Ongoing repair was observed up to 6 months. Individual dose sensitivity may differ as demonstrated by a relatively high standard deviation of threshold values in our own as well as all other published data.

  19. Optical characterization of extremely small volumes of liquid in sub-micro-holes by simultaneous reflectivity, ellipsometry and spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, M; Casquel, R; Sánchez, B; Molpeceres, C; Morales, M; Ocaña, J L

    2007-10-01

    We have fabricated and characterized a lattice of submicron cone-shaped holes on a SiO(2)/Si wafer. Reflectivity profiles as a function of angle of incidence and polarization, phase shift and spectrometry are obtained for several fluids with different refractive indexes filling the holes. The optical setup allows measuring in the center of a single hole and collecting all data simultaneously, which can be applied for measuring extremely low volumes of fluid (in the order of 0.1 femtolitres) and label-free immunoassays, as it works as a refractive index sensor. A three layer film stack model is defined to perform theoretical calculations.

  20. The effect of consuming small volumes of beer on gastric motility and the involvement of gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Jodai, Yasutaka; Omori, Takafumi; Sumi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hirata, Ichiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakao, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing 13 C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min. The concentration peak of 13 C was measured as Tmax. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity for the marker of small intestinal function activity was also measured the day after the test. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in the group that consumed a small amount of beer, and in daily beer consumption group, and also in the ADH1B *2/*2, ALDH2 *1/*2 genotypes compared to non-beer drinking group. DAO values were not significantly changed between beer and non-beer group. The consumption of even a small amount of beer and the polymorphisms in ADH1B / ALDH2 affects gastric motility.

  1. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  2. High-energy radiation monitoring based on radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization. I : Small volume in situ probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warman, J.M.; De Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.

    2009-01-01

    A method of radiation dosimetry is described which is based on the radiation-induced initiation of polymerization of a bulk monomer (e.g. methyl methacrylate) containing a small concentration (about 100 ppm) of a compound which is non-fluorescent but which becomes highly fluorescent when it is

  3. Neutron and synchrotorn x-ray small angle scattering instruments for applications in biology at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Wise, D.S.; Schneider, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Facilities for small angle x-ray and neutron scattering are described, with emphasis on the characterization of the primary beam of the neutron instrument and the spectrometer control logic of the synchrotron instrument

  4. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implications for dosimetric changes when introducing MR-guided brachytherapy for small volume cervix cancer: a comparison of CT and MR-based treatments in a single centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, Claire; Govindarajulu, Geetha; Sridharan, Swetha; Capp, Anne; O'Brien, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cervix brachytherapy dosimetry with the introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) based treatment planning and volumetric prescriptions and propose a method for plan evaluation in the transition period. The treatment records of 69 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Forty one patients were treated using computed tomography (CT)-based, Point A-based prescriptions and 28 patients were treated using magnetic resonance (MR)-based, volumetric prescriptions. Plans were assessed for dose to Point A and organs at risk (OAR) with additional high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) dose assessment for MR-based brachytherapy plans. ICRU-38 point doses and GEC-ESTRO recommended volumetric doses (D2 cc for OAR and D 100 , D 98 and D 90 for HR-CTV) were also considered. For patients with small HR-CTV sizes, introduction of MR-based volumetric brachytherapy produced a change in dose delivered to Point A and OAR. Point A doses fell by 4.8 Gy (p = 0.0002) and ICRU and D 2cc doses for OAR also reduced (p < 0.01). Mean Point A doses for MR-based brachytherapy treatment plans were closer to those of HR-CTV D 100 for volumes less than 20 cm 3 and HR-CTV D 98 for volumes between 20 and 35 cm 3 , with a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between Point A and HR-CTV D 90 doses in these ranges. In order to maintain brachytherapy dose consistency across varying HR-CTV sizes there must be a relationship between the volume of the HR-CTV and the prescription dose. Rather than adopting a ‘one size fits all’ approach during the transition to volume-based prescriptions, this audit has shown that separating prescription volumes into HR-CTV size categories of less than 20 cm 3 , between 20 and 35 cm 3 , and more than 35 cm 3 the HR-CTV can provide dose uniformity across all volumes and can be directly linked to traditional Point A prescriptions.

  6. A rheo-optical apparatus for real time kinetic studies on shear-induced alignment of self-assembled soft matter with small sample volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Ari; Ikkala, Olli

    2007-01-01

    In soft materials, self-assembled nanoscale structures can allow new functionalities but a general problem is to align such local structures aiming at monodomain overall order. In order to achieve shear alignment in a controlled manner, a novel type of rheo-optical apparatus has here been developed that allows small sample volumes and in situ monitoring of the alignment process during the shear. Both the amplitude and orientation angles of low level linear birefringence and dichroism are measured while the sample is subjected to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The apparatus is based on a commercial rheometer where we have constructed a flow cell that consists of two quartz teeth. The lower tooth can be set in oscillatory motion whereas the upper one is connected to the force transducers of the rheometer. A custom made cylindrical oven allows the operation of the flow cell at elevated temperatures up to 200 °C. Only a small sample volume is needed (from 9 to 25 mm3), which makes the apparatus suitable especially for studying new materials which are usually obtainable only in small quantities. Using this apparatus the flow alignment kinetics of a lamellar polystyrene-b-polyisoprene diblock copolymer is studied during shear under two different conditions which lead to parallel and perpendicular alignment of the lamellae. The open device geometry allows even combined optical/x-ray in situ characterization of the alignment process by combining small-angle x-ray scattering using concepts shown by Polushkin et al. [Macromolecules 36, 1421 (2003)].

  7. Impact of PET - CT motion correction in minimising the gross tumour volume in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Masoomi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To investigate the impact of respiratory motion on localization, and quantification lung lesions for the Gross Tumour Volume utilizing an in-house developed Auto3Dreg programme and dynamic NURBS-based cardiac-torso digitised phantom (NCAT. Methods: Respiratory motion may result in more than 30% underestimation of the SUV values of lung, liver and kidney tumour lesions. The motion correction technique adopted in this study was an image-based motion correction approach using, an in-house developed voxel-intensity-based and a multi-resolution multi-optimisation (MRMO algorithm. All the generated frames were co-registered to a reference frame using a time efficient scheme. The NCAT phantom was used to generate CT attenuation maps and activity distribution volumes for the lung regions. Quantitative assessment including Region of Interest (ROI, image fidelity and image correlation techniques, as well as semi-quantitative line profile analysis and qualitatively overlaying non-motion and motion corrected image frames were performed. Results: the largest transformation was observed in the Z-direction. The greatest translation was for the frame 3, end inspiration, and the smallest for the frame 5 which was closet frame to the reference frame at 67% expiration. Visual assessment of the lesion sizes, 20-60mm at 3 different locations, apex, mid and base of lung showed noticeable improvement for all the foci and their locations. The maximum improvements for the image fidelity were from 0.395 to 0.930 within the lesion volume of interest. The greatest improvement in activity concentration underestimation, post motion correction, was 7% below the true activity for the 20 mm lesion. The discrepancies in activity underestimation were reduced with increasing the lesion sizes. Overlay activity distribution on the attenuation map showed improved localization of the PET metabolic information to the anatomical CT images. Conclusion: The respiratory

  8. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  9. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  10. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  11. Health-related quality of life of Portuguese children and adolescents according to their biological maturation and volume of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Catarina; Teles, Júlia; Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between biological maturation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Portuguese children and adolescents of both sexes when the effect of chronological age (CA) and volume of physical activity (VPA) were removed. HRQoL, biological maturation, CA, and VPA were assessed in 750 children and adolescents, 11-17 years old, from 3 schools in Lisbon, Portugal. The KIDSCREEN-52 was used to assess HRQoL. Maturity indicator was bone age (BA), using Tanner-Whitehouse III method (TW3). The participants were classified into three different maturity categories: late, on time, and early maturers. VPA was assessed by questionnaire (RAPIL II). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using the CA and the VPA as covariates was completed. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Analysis of covariance suggested an influence of biological maturation in physical well-being dimension in both sexes, with early-maturing girls and boys having worst perception. Maturity groups were also influent in moods and emotions for girls. CA seems to be particularly important in self-perception and parent relation and home life for girls and in school environment for boys. Biological maturation and CA have relevant impact on some HRQoL dimensions. These variables, due to their nature and effect should be considered particularly when working with specific domains of HRQoL as physical well-being in both sexes, moods and emotions and self-perception and parent relation and home life for girls and in school environment for boys.

  12. Dynamics of glucagon secretion in mice and rats revealed using a validated sandwich ELISA for small sample volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon is a metabolically important hormone, but many aspects of its physiology remain obscure, because glucagon secretion is difficult to measure in mice and rats due to methodological inadequacies. Here, we introduce and validate a low-volume, enzyme-linked immunosorbent glucagon assay...... according to current analytical guidelines, including tests of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and compare it, using the Bland-Altman algorithm and size-exclusion chromatography, with three other widely cited assays. After demonstrating adequate performance of the assay, we measured glucagon...... and returning to basal levels at 6 min (mice) and 12 min (rats). d-Mannitol (osmotic control) was without effect. Ketamine/xylazine anesthesia in mice strongly attenuated (P assay. In conclusion, dynamic analysis...

  13. Time-slicing subsystem of the biology small-angle x-ray scattering station at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    The time-slicing subsystem of the Biology Small-Angle X-ray Scattering divides the time period during which the data for small-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from biological samples is collected into time slices (or frames). The subsystem, being part of a multiprocessor experiment control and data acquisition system, has its own dedicated processor; it also has special-purpose front-end electronics sufficient to generate the gating and other control signals required to produce a sequence of as many as 256 time slices, measured with a basic time unit of 1 μsec. The electronics also synchronizes with execution of the time slice sequence the application of stimuli to the biological sample, the measurement of voltages generated by the sample, and the application of auxiliary device trigger pulses and routes detector data and auxiliary scaler data into appropriate time-slice-indexed buffers in a large external data memory array. The structure of the entire experiment control and data acquisition system is briefly reviewed. Details of the structure and operation of the time slice subsystem are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Comparison of different threshold 18FDG PET with computer tomography for defining gross tumor volume in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqing; Yu Jinming; Xing Ligang; Gong Heyi; Fu Zheng; Yang Guoren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Under different standard uptake value(SUV), to assess gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glueose positron emission tomography( 18 FDG PET) both under definite threshold (42 percent threshold) and various relative threshold (threshold SUV/maximum SUV) derived from the linear regressive function, threshold SUV=0.307 x (mean target SUV) + 0.588, with computer tomography(CT). Methods: Of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the CT GTV (GTV CT ), PET GTV with 42 percents threshold (GTV 42% ) and PET GTV with relative threshold (GTV relate ) were obtained and compared. Results: The mean GTV 42% , mean GTV relate and mean GTV CT was (13 812.5±13 841.4), (24 325.3±22 454.7) and (28350.9± 26 079.8) mm 3 , respectively, with the difference in mean GTV among these three methods significant (F =. 10, P 42% was smaller than the GTV relate and the GTV CT (P relate and GTV CT (P = 0.125 ). Conclusion: The relative threshold is more suitable to define the gross tumor volume than the definite threshold. (authors)

  15. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.

  16. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magro, G; Molinelli, S; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M; Ferrari, A

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo ® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus ® chamber. An EBT3 ® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification. (paper)

  17. Comparison of three approaches to delineate internal gross tumor volume based on four-dimensional CT simulation images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxiang; Li Jianbin; Zhang Yingjie; Shang Dongping; Liu Tonghai; Tian Shiyu; Xu Min; Ma Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare positional and volumetric differences of internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) delineated separately by three approaches based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) for the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NLCLC). Methods: Twenty-one patients with NLCLC underwent big bore 4DCT simulation scan of the thorax. IGTVs of the primary tumor of NSCLC were delineated using three approaches as followed: (1) the gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of the ten the respiratory phases of the 4DCT image set were delineated and the ten GTV were fused to produce IGTV 10 ; (2) the GTV delineated separately based on 0% and 50% phase were fused to produce IGTV EI+EE ; (3) the visible tumor on the MIP images were delineated to produce IGTV MIP . The position of the target center, the volume of target, the degree of inclusion (DI) and the matching index (MI) were compared reciprocally between IGTV 10 , IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP . Results: Average differences between the position of the center of IGTVs on direction of x, y and z axes were less than 1 mm, with no statistically significant difference. The volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV EI+EE , the difference was statistically significant (t=2.37, P=0.028); the volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV MIP , but the difference was not statistically significant (t=1.95, P=0.065). The ratio of IGTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP with IGTV 10 were 0.85±0.08 and 0.92±0.11, respectively. DI of IGTV EI+EE in IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP in IGTV 10 were 84.78% ± 8. 95% and 88.47% ±9.04%. MI between IGTV 10 and IGTV EI+EE , IGTV 10 and IGTV MIP were 0.85 ±0.09, 0.86±0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The center displacement of the IGTVs delineated separately by the three different techniques based on 4DCT images are not obvious; IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP can not replace IGTV 10 , however, IGTV MIP is more close to IGTV 10 comparing to IGTV EI+EE . The ratio of GTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 is correlated to the tumor motion

  18. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  19. Biologic activity of the novel small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL12 against canine osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Jason I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background STAT3 [1] has been shown to be dysregulated in nearly every major cancer, including osteosarcoma (OS. Constitutive activation of STAT3, via aberrant phosphorylation, leads to proliferation, cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of a novel allosteric STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12, in canine OS cell lines. Results We evaluated the effects of LLL12 treatment on 4 canine OS cell lines and found that LLL12 inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, reduced STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased the expression of several transcriptional targets of STAT3 in these cells. Lastly, LLL12 exhibited synergistic anti-proliferative activity with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin in the OS lines. Conclusion LLL12 exhibits biologic activity against canine OS cell lines through inhibition of STAT3 related cellular functions supporting its potential use as a novel therapy for OS.

  20. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Annual report, April 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biological effects on mice and rats of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results are reported on the effects of 30-day and 60-day exposures to 100 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on hematologic values, blood chemistry, and organ weights. With the possible exception of elevated blood platelet counts following 60-day exposures, there were no pathological changes observed in either mice or rats.

  1. Track reconstruction method in a small volume self-shunted streamer chamber - analysis of the errors for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, M.J.; Augerat, J.; Avan, M.; Ballet, M.; Vialle, M.

    1977-01-01

    A programme has been worked out to reconstruct electron tracks of low energy (from 100 keV to 2 MeV) curved by a magnetic field in a small streamer chamber (size 10x11x51 cm 3 ). Before a study of the problems involved in the experimental set-up, the geometrical programme is described and the different errors are evaluated. Finally the accuracies on kinetic energies and angles which can be obtained for low energy elctron tracks are given. (Auth.)

  2. Comparison of Tumor Volumes as Determined by Pathologic Examination and FDG-PET/CT Images of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinming; Li Xinke; Xing Ligang; Mu Dianbin; Fu Zheng; Sun Xiaorong; Sun Xiangyu; Yang Guoren; Zhang Baijiang; Sun Xindong; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cut-off standardized uptake value (SUV) on 18 F fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) images that generates the best volumetric match to pathologic gross tumor volume (GTV path ) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans followed by lobectomy were enrolled. The surgical specimen was dissected into 5-7-μm sections at approximately 4-mm intervals and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tumor-containing area was outlined slice by slice and the GTV path determined by summing over all the slices, taking into account the interslice thickness and fixation-induced volume reduction. The gross tumor volume from the PET images, GTV PET , was determined as a function of cut-off SUV. The optimal threshold or optimal absolute SUV was defined as the value at which the GTV PET was the same as the GTV path . Results: The fixation process induced a volumetric reduction to 82% ± 10% (range, 62-100%) of the original. The maximal SUV was 10.1 ± 3.6 (range, 4.2-18.7). The optimal threshold and absolute SUV were 31% ± 11% and 3.0 ± 1.6, respectively. The optimal threshold was inversely correlated with GTV path and tumor diameter (p path or tumor diameter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study evaluated the use of GTV path as a criterion for determining the optimal cut-off SUV for NSCLC target volume delineation. Confirmatory studies including more cases are being performed.

  3. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Duffy, Mary; Bressel, Mathias; McInnes, Belinda; Russell, Christine; Sevitt, Tim; Ball, David

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (r s = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (r s = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (r s = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, r s = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, r s = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, r s = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  4. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy and treatment at a high volume facility is associated with improved survival in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Matthew; Malik, Renuka; Mahmood, Usama; Husain, Zain; Sher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NoTx), conventional fractionated radiotherapy (ConvRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. This population based cohort also allowed us to examine what facility level characteristics contributed to improved outcomes. Methods: We included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n = 13,036). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The median follow up was 68 months (interquartile range: 35–83 months) in surviving patients. Among the cohort, 52% received NoTx, 41% received ConvRT and 6% received SBRT. The 3-year OS was 28% for NoTx, 36% for ConvRT radiotherapy, and 48% for the SBRT cohort (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for SBRT and ConvRT were 0.67 and 0.77, respectively, as compared to NoTx (1.0 ref) (p < 0.0001). Patients treated at a high volume facility vs. low volume facility had a hazard ratio of 0.94 vs. 1.0 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with early stage inoperable lung cancer treated with SBRT and at a high volume facility had a survival benefit compared to patients treated with ConvRT or NoTx or to those treated at a low volume facility

  6. Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure organization of the chromatin in biological cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iashina, E.G.; Bouwman, W.G.; Duif, C.P.; Filatov, M.V.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Spin-echo small-angle scattering (SESANS) technique is a method to measure the structure of materials from nano- to micrmeter length scales. This method could be important for studying the packaging of DNA in the eukaryotic cell. We measured the SESANS function from chicken erythrocyte nuclei

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering instrument of Institute for Solid State Physics, the Univeristy of Tokyo (SANS-U) and its application to biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuji; Imai, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shiro [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokai Naka Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    A small-angle neutron spectrometer (SANS-U) suitable for the study of mesoscopic structure in the field of polymer chemistry and biology, has been constructed at the guide hall of JRR-3M reactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The instrument is 32m long and utilizes a mechanical velocity selector and pinhole collimation to provide a continuous beam with variable wavelength in the range from 5 to 10{Angstrom}. The neutron detector is a 65 x 65cm{sup 2} 2D position sensitive proportional counter. The practical Q range of SANS-U is 0.0008 to 0.45{Angstrom}{sup -1}. The design, characteristics and performance of SANS-U are described with some biological studies using SANS-U.

  8. Context matters: volunteer bias, small sample size, and the value of comparison groups in the assessment of research-based undergraduate introductory biology lab courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Kloser, Matthew J; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  9. Context Matters: Volunteer Bias, Small Sample Size, and the Value of Comparison Groups in the Assessment of Research-Based Undergraduate Introductory Biology Lab Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Brownell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  10. Tracking problems and possible solutions in the quantitative determination of small molecule drugs and metabolites in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray; Majumdar, Tapan K

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, quantification of low molecular weight molecules using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in biological fluids has become a common procedure in many preclinical and clinical laboratories. This overview highlights a number of issues involving "small molecule drugs", bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which are frequently encountered during assay development. In addition, possible solutions to these issues are proposed with examples in some of the case studies. Topics such as chromatographic peak shape, carry-over, cross-talk, standard curve non-linearity, internal standard selection, matrix effect, and metabolite interference are presented. Since plasma is one of the most widely adopted biological fluid in drug discovery and development, the focus of this discussion will be limited to plasma analysis. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive overview and readers are encouraged to refer to the citations herein.

  11. Continuous infusion of small-volume fluid resuscitation in the treatment of combined uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrettin, O.; Yagmur, Y.; Tas, A.; Topcu, S.; Orak, M.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of continuous limited fluid resuscitation on the hemodynamic response and survival in rats in a model of uncontrolled hemorrhage shock due to Massive Splenic Injury (MSI) and Head Injury (HI). Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Group 1 rats (n=10) was sham-operated. In group 2 (n=10), only Massive Splenic Injury (MSI) was performed and untreated. In group 3 (n=10), only head injury (HI) was performed and untreated. In group 4 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed and were untreated. In group 5 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed and 15 minutes later treated with 7.5% NaCl. In group 6 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed, and rats were treated with Ringer's Lactate (RL) solution. In group 7 (n=10), HI and MSI were performed, rats were treated with 0.9 % NaCl. In groups 2,4,5,6 and 7 midline incision was reopened and splenectomy was performed at 45 minutes. In group 4 rats, Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) was decreased from 104 +- 6.1 mmHg to 75 +- 19.5 mmHg at 15 minutes; heart rate decreased from 357+- 24.9 beats/min to 321 +- 62.1 beats/min and hematocrit decreased from 46 +- 1.3 % to 43 +- 2.5 % (p<0.01). Similar early changes in MAP, heart rate and hematocrit were observed in groups 5, 6, and 7, at 15 minutes. At 45,60 and 120 minutes, in fluid resuscitated rats (group 5,6,7) MAP, heart rate and hematocrit values were measured higher than group 2 and 4 (p<0.01 for all). At 120 min. in group 6, hematocrit was higher than group 4, 5 and 7, in group 6, total blood loss after splenectomy was calculated at 20 +- 2.4% of blood volume and was the best value compared to other fluid resuscitated group 5 and 7 (28% and 27% of blood volume) (p<0.01). Mortality was lower in all fluid resuscitated groups when compared to group 3 and 4 (p< 0.05). The median survival time was again higher in fluid resuscitated groups. Continuous infusion of 7.5% NaCl, RL and 0.9 % NaCl following uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock with massive splenic injury and

  12. Target volume for postoperative radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Results from a prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kępka, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Bujko, Magdalena; Matecka-Nowak, Mirosława; Salata, Andrzej; Janowski, Henryk; Rogowska, Danuta; Cieślak-Żerańska, Ewa; Komosińska, Katarzyna; Zawadzka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: A previous prospective trial reported that three-dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for pN2 NSCLC patients using a limited clinical target volume (CTV) had a late morbidity rate and pulmonary function that did not differ from those observed in pN1 patients treated with surgery without PORT. The aim of this study was to assess locoregional control and localization of failure in patients treated with PORT. Materials and methods: The pattern of locoregional failure was evaluated retrospectively in 151 of 171 patients included in the PORT arm. The CTV included the involved lymph node stations and those with a risk of invasion >10%. Competing risk analysis was used to assess the incidence of locoregional failure and its location outside the CTV. Results: Overall survival at 5 years was 27.1% with a median follow-up of 67 months for 40 living patients. The 5-year cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was 19.4% (95% CI: 18.2–20.5%) including a failure rate of 2% (95% CI: 0–17%) in locations outside or at the border of the CTV. Conclusions: The use of limited CTV was associated with acceptable risk of geographic miss. Overall locoregional control was similar to that reported by other studies using PORT for pN2 patients

  13. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengxiang Li,1 Jianbin Li,1 Zhifang Ma,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Jun Xing,1 Huanpeng Qi,1 Dongping Shang21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT, four-dimensional CT (4DCT, and cone-beam CT (CBCT images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume, internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left–right (LR, anterior–posterior (AP directions and 10 mm in cranial–caudal (CC direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated.Results: The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm

  14. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y.; Braga, J.; Correa, R.; Leite, J.P.; Simoes, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  15. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia Molecular], e-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.br; Braga, J. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica; Correa, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ciencia Espacial e Atmosferica; Leite, J.P. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia, Psiquiatria e Psicologia Medica; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2009-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  16. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multipinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target’s radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals.

  17. Multivariate imaging-genetics study of MRI gray matter volume and SNPs reveals biological pathways correlated with brain structural differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Khadka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children, adolescents, and adults. Its etiology is not well-understood, but it is increasingly believed to result from diverse pathophysiologies that affect the structure and function of specific brain circuits. Although one of the best-studied neurobiological abnormalities in ADHD is reduced fronto-striatal-cerebellar gray matter volume, its specific genetic correlates are largely unknown. Methods: In this study, T1-weighted MR images of brain structure were collected from 198 adolescents (63 ADHD-diagnosed. A multivariate parallel independent component analysis technique (Para-ICA identified imaging-genetic relationships between regional gray matter volume and single nucleotide polymorphism data. Results: Para-ICA analyses extracted 14 components from genetic data and 9 from MR data. An iterative cross-validation using randomly-chosen sub-samples indicated acceptable stability of these ICA solutions. A series of partial correlation analyses controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity revealed two genotype-phenotype component pairs significantly differed between ADHD and non-ADHD groups, after a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The brain phenotype component not only included structures frequently found to have abnormally low volume in previous ADHD studies, but was also significantly associated with ADHD differences in symptom severity and performance on cognitive tests frequently found to be impaired in patients diagnosed with the disorder. Pathway analysis of the genotype component identified several different biological pathways linked to these structural abnormalities in ADHD. Conclusions: Some of these pathways implicate well-known dopaminergic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment hypothesized to be abnormal in ADHD. Other more recently implicated pathways included glutamatergic and GABA-eric physiological systems

  18. Photo fragmentation dynamics of small argon clusters and biological molecular: new tools by trapping and vectorial correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepere, V.

    2006-09-01

    The present work concerns the building up of a complex set-up whose aim being the investigation of the photo fragmentation of ionised clusters and biological molecules. This new tool is based on the association of several techniques. Two ion sources are available: clusters produced in a supersonic beam are ionised by 70 eV electrons while ions of biological interest are produced in an 'electro-spray'. Ro-vibrational cooling is achieved in a 'Zajfman' electrostatic ion trap. The lifetime of ions can also be measured using the trap. Two types of lasers are used to excite the ionised species: the femtosecond laser available at the ELYSE facilities and a nanosecond laser. Both lasers have a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The neutral and ionised fragments are detected in coincidence using a sophisticated detection system allowing time and localisation of the various fragments to be determined. With such a tool, I was able to investigate in details the fragmentation dynamics of ionised clusters and bio-molecules. The first experiments deal with the measurement of the lifetime of the Ar 2+ dimer II(1/2)u metastable state. The relative population of this state was also determined. The Ar 2+ and Ar 3+ photo-fragmentation was then studied and electronic transitions responsible for their dissociation identified. The detailed analysis of our data allowed to distinguish the various fragmentation mechanisms. Finally, a preliminary investigation of the protonated tryptamine fragmentation is presented. (author)

  19. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Wang

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among children in eastern China.This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR with average thyroid volume (Tvol and urinary iodine concentration (UIC in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects and salt iodine (10,184 samples using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA.TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  20. Dose-volume and biological-model based comparison between helical tomotherapy and (inverse-planned) IMAT for prostate tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, Mauro; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Cagni, Elisabetta; Fiorino, Claudio; Borasi, Gianni; Riccardo, Calandrino; Iotti, Cinzia; Fazio, Ferruccio; Nahum, Alan E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) are two arc-based approaches to the delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Through plan comparisons we have investigated the potential of IMAT, both with constant (conventional or IMAT-C) and variable (non-conventional or IMAT-NC, a theoretical exercise) dose-rate, to serve as an alternative to helical tomotherapy. Materials and methods: Six patients with prostate tumours treated by HT with a moderately hypo-fractionated protocol, involving a simultaneous integrated boost, were re-planned as IMAT treatments. A method for IMAT inverse-planning using a commercial module for static IMRT combined with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) arc-sequencing was developed. IMAT plans were compared to HT plans in terms of dose statistics and radiobiological indices. Results: Concerning the planning target volume (PTV), the mean doses for all PTVs were similar for HT and IMAT-C plans with minimum dose, target coverage, equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumour control probability (TCP) values being generally higher for HT; maximum dose and degree of heterogeneity were instead higher for IMAT-C. In relation to organs at risk, mean doses and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values were similar between the two modalities, except for the penile bulb where IMAT was significantly better. Re-normalizing all plans to the same rectal toxicity (NTCP = 5%), the HT modality yielded higher TCP than IMAT-C but there was no significant difference between HT and IMAT-NC. The integral dose with HT was higher than that for IMAT. Conclusions: with regards to the plan analysis, the HT is superior to IMAT-C in terms of target coverage and dose homogeneity within the PTV. Introducing dose-rate variation during arc-rotation, not deliverable with current linac technology, the simulations result in comparable plan indices between (IMAT-NC) and HT

  1. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  2. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the

  3. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Joscha, E-mail: joscha.maier@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  4. High-resolution emission tomography of small laboratory animals: physics and gamma-astronomy meet molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, F.J.; Colijn, A.P.; Vastenhouw, B.; Wiegant, V.M.; Gerrits, M.A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging can be defined as the characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors. An example concerns the mapping of the distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in laboratory animals which is of crucial importance for life sciences. Tomographic methods like Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) offer a possibility to visualize distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in living animals. Miniature tomography systems, derived from their clinical counterparts, but with a much higher image resolution are under development in several institutes. An example is U-SPECT that will be discussed in the present paper. Such systems are expected to accelerate several biomedical research procedures, the understanding of gene and protein function, as well as pharmaceutical development

  5. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  6. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm 3 ] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm 3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm 3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm 3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×10 8 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular

  7. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  8. Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: aiming for precision therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Claire; Sethi, Tariq

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one-quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms have largely relied on histologic subtype and have comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimens with limited efficacy. However, because our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved exponentially, it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterized, based on recurrent driver mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constitutive activation of aberrant signaling proteins that initiate, progress, and sustain tumorigenesis. This persistence of the malignant phenotype is referred to as "oncogene addiction." On this basis, a paradigm shift in treatment approach has occurred. Rational, targeted therapies have been developed, the first being tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which entered the clinical arena > 10 years ago. These were tremendously successful, significantly affecting the natural history of NSCLC and improving patient outcomes. However, the benefits of these drugs are somewhat limited by the emergence of adaptive resistance mechanisms, and efforts to tackle this phenomenon are ongoing. A better understanding of all types of oncogene-driven NSCLC and the occurrence of TKI resistance will help us to further develop second- and third-generation small molecule inhibitors and will expand our range of precision therapies for this disease.

  9. Does the IMRT technique allow improvement of treatment plans (e.g. lung sparing) for lung cancer patients with small lung volume: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosinska, K.; Kepka, L.; Gizynska, M.; Zawadzka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer any advantages in comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with small lung volume (SLV). Methods: Treatment planning was performed for 10 NSCLC patients with the smallest lung volume (mean: 2241 cc) among 200 patients from our database. For each patient 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were prepared. The goal was to deliver 66 Gy/33 fractions, with dose constraints: mean lung dose (MLD) < 20 Gy, V20 < 35%; spinal cord - Dmax < 45 Gy. When the plan could not meet these criteria, total dose was reduced. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared. We investigated: prescribed dose, coverage and conformity indices, MLD, V5-V65 in the lung. Results: In 4 out of 10 plans, 3D-CRT did not allow 66 Gy to be delivered, because of predicted pulmonary toxicity. These 4 cases included 3 for which we did not reach 66 Gy with IMRT; still, for these 3 plans the total dose was increased by an average of 9 Gy with IMRT in comparison with 3D-CRT. Coverage indices were similar for both techniques. Conformity indices were better for IMRT plans. MLD was lower in five IMRT and two 3D-CRT plans if equal doses were delivered. The decrease in MLD was seen for cases with large PTV and high PTV/lung volume ratio. Lung V5 was lower for all 3D-CRT plans, 47% vs. 57% for IMRT; V15 and above were larger for 3D-CRT Conclusion: In the planning study, IMRT seems to be a promising technique for cases with SLV, especially when associated with large PT V. (authors)

  10. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V 20 values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  11. Local and national trends in general surgery residents' operative experience: do work hour limitations negatively affect case volume in small community-based programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Alexey; Sakharpe, Aniket; Kohli, Harjeet; Livert, David

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze the impact of work hour restrictions on the operative case volume at a small community-based general surgery residency training program and compare changes with the national level. Annual national resident case log data from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website and case logs of graduating Easton Hospital residents (years 2002-2009) were used for analysis. Weighted average change in total number of cases in our institution was -1.20 (P = 0.52) vs 1.78 (P = 0.07) for the national program average with statistically significant difference on comparison (P = 0.027). We also found significant difference in case volume changes at the national level compared with our institution for the following ACGME defined subcategories: alimentary tract [8.19 (P < 0.01) vs -1.08 (P = 0.54)], abdomen [8.48 (P < 0.01) vs -6.29 (P < 0.01)], breast [1.91 (P = 0.89) vs -3.6 (P = 0.02)], and vascular [4.03 (P = 0.02) vs -3.98 (P = 0.01)]. Comparing the national trend to the community hospital we see that there is total increase in cases at the national level whereas there is a decrease in case volume at the community hospital. These trends can also be followed in ACGME defined subcategories which form the major case load for a general surgical training such as alimentary tract, abdominal, breast, and vascular procedures. We hypothesize that work hour restrictions have been favorable for the larger programs, as these programs were able to better integrate the night float system, restructure their call schedule, and implement institutional modifications which are too resource demanding for smaller training programs.

  12. Small volume acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with hiatal hernia is only detectable by pH-metry but not by multichannel intraluminal impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, J; Malfertheiner, P

    2013-07-01

    Until now, it is uncertain if the so-called pH-only reflux episodes that consist of a pH drop without evidence of retrograde bolus movement in multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) represent reflux episodes or artifacts. Hiatal hernia (HH) may allow reflux of small volumes to occur that can be detected by pH-metry but not by MII. The aim was to search for a mechanism that can explain pH-only reflux, 20 patients (12 females and 8 males, median age 52 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 40.5-60.75 years) were investigated with MII-pH off PPI. Impedance and pH-metry data were analyzed separately. The differences in detection rate of acid reflux between pH-metry and MII were correlated with the presence of HH. In an in vitro experiment, MII-pH probes were flushed with citric acid in plastic tubes of different size with capillary diameter and diameters of 2.5 mm and 4.5 mm, while recording pH values and impedance. HH was present in six patients and absent in 14 patients. In patients with HH in comparison with patients with absent HH, the difference of acid reflux detection between pH-metry and MII is significantly higher (70%, IQR: 15-88% and 3.6%, IQR: 0-31%, respectively). In vitro all simulated reflux lead to a fall in pH whereas a corresponding decrease in impedance was only recognizable in the 4.5-mm plastic tubes. Acid reflux episodes in patients with HH are more frequently detected by pH-metry than by MII. Small volume reflux that does not lead to a decrease in impedance is the likely explanation for this phenomenon. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  14. Fission track analysis of Pu in small specimens of biological material: Technical progress report, August 1, 1987--July 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a highly specific and ultrasensitive method capable of detecting 100 aCi/liter of 239 Pu in human urine. The method using neutron induced fission track analysis is to be made free of interference from uranium, the only naturally occurring element with an isotope which fissions with thermal neutrons. A simplified flow diagram for the method is shown in Figure 1. Briefly 239 Pu is coprecipitated quantitatively from urine with rhodozonic acid. The precipitate containing the 239 Pu is dissolved in HCl and is sequentially passed through two ion exchange columns and reduced in volume. The element is then deposited in a circular area on a thick polycarbonate detector and a thinner detector is placed over the circular deposit. The plastic detectors are then irradiated to a high thermal neutron fluence in a research reactor. The detectors are etched in a caustic solution for controlled times and temperatures in order to develop the fission tracks. Images of tracks are formed both on the thin and thick plastic detectors. Total tracks in the thinner detector are measured with a locally developed spark counter and in the thick plastic are measured by counting with a microscope. The results will be made quantitative by constructing a calibration curve for 239 Pu. 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  15. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.

  16. Overexpression of Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer and foreshowing tumor biological behavior as well as clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Fa; Yu, Liang; Wang, Ju; Chang, Hao; Yan, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Kai

    2008-10-01

    Transcription factor Pokemon, a central regulation gene of the important tumor suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF), exerted its activity by acting upstream of many tumor-suppressing genes and proto-oncogenes. Its expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer and to explore its correlation with the clinical pathological characteristics and its influence on patients' prognosis. Observe the expression of Pokemon in NSCLC and investigate its mechanism and clinical significance. Determine the expression of Pokemon in human NSCLC cell lines as well as 55 cases of NSCLC tumor tissues, tumor adjacent tissues and surrounding tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, and analyze the relationship between Pokemon expression in NSCLC tumor tissues and clinicopathological features. Determine 62 NSCLC tumor tissues (5 years ago) and p14(ARF) expression with immunohistochemical technique, discuss the correlation between them and assess the effect of Pokemon on prognosis of patients with lung cancer. Pokemon mRNA and protein took on high expression in lung cancer cell lines, and the expression difference between cancer tissues, tumor adjacent tissues and surrounding tissues had statistical significance (PPokemon expression and p14(ARF) expression were negatively correlated (r=-0.287). The expression of Pokemon was determined not to be associated with the patient's sex, age, smoking condition, tumor differentiation degree, histology and lymph node metastasis condition. However, its relationship with TNM staging was established (PPokemon expression was significantly higher than that of those with positive Pokemon expression (P=0.004), therefore, the expression of Pokemon is believed to be an independent factor affecting prognosis (P=0.034). There was high expression of Pokemon in NSCLC

  17. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesmann, Lukas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel; Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene; Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike; Dobiasch, Sophie; Eze, Chukwuka; Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne; Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa; Hausmann, Jan; Henkenberens, Christoph; Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H.; Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela; Maeurer, Matthias; Panje, Cedric M.; Suess, Christoph; Ziegler, Sonia; Ebert, Nadja; Medenwald, Daniel; Ostheimer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  18. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 ± 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. RESULTS: A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 ± 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients. PMID:19630105

  19. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-07-28

    To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 +/- 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 +/- 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients.

  20. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.-Y.; Sung, C.-C.; Ko, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.; Yang, Kuender D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm 3 and 489 ± 34 cm 3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm 3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  1. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesmann, Lukas [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Munich, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene [University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiotherapy, Cologne (Germany); Dobiasch, Sophie [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Eze, Chukwuka [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany); Hausmann, Jan [University Medical Center Duesseldorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Henkenberens, Christoph [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela [University Hospital Heidelberg and National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO) and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Maeurer, Matthias [University Medical Center Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Panje, Cedric M. [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Suess, Christoph [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Regensburg (Germany); Ziegler, Sonia [University Medical Center Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Ebert, Nadja [University Medical Center Dresden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medenwald, Daniel [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Ostheimer, Christian [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Halle (Saale) (Germany); Collaboration: Young DEGRO Trial Group

    2018-02-15

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  2. Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallocher, O.; Thomas, L.; Pigneux, J.; Stocke, E.; Bussieres, E.; Avril, A.; Floquet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

  3. Reproducibility of 'Intelligent' Contouring of Gross Tumor Volume in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer on PET/CT Images Using a Standardized Visual Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J.; Everitt, Sarah; Fimmell, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly used for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The methodology for contouring tumor margins remains controversial. We developed a rigorous visual protocol for contouring GTV that uses all available clinical information and studied its reproducibility in patients from a prospective PET/CT planning trial. Methods and Materials: Planning PET/CT scans from 6 consecutive patients were selected. Six 'observers' (two radiation oncologists, two nuclear medicine physicians, and two radiologists) contoured GTVs for each patient using a predefined protocol and subsequently recontoured 2 patients. For the estimated GTVs and axial distances, least-squares means for each observer and for each case were calculated and compared, using the F test and pairwise t-tests. In five cases, tumor margins were also autocontoured using standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoffs of 2.5 and 3.5 and 40% SUV max . Results: The magnitude of variation between observers was small relative to the mean (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3%), and the total variation (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 3%). For estimation of superior/inferior (SI), left/right (LR), and anterior/posterior (AP) borders of the GTV, differences between observers were also small (AP, CV = 2%, ICC = 0.4%; LR, CV = 6%, ICC = 2%; SI, CV 4%, ICC = 2%). GTVs autocontoured generated using SUV 2.5, 3.5, and 40% SUV max differed widely in each case. An SUV contour of 2.5 was most closely correlated with the mean GTV defined by the human observers. Conclusions: Observer variation contributed little to total variation in the GTV and axial distances. A visual contouring protocol gave reproducible results for contouring GTV in NSCLC.

  4. The selective conservative management of small traumatic pneumothoraces following stab injuries is safe: experience from a high-volume trauma service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-02-01

    The selective conservative management of small pneumothoraces (PTXs) following stab injuries is controversial. We reviewed a cohort of patients managed conservatively in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. A retrospective review over a 2-year period identified 125 asymptomatic patients with small PTXs measuring chest radiograph who were managed conservatively. Of the 125 patients included in the study, 92% were male (115/125), and the median age for all patients was 21 years (19-24). Ninety-seven per cent (121/125) of the weapons involved were knives, and 3% (4/125) were screwdrivers. Sixty-one per cent of all injuries were on the left side. Eighty-two per cent (102/125) sustained a single stab, and 18% (23/125) had multiple stabs. Thirty-nine per cent (49/125) had a PTX <0.5 cm (Group A), 26% (32/125) were ≥ 0.5 to <1 cm (Group B), 19% (24/125) were ≥ 1 to <1.5 cm (Group C) and 15% (20/125) were ≥ 1.5 to <2 cm (Group D). Three per cent of all patients (4/125) eventually required ICDs (one in Group C, three in Group D). All four patients had ICDs in situ for 24 h. The remaining 97% (121/125) were all managed successfully by active clinical observation alone. There were no subsequent readmissions, morbidity or mortality as a direct result of our conservative approach. The selective conservative management of asymptomatic small PTXs from stab injuries is safe if undertaken in the appropriate setting.

  5. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  6. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  7. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  8. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  9. In vivo assessment of the gastric mucosal tolerance dose after single fraction, small volume irradiation of liver malignancies by computed tomography-guided, high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, Florian; Pech, Maciej; Boehmig, Michael; Ruehl, Ricarda; Peters, Nils; Wieners, Gero; Steinberg, Johannes; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance dose of gastric mucosa for single-fraction computed tomography (CT)-guided, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of liver malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 patients treated by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy of liver malignancies in segments II and/or III were included. Dose planning was performed upon a three-dimensional CT data set acquired after percutaneous applicator positioning. All patients received gastric protection post-treatment. For further analysis, the contours of the gastric wall were defined in every CT slice using Brachyvision Software. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for each treatment and correlated with clinical data derived from questionnaires assessing Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). All patients presenting symptoms of upper GI toxicity were examined endoscopically. Results: Summarizing all patients the minimum dose applied to 1 ml of the gastric wall (D 1ml ) ranged from 6.3 to 34.2 Gy; median, 14.3 Gy. Toxicity was present in 18 patients (55%). We found nausea in 16 (69%), emesis in 9 (27%), cramping in 13 (39%), weight loss in 12 (36%), gastritis in 4 (12%), and ulceration in 5 patients (15%). We found a threshold dose D 1ml of 11 Gy for general gastric toxicity and 15.5 Gy for gastric ulceration verified by an univariate analysis (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For a single fraction, small volume irradiation we found in the upper abdomen a threshold dose D 1ml of 15.5 Gy for the clinical endpoint ulceration of the gastric mucosa. This in vivo assessment is in accordance with previously published tolerance data

  10. Correlation between [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT and volume perfusion CT in primary tumours and mediastinal lymph nodes of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W.; Spira, Daniel; Schulze, Maximilian; Pfannenberg, Christina; Claussen, Claus D.; Horger, Marius S. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Hetzel, Juergen [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Oncology, Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Pulmonology, Tuebingen (Germany); Reimold, Matthias [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between glucose metabolism as determined by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT and tumour perfusion as quantified by volume perfusion CT in primary tumours and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Enrolled in the study were 17 patients with NSCLC. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake was quantified in terms of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and flow extraction product (K{sup trans}) were determined as perfusion parameters. The correlations between the perfusion parameters and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake values were subsequently evaluated. For the primary tumours, no correlations were found between perfusion parameters and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. In MLN, there were negative correlations between BF and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.383), BV and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.406), and BV and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.377), but not between BF and SUV{sub max}, K{sup trans} and SUV{sub avg}, or K{sup trans} and SUV{sub max}. Additionally, in MLN with SUV{sub max} >2.5 there were negative correlations between BF and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.510), BV and SUV{sub avg} (r = -0.390), BF and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.536), as well as BV and SUV{sub max} (r = -0.346). Perfusion and glucose metabolism seemed to be uncoupled in large primary tumours, but an inverse correlation was observed in MLN. This information may help improve therapy planning and response evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  12. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  14. The new NCPSS BL19U2 beamline at the SSRF for small-angle X-ray scattering from biological macromolecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuzhu; Liu, Guangfeng; Zhou, Ping; Wu, Hongjin; Hong, Chunxia; Bian, Fenggang; Zhang, Rongguang

    2016-10-01

    The beamline BL19U2 is located in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and is its first beamline dedicated to biological material small-angle X-ray scattering (BioSAXS). The electrons come from an undulator which can provide high brilliance for the BL19U2 end stations. A double flat silicon crystal (111) monochromator is used in BL19U2, with a tunable monochromatic photon energy ranging from 7 to 15 keV. To meet the rapidly growing demands of crystallographers, biochemists and structural biologists, the BioSAXS beamline allows manual and automatic sample loading/unloading. A Pilatus 1M detector (Dectris) is employed for data collection, characterized by a high dynamic range and a short readout time. The highly automated data processing pipeline SASFLOW was integrated into BL19U2, with help from the BioSAXS group of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL, Hamburg), which provides a user-friendly interface for data processing. The BL19U2 beamline was officially opened to users in March 2015. To date, feedback from users has been positive and the number of experimental proposals at BL19U2 is increasing. A description of the new BioSAXS beamline and the setup characteristics is given, together with examples of data obtained.

  15. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  16. Feasibility of omitting clinical target volume for limited-disease small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shuhua; Shi, Anhui; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Guangying

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the feasibility of omitting clinical target volume (CTV) for limited small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy. 89 patients were treated from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2011, 54 cases were irradiated with target volume without CTV, and 35 cases were irradiated with CTV. Both arms were irradiated post chemotherapy tumor extent and omitted elective nodal irradiation; dose prescription was 95% PTV56-63 Gy/28-35 F/5.6-7 weeks. In the arm without CTV and arm with CTV, the local relapse rates were 16.7% and 17.1% (p = 0.586) respectively. In the arm without CTV, of the 9 patients with local relapse, 6 recurred in-field, 2 recurred in margin, 1 recurred out of field. In the arm with CTV, of the 6 patients with local relapse, 4 recurred in-field, 1 recurred in margin, 1 recurred out of field. The distant metastases rates were 42.6% and 51.4% (p = 0.274) respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity and radiation esophagitis had no statistically significant, but grade 3-4 radiation pneumonia was observed in only 7.4% in the arm without CTV, compared 22.9% in the arm with CTV (p = 0.040). The median survival in the arm without CTV had not reached, compared with 38 months in the with CTV arm. The l- years, 2- years, 3- years survival rates of the arm without CTV and the arm with CTV were 81.0%, 66.2%, 61.5% and 88.6%, 61.7%, 56.6% (p = 0.517). The multivariate analysis indicated that the distant metastases (p = 0.000) and PCI factor (p = 0.004) were significantly related to overall survival. Target delineation omitting CTV for limited-disease small cell lung cancer received IMRT was feasible. The distant metastases and PCI factor were significantly related to overall survival

  17. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Small Volume Fuel Testers Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoegl, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Micro-liter fuel ignition testing (μ-FIT) is based on the premise that characteristics FREI (Flames with Repetitive Extinction and Ignition, i.e. cyclically occurring combustion events within heated capillaries), are linked to fuel properties. In early FY16, proof-of-concept measurements with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures, i.e. blends of n-heptane and iso-octane, yielded clear evidence for the feasibility of the approach. Our experiments showed that it is critical to accurately link observed flame positions to local temperatures, which provides information on ignition, extinction and flame propagation, all of which are known to be impacted by fuel properties. In FY16, one major hurdle was uncertainty of temperature calibration, which required significant efforts for corrective action that were not included in the original scope of work. Temperature calibrations are obtained by translating a thermocouple within the capillary in absence of a flame. While measurements have good repeatability when accounting for transient and insertion effects, results from nominally identical thermocouples reveal unacceptable uncertainty (up to ±50K), which is attributed to variations in thermocouple placement and manufacturing tolerances. This issue is currently being resolved by switching to non-intrusive optical temperature measurements. Updates are expected to yield uncertainties of less than ±10K, while also eliminating transient and insertion effects. The experimental work was complemented by computational efforts where it was shown that a simplified Lagrangian zero-D model with detailed kinetics yields fuelspecific differentiation of ignition temperatures for simple fuels that are consistent with experiments. Further, a 2D transient model was implemented in OpenFOAM to investigate combustion behavior of simple fuels at elevated pressure. In an upcoming visit to LLNL, more advanced simulations using LLNL’s computational tools (e.g. zero-RK) are planned, which will yield additional numerical insights on FREI behavior of more realistic spark ignited (SI) engine fuel surrogates. As there is a lag between DOE FY16 and the time frame of the LSU subcontract, it is anticipated that deliverables outlined in the scope of work will be met by the end of the subcontract (January 2017).

  19. Sensitive analysis of steroid estrogens and bisphenol a in small volumes of water using isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Shao, Bing; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-04-01

    An isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method combined with dansylation was established to sensitively quantify four steroid estrogens (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol) and bisphenol A in sewage influent and effluent. A simple hexane extraction was performed from a small volume (10 mL), followed by dansyl chloride derivatization and purification with a silica cartridge. The method effectively reduced the matrix effects in sample extract and permitted the selective and sensitive determination of target compounds from complicated matrices. The detection limits of the method for steroid estrogens were 0.20-0.90 ng L -1 in influent and 0.10-0.20 ng L -1 in effluent samples. For bisphenol A, the limits detection of the method were 20 and 0.80 for influent and effluent samples, respectively. Recoveries of 85%-96% were observed in all matrices. The method was applied to analyze residual estrogens and bisphenol A in sewage influent and effluent samples from Beijing, China. The concentrations of bisphenol A (636-1200 ng L -1 ) were up to 250 times higher than those of steroid estrogens. Estrone was the dominant estrogen in influent and effluent samples, while similar concentrations of 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol were detected in all samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    CERN Document Server

    Magro, G; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Ferrari, A; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size r...

  1. Biological-effective versus conventional dose volume histograms correlated with late genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a matched pair analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeske John C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the dose-volume histograms (DVH's for the rectum and bladder constructed using biological-effective dose (BED-DVH's better correlate with late gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity after treatment with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer than conventional DVH's (C-DVH's. Methods The charts of 190 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were reviewed. Six patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GI toxicity, and similarly 6 patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GU toxicity. Average late C-DVH's and BED-DVH's of the bladder and rectum were computed for these patients as well as for matched-pair control patients. For each matched pair the following measures of normalized difference in the DVH's were computed: (a δAUC = (Area Under Curve [AUC] in grade 3 patient – AUC in grade 0 patient/(AUC in grade 0 patient and (b δV60 = (Percent volume receiving = 60 Gy [V60] in grade 3 patient – V60 in grade 0 patient/(V60 in grade 0 patient. Results As expected, the grade 3 curve is to the right of and above the grade 0 curve for all four sets of average DVH's – suggesting that both the C-DVH and the BED-DVH can be used for predicting late toxicity. δAUC was higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 0.27 vs 0.23 (p = 0.036 for the rectum and 0.24 vs 0.20 (p = 0.065 for the bladder. δV60 was also higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 2.73 vs 1.49 for the rectum (p = 0.021 and 1.64 vs 0.71 (p = 0.021 for the bladder. Conclusions When considering well-established dosimetric endpoints used in evaluating treatment plans, BED-DVH's for the rectum and bladder correlate better with late toxicity than C-DVH's and should be considered when attempting to minimize late GI and GU toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  2. A Mo-anode-based in-house source for small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruetzel, Linda K.; Fischer, Stefan; Salditt, Annalena; Sedlak, Steffen M.; Nickel, Bert; Lipfert, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Lipfert@lmu.de [Department of Physics, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, and Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich, Germany and Geschwister-Scholl Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of a molybdenum-anode-based in-house small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) setup to study biological macromolecules in solution. Our system consists of a microfocus X-ray tube delivering a highly collimated flux of 2.5 × 10{sup 6} photons/s at a beam size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{sup 2} at the collimation path exit and a maximum beam divergence of 0.16 mrad. The resulting observable scattering vectors q are in the range of 0.38 Å{sup −1} down to 0.009 Å{sup −1} in SAXS configuration and of 0.26 Å{sup −1} up to 5.7 Å{sup −1} in wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) mode. To determine the capabilities of the instrument, we collected SAXS data on weakly scattering biological macromolecules including proteins and a nucleic acid sample with molecular weights varying from ∼12 to 69 kDa and concentrations of 1.5–24 mg/ml. The measured scattering data display a high signal-to-noise ratio up to q-values of ∼0.2 Å{sup −1} allowing for an accurate structural characterization of the samples. Moreover, the in-house source data are of sufficient quality to perform ab initio 3D structure reconstructions that are in excellent agreement with the available crystallographic structures. In addition, measurements for the detergent decyl-maltoside show that the setup can be used to determine the size, shape, and interactions (as characterized by the second virial coefficient) of detergent micelles. This demonstrates that the use of a Mo-anode based in-house source is sufficient to determine basic geometric parameters and 3D shapes of biomolecules and presents a viable alternative to valuable beam time at third generation synchrotron sources.

  3. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  4. Analysis of dosimetry of a Gamma Knife Perfexion using polystyrene and solid water phantoms for small volume ionization chambers; Analise da dosimetria de um Gamma Knife Perfexion utilizando phantoms de poliestireno e de agua solida para camaras de ionizacao de volume pequeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, N.A.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: nathaliaac@ymail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saraiva, C.W.C. [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Benmakhlouf, H. [Stockholm University, Karolinska Hospital (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma Knife Perfexion (GKP) is a radiosurgery equipment that has been developed by Elekta. Its dose-rate calibration is performed using phantoms developed by Elekta and a small volume ionization chamber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collected charge values obtained in its dosimetry using two different phantoms, polystyrene and solid water and the ion chambers PTW Semiflex, volume 0,125 cm{sup 3}, model 31010 and PTW Pinpoint, volume 0,016 cm{sup 3}, model 31016. (author)

  5. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  6. The complex relationship between lung tumor volume and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy: A prospective, observational prognostic factor study of the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 99.05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, David L.; Fisher, Richard J.; Burmeister, Bryan H.; Poulsen, Michael G.; Graham, Peter H.; Penniment, Michael G.; Vinod, Shalini K.; Krawitz, Hedley E.; Joseph, David J.; Wheeler, Greg C.; McClure, Bev E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that primary tumor volume is prognostic independent of T and N stages in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by definitive radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Multicenter prospective observational study. Patient eligibility: pathologically proven stage I–III non-small cell lung cancer planned for definitive radiotherapy (minimum 50 Gy in 20 fractions) using CT-based contouring. Volumes of the primary tumor and enlarged nodes were measured according to a standardized protocol. Survival was adjusted for the effect of T and N stage. Results: There were 509 eligible patients. Five-year survival rates for tumor volume grouped by quartiles were, for increasing tumor volume, 22%, 14%, 15% and 21%. Larger primary tumor volume was associated with shorter survival (HR = 1.060 (per doubling); 95% CI 1.01–1.12; P = 0.029). However, after adjusting for the effects of T and N stage, there was no evidence for an association (HR = 1.029, 95% CI, 0.96–1.10, P = 0.39). There was evidence, however, that larger primary tumor volume was associated with an increased risk of dying, independently of T and N stage, in the first 18 months but not beyond. Conclusions: In patients treated by non-surgical means we were unable to show that lung tumor volume, overall, provides additional prognostic information beyond the T and N stage (TNM, 6th edition). There is evidence, however, that larger primary tumor volume adversely affects outcome only within the first 18 months. Larger tumor size alone should not by itself exclude patients from curative (chemo)radiotherapy

  7. Influence of Co-57 and CT Transmission Measurements on the Quantification Accuracy and Partial Volume Effect of a Small Animal PET Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Schmid, Andreas M; Pichler, Bernd J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) provides high detection sensitivity in the nano- to picomolar range and in addition to other advantages, the possibility to absolutely quantify the acquired data. The present study focuses on the comparison of transmission data acquired with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner or a Co-57 source for the Inveon small animal PET scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, TN, USA), as well as determines their influences on the quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE). A special focus included the impact of the performed calibration on the quantification accuracy. Phantom measurements were carried out to determine the quantification accuracy, the influence of the object size on the quantification, and the PVE for different sphere sizes, along the field of view and for different contrast ratios. An influence of the emission activity on the Co-57 transmission measurements was discovered (deviations up to 24.06 % measured to true activity), whereas no influence of the emission activity on the CT attenuation correction was identified (deviations influenced by the applied calibration factor and by the object size. The PVE demonstrated a dependency on the sphere size, the position within the field of view, the reconstruction and correction algorithms and the count statistics. Depending on the reconstruction algorithm, only ∼30-40 % of the true activity within a small sphere could be resolved. The iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms uncovered substantially increased recovery values compared to the analytical and 2D iterative reconstruction algorithms (up to 70.46 % and 80.82 % recovery for the smallest and largest sphere using iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms). The transmission measurement (CT or Co-57 source) to correct for attenuation did not severely influence the PVE. The analysis of the quantification accuracy and the PVE revealed an influence of the object size, the reconstruction

  8. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National Univ. Hwasun Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion.

  9. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion

  10. Feasibility of [18F]FDG-PET and coregistered CT on clinical target volume definition of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; IBFM-CNR, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Ceresoli, G.L.; Gregorc, V.; Rizzo, G.; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Artioli, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Castellone, P.; Picchio, M.; Landoni, C.; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Fazio, F.; IBFM-CNR, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Aim. To prospectively evaluate the impact of co registered positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. Twenty-one patients (median age: 57 years; range: 42-80 years) referred to 3D-CRT for NSCLC were recruited. Positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG-PET) and conventional CT images were coregistered (PET/CT images) using a commerciaI software package based on surface matching technique. Neoplastic areas were contoured on [ 18 F]FDGPET images with the aid of the correspondent CT image by a nuclear medicine physician. CT images and their relative PET contours were then transferred to treatment planning system. A radiation oncologist firstly contoured clinical target volumes (CTV) on CT scan alone (CTV-CT), and then on co registered PET/CT images (CTV-PET/CT). CTV-CT and CTV-PET/CT were compared for each patient; a difference higher than 25% was considered of clinical relevance. Results. Three patients were shifted to palliative radiotherapy for metastatic disease or very large tumor size, showed by [ 18 F]FDG-PET. Of the remaining 18 patients a CTV change, after inclusion of PET/CT data, was observed in 10/18 cases (55%): larger in 7/18 (range 33-279%) and smaller in 3/18 patients (range 26-34%), mainly due to inclusion or exclusion of Iymph-nodal disease and to better definition of tumor extent. CTV changes smaller than 25% occurred in the remaining 8/18 patients. Conclusion. [ 18 F]FDG-PET and CT images co-registration in radiotherapy treatment planning Ied to a change in CTV definition in the majority of our patients, which may signillcantly modify management and radiation treatment modality in these patients

  11. Importance of a diffusion-dominant small volume to activate cell-secreted soluble factor signaling in embryonic stem cell culture in microbioreactors: a mathematical model based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahfuz; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2013-07-01

    In our previous studies, we observed that cell-secreted BMP4 had a prominent influence on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) behaviors in a membrane-based two-chambered microbioreactor (MB), but not in a macro-scale culture (6-well plate/6WP). In this study, we investigated how the physical aspects of these cultures regulated BMP4 signaling by developing mathematical models of the cultures. The models estimated signaling activity in the cultures by considering size of the undifferentiated mESC colonies and their growth, diffusion of BMP4, and BMP4 trafficking process in the colonies. The models successfully depicted measured profile of BMP4 concentration in the culture medium which was two times higher in the MB than that in the 6WP during 5-day culture. The models estimated that, owing to the small volume and the membrane, cells were exposed to a higher BMP4 concentration in the top chamber of the MB than that in the 6WP culture. The higher concentration of BMP4 induced a higher concentration of BMP4-bound receptor in the colony in the MB than in the 6WP, thereby leading to the higher activation of BMP4 signaling in the MB. The models also predicted that the size of the MB, but not that of the 6WP, was suitable for maximizing BMP4 accumulation and upregulating its signaling. This study will be helpful in analyzing culture systems, designing microfluidic devices for controlling ESC or other cell behavior. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probability of mediastinal involvement in non-small-cell lung cancer: a statistical definition of the clinical target volume for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Philippe; De Rycke, Yann; Lavole, Armelle; Milleron, Bernard; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal irradiation (3D-CRT) of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is largely based on precise definition of the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn). A reduction of the number of nodal stations to be irradiated would facilitate tumor dose escalation. The aim of this study was to design a mathematical tool based on documented data to predict the risk of metastatic involvement for each nodal station. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the large surgical series published in the literature to identify the main pretreatment parameters that modify the risk of nodal invasion. The probability of involvement for the 17 nodal stations described by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) was computed from all these publications. Starting with the primary site of the tumor as the main characteristic, we built a probabilistic tree for each nodal station representing the risk distribution as a function of each tumor feature. Statistical analysis used the inversion of probability trees method described by Weinstein and Feinberg. Validation of the software based on 134 patients from two different populations was performed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Analysis of all of the various parameters of pretreatment staging relative to each level of the ATS map results in 20,000 different combinations. The first parameters included in the tree, depending on tumor site, were histologic classification, metastatic stage, nodal stage weighted as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic examination used (positron emission tomography scan, computed tomography scan), and tumor stage. Software is proposed to compute a predicted probability of involvement of each nodal station for any given clinical presentation. Double cross validation confirmed the methodology. A 10% cutoff point was calculated from ROC and logistic model giving the best prediction of mediastinal lymph node involvement. Conclusion

  13. Conservation agriculture among small scale farmers in semi-arid region of Kenya does improve soil biological quality and soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Geofrey; Okoba, Barrack; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    SOC, respectively, but the highest positive effect was realized when all the three principles were applied consecutively. Therefore, CA has the potential to improve biological soil quality among small scale rainfed farmers and thus promote sustainable production.

  14. An improved optimization algorithm of the three-compartment model with spillover and partial volume corrections for dynamic FDG PET images of small animal hearts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2018-03-01

    The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the 18F-FDG influx constant K i . Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged  -1.4  ±  8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall K i error percentage, which was 0.4  ±  5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and K i percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic

  15. The value of regional nodal radiotherapy (dose/volume) in the treatment of unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: an RTOG analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Bahman; Scott, Charles; Byhardt, Roger; Graham, Mary V.; Andras, E. James; John, Madhu; Herskovic, Arnold; Urtasun, Raul C.; Asbell, Sucha O.; Perez, Carlos A.; Cox, James

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether or not the traditional practice of including all thoracic regional nodal areas in the radiotherapy volume in the treatment of unresectable lung cancer is of any therapeutic benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,705 patients from four large RTOG trials (78-11, 79-17, 83-11, 84-07) were analyzed for this purpose. Each of these trials had data on dose delivered to the nodal regions and assessment of nodal borders. The nodes were separated into mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral hilar, and supraclavicular. Each node site was assessed for progression, defined as in-field or out-of-field, at the node site. In patients with adequate nodal field borders, the results were also analyzed according to the dose delivered. RESULTS: The majority (74%) of patients were between the age of 55 to 75. Forty-six percent of patients had KPS of 60 to 80 and 52% KPS of 90 to 100. Sixty percent of patients had a weight loss of less than 5%, and 40% had a weight loss of over 5% six months prior to diagnosis. Major variations from protocol in defining field borders (unacceptable field borders) were lowest for ipsilateral hilum ((42(727))) and the highest for mediastinal borders ((158(743))). Three groups had statistically significant differences in outcome (progression) between the per protocol and the unacceptable per protocol: ipsilateral hilar nodes (field borders), 14% versus 26% (p = 0.03); dose to mediastinal nodes in CALGB eligible patients, 9% versus 19% (p = 0.02); and ipsilateral hilar nodes (field borders) for high-dose patients assigned to greater than or equal to 69.6 Gy, 14% versus 31% (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that inclusion of the ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes affect outcome in unresectable non-small cell lung cancer. Exclusion of the other thoracic lymph node regions did not affect outcome in this study. These findings have important implications for combined modality therapy and three

  16. Patterns of failure after postoperative radiotherapy for incompletely resected (R1) non-small cell lung cancer: implications for radiation target volume design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna-Serementa, Marta; Socha, Joanna; Wierzchowski, Marek; Kępka, Lucyna

    2013-05-01

    Overall survival (OS) and pattern of failure in R1-resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with 3D-planned postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) was retrospectively evaluated. The outcomes and patterns of failure in patients with (+) and without (-) extracapsular nodal extension (ECE) were compared and analyzed with respect to the radiation target volume design. Eighty R1-resected (37 ECE+ and 43 ECE-) patients received PORT (60Gy, 2Gy daily) between 2002 and 2011. Patients with N2 disease received limited elective nodal irradiation (ENI); for pN0-1 disease the use of ENI was optional. Among ECE- (extranodal-R1) patients there were 35 pN0-1 and eight pN2 cases; in pN0-1 patients, patterns of failure and outcomes were analyzed with respect to the use of ENI. Loco-regional failure (LRF) was defined as in-field relapse; isolated nodal failure (INF) was defined as out-of-field regional nodal recurrence occurring without LRF, irrespective of distant metastases. The actuarial 3-year OS rate was 36.3% (median: 30 months). Three-year OS rates in the ECE- and ECE+ group were 40.4% and 31.4%, with median OS of 31 and 24 months, respectively (p=0.43). In multivariate analysis, the presence of ECE was correlated with OS (HR=3.02; 95% CI: 1.00-9.16; p=0.05). Three-year cumulative incidence of LRF (CILRF) was 14.5% and 15.5% in the ECE- and ECE+ groups, respectively (p=0.98). Three-year cumulative incidence of INF (CIINF) was 14.1% in the ECE- group and 11.1% in the ECE+ group (p=0.76). For pN0-1 patients treated with and without ENI (13 and 22 patients) 3-year CILRF rates were 7.7% and 20.8%, respectively (p=0.20); 3-year CIINF rates were 9.1% and 16.3%, respectively (p=0.65). PORT resulted in a relatively good survival of R1-resected NSCLC patients. Relatively high incidence of INF was found in both ECE+ and ECE- patients. For ECE+ patients, treated with limited ENI, distant failure remains a major concern, so the design of ENI fields seems of lesser

  17. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  18. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Salma K.; Kim, Sinae; Haider, Syed A.; Xu, Xiaoting; Wu, Alson; Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph; Langenfeld, John; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes

  19. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  20. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  1. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 13: Sites with small plutonium holdings site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Appendix contains the initial responses to the Question Set received from each of the sites with small plutonium holdings. The WGAT report for sites with small plutonium holdings was then prepared, based on these initial site responses plus supplemental information obtained via telephone request with the site contractor and/or DOE Field Office personnel. These supplements serve to clarify information in the initial question set responses and/or obtain additional information. This WGAT report is published as Volume II, Part 13

  2. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    No dataset associated with this publication.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, 56(7): 1-2, (2016).

  3. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 2 - Biological atlas of the Arctic Seas 2000 - Plankton of the Barents and Kara Seas (1 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Presented in this CD-ROM are physical and biological data for the region extending from the Barents Sea to the Kara Sea during 158 scientific cruises for the period...

  4. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  5. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  6. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  7. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  8. Evaluating and Predicting the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure on a Small Watershed Scale - Emphasis on Water Quality, Flow, Thermal Regime, Substrate Integrity, and Biological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessments of the effectiveness of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have focused on measurement of load or concentration reductions, which can be translated to predict biological impacts based on chemical water quality criteria. However, many of the impacts of develo...

  9. Comparison of primary tumour volumes delineated on four-dimensional computed tomography maximum intensity projection and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography images of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yili; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Wei; Fan, Tingyong; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min; Guo, Yanluan; Sun, Xiaorong; Shang, Dongping

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to compare the positional and volumetric differences of tumour volumes based on the maximum intensity projection (MIP) of four-dimensional CT (4DCT) and 18 F-fluorodexyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography CT (PET/CT) images for the primary tumour of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ten patients with NSCLC underwent 4DCT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans of the thorax on the same day. Internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) of the primary tumours were contoured on the MIP images of 4DCT to generate IGTV MIP . Gross target volumes (GTVs) based on PET (GTV PET ) were determined with nine different threshold methods using the auto-contouring function. The differences in the volume, position, matching index (MI) and degree of inclusion (DI) of the GTV PET and IGTV MIP were investigated. In volume terms, GTV PET2.0 and GTV PET20% approximated closely to IGTV MIP with mean volume ratio of 0.93 ± 0.45 and 1.06 ± 0.43, respectively. The best MI was between IGTV MIP and GTV PET20% (0.45 ± 0.23). The best DI of IGTV MIP in GTV PET was IGTV MIP in GTV PET20% (0.61 ± 0.26). In 3D PET images, the GTVPET contoured by standardised uptake value (SUV) 2.0 or 20% of maximal SUV (SUV max ) approximate closely to the IGTV MIP in target size, while the spatial mismatch is apparent between them. Therefore, neither of them could replace IGTV MIP in spatial position and form. The advent of 4D PET/CT may improve the accuracy of contouring the perimeter for moving targets.

  10. Sample Preparation and Extraction in Small Sample Volumes Suitable for Pediatric Clinical Studies: Challenges, Advances, and Experiences of a Bioanalytical HPLC-MS/MS Method Validation Using Enalapril and Enalaprilat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Bjoern B.; Laeer, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In USA and Europe, medicines agencies force the development of child-appropriate medications and intend to increase the availability of information on the pediatric use. This asks for bioanalytical methods which are able to deal with small sample volumes as the trial-related blood lost is very restricted in children. Broadly used HPLC-MS/MS, being able to cope with small volumes, is susceptible to matrix effects. The latter restrains the precise drug quantification through, for example, causing signal suppression. Sophisticated sample preparation and purification utilizing solid-phase extraction was applied to reduce and control matrix effects. A scale-up from vacuum manifold to positive pressure manifold was conducted to meet the demands of high-throughput within a clinical setting. Faced challenges, advances, and experiences in solid-phase extraction are exemplarily presented on the basis of the bioanalytical method development and validation of low-volume samples (50 μL serum). Enalapril, enalaprilat, and benazepril served as sample drugs. The applied sample preparation and extraction successfully reduced the absolute and relative matrix effect to comply with international guidelines. Recoveries ranged from 77 to 104% for enalapril and from 93 to 118% for enalaprilat. The bioanalytical method comprising sample extraction by solid-phase extraction was fully validated according to FDA and EMA bioanalytical guidelines and was used in a Phase I study in 24 volunteers. PMID:25873972

  11. Sample Preparation and Extraction in Small Sample Volumes Suitable for Pediatric Clinical Studies: Challenges, Advances, and Experiences of a Bioanalytical HPLC-MS/MS Method Validation Using Enalapril and Enalaprilat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern B. Burckhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In USA and Europe, medicines agencies force the development of child-appropriate medications and intend to increase the availability of information on the pediatric use. This asks for bioanalytical methods which are able to deal with small sample volumes as the trial-related blood lost is very restricted in children. Broadly used HPLC-MS/MS, being able to cope with small volumes, is susceptible to matrix effects. The latter restrains the precise drug quantification through, for example, causing signal suppression. Sophisticated sample preparation and purification utilizing solid-phase extraction was applied to reduce and control matrix effects. A scale-up from vacuum manifold to positive pressure manifold was conducted to meet the demands of high-throughput within a clinical setting. Faced challenges, advances, and experiences in solid-phase extraction are exemplarily presented on the basis of the bioanalytical method development and validation of low-volume samples (50 μL serum. Enalapril, enalaprilat, and benazepril served as sample drugs. The applied sample preparation and extraction successfully reduced the absolute and relative matrix effect to comply with international guidelines. Recoveries ranged from 77 to 104% for enalapril and from 93 to 118% for enalaprilat. The bioanalytical method comprising sample extraction by solid-phase extraction was fully validated according to FDA and EMA bioanalytical guidelines and was used in a Phase I study in 24 volunteers.

  12. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  13. Tricuspid valve dysplasia with severe tricuspid regurgitation: fetal pulmonary artery size predicts lung viability in the presence of small lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, A T; Marino, B S; Dominguez, T; Tabbutt, S; Nicolson, S; Donaghue, D D; Spray, T L; Rychik, J

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tricuspid valve disease (Ebstein's anomaly, tricuspid valve dysplasia) with severe tricuspid regurgitation and cardiomegaly is associated with poor prognosis. Fetal echocardiography can accurately measure right atrial enlargement, which is associated with a poor prognosis in the fetus with tricuspid valve disease. Fetal lung volumetric assessments have been used in an attempt to predict viability of fetuses using ultrasonogram and prenatal MRI. We describe a fetus with tricuspid dysplasia, severe tricuspid regurgitation, right atrial enlargement and markedly reduced lung volumes. The early gestational onset of cardiomegaly with bilateral lung compression raised the possibility of severe lung hypoplasia with decreased broncho-alveolar development. Use of fetal echocardiography with measurement of pulmonary artery size combined with prenatal MRI scanning of lung volumes resulted in an improved understanding of this anomaly and directed the management strategy towards a successful Fontan circulation. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. International Infantry and Joint Services Small Arms Systems Section Symposium, Exhibition and Firing Demonstration. Held in Atlantic City, NJ on 13-16 May 2002. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-13

    going efforts to gather data Types of Sound Generation Sources • Piezo - Electric – High Performance Speakers & Ceramics – Smallest Volume Package...40-µm DRIE spring Stage 2 Devices-Fab 2 Texture of DRIE- machined surface Details of undercutting and release etch for 40-µm spring 1 Tank-automotive... PZT -5A Piezoceramic Sheets Nomenclature - Lead-Zirconate Titanate Micro-Flex Actuator* * Fundamentals of Adaptive/Smart Aerostructures Short Course

  15. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smit, Egbert F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV{sub max} alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Smit, Egbert F.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV max ), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV max alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  17. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu

    2014-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH 4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH 4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH 4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  18. Less impairment of hemostasis and reduced blood loss in pigs after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock using the small-volume concept with hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch as compared to administration of 4% gelatin or 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Thorsten; Fries, Dietmar; Holz, Carmen; Innerhofer, Petra; Streif, Werner; Klingler, Anton; Hanke, Alexander; Velik-Salchner, Corinna

    2008-04-01

    Small-volume resuscitation using hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.62 (HS-HES) has been shown to be an effective alternative to the administration of crystalloids or colloids in trauma patients. All i.v. fluids cause dose-related dilutional coagulopathy and show intrinsic effects on the hemostatic system, but only few data refer to functional consequences after small-volume resuscitation. Using thrombelastometry (ROTEM), we studied 30 pigs (weighing 35-45 kg) after withdrawal of 60% of blood volume [1484 mL (1369-1624 mL)] and receiving 4 mL/kg HS-HES for compensation of blood loss or 4% gelatin or 6% HES 130/0.4 in a 1:1 ratio to lost blood volume. To compare the ROTEM variables (coagulation time, clot formation time, alpha angle, clot firmness, and fibrinogen polymerization) with bleeding tendency, a hepatic incision was made and blood loss was measured. Median (25th, 75th percentile) fibrinogen polymerization was significantly higher after HS-HES infusion [11 mm (10, 11), P = 0.0034] when compared with administration of 4% gelatin [4.5 mm (3.0, 5.8)] or HES 130/0.4 [3.5 mm (2.3, 4.0)]. Median blood loss after liver incision was 725 mL (900, 375) after HS-HES, 1625 mL (1275, 1950) after 4% gelatin, and 1600 mL (1500, 1800) after 6% HES 130/0.4 (P = 0.004). Hemodynamic stabilization was traceable in all groups but showed differences regarding filling pressures. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with HS-HES 200/0.62 results in less impairment of clot formation when compared with compensation of blood loss by administering 6% HES 130/0.4 or 4% gelatin.

  19. Development and application of a low volume, increased throughput in vitro model simulating the passage through small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieplak, Tomasz Maciej

    are unevenly distributed along the GIT, ranging from 101-103 cells/g in the stomach, through 103-108 cells/g in the small intestine and up to 1012 cells/g in the colon. In the last decade, numerous studies have been conducted focussing on the faecal microbiota composition and its impact on the host health...... conditions (fed, fasted) and the presence of small intestine microbiota influence intestine persistence of probiotic bacteria. In the same manuscript, we described for the first time the fully functional in vitro model prototype called “The Smallest Intestine (TSI)”. The model proved to be a cost...... and naked cells in the small intestine was investigated in both fed and fasted conditions in the TSI model. Results indicated a protective effect of xanthan/gellan gum for L. plantarum and decreased viability of coated A. muciniphila due to the desiccation effect of coating, which probably caused leakage...

  20. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  1. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Based Radiotherapy Target Volume Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Delineation by Radiation Oncologists vs. Joint Outlining With a PET Radiologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Gerard G.; Carson, Kathryn J.; Lynch, Tom; McAleese, Jonathan; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Eakin, Ruth L.; Stewart, David P.; Zatari, Ashraf; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has benefits in target volume (TV) definition in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal protocol for TV delineation has not been determined. We investigate volumetric and positional variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation using a planning PET/CT among three radiation oncologists and a PET radiologist. Methods and Materials: RTP PET/CT scans were performed on 28 NSCLC patients (Stage IA-IIIB) of which 14 patients received prior induction chemotherapy. Three radiation oncologists and one PET radiologist working with a fourth radiation oncologist independently delineated the GTV on CT alone (GTV CT ) and on fused PET/CT images (GTV PETCT ). The mean percentage volume change (PVC) between GTV CT and GTV PETCT for the radiation oncologists and the PVC between GTV CT and GTV PETCT for the PET radiologist were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Concordance index (CI) was used to assess both positional and volume change between GTV CT and GTV PETCT in a single measurement. Results: For all patients, a significant difference in PVC from GTV CT to GTV PETCT exists between the radiation oncologist (median, 5.9%), and the PET radiologist (median, -0.4%, p = 0.001). However, no significant difference in median concordance index (comparing GTV CT and GTV FUSED for individual cases) was observed (PET radiologist = 0.73; radiation oncologists = 0.66; p = 0.088). Conclusions: Percentage volume changes from GTV CT to GTV PETCT were lower for the PET radiologist than for the radiation oncologists, suggesting a lower impact of PET/CT in TV delineation for the PET radiologist than for the oncologists. Guidelines are needed to standardize the use of PET/CT for TV delineation in RTP.

  2. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography-based radiotherapy target volume definition in non-small-cell lung cancer: delineation by radiation oncologists vs. joint outlining with a PET radiologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gerard G; Carson, Kathryn J; Lynch, Tom; McAleese, Jonathan; Cosgrove, Vivian P; Eakin, Ruth L; Stewart, David P; Zatari, Ashraf; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Hounsell, Alan R

    2010-11-15

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has benefits in target volume (TV) definition in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal protocol for TV delineation has not been determined. We investigate volumetric and positional variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation using a planning PET/CT among three radiation oncologists and a PET radiologist. RTP PET/CT scans were performed on 28 NSCLC patients (Stage IA-IIIB) of which 14 patients received prior induction chemotherapy. Three radiation oncologists and one PET radiologist working with a fourth radiation oncologist independently delineated the GTV on CT alone (GTV(CT)) and on fused PET/CT images (GTV(PETCT)). The mean percentage volume change (PVC) between GTV(CT) and GTV(PETCT) for the radiation oncologists and the PVC between GTV(CT) and GTV(PETCT) for the PET radiologist were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Concordance index (CI) was used to assess both positional and volume change between GTV(CT) and GTV(PETCT) in a single measurement. For all patients, a significant difference in PVC from GTV(CT) to GTV(PETCT) exists between the radiation oncologist (median, 5.9%), and the PET radiologist (median, -0.4%, p = 0.001). However, no significant difference in median concordance index (comparing GTV(CT) and GTV(FUSED) for individual cases) was observed (PET radiologist = 0.73; radiation oncologists = 0.66; p = 0.088). Percentage volume changes from GTV(CT) to GTV(PETCT) were lower for the PET radiologist than for the radiation oncologists, suggesting a lower impact of PET/CT in TV delineation for the PET radiologist than for the oncologists. Guidelines are needed to standardize the use of PET/CT for TV delineation in RTP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Target volume definition for {sup 18}F-FDG PET-positive lymph nodes in radiotherapy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer-Schuler, Andrea; Hellwig, Dirk; Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Saarland University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kremp, Stephanie; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical Centre, Department of Radio-oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Groeschel, Andreas [Saarland University Medical Centre, Department of Pneumology, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    FDG PET is increasingly used in radiotherapy planning. Recently, we demonstrated substantial differences in target volumes when applying different methods of FDG-based contouring in primary lung tumours (Nestle et al., J Nucl Med 2005;46:1342-8). This paper focusses on FDG-positive mediastinal lymph nodes (LN{sub PET}). In our institution, 51 NSCLC patients who were candidates for radiotherapy prospectively underwent staging FDG PET followed by a thoracic PET scan in the treatment position and a planning CT. Eleven of them had 32 distinguishable non-confluent mediastinal or hilar nodal FDG accumulations (LN{sub PET}). For these, sets of gross tumour volumes (GTVs) were generated at both acquisition times by four different PET-based contouring methods (visual: GTV{sub vis}; 40% SUV{sub max}: GTV{sub 40}; SUV=2.5: GTV{sub 2.5}; target/background (T/B) algorithm: GTV{sub bg}). All differences concerning GTV sizes were within the range of the resolution of the PET system. The detectability and technical delineability of the GTVs were significantly better in the late scans (e.g. p = 0.02 for diagnostic application of SUV{sub max} = 2.5; p = 0.0001 for technical delineability by GTV{sub 2.5}; p = 0.003 by GTV{sub 40}), favouring the GTV{sub bg} method owing to satisfactory overall applicability and independence of GTVs from acquisition time. Compared with CT, the majority of PET-based GTVs were larger, probably owing to resolution effects, with a possible influence of lesion movements. For nodal GTVs, different methods of contouring did not lead to clinically relevant differences in volumes. However, there were significant differences in technical delineability, especially after early acquisition. Overall, our data favour a late acquisition of FDG PET scans for radiotherapy planning, and the use of a T/B algorithm for GTV contouring. (orig.)

  4. Nucleotide variability of Ťahyňa virus (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) small (S) and medium (M) genomic segments in field strains differing in biological properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kilian, P.; Růžek, Daniel; Danielová, V.; Hypša, Václav; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2010), s. 119-123 ISSN 0168-1702 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Bunyavirus * california group * genetic variability * virulence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2010

  5. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 4: Commercial System Definition. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development and design of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. The operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics are determined and the commercial system design is defined.

  6. A small-volume bioassay for quantification of the esterase inhibiting potency of mixtures of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in rainwater : development and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Molin, K.R.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive in vitro bioassay for quantification of the total esterase inhibiting potency of low concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in relatively small rainwater samples. Purified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel

  7. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  8. Comparisons of dose-volume histograms for proton-beam versus 3-D conformal X-ray therapy in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changlu; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Sakae, Takeji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were reviewed to determine if there is an advantage of the two modalities when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 24 stage I NSCLC patients who underwent proton-beam therapy (PBT) from June 2003 to May 2007 were included in this study. Based on the same clinical target volumes (CTVs), treatment planning was made to cover CTV within 90% isodose lines. Each patient was evaluated by two sets of DVHs, one for PBT and the other for three-dimensional conformal X-ray therapy (3D-CRT). For all patients, the 95% isodose line covered 86.4% of the CTV for PBT, and 43.2% for 3D-CRT. PBT was associated with significantly lower mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, total lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord than 3D-CRT. PBT offered reduced radiation doses to the lung when evaluated in terms of percentage lung volumes receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V 5 ), ≥ 10 Gy (V 10 ), and ≥ 20 Gy (V 20 ) when compared to 3D-CRT. PBT is advantageous over 3D-CRT in reducing doses to the lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord in treating stage I NSCLC. (orig.)

  9. Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect in dependence of the attenuation correction of a state-of-the-art small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Judenhofer, Martin S; Schmid, Andreas; Pichler, Bernd J; Tillmanns, Julia; Stiller, Detlef; Sossi, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE) of the Siemens Inveon PET scanner were evaluated. The influence of transmission source activities (40 and 160 MBq) on the quantification accuracy and the PVE were determined. Dynamic range, object size and PVE for different sphere sizes, contrast ratios and positions in the field of view (FOV) were evaluated. The acquired data were reconstructed using different algorithms and correction methods. The activity level of the transmission source and the total emission activity in the FOV strongly influenced the attenuation maps. Reconstruction algorithms, correction methods, object size and location within the FOV had a strong influence on the PVE in all configurations. All evaluated parameters potentially influence the quantification accuracy. Hence, all protocols should be kept constant during a study to allow a comparison between different scans. (paper)

  10. Proceedings of the neutrons in biology conference, Santa Fe, NM, October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Neutrons in Biology Conference held in Sante Fe, New Mexico October 1994. The volume is composed of full papers authored by the presenters at the conference. The sessions by which the presentations were organized are entitled Neutron Anatomy, Neutron Sources, Neutron Instrumentation, Small Angle Scattering, Membrane Structures and Dynamics, Protein Structures, Fiber Diffraction, and New Analysis and Experimental Techniques. Each paper has been separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  11. Proceedings of the neutrons in biology conference, Santa Fe, NM, October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Neutrons in Biology Conference held in Sante Fe, New Mexico October 1994. The volume is composed of full papers authored by the presenters at the conference. The sessions by which the presentations were organized are entitled Neutron Anatomy, Neutron Sources, Neutron Instrumentation, Small Angle Scattering, Membrane Structures and Dynamics, Protein Structures, Fiber Diffraction, and New Analysis and Experimental Techniques. Each paper has been separately indexed and abstracted for the database

  12. Viscosity and not biological mechanisms often controls the effects of temperature on ciliary activity and swimming velocity of small aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.

    2009-01-01

    organisms using cilia or small appendages for propulsion. Here we summarize results from the literature and from own studies on bio-mechanical activities in response to changing temperature or manipulated viscosity at constant temperature, both having the same change in kinematic viscosity. The survey......A number of studies have shown that temperature-dependent viscosity of the ambient water controls or strongly affects bio-mechanical activity such as beat frequency of water-pumping cilia in mussels and ascidians, swimming velocity of sperm cells, ciliates and small (micro- and meso-scale) aquatic...

  13. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  14. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengyu; Guo, Bingqi; Cheng, Chih-Yao; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2010-09-01

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent™ x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V100 reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as compared to 95

  15. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  16. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Cheng, Chih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V 100 reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as compared to 95

  17. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  18. Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on engineering in medicine and biology. Volume 16. Conference held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 6--10, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty-four sessions were held on various aspects of engineering in medicine and biology. Approximately ten papers were presented in each session and summaries of the papers are included. A paper on nuclear fueled circulatory support systems describes 238 Pu fueled blood cooled heat exchangers and implants using 241 Am, 9 Be, and 90 Sr in dogs. One dog died as a result of an extensive pulmonary neoplasm. Two sessions were devoted to cardiac pacemakers; topics included were data management systems, safety factors, implantation status of the NU-5 nuclear pacemaker, a rechargeable cardiac pacemaker system, and longevity of implantable pulse generators. A session on corporeal imaging included papers on computer processing of chest x-ray pictures, fluoroscopic image enhancement using a storage vidicon, ACTA (automatic computerized transverse axial tomographic)--the whole body scanner, and reconstruction of the image from the ACTA whole body x-ray scanner. (U.S.)

  19. PET-CT-Based Auto-Contouring in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Correlates With Pathology and Reduces Interobserver Variability in the Delineation of the Primary Tumor and Involved Nodal Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baardwijk, Angela van; Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Buijsen, Jeroen; Wanders, Stofferinus; Hochstenbag, Monique; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Dekker, Andre; Dehing-Oberije, Cary; Houben, Ruud; Bentzen, Soren M.; Kroonenburgh, Marinus van; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare source-to-background ratio (SBR)-based PET-CT auto-delineation with pathology in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate whether auto-delineation reduces the interobserver variability compared with manual PET-CT-based gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation was compared with macroscopic tumor dimensions to assess its validity in 23 tumors. Thereafter, GTVs were delineated manually on 33 PET-CT scans by five observers for the primary tumor (GTV-1) and the involved lymph nodes (GTV-2). The delineation was repeated after 6 months with the auto-contour provided. This contour was edited by the observers. For comparison, the concordance index (CI) was calculated, defined as the ratio of intersection and the union of two volumes (A intersection B)/(A union B). Results: The maximal tumor diameter of the SBR-based auto-contour correlated strongly with the macroscopic diameter of primary tumors (correlation coefficient = 0.90) and was shown to be accurate for involved lymph nodes (sensitivity 67%, specificity 95%). The median auto-contour-based target volumes were smaller than those defined by manual delineation for GTV-1 (31.8 and 34.6 cm 3 , respectively; p = 0.001) and GTV-2 (16.3 and 21.8 cm 3 , respectively; p 0.02). The auto-contour-based method showed higher CIs than the manual method for GTV-1 (0.74 and 0.70 cm 3 , respectively; p 3 , respectively; p = 0.11). Conclusion: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation showed a good correlation with pathology, decreased the delineated volumes of the GTVs, and reduced the interobserver variability. Auto-contouring may further improve the quality of target delineation in NSCLC patients

  20. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey; Bae, Kyounghwa; Choi, Noah; Forster, Ken; Siegel, Barry A.; Brunetti, Jacqueline; Purdy, James; Faria, Sergio; Vu, Toni; Thorstad, Wade; Choy, Hak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non–small-cell lung cancer (≥60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7–22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  1. 5α-Reductase inhibitor is less effective in men with small prostate volume and low serum prostatic specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor C; Liao, Chun-Hou; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-09-01

    Large total prostate volumes (TPVs) or high serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels indicate high-risk clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This prospective study investigated the treatment outcome of combined 5α-reductase inhibitor and α-blocker in patients with and without large TPVs or high PSA levels. Men aged ≥ 45 years with International Prostate Symptom scores (IPSS) ≥ 8, TPV ≥ 20 mL, and maximum flow rate ≤ 15 mL/s received a combination therapy (dutasteride plus doxaben) for 2 years. Patients with baseline PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL underwent prostatic biopsy for excluding malignancy. The changes in the parameters from baseline to 24 months after combination therapy were compared in those with and without TPV ≥ 40 mL or PSA levels ≥ 1.5 ng/mL. A total of 285 patients (mean age 72 ± 9 years) completed the study. Combination therapy resulted in significant continuous improvement in IPSS, quality of life index, maximum flow rate, and postvoid residual (all p < 0.0001) regardless of baseline TPV or PSA levels. However, only patients with baseline TPV ≥ 40 mL had significant improvements in IPSS-storage subscore, voided volume, reduction in TPV, transitional zone index, and PSA levels. In addition, patients with baseline TPV < 40 mL and PSA < 1.5 ng/mL had neither a reduction in TPV nor a decrease in serum PSA level. A high TPV indicates more outlet resistance, whereas elevated serum PSA level reflects glandular proliferation. Thus, patients with TPV<40 mL and low PSA levels has less benefit from 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy. The therapeutic effect of combined treatment may arise mainly from the α-blocker in these patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  3. The genome of the Hi5 germ cell line from Trichoplusia ni, an agricultural pest and novel model for small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Yang, Yujing; Zhang, Han; Farley, Gwen; Wang, Junling; Quarles, Kaycee A; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2018-01-29

    We report a draft assembly of the genome of Hi5 cells from the lepidopteran insect pest, Trichoplusia ni , assigning 90.6% of bases to one of 28 chromosomes and predicting 14,037 protein-coding genes. Chemoreception and detoxification gene families reveal T. ni -specific gene expansions that may explain its widespread distribution and rapid adaptation to insecticides. Transcriptome and small RNA data from thorax, ovary, testis, and the germline-derived Hi5 cell line show distinct expression profiles for 295 microRNA- and >393 piRNA-producing loci, as well as 39 genes encoding small RNA pathway proteins. Nearly all of the W chromosome is devoted to piRNA production, and T. ni siRNAs are not 2´- O -methylated. To enable use of Hi5 cells as a model system, we have established genome editing and single-cell cloning protocols. The T. ni genome provides insights into pest control and allows Hi5 cells to become a new tool for studying small RNAs ex vivo. © 2018, Fu et al.

  4. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  5. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  6. Dose escalation of radical radiation therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer using positron emission tomography/computed tomography-defined target volumes: Are class solutions obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, S.; Schneider-Kolsky, M.; Budd, R.; Yuen, K.; Manus, M Mac

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the maximum theoretical radiation dose that could safely be delivered to 20 patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer. Two three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) class-solution techniques (A and B) and an individualized three-dimensional conformal RT technique (C) were compared at the standard dose of 60 Gy (part I). Dose escalation was then attempted for each technique successfully at 60 Gy, constrained by predetermined limits for lung and spinal canal (part II). Part I and part II data were reanalysed to include oesophageal dose constraints (part III). In part I, 60 Gy was successfully planned using techniques A, B and C in 19 (95%), 18 (90%) and 20 (100%) patients, respectively. The mean escalated dose attainable for part II using techniques A, B and C were 76.4, 74 and 97.8 Gy, respectively (P < 0.0005). One (5%) patient was successfully planned for 120 Gy using techniques A and B, whereas four (20%) were successfully planned using technique C. Following the inclusion of additional constraints applied to the oesophagus in part III, the amount of escalated dose remained the same for all patients who were successfully planned at 60 Gy apart from two patients when technique C was applied. In conclusion, individualized three-dimensional conformal RT facilitated greater dose conformation and higher escalation of dose in most patients. With modern planning tools, simple class solutions are obsolete for conventional dose radical RT in non-small-cell lung cancer. Highly individualized conformal planning is essential for dose escalation.

  7. Method for biological tissue temperature measuring in the area of laser radiation exposure with a small size beam profile during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabkin, Dmitrii I.

    2018-04-01

    Connection is not strong enough In case of insufficient or excessive temperature of the laser welding. As a result, the temperature measurement in laser welding is an important problem. Measurement area surface is small (3.12 mm2) and measurements shall be carried out by a Non-contact method, which makes them challenging. Method of temperature measurement by an infrared sensor in two positions has been offered. This method allows you to measure the temperature at a distance of up to 5 cm from the measured area with an accuracy of 8%.

  8. System in biology leading to cell pathology: stable protein-protein interactions after covalent modifications by small molecules or in transgenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Halina Z

    2011-01-19

    The physiological processes in the cell are regulated by reversible, electrostatic protein-protein interactions. Apoptosis is such a regulated process, which is critically important in tissue homeostasis and development and leads to complete disintegration of the cell. Pathological apoptosis, a process similar to apoptosis, is associated with aging and infection. The current study shows that pathological apoptosis is a process caused by the covalent interactions between the signaling proteins, and a characteristic of this pathological network is the covalent binding of calmodulin to regulatory sequences. Small molecules able to bind covalently to the amino group of lysine, histidine, arginine, or glutamine modify the regulatory sequences of the proteins. The present study analyzed the interaction of calmodulin with the BH3 sequence of Bax, and the calmodulin-binding sequence of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate in the presence of xanthurenic acid in primary retinal epithelium cell cultures and murine epithelial fibroblast cell lines transformed with SV40 (wild type [WT], Bid knockout [Bid-/-], and Bax-/-/Bak-/- double knockout [DKO]). Cell death was observed to be associated with the covalent binding of calmodulin, in parallel, to the regulatory sequences of proteins. Xanthurenic acid is known to activate caspase-3 in primary cell cultures, and the results showed that this activation is also observed in WT and Bid-/- cells, but not in DKO cells. However, DKO cells were not protected against death, but high rates of cell death occurred by detachment. The results showed that small molecules modify the basic amino acids in the regulatory sequences of proteins leading to covalent interactions between the modified sequences (e.g., calmodulin to calmodulin-binding sites). The formation of these polymers (aggregates) leads to an unregulated and, consequently, pathological protein network. The results suggest a mechanism for the involvement of small molecules

  9. Variation and decomposition of the partial molar volume of small gas molecules in different organic solvents derived from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Martin, Alistair; Cheong, Daniel W; Garland, Marc V

    2013-12-28

    The partial molar volumes, V(i), of the gas solutes H2, CO, and CO2, solvated in acetone, methanol, heptane, and diethylether are determined computationally in the limit of infinite dilution and standard conditions. Solutions are described with molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the OPLS-aa force field for solvents and customized force field for solutes. V(i) is determined with the direct method, while the composition of V(i) is studied with Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs). Subsequently, the amount of unoccupied space and size of pre-formed cavities in pure solvents is determined. Additionally, the shape of individual solvent cages is analyzed. Calculated V(i) deviate only 3.4 cm(3) mol(-1) (7.1%) from experimental literature values. Experimental V(i) variations across solutions are reproduced qualitatively and also quantitatively in most cases. The KBI analysis identifies differences in solute induced solvent reorganization in the immediate vicinity of H2 (<0.7 nm) and solvent reorganization up to the third solvation shell of CO and CO2 (<1.6 nm) as the origin of V(i) variations. In all solutions, larger V(i) are found in solvents that exhibit weak internal interactions, low cohesive energy density and large compressibility. Weak internal interactions facilitate solvent displacement by thermal solute movement, which enhances the size of solvent cages and thus V(i). Additionally, attractive electrostatic interactions of CO2 and the solvents, which do not depend on internal solvent interactions only, partially reversed the V(i) trends observed in H2 and CO solutions where electrostatic interactions with the solvents are absent. More empty space and larger pre-formed cavities are found in solvents with weak internal interactions, however, no evidence is found that solutes in any considered solvent are accommodated in pre-formed cavities. Individual solvent cages are found to be elongated in the negative direction of solute movement. This wake behind

  10. Variation and decomposition of the partial molar volume of small gas molecules in different organic solvents derived from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Martin, Alistair; Cheong, Daniel W.; Garland, Marc V.

    2013-12-01

    The partial molar volumes, bar V_i, of the gas solutes H2, CO, and CO2, solvated in acetone, methanol, heptane, and diethylether are determined computationally in the limit of infinite dilution and standard conditions. Solutions are described with molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the OPLS-aa force field for solvents and customized force field for solutes. bar V_i is determined with the direct method, while the composition of bar V_i is studied with Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs). Subsequently, the amount of unoccupied space and size of pre-formed cavities in pure solvents is determined. Additionally, the shape of individual solvent cages is analyzed. Calculated bar V_i deviate only 3.4 cm3 mol-1 (7.1%) from experimental literature values. Experimental bar V_i variations across solutions are reproduced qualitatively and also quantitatively in most cases. The KBI analysis identifies differences in solute induced solvent reorganization in the immediate vicinity of H2 (<0.7 nm) and solvent reorganization up to the third solvation shell of CO and CO2 (<1.6 nm) as the origin of bar V_i variations. In all solutions, larger bar V_i are found in solvents that exhibit weak internal interactions, low cohesive energy density and large compressibility. Weak internal interactions facilitate solvent displacement by thermal solute movement, which enhances the size of solvent cages and thus bar V_i. Additionally, attractive electrostatic interactions of CO2 and the solvents, which do not depend on internal solvent interactions only, partially reversed the bar V_i trends observed in H2 and CO solutions where electrostatic interactions with the solvents are absent. More empty space and larger pre-formed cavities are found in solvents with weak internal interactions, however, no evidence is found that solutes in any considered solvent are accommodated in pre-formed cavities. Individual solvent cages are found to be elongated in the negative direction of solute

  11. Discovery of small molecules binding to the normal conformation of prion by combining virtual screening and multiple biological activity evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Yongchang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Jiang-Huai; Tian, Jiaqi; Liu, Huanxiang; He, Yong-Xing; Yao, Xiaojun

    2017-12-01

    Conformational conversion of the normal cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the misfolded isoform, PrPSc, is considered to be a central event in the development of fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Stabilization of prion protein at the normal cellular form (PrPC) with small molecules is a rational and efficient strategy for treatment of prion related diseases. However, few compounds have been identified as potent prion inhibitors by binding to the normal conformation of prion. In this work, to rational screening of inhibitors capable of stabilizing cellular form of prion protein, multiple approaches combining docking-based virtual screening, steady-state fluorescence quenching, surface plasmon resonance and thioflavin T fluorescence assay were used to discover new compounds interrupting PrPC to PrPSc conversion. Compound 3253-0207 that can bind to PrPC with micromolar affinity and inhibit prion fibrillation was identified from small molecule databases. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that compound 3253-0207 can bind to the hotspot residues in the binding pocket composed by β1, β2 and α2, which are significant structure moieties in conversion from PrPC to PrPSc.

  12. Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM model following intratracheal (IT and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8-10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human

  13. Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yu; Lentz, Margaret R; Lara, Abigail; Alexander, Isis; Bartos, Christopher; Bohannon, J Kyle; Hammoud, Dima; Huzella, Louis; Jahrling, Peter B; Janosko, Krisztina; Jett, Catherine; Kollins, Erin; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Mollura, Daniel; Ragland, Dan; Rojas, Oscar; Solomon, Jeffrey; Xu, Ziyue; Munster, Vincent; Holbrook, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8-10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human condition.

  14. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  17. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L 50 ) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L 50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  18. On the biology and food of small-sized fish from North and Baltic Sea areas. IV. Investigations on an eulittoral mud flat at Sylt Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. Dieter; Hartwig, Eike

    1982-03-01

    The fish fauna of an eulittoral mud flat was investigated at Sylt Island (North Sea) with special regard to its food uptake. During the course of a year the following species were caught: Pomatoschistus microps, Anguilla anguilla (elvers), Zoarces viviparus, and Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considering the potentially available food, the most abundant organisms of the benthos were harpacticoids and nematodes, whereas in the phytal layer gastropods and gammarids were dominant. The benthic biomass was found to be greatest in spring, while phytal organisms were most abundant in late summer. The greatest fish density was stated in September 1974 though only P. microps was present. The fish biomass was highest in spring when the elvers appeared. The main food of P. microps was epibenthos; in the diet of A. anguilla phytal organisms dominated over epibenthos, in G. aculeatus suprabenthic organisms were also present. The most prominent food component by biomass was gammarids in all investigated fish, whereas harpacticoids were only dominant in number. During the course of the year the biomass of ingested food yielded highest values in summer and autumn, but lowest in winter. A very great predatory activity was found in September 1974, which possibly caused a grazing effect on harpacticoids. An estimation of the turnover rate of small-sized fish in this month led to a value of 70 mg dry weight m-2 · d-1.

  19. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  20. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ramer, Leanne M; Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Ramer, Matt S

    2010-12-29

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  1. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, Marco; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H; Marrinucci, Dena; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL −1 (range 0–515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL −1 . No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0–178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0–515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0–442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and

  2. A note on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting....

  3. The use of fused PET/CT images for patient selection and radical radiotherapy target volume definition in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: Results of a prospective study with mature survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Manus, Michael P.; Everitt, Sarah; Bayne, Mike; Ball, David; Plumridge, Nikki; Binns, David; Herschtal, Alan; Cruickshank, Deborah; Bressel, Mathias; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This prospective study investigated the impact of radiotherapy (RT)-planning FDG-PET/CT on management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: Patients still eligible for radical RT after conventional staging underwent RT-planning PET/CT and, if disease was still treatable to 60 Gy, they entered our planning study, where visually-contoured tumour volumes derived with and without PET information were compared. If PET/CT detected advanced disease, palliative therapy was given. Overall survival (OS) for palliative and curative patients was compared. Results: Of 76 eligible patients, only 50 (66%) received radical chemoRT after PET/CT while 26 (34%) received palliative therapies because PET/CT detected advanced disease. Without PET, FDG-avid tumour would reside outside the planning target volume (PTV) in 36% of radical cases and in 25% 95% prescribed dose. OS for all patients was 56.8% and 24.9% at 1 and 4 years, respectively. OS for patients given chemoRT was 77.5% and 35.6% at 1 and 4 years, respectively and was 32% for stage IIIA patients at 4 years. OS for patients treated palliatively was inferior (P < 0.001); 16.3% and 4.1% at 1 and 4 years, respectively. Conclusions: Planning PET/CT frequently changed management and was associated with excellent survival. Survival data from this study were presented in part at the 2011 World Lung Cancer Conference, Amsterdam and planning data at the 2010 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Chicago

  4. Development of a methodology for the detection of Ra226 in large volumes of water by gamma spectrometry; modification and validation of the method for detection and quantification of Ra226 in small volumes of water by alpha spectrometry, used by the Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (CICANUM, UCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Porras, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The test method has been validated for quantifying the specific activity of Ra 226 in water alpha spectrometry. The CICANUM has used this method as part of the proposed harmonization of methods ARCAL (IAEA). The method is based on a first separation and preconcentration of Ra 226 by coprecipitation and subsequent MnO 2 micro precipitation as Ba (Ra) SO 4 . Samples were prepared and then was performed the counting by alpha spectrometry. A methodology of radio sampling for large volumes of water was tested in parallel, using acrylic fibers impregnated with manganese oxide (IV) to determine the amount of Ra 226 present by gamma spectrometry. Small-scale tests, have determined that the best way to prepare the fiber is the reference method found in the literature and using the oven at 60 degrees Celsius. (author) [es

  5. Small axial compressor technology, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, F. F.; Kidwell, J. R.; Ware, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    A scaled single-stage, highly-loaded, axial-flow transonic compressor was tested at speeds from 70 to 110% design equivalent speed to evaluate the effects of scaling compromises and the individual and combined effects of rotor tip running clearance and rotor shroud casing treatment on the overall and blade element performance. At design speed and 1% tip clearance the stage demonstrated an efficiency of 83.2% at 96.4% design flow and a pressure ratio of 1.865. Casing treatment increased design speed surge margin 2.0 points to 12.8%. Overall performance was essentially unchanged. An increase in rotor running clearance to 2.2%, with smooth casing, reduced design speed peak efficiency 5.7 points, flow by 7.4%, pressure ratio to 1.740, and surge margin to 5.4%. Reinstalling casing treatment regained 3.5 points in design speed peak efficiency, 4.7% flow, increased pressure ratio to 1.800 and surge margin to 8.7%.

  6. 2006 In Vitro Biology Meeting. Volume 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-25

    Toothbrushes Vitor Hugo Fernandes, Funda9co Educacional Montes Claros, and D. L. C6sar E-2005 Proteomics Analysis of Osteosarcoma Cells Michael McCord...coiiceiris, *tm ut fth sitfsus inid va Ininimuelp iuaiscctiin rince plains that pttslUnC h itgh aiuinuti it uninc especially in Europe. To that end. sse...stimulation, and culture environment. Of the many ecotoxicology nowadays especially the environmental scientists. This uses of cul:ured T cells, those

  7. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  8. Common variants at 6q22 and 17q21 are associated with intracranial volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfan Ikram, M.; Fornage, M.; Smith, A.V.; Seshadri, S.; Schmidt, R.; Debette, S.; Vrooman, H.A.; Sigurdsson, S.; Ropele, S.; Taal, H.R.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Coker, L.H.; Longstreth, Jr. W.T.; Niessen, W.J.; DeStefano, A.L.; Beiser, A.; Zijdenbos, A.P.; Struchalin, M.; Jack, C.R.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Knopman, D.S.; Hartikainen, A.-L.; Pennell, C.E.; Thiering, E.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hakonarson, H.; Heinrich, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Grant, S.F.A.; St Pourcain, B.; Timpson, N.J.; Smith, G.D.; Sovio, U.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Groen-Blokhuis, M.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Nivard, M.G.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Nalls, M.A.; Au, R.; Hofman, A.; Gudnason, H.; van der Lugt, A.; Harris, T.B.; Meeks, W.M.; Vernooij, M.W.; van Buchem, M.A.; Catellier, D.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Gudnason, V.; Windham, B.G.; Wolf, P.A.; van Duijn, C.M.; Mosley, T.H.; Schmidt, H.; Launer, L.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; DeCarli, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    During aging, intracranial volume remains unchanged and represents maximally attained brain size, while various interacting biological phenomena lead to brain volume loss. Consequently, intracranial volume and brain volume in late life reflect different genetic influences. Our genome-wide

  9. Common variants at 6q22 and 17q21 are associated with intracranial volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Ikram (Arfan); M. Fornage (Myriam); G.D. Smith; S. Seshadri (Sudha); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); S. Debette (Stéphanie); H.A. Vrooman (Henri); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); S. Ropele (Stefan); H.R. Taal (Rob); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); L.H. Coker (Laura); W.T. Longstreth Jr; W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Beiser (Alexa); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.S. Knopman (David); A.L. Hartikainen; C.E. Pennell (Craig); E. Thiering (Eelisabeth); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Heinrich (Joachim); C. Palmer (Cameron); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); B.S. Pourcain (Beate); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; U. Sovio (Ulla); M.A. Nalls (Michael); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Gudnason (Haukur); A. van der Lugt (Aad); T.B. Harris (Tamara); W.M. Meeks (William); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); D.J. Catellier (Diane); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); P.A. Wolf (Philip); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); L.J. Launer (Lenore); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C. DeCarli (Charles); L.S. Adair (Linda); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); N.E. Bergen (Nienke); P.J. Benke (Paul); D. Berry (Diane); L. Coin (Lachlan); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); P. Elliott (Paul); C. Flexeder (Claudia); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); R. Gaillard (Romy); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); L.-K. Goh; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); D. Hadley (David); J. Hedebrand (Johannes); A. Hinney (Anke); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); J.W. Holloway (John); J.J. Holst; J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); V. Huikari (Ville); E. Hypponen (Elina); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Kowgier (Matthew); T.A. Lakka (Timo); L.A. Lange (Leslie); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A. Lewin (Alex); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); V. Lindi (Virpi); R. Maggi (Reedik); J.A. Marsh (Julie); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); I.Y. Millwood (Iona); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); M. Nivard (Michel); C. Nohr (Christian); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); E. Oken (Emily); K. Panoutsopoulou (Kalliope); J. Pararajasingham (Jennifer); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); R.M. Salem (Rany); S. Sebert (Sylvain); N. Siitonen (Niina); D.P. Strachan (David); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); B. Valcárcel (Beatriz); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); C. Cooper (Charles); M.H. Gillman (Matthew); B. Hocher (Berthold); T.A. Lakka (Timo); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); G.V. Dedoussis (George); K.K. Ong (Ken); E. Pearson (Ewan); T.S. Price (Thomas); C. Power (Christopher); O. Raitakari (Olli); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); A. Scherag (Andre); O. Simell (Olli); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring aging, intracranial volume remains unchanged and represents maximally attained brain size, while various interacting biological phenomena lead to brain volume loss. Consequently, intracranial volume and brain volume in late life reflect different genetic influences. Our

  10. Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 7. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 10 Issue 7 July 2005 pp 21-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. An Integrated Approach to Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 8. An Integrated Approach to Biology. Aniket Bhattacharya. General Article Volume 16 Issue 8 August 2011 pp 742-753. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/08/0742-0753 ...

  12. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0102-0104 ...

  13. A Physicist Looks at Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 11. A Physicist Looks at Biology. Max Delbrück. Classics Volume 4 Issue 11 November 1999 pp 89-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/11/0089-0102. Author Affiliations.

  14. How Computers are Arming biology!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. In-vitro to In-silico - How Computers are Arming biology! Geetha Sugumaran Sushila Rajagopal. Face to Face Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 83-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  16. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  17. An inexpensive and portable microvolumeter for rapid evaluation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wcislo, William T

    2010-08-01

    We describe an improved microvolumeter (MVM) for rapidly measuring volumes of small biological samples, including live zooplankton, embryos, and small animals and organs. Portability and low cost make this instrument suitable for widespread use, including at remote field sites. Beginning with Archimedes' principle, which states that immersing an arbitrarily shaped sample in a fluid-filled container displaces an equivalent volume, we identified procedures that maximize measurement accuracy and repeatability across a broad range of absolute volumes. Crucial steps include matching the overall configuration to the size of the sample, using reflected light to monitor fluid levels precisely, and accounting for evaporation during measurements. The resulting precision is at least 100 times higher than in previous displacement-based methods. Volumes are obtained much faster than by traditional histological or confocal methods and without shrinkage artifacts due to fixation or dehydration. Calibrations using volume standards confirmed accurate measurements of volumes as small as 0.06 microL. We validated the feasibility of evaluating soft-tissue samples by comparing volumes of freshly dissected ant brains measured with the MVM and by confocal reconstruction.

  18. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain: A Proposal for BSc (Hons) in Integrated Biology. Kambadur Muralidhar. Classroom Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 272-276 ...

  19. Calculation of integrated biological response in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Roger G.; Coles, Ian P.; Deehan, Charles; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To present analytical methods for calculating or estimating the integrated biological response in brachytherapy applications, and which allow for the presence of dose gradients. Methods and Materials: The approach uses linear-quadratic (LQ) formulations to identify an equivalent biologically effective dose (BED eq ) which, if applied to a specified tissue volume, would produce the same biological effect as that achieved by a given brachytherapy application. For simple geometrical cases, BED multiplying factors have been derived which allow the equivalent BED for tumors to be estimated from a single BED value calculated at a dose reference point. For more complex brachytherapy applications a voxel-by-voxel determination of the equivalent BED will be more accurate. Equations are derived which when incorporated into brachytherapy software would facilitate such a process. Results: At both high and low dose rates, the BEDs calculated at the dose reference point are shown to be lower than the true values by an amount which depends primarily on the magnitude of the prescribed dose; the BED multiplying factors are higher for smaller prescribed doses. The multiplying factors are less dependent on the assumed radiobiological parameters. In most clinical applications involving multiple sources, particularly those in multiplanar arrays, the multiplying factors are likely to be smaller than those derived here for single sources. The overall suggestion is that the radiobiological consequences of dose gradients in well-designed brachytherapy treatments, although important, may be less significant than is sometimes supposed. The modeling exercise also demonstrates that the integrated biological effect associated with fractionated high-dose-rate (FHDR) brachytherapy will usually be different from that for an 'equivalent' continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) regime. For practical FHDR regimes involving relatively small numbers of fractions, the integrated biological effect to

  20. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Optimized microviscosimeter for detection and characterization of biological vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiffe, O; Cretin, B; Boireau, W; Baudouy, J C; Vairac, P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on studies aimed at sensing the stiffness of biological membranes, in particular in the case of lipidic vesicles. To obtain pertinent results, we have developed and checked a specific sensor based on a vibrating sphere. The near-field acoustic wave generated by this vibrating sphere enables us to characterize biological particles which change the apparent viscosity and density of the surrounding fluid. The microsphere is well suited for very small volumes of liquid (typically about a few microlitres). The experimental results demonstrate the high sensitivity of the sensor to small variations of the composition of the aqueous media, particularly in the case of various populations of lipidic nanoparticles. Finally, this microviscosimeter demonstrates its ability to discriminate the population of vesicles on the basis of their global viscous properties

  2. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Prokic, Vesna; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula; Troost, Esther G.C.; Ruecker, Gerta; Avlar, Melanie; Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Mix, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  3. Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Bendamustine and its Active Metabolite, γ-Hydroxybendamustine in Small Volume Mice and Dog Plasma and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Devaraj V; Suresh, Ponnayyan S; Kumar, Rajnish; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Mullangi, Ramesh; Richter, Wolfgang; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of bendamustine (BM) and γ-hydroxybendamustine (HBM) in small volume (20 µL) mice and dog plasma using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Both the analytes and IS were extracted from mice and dog plasma using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Chromatography was achieved on Atlantis dC 18 column using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 25:75) at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 3.0 min and the elution of BM, HBM and IS occurred at ~1.2, 1.2 and 2.0 min, respectively. A linear response function was established 0.11-518 ng/mL for both the analytes in mice and dog plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the range of 3.46-12.9 and 3.63-8.23%; 1.15-9.00 and 7.86-9.49% for BM and HBM, respectively in mice plasma and 2.15-6.49 and 1.73-13.1%; 4.35-13.9 and 4.33-10.5% for BM and HBM, respectively in dog plasma. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice and dogs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Troost, Esther G C; Rücker, Gerta; Prokic, Vesna; Avlar, Melanie; Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Mix, Michael; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula

    2015-06-01

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  6. Validação em métodos cromatográficos para análises de pequenas moléculas em matrizes biológicas Chromatographic methods validation for analysis of small molecules in biological matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Neila Maria Cassiano; Juliana Cristina Barreiro; Lúcia Regina Rocha Martins; Regina Vincenzi Oliveira; Quezia Bezerra Cass

    2009-01-01

    Chromatographic methods are commonly used for analysis of small molecules in different biological matrices. An important step to be considered upon a bioanalytical method's development is the capacity to yield reliable and reproducible results. This review discusses validation procedures adopted by different governmental agencies, such as Food and Drug Administration (USA), European Union (EU) and Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (BR) for quantification of small molecules by bioanalyt...

  7. Quantitative analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-, fluoro-misonidazole- and fluoro-thymidine-PET images on five patients irradiated for a non-small-cell bronchial cancer; Analyse quantitative d'images de TEP au fluorodesoxyglucose, au fluoromisonidazole et a la fluorothymidine chez cinq patients irradies pour un cancer bronchique non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thureau, S.; Dubray, B. [Departement de radiotherapie et physique medicale, centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France); Litis EA 4108, QuantiF, universite de Rouen, Rouen (France); Modzelewski, R.; Lelandais, B.; Edet Sanson, A.; Gardin, I.; Vera, P. [Litis EA 4108, QuantiF, universite de Rouen, Rouen (France); Departement de medecine nucleaire, centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France)

    2011-10-15

    As fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (positron emission tomography) is used for the planning of non-small-cell bronchial carcinoma radiotherapy in order to help to define the gross tumour volume (GTV), and as new tracers have been developed to define a biological target volume, the authors report the comparison of several thresholding methods by using fluorodeoxyglucose-, fluoro-misonidazole- and fluoro-thymidine-PET images. They notice important differences between the delineated volumes. Short communication

  8. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  9. Locally advanced lung cancer non small cell (CBPLANPC): determination of the volumes of and tac mi bi radiotherapy: randomized phase II; Cancer de pulmon localmente avanzado no a pequeñas celulas(CBPLANPC): determinacion de los volumenes de radioterapia por mibi y tac: ensayo fase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarneti, A.; Alonso, O.; De Rosa, A.; García Fontes, M.; Luongo Gardi, A.; Castillo, C.; Delgado, L.; Pintado, D.; Dalla Rossa, M.; Guerrero, L.; Lillo, O.; Luongo Gardi, M.; Castaño, A.; Luongo, A.; De Trapani, E.; Torres, M. [Departamentos de Oncología, Imagenología, Medicina Nuclear del Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-12-15

    Full text: However there are few clinical situations that allow treatment appropriate surgical. Chemoradiation treatment has shown results above, however the amount of radiation treatment in general is large, determines morbidity and limited in part to receive the final dose as already reported in previous Congresses Uruguayans Oncology 2000 and 2002 where it rarely Local control was obtained. They inform you of the need to limit treatment volumes radiant disease or biological tumor volume (VTB) using complementary imaging procedures. Objective: To determine the radiation treatment volumes contributing MIBI clarify the VTB. Compare those figures with those established by the TAC. To analyze the intra and extra faults VTB and analyze treatment with RT type ''Involved Field'' or involved field RT (IF) Materrial and Methods: This project Conclusions: This proposal identifies problems and opportunities, proposes institutional development of the SOR network under one management model.

  10. Comparison between anti-CEA and anti-HER2 212Pb-labeled mAbs during α-RIT of small volume peritoneal carcinomatosis - Role of activity distribution on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgqvist, J.; Boudousq, V.; Bobyk, L.; Busson, M.; Lozza, C.; Navarro-Teulon, I.; Pouget, J.P.; Maquaire, P.; Torgue, J.

    2015-01-01

    absorbed doses were shown to be higher for 212 Pb-35A7 mAb than for 212 Pb-Trastuzumab (35.5 Gy versus 27.6 Gy, respectively). Investigation of potential relationships between distribution of radioactivity at the tissue level and biological parameters is ongoing. Conclusions: we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of 212 Pb-labeled mAbs in i.p. α-RIT of small tumors. A higher efficacy per decay, of internalizing versus non-internalizing 212 Pb-labeled mAbs was found. Investigations if a lack of absorbed dose/therapeutic efficacy relationship could be due to heterogeneity in the radioactivity distribution are ongoing. (authors)

  11. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  12. The Effect of Biologically Effective Dose and Radiation Treatment Schedule on Overall Survival in Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, John M. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ross, Rudi [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, Florida (United States); Harder, Eileen M.; Mancini, Brandon R. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Finkelstein, Steven E.; Shafman, Timothy D.; Dosoretz, Arie P. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, Florida (United States); Evans, Suzanne B.; Husain, Zain A.; Yu, James B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Decker, Roy H., E-mail: roy.decker@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of biologically effective dose (BED{sub 10}) and radiation treatment schedule on overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Using data from 65 treatment centers in the United States, we retrospectively reviewed the records of T1-2 N0 NSCLC patients undergoing SBRT alone from 2006 to 2014. Biologically relevant covariates, including dose per fraction, number of fractions, and time between fractions, were used to quantify BED{sub 10} and radiation treatment schedule. The linear-quadratic equation was used to calculate BED{sub 10} and to generate a dichotomous dose variable of <105 Gy versus ≥105 Gy BED{sub 10}. The primary outcome was OS. We used the Kaplan-Meier method, the log–rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression with propensity score matching to determine whether prescription BED{sub 10} was associated with OS. Results: We identified 747 patients who met inclusion criteria. The median BED{sub 10} was 132 Gy, and 59 (7.7%) had consecutive-day fractions. Median follow-up was 41 months, and 452 patients (60.5%) had died by the conclusion of the study. The 581 patients receiving ≥105 Gy BED{sub 10} had a median survival of 28 months, whereas the 166 patients receiving <105 Gy BED{sub 10} had a median survival of 22 months (log–rank, P=.01). Radiation treatment schedule was not a significant predictor of OS on univariable analysis. After adjusting for T stage, sex, tumor histology, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, BED{sub 10} ≥105 Gy versus <105 Gy remained significantly associated with improved OS (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.98, P=.03). Propensity score matching on imbalanced variables within high- and low-dose cohorts confirmed a survival benefit with higher prescription dose. Conclusions: We found that dose escalation to 105 Gy BED

  13. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  14. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  15. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Prokic, Vesna; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site: Freiburg, Heidelberg (Germany); Troost, Esther G.C. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruecker, Gerta [University Medical Center Freiburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Statistics, Centre for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Avlar, Melanie [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Duncker-Rohr, Viola [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gengenbach (Germany); Mix, Michael [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site: Freiburg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-02-10

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  16. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  17. The yeast stands alone: the future of protein biologic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kerry R; Dalvie, Neil C; Love, J Christopher

    2017-12-22

    Yeasts are promising alternative hosts for the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics because they simply and efficiently meet needs for both platform and small-market drugs. Fast accumulation of biomass and low-cost media reduce the cost-of-goods when using yeast, which in turn can enable agile, small-volume manufacturing facilities. Small, tractable yeast genomes are amenable to rapid process development, facilitating strain and product quality by design. Specifically, Pichia pastoris is becoming a widely accepted yeast for biopharmaceutical manufacturing in much of the world owing to a clean secreted product and the rapidly expanding understanding of its cell biology as a host organism. We advocate for a near term partnership spanning industry and academia to promote open source, timely development of yeast hosts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of clathrate, Ba{sub 8}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 42.0}: Small cage volume and large disorder of the guest atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudebush, John H., E-mail: jhr@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Orellana, Mike [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bux, Sabah [Thermal Energy Conversion Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Yi Tanghong; Kauzlarich, Susan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Samples with the type-I clathrate composition Ba{sub 8}Ni{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} have been synthesized and their structure and thermoelectric properties characterized. Microprobe analysis indicates the Ni incorporation to be 2.62{<=}x{<=}3.53. The x=3.5 phase crystallizes in the type-I clathrate structure (space group: Pm-3n) with a lattice parameter of 10.2813(3) A. The refined composition was Ba{sub 8}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 42.0}, with small vacancies, 0.4 and 0.5 atoms per formula unit, at the 2a and 6c sites, respectively. The position of the Ba2 atom in the large cage was modeled using a 4-fold split position (24j site), displaced 0.18 A from the cage center (6d site). The volume of the large cage is calculated to be 146 A{sup 3}, smaller than other clathrates with similar cation displacement. The sample shows n-type behavior with a maximum of -50 {mu}V/K at 823 K above which the Seebeck coefficient decreases, suggesting mixed carriers. Lattice thermal conductivity, {kappa}{sub l}, is 55 mW/K above 600 K. - Graphical abstract: Seebeck coefficient and resistivity of the type-I clathrate Ba{sub 8}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 41.0}. Structure show's large displacement of the Ba cation in the large cage (6c site). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of the Ba{sub 8}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 41.0} reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vacancies at the 2a and 6c sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large disorder of Ba guest atom, 0.18 A from cage center. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure is compared to Ba{sub 8}Si{sub 46} and other type-I clathrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Max Seebeck of -50.7 {mu}V/C at 798.4 K, thermal conductivity {approx}55 mW/K.

  19. The early predictive value of a decrease of metabolic tumor volume in repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with concurrent radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Bo; Fan, Min; Zhou, Tao; Fu, Zheng; Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Baosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The patients underwent the second FDG PET during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). •To our knowledge, this could be the first study showing that the repeated FDG PET during the early stage of CCRT has added value by being a prognostic factor for recurrence of the locally advanced NSCLC patients. •This is a result of continuous research. •The decrease of MTV was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the value of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F FDG PET/CT) to predict recurrence of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 53 stage III NSCLC patients without diabetics or undergoing surgery were enrolled in the prospective study. Those patients were evaluated by FDG PET before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy (RT) with a concurrent cisplatin-based heterogeneous chemotherapy regimen. Semiquantitative assessment was used to determine maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax/SUVmean) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor. The prognostic significance of PET/CT parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The cutoffs of PET/CT parameters which have been determined by the previous study were used to separate the groups with Kaplan–Meier curves. Results: Recurrence rates at 1- and 2-years were 18.9% (10/53) and 50.9% (27/53) for all patients, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor for recurrence was a decrease of MTV. Using the cutoff of 29.7%, a decrease of MTV can separate the patients into 2 groups with Kaplan–Meier curve successfully. Conclusion: The prospective study has reinforced the early predictive value of MTV in repeated 18 F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence in a subgroup of locally advanced NSCLC who underwent CCRT. A

  20. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  1. Characterization of space radiation environment in terms of the energy deposition in functionally important volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Metting, N.F.; Wilson, W.E.; Ratcliffe, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Since the damage which initiates detrimental effects occurs in a small site (semiconductor junctions, or biological cell nuclei), these differences in spatial distribution of ionization maybe the relevant factor controlling the effectiveness of different radiations. Again, when the appropriate cross section data are available Monte Carlo methods can be used to simulate the positions of all ionizations and excitations produced by a typical charged particle. This calculated track structure must interact with the biological or electronic entity in which it occurs to produce the effect. However, we do not know the mechanisms of this interaction and thus cannot specify which characteristics of the charged particle track are responsible for the relevant damage. From track structure we can obtain the spectrum of energy deposition in small volumes which may be relevant to the processes of concern. This has lead to a new approach to dosimetry, one which emphasizes the stochastic nature of energy deposition in small sites, known as microdosimetry. 6 refs., 4 figs