WorldWideScience

Sample records for small spherical probes

  1. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  2. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...

  3. Spectroscopy and probe diagnostics of dc spherical glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhovtyansky, V.A.; Nazarenko, V.G.; Syrotyuk, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Probe and spectroscopic investigations of a spherical glow discharge (GD) were done in nitrogen and argon plasma. There were obtained the distributions of electron temperature and electron density in a discharge gap as well as plasma potential distribution. These results were compared with theoretical ones and the conclusion about their convergence was done in the present study. Particular attention was paid to the anode processes role in the formation of self-organized structure in a spherical glow discharge. It was shown the necessity of taking into account the possibility of the anode potential drop forming in this discharge region

  4. Low-Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    Three novel electrically small antenna configurations radiating a TE10 spherical mode corresponding to a magnetic dipole are presented and investigated: multiarm spherical helix (MSH) antenna, spherical split ring resonator (S-SRR) antenna, and spherical split ring (SSR) antenna. All three antennas...... are self-resonant, with the input resistance tuned to 50 ohms by an excitation curved dipole/monopole. A prototype of the SSR antenna has been fabricated and measured, yielding results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. Radiation quality factors (Q) of these electrically small antennas (in...

  5. Improved analysis techniques for cylindrical and spherical double probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, Brian; Brown, Daniel; Bromaghim, Daron [Air Force Research Laboratory, 1 Ara Rd., Edwards Air Force Base, California 93524 (United States); Johnson, Lee [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Blakely, Joseph [ERC Inc., 1 Ara Rd., Edwards Air Force Base, California 93524 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A versatile double Langmuir probe technique has been developed by incorporating analytical fits to Laframboise's numerical results for ion current collection by biased electrodes of various sizes relative to the local electron Debye length. Application of these fits to the double probe circuit has produced a set of coupled equations that express the potential of each electrode relative to the plasma potential as well as the resulting probe current as a function of applied probe voltage. These equations can be readily solved via standard numerical techniques in order to determine electron temperature and plasma density from probe current and voltage measurements. Because this method self-consistently accounts for the effects of sheath expansion, it can be readily applied to plasmas with a wide range of densities and low ion temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e} Much-Less-Than 1) without requiring probe dimensions to be asymptotically large or small with respect to the electron Debye length. The presented approach has been successfully applied to experimental measurements obtained in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster, which produced a quasineutral, flowing xenon plasma during operation at 200 W on xenon. The measured plasma densities and electron temperatures were in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and 0.5-5.0 eV, respectively. The estimated measurement uncertainty is +6%/-34% in density and +/-30% in electron temperature.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of Electrically Small Spherical Wire Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how modern rapid prototyping technologies can be applied for quick and inexpensive, but still accurate, fabrication of electrically small wire antennas. A well known folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting...

  7. The spherical segmented Langmuir probe in a flowing thermal plasma: numerical model of the current collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The segmented Langmuir probe (SLP has been recently proposed by one of the authors (Lebreton, 2002 as an instrument to derive the bulk velocity of terrestrial or planetary plasmas, in addition to the electron density and temperature that are routinely measured by Langmuir probes. It is part of the scientific payload on the DEMETER micro-satellite developed by CNES. The basic concept of this probe is to measure the current distribution over the surface using independent collectors under the form of small spherical caps and to use the angular anisotropy of these currents to obtain the plasma bulk velocity in the probe reference frame. In order to determine the SLP capabilities, we have developed a numerical PIC (Particles In Cell model which provides a tool to compute the distribution of the current collected by a spherical probe. Our model is based on the simultaneous determination of the charge densities in the probe sheath and on the probe surface, from which the potential distribution in the sheath region can be obtained. This method is well adapted to the SLP problem and has some advantages since it provides a natural control of the charge neutrality inside the simulation box, allows independent mesh sizes in the sheath and on the probe surface, and can be applied to complex surfaces. We present in this paper initial results obtained for plasma conditions corresponding to a Debye length equal to the probe radius. These plasma conditions are observed along the Demeter orbit. The model results are found to be in very good agreement with those published by Laframboise (1966 for a spherical probe in a thermal non-flowing plasma. This demonstrates the adequacy of the computation method and of the adjustable numerical parameters (size of the numerical box and mesh, time step, number of macro-particles, etc. for the considered plasma-probe configuration. We also present the results obtained in the case of plasma flowing with mesothermal conditions

  8. The spherical segmented Langmuir probe in a flowing thermal plasma: numerical model of the current collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The segmented Langmuir probe (SLP has been recently proposed by one of the authors (Lebreton, 2002 as an instrument to derive the bulk velocity of terrestrial or planetary plasmas, in addition to the electron density and temperature that are routinely measured by Langmuir probes. It is part of the scientific payload on the DEMETER micro-satellite developed by CNES. The basic concept of this probe is to measure the current distribution over the surface using independent collectors under the form of small spherical caps and to use the angular anisotropy of these currents to obtain the plasma bulk velocity in the probe reference frame. In order to determine the SLP capabilities, we have developed a numerical PIC (Particles In Cell model which provides a tool to compute the distribution of the current collected by a spherical probe. Our model is based on the simultaneous determination of the charge densities in the probe sheath and on the probe surface, from which the potential distribution in the sheath region can be obtained. This method is well adapted to the SLP problem and has some advantages since it provides a natural control of the charge neutrality inside the simulation box, allows independent mesh sizes in the sheath and on the probe surface, and can be applied to complex surfaces. We present in this paper initial results obtained for plasma conditions corresponding to a Debye length equal to the probe radius. These plasma conditions are observed along the Demeter orbit. The model results are found to be in very good agreement with those published by Laframboise (1966 for a spherical probe in a thermal non-flowing plasma. This demonstrates the adequacy of the computation method and of the adjustable numerical parameters (size of the numerical box and mesh, time step, number of macro-particles, etc. for the considered plasma-probe configuration. We also present the results obtained in the case of plasma flowing with mesothermal conditions

  9. Application of the iterative probe correction technique for a high-order probe in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    An iterative probe-correction technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements is examined. This technique has previously been shown to be well-suited for non-ideal first-order probes. In this paper, its performance in the case of a high-order probe (a dual-ridged horn) is examined....

  10. Contact of a spherical probe with a stretched rubber substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the normal contact of stretched neo-Hookean substrates with rigid spherical probes. Starting from a published formulation of surface Green's function for incremental displacements on a prestretched, neo-Hookean, substrate [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 2957 (2008), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.07.002], a model is derived for both adhesive and nonadhesive contacts. The shape of the elliptical contact area together with the contact load and the contact stiffness are predicted as a function of the in-plane stretch ratios λx and λy of the substrate. The validity of this model is assessed by contact experiments carried out using an uniaxally stretched silicone rubber. For stretch ratio below about 1.25, a good agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Above this threshold, some deviations from the theoretical predictions are induced as a result of the departure of the mechanical response of the silicone rubber from the neo-Hokeean description embedded in the model.

  11. Electrically small circularly polarized spherical antenna with air core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2013-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarized self-resonant spherical antenna with air core is presented. The antenna is a modified multiarm spherical helix exciting TM10 and TE10 spherical modes with equal radiated power, and thus yielding perfect circular polarization over the entire far......-field sphere (except the polar regions, where the radiation is low). The self-resonance is achieved by exciting higher-order TM modes, which provide the necessary electric stored energy in the near-field, while contributing negligibly to the far-field radiation of the antenna. The antenna has electrical size...

  12. Errors of first-order probe correction for higher-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergiy

    2004-01-01

    An investigation is performed to study the error of the far-field pattern determined from a spherical near-field antenna measurement in the case where a first-order (mu=+-1) probe correction scheme is applied to the near-field signal measured by a higher-order probe.......An investigation is performed to study the error of the far-field pattern determined from a spherical near-field antenna measurement in the case where a first-order (mu=+-1) probe correction scheme is applied to the near-field signal measured by a higher-order probe....

  13. Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2006-01-01

    Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...... balance calibration procedure for a high-order dual-port probe with non-identical ports is presented, and the requirements set by this procedure for the probe are discussed....

  14. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static......Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  15. Spherical conducting probes in finite Debye length plasmas and E x B fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    The particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC3D (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 035005) is used to calculate the interaction of a transversely flowing magnetized plasma with a negatively charged spherical conductor, in the entire range of magnetization and Debye length. The results allow the first fully self-consistent analysis of probe operation where neither the ion Larmor radius nor the Debye length are approximated by zero or infinity. An important transition in plasma structure occurs when the Debye length exceeds the average ion Larmor radius, as the sphere starts to shield the convective electric field driving the flow. A remarkable result is that in those conditions, the ion current can significantly exceed the unmagnetized orbital motion limit. When both the Debye length and the Larmor radius are small compared with the probe dimensions, however, their ratio does not affect the collection pattern significantly, and Mach-probe calibration methods derived in the context of quasineutral strongly magnetized plasmas (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 036403) hold for Debye lengths and ion Larmor radii smaller than about 10% of the probe radius.

  16. Floating potential and sheath thickness for cylindrical and spherical probes in electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Crespo, R.; Fernandez Palop, J.I.; Hernandez, M.A.; Borrego del Pino, S.; Diaz-Cabrera, J.M.; Ballesteros, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the floating potential, for cylindrical and spherical Langmuir probes immersed into an electronegative plasma, is determined by using a radial model described in a previous paper. This floating potential is determined for several probe radius values and ranks of plasma electronegativity, from almost electropositive plasmas to high electronegative plasmas. The thickness of the positive ion sheath is also determined for this kind of probes in electronegative plasmas, as well as the analytical expressions fitting this thickness, showing its dependence on the probe radius and electric potential

  17. Measurements of plasma density fluctuations and electric wave fields using spherical electrostatic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A.I.; Bostroem, R.

    1995-04-01

    Spherical electrostatic probes are in wide use for the measurements of electric fields and plasma density. This report concentrates on the measurements of fluctuations of these quantities rather than background values. Potential problems with the technique include the influence of density fluctuations on electric field measurements and vice versa, effects of varying satellite potential, and non-linear rectification in the probe and satellite sheaths. To study the actual importance of these and other possible effects, we simulate the response of the probe-satellite system to various wave phenomena in the plasma by applying approximate analytical as well as numerical methods. We use a set of non-linear probe equations, based on probe characteristics experimentally obtained in space, and therefore essentially independent of any specific probe theory. This approach is very useful since the probe theory for magnetized plasmas is incomplete. 47 refs

  18. Minimum Q circularly polarized electrically small spherical antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed...... magnetic-coated PEC core the stored energies of these modes balance each other making the antenna self-resonant and at the same time ensuring a perfect circularly polarized radiation. Numerical results for a practical dual-mode electrically small antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. A 4-arm...

  19. Theory of a spherical emissive probe in a low-density isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, A.

    2010-01-01

    Emissive probes are widely being used by plasma experimentalists to determine plasma parameters. Here, a fairly general spherical-emissive-probe scenario based on trajectory integration of the Vlasov equation is formulated and specialized to the particular non-emissive situation considered by Bernstein and Rabinowitz (1959), which is monoenergetic isotropic ions and Boltzmann-distributed electrons originating from the plasma. Then, this formalism together with our newly developed analytic-numerical matching procedure is used for finding the potential profile in the entire plasma-probe transition (PPT) region, consisting of the 'inward' and 'outward' sheath solutions, and the quasineutral (plasma) solution. The analytically expanded outward sheath and plasma solutions, the quasineutral solution and the related matching procedure represent genuinely new results in the context of this particular non-emissive probe scenario, however with the underlying methodology also applicable to other probe scenarios in the future. For the emissive case we consider, in addition to the plasma ions and electrons of the Bernstein and Rabinowitz scenario, electrons emitted from the probe surface with zero tangential velocity and a 'waterbag' distribution with respect to the radial velocity. Using our newly developed numerical matching procedure, we calculate the entire potential profile also for this emissive case. Comparison of the potential profiles for the emissive and non-emissive cases shows visible differences, thus demonstrating the effect of electron emission from the probe. To our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt at systematically developing a kinetic approach for spherical emissive probes. (author)

  20. Small molecule probes for cellular death machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the truncation of the azimuthal mode spectrum of high-order probes in probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Laitinen, Tommi

    2011-01-01

    Azimuthal mode (m mode) truncation of a high-order probe pattern in probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements is studied in this paper. The results of this paper provide rules for appropriate and sufficient m-mode truncation for non-ideal first-order probes and odd-order probes wi...

  2. Spherical Pendulum Small Oscillations for Slewing Crane Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Perig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the Lagrange mechanics-based description of small oscillations of a spherical pendulum with a uniformly rotating suspension center. The analytical solution of the natural frequencies’ problem has been derived for the case of uniform rotation of a crane boom. The payload paths have been found in the inertial reference frame fixed on earth and in the noninertial reference frame, which is connected with the rotating crane boom. The numerical amplitude-frequency characteristics of the relative payload motion have been found. The mechanical interpretation of the terms in Lagrange equations has been outlined. The analytical expression and numerical estimation for cable tension force have been proposed. The numerical computational results, which correlate very accurately with the experimental observations, have been shown.

  3. Dealing with imperfection: quantifying potential length scale artefacts from nominally spherical indenter probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinides, G; Silva, E C C M; Blackman, G S; Vliet, K J Van

    2007-01-01

    Instrumented nanoindenters are commonly employed to extract elastic, plastic or time-dependent mechanical properties of the indented material surface. In several important cases, accurate determination of the indenter probe radii is essential for the proper analytical interpretation of the experimental response, and it cannot be circumvented by an experimentally determined expression for the contact area as a function of depth. Current approaches quantify the indenter probe radii via inference from a series of indents on a material with known elastic modulus (e.g., fused quartz) or through the fitting of two-dimensional projected images acquired via atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Here, we propose a more robust methodology, based on concepts of differential geometry, for the accurate determination of three-dimensional indenter probe geometry. The methodology is presented and demonstrated for four conospherical indenters with probe radii of the order of 1-10 μm. The deviation of extracted radii with manufacturer specifications is emphasized and the limits of spherical approximations are presented. All four probes deviate from the assumed spherical geometry, such that the effective radii are not independent of distance from the probe apex. Significant errors in interpretation of material behaviour will result if this deviation is unaccounted for during the analysis of indentation load-depth responses obtained from material surfaces of interest, including observation of an artificial length scale that could be misinterpreted as an effect attributable to material length scales less than tens of nanometres in size or extent

  4. Theory of a spherical electrostatic probe in a continuum plasma: Analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A simple physical model of the charge distribution surrounding a biased spherical probe in a quiescent plasma, suggested by the theory of Su and Lam, is used to rederive the probe current-voltage characteristic. The result is compared with that of a slightly different version due to Kiel and with the exact numerical results of Baum and Chapkis. It is shown that if the ratio of the probe radius to the Debye length of the plasma is greater than or of the order of unity, the model calculation is in excellent agreement with the exact results when the dimensionless probe voltage phi/sup asterisk//sub p/,=vertical-barephi/sub p//kTvertical-bar in standard notation, is greater than 10, for both thick and thin sheaths. The comparison also provides an assessment of the importance of various additional validity criteria encountered in analytical treatments of the problem

  5. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe: Small signal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We discuss the asymmetric double Langmuir probe (ADLP) and demonstrate the possibility of using it to measure plasma temperature T/sub e/ and density n when it is operated in the region of small signal response. The area of one of the ADLP collectors is considerably larger than the other. This probe can be operated at a relatively low applied voltage, eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1, and still provides sufficient information to determine the plasma T/sub e/ and n. There is no need for a direct measurement of the ion saturation current, which can be on the order of a few amperes in large fusion devices. This reduces the requirements on the probe power supply. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Minimum Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antenna - Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2009-01-01

    The stored energies, radiated power, and quality factor of a magnetic-dipole antenna, consisting of a spherical electrical surface current density enclosing a magnetic core, is obtained through direct spatial integration of the internally and externally radiated field expressed in terms...... of spherical vector waves. The obtained quality factor agrees with that of Wheeler and Thal for vanishing free-space electric radius but holds also for larger radii and facilitates the optimal choice of permeability in the presence of the resonances....

  7. Kinetic theory of a spherical probe in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    Constitutive equations for the charge carrier fluxes in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma surrounding a spherical electrode are derived, from the Boltzmann equation, by a moment method using a two-stream Maxwellian distribution of the type introduced by Lees. In contrast to previous treatments, the constraint of uniform temperature is imposed and its importance emphasized. This condition, together with particle conservation, is shown to necessitate the use of a four-parameter Lees distribution and leads to generalized hydrodynamic equations. These are shown to reduce to conventional flux equations in terms of diffusion and mobility components only when the fields are spatially slowly varying. In addition, boundary conditions are derived by the same formalism. They are formulated for typical physical processes which may be operative at a real probe surface. As an example, the effect of the nonlinearity on the pure diffusion problem is analyzed in detail in the Appendix. A semiquantitative discussion of the current-voltage characteristics for negative probe potentials is also presented. It is shown that the charge carrier distribution around the probe conforms to the ''free-fall'' model only at low probe voltages. Otherwise, the model proposed by Su and Lam holds. The domain covered by the present analysis is determined by the following conditions on the probe radius r/sub p/, mean free path l, and Debye length lambda: (i) l 3 very-much-less-thanlambda 2 r/sub p/, (ii) (e vertical-barphi/sub p/ vertical-barl/kTr/sub p/) 2 /l 2 for l>lambda, where phi/sub p/ is the probe voltage. Analytic approximations to the current-voltage characteristics in both these regimes are presented

  8. Identification of waves by RF magnetic probes during lower hybrid wave injection experiments on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya, Takahiro; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    RF magnetic probes can be used to measure not only the wavevector, but also the polarization of waves in plasmas. A 5-channel RF magnetic probe (5ch-RFMP) was installed in the TST-2 spherical tokamak and the waves were studied in detail during lower hybrid wave injection experiments. From the polarization measurements, the poloidal RF magnetic field is found to be dominant. In addition to polarization, components of k perpendicular to the major radial direction were obtained from phase differences among the five channels. The radial wavenumber was obtained by scanning the radial position of the 5ch-RFMP on a shot by shot basis. The measured wavevector and polarization in the plasma edge region were consistent with those calculated from the wave equation for the slow wave branch. While the waves with small and large k ∥ were excited by the antenna, only the small k ∥ component was measured by the 5ch-RFMP; this suggests that the waves with larger k ∥ were absorbed by the plasma. (author)

  9. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R., E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kristiansen, Helge [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway); Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V. [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5814 (United States); Redford, Keith [Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway)

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  10. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Komm, M.; Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Dudson, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E R measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak

  11. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Allan, S.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Komm, M.

    2015-02-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ˜1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  12. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkden, N. R., E-mail: nrw504@york.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Adamek, J.; Komm, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of AS CR, v. v. i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B. D. [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  13. A detailed analysis of adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, I; Zheng, Z W; Johnson, K L

    2004-01-01

    As length scales decrease, adhesive forces become increasingly important. These adhesive forces contribute to the normal load in experiments conducted on thin layered systems using micro-probe instruments such as the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Adhesion between these thin-layer systems was analysed by Sridhar et al (1997 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1710) for the SFA geometry and Johnson and Sridhar (2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 683) for AFM using a numerical SJF (Sridhar-Johnson-Fleck) version of the JKR (Johnson-Kendal-Roberts) theory. In this paper, adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe is investigated using the SJF model in detail. When the substrate is rigid, the non-dimensional pull-off force may differ from the JKR value of -0.5 by as much as 90%. Computations of the contact size at zero load and pull-off force are presented for a range of values of adhesion energy. Finally, empirical relations for the contact load and contact compliance as a function of contact radius were obtained from the numerical data for practical layer-substrate material systems

  14. Minimum Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antenna - Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Practical aspects of applying a magnetic core to approach the Chu lower bound for the radiation Q factor of an electrically small magnetic dipole antenna are considered. It is shown that although a magnetic core does reduce the Q factor, its effect is not as strong as predicted by Wheeler...

  15. Electrostatic noise measurement with a pair of spherical probes near interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, J.; Touzin, F.

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate measurements of electrostatic noise spectra on board the ISEE 1 satellite, near interplanetary shock waves, the authors perform a detailed theoretical and numerical study of an antenna consisting of a pair of spherical probes. They compute the quasi-thermal electrostatic noise observed theoretically on the antenna by assuming that the solar wind plasma can be properly represented by the sum of two Maxwellian distributions (core and halo). They study the dependence of the electrostatic spectra on the antenna length and on the different plasma parameters, particularly on the density and temperature ratio of the core and of the halo. They show that by also taking into account the instrumental noise and the shot noise on the antenna, a calibration factor can be precisely determined for the antenna that they consider. They display some results obtained from measurements of electrostatic noise spectra behind interplanetary shock waves. Finally, they discuss the real meaning of a specific halo temperature, and they show that, in a first approximation, the theoretical results are only slightly modified when they consider types of distributions other than Maxwellians

  16. Exploring the Hybridization Thermodynamics of Spherical Nucleic Acids to Tailor Probes for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeria, Pratik Shailesh

    Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), three-dimensional nanoparticle conjugates composed of densely packed and highly oriented oligonucleotides around organic or inorganic nanoparticles, are an emergent class of nanostructures that show promise as single-entity agents for intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and gene regulation. SNAs exhibit superior biocompatibility and biological properties compared to linear oligonucleotides, enabling them to overcome many of the limitations of linear oligonucleotides for use in biomedical applications. However, the origins of these biologically attractive properties are not well understood. In this dissertation, the chemistry underlying one such property is studied in detail, and the findings are applied towards the rational design of more effective SNAs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Chapter 1 introduces the synthesis of SNAs, the unique properties that make them superior to linear nucleic acids for biomedicine, and previously studied applications of these structures. Chapter 2 focuses on quantitatively studying the impact of the chemical structure of the SNA on its ability to hybridize multiple complementary nucleic acids. This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding the factors that govern SNA hybridization thermodynamics and how to tailor SNAs to increase their binding affinity to target mRNA strands. Chapters 3 and 4 capitalize on this knowledge to engineer probes for intracellular mRNA detection and gene regulation applications. Chapter 3 reports the development of an SNA-based probe that can simultaneously report the expression level of two different mRNA transcripts in live cells and differentiate diseased cells from non-diseased cells. Chapter 4 investigates the use of topically-applied SNAs to down-regulate a critical mediator of impaired wound healing in diabetic mice to accelerate wound closure. This study represents the first topical therapeutic application of SNA nanotechnology to treat open

  17. Gravitational sedimentation of cloud of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of study of gravitational sedimentation of highly-concentrated systems of solid spherical particles at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 are presented. Empirical equation for drag coefficient of the particle assembly has been obtained. The influence of initial particle concentration in the cloud on its dynamics and velocity has been analysed.

  18. Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments Mission Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently the Georgia Tech Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments (SPORE) team is collaborating with Aurora Flight Sciences to provide a launch, re-entry,...

  19. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  20. SNAP: Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Dillman, R. A.; Atkinson, D. H.; Li, J.; Saikia, S.; Simon, A. A.; Spilker, T. R.; Wong, M. H.; Hope, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a concept for a small, atmospheric probe that could be flexibly added to future missions that orbit or fly-by a giant planet as a secondary payload, which we call the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). SNAP's main scientific objectives are to determine the vertical distribution of clouds and cloud-forming chemical species, thermal stratification, and wind speed as a function of depth. As a case study, we present the advantages, cost and risk of adding SNAP to the future Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission; in combination with the mission's main probe, SNAP would perform atmospheric in-situ measurements at a second location, and thus enable and enhance the scientific objectives recommended by the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the 2014 NASA Science Plan to determine atmospheric spatial variabilities. We envision that the science objectives can be achieved with a 30-kg entry probe 0.5m in diameter (less than half the size of the Galileo probe) that reaches 5-bar pressure-altitude and returns data to Earth via the carrier spacecraft. As the baseline instruments, the probe will carry an Atmospheric Structure Instrument (ASI) that measures the temperature, pressure and acceleration, a carbon nanotube-based NanoChem atmospheric composition sensor, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) to conduct a Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE). We also catalog promising technologies currently under development that will strengthen small atmospheric entry probe missions in the future. While SNAP is applicable to multiple planets, we examine the feasibility, benefits and impacts of adding SNAP to the Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission. Our project is supported by NASA PSDS3 grant NNX17AK31G.

  1. Recent experiences with ultrasonic inservice inspection systems with phased array probes on spherical bottoms of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Brekow, G.; Erhard, A.; Hein, E.

    1988-01-01

    The special geometry of the spherical bottom of boiling water reactors with control rods and measuring nozzles requires a very special surveillance technique during the in-service inspection. Reside visual inspection an ultrasonic inspection has been established due to the requirements of German authorities. A first application of a new phased array system took place August 1987. The 100% inspection of a spherical bottom had been enabled by the application of phased array probes with electronically controlled skewing angles. The data acquisition had been based on the storage of whole A-scans, which had been pixellized into 256 points. This A-scan storage procedure makes possible the application of a simple and fast algorithm to present the data as TD-(time displacement)-scans. Defect reconstruction by echotomographique approaches are under development. This paper presents the ultrasonic technique applied including the phased array probes, the electronic system, as well as the software package used for the control of the inspection parameters depending on the probe position

  2. Flyby Characterization of Lower-Degree Spherical Harmonics Around Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Broschart, Stephen; Lantoine, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Interest in studying small bodies has grown significantly in the last two decades, and there are a number of past, present, and future missions. These small body missions challenge navigators with significantly different kinds of problems than the planets and moons do. The small bodies' shape is often irregular and their gravitational field significantly weak, which make the designing of a stable orbit a complex dynamical problem. In the initial phase of spacecraft rendezvous with a small body, the determination of the gravitational parameter and lower-degree spherical harmonics are of crucial importance for safe navigation purposes. This motivates studying how well one can determine the total mass and lower-degree spherical harmonics in a relatively short time in the initial phase of the spacecraft rendezvous via flybys. A quick turnaround for the gravity data is of high value since it will facilitate the subsequent mission design of the main scientific observation campaign. We will present how one can approach the problem to determine a desirable flyby geometry for a general small body. We will work in the non-dimensional formulation since it will generalize our results across different size/mass bodies and the rotation rate for a specific combination of gravitational coefficients.

  3. A 60 GHz Dual-Polarized Probe for Spherical Near-Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    to waveguide adapters up to 67 GHz for OMT-switch connection. A 27 dBi gain conical horn is designed by using WIPL-D software and in-house manufactured. The 60 GHz probe system is being assembled and tested in planar near-field (PNF) setup at DTU. The results are validated by comparison with WIPL-D simulations...

  4. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walkden, N.R.; Adámek, Jiří; Allan, S.; Dudson, B.D.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Komm, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2015), č. článku 023510. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * ball pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4908572

  5. Self Absorbed Fraction for Electrons and Beta Particles in Small Spherical Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Absorbed fraction and target organ mass are important parameters of internal dosimetry calculations that define the geometry of the system. Standard MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry) formalism assumes that the absorbed fraction for non-penetrating radiations (e.g., electrons, beta particles) is 1. This may not be correct in cases where dimensions of organs/tissues are comparable with the ranges of electrons/beta particles. Such is the case for example in radiodine ablation of thyroid remnant tissue. In this work the self-absorbed fraction (source and target volumes are the same) for monoenergetic electrons and beta particles is calculated for small spherical volumes of various sizes and unit density. Absorbed fraction can be expressed as an integral of the product of two quantities: (a) Scaled beta dose point kernel (mean absorbed dose rate per activity of the point source in infinite homogenous medium), F β ; (b) special geometrical reduction factor (GRF). F β is calculated using EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) code for transport of electrons and photons. MC source code calculates the deposition of energy inside concentric spherical shells around the isotropic point source of electrons/beta particles in infinite medium (water). Shell thickness was δr=0.02·X 90 , where X 90 represents the radius of the sphere inside which 90% of the source energy is absorbed. Number of concentric spherical shells was 100, 10000 electron histories were started in each program run, and 10 runs were repeated for statistical reason. Numerical integration of the product of F β , calculated by MC program, and GRF for sphere was done using Simpson method. Absorbed fractions were calculated for spheres with mass from 0.01-20 g (r = 0.13 - 1.68 cm). Results are given for monoenergetic electrons with kinetic energy T=0.2, 0.4, 1.0 MeV, and for three beta emitters 1 31I , 3 2P , 9 0Y . For quantitative dosimetric protocols in radioiodine ablation therapy, results for 1 31I are of

  6. Limitation of the Mellin transform for small angle scattering by nearly spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melone, S.; Puliti, P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the limit of validity of the Mellin transform when applied to small angle scattering curves produced by nearly spherical particles, i.e. by ellipsoids of semi-axes, a, a, va, was performed. The width of the assumed Gaussian distribution for the v values was used as a parameter. When this width tends to zero the inaccuracy of the Mellin transform vanishes as expected. However the inaccuracy becomes appreciable for large values of the width. In spite of this, the total volume fraction and the average radius of the scattering particles is also obtained by the Mellin transform with very high accuracy for large values of the width of the Gaussian distribution. (orig.)

  7. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  8. Superdirective Magnetic Dipole Array as a First-Order Probe for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The theory as well as numerical and experimental results are presented for a superdirective array composed of closely spaced electrically small resonant magnetic dipole elements. The array operates on a metal ground plane and can exhibit a maximum directivity of 11.5 dBi, 15.2 dBi, and 17.8 d......Bi (including 3 dB due to the ground plane), for 2, 3, and 4 magnetic dipoles, respectively. The array is self-resonant and is directly excited by a 50-ohm coaxial cable through the ground plane. The array radiates essentially the $\\vert\\mu\\vert=1$ spherical modes, which, despite a narrow bandwidth, makes...

  9. Non-foster impedance matching sensitivity of electrically small electric and magnetic spherical dipole antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Ick-Jae; Christensen, S.; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    The impedance bandwidth (BW) improvement property of a self-resonant folded spherical helix electric dipole and a spherical split ring (SSR) magnetic dipole is compared when a negative reactance element is loaded on the parasitic resonator of the antennas. They have the same electrical size of ka...

  10. Probing Small Lakes on Titan Using the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Poggiali, V.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitri, G.; Mitchell, K. L.; Janssen, M. A.; Casarano, D.; Notarnicola, C.; Le Gall, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The T126 Cassini's final flyby of Titan has offered a unique opportunity to observe an area in the Northern Polar terrain, where several small - medium size (10 - 50 km) hydrocarbon lakes are present and have been previously imaged by Cassini. The successful observation allowed the radar to operate at the closest approach over several small lakes, using its altimetry mode for the investigation of depth and liquid composition. Herein we present the result of a dedicate processing previously applied to altimetric data acquired over Ligeia Mare where the radar revealed the bathymetry and composition of the sea [1,2]. We show that, the optimal geometry condition met during the T126 fly-by allowed the radar to probe Titan's lakes revealing that such small liquid bodies can exceed one-hundred meters of depth. [1] M. Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014, Mar.). The bathymetry of a Titan Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. [Online]. 41 (5), pp. 1432-1437. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058618 [2] M.Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2016, Oct). Radar Sounding Using the Cassini Altimeter: Waveform Modeling and Monte Carlo Approach for Data Inversion of Observations of Titan's Seas, IEEE Transactions On Geoscience And Remote Sensing, Vol. 54, No. 10, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2563426.

  11. Spherical nanoindentation of proton irradiated 304 stainless steel: A comparison of small scale mechanical test techniques for measuring irradiation hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Pathak, Siddhartha; Reichardt, Ashley; Vo, Hi T.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Hosemann, Peter; Mara, Nathan A.

    2017-09-01

    Experimentally quantifying the mechanical effects of radiation damage in reactor materials is necessary for the development and qualification of new materials for improved performance and safety. This can be achieved in a high-throughput fashion through a combination of ion beam irradiation and small scale mechanical testing in contrast to the high cost and laborious nature of bulk testing of reactor irradiated samples. The current work focuses on using spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves on unirradiated and proton irradiated (10 dpa at 360 °C) 304 stainless steel to quantify the mechanical effects of radiation damage. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain measurements show a radiation-induced increase in indentation yield strength from 1.36 GPa to 2.72 GPa and a radiation-induced increase in indentation work hardening rate of 10 GPa-30 GPa. These measurements are critically compared against Berkovich nanohardness, micropillar compression, and micro-tension measurements on the same material and similar grain orientations. The ratio of irradiated to unirradiated yield strength increases by a similar factor of 2 when measured via spherical nanoindentation or Berkovich nanohardness testing. A comparison of spherical indentation stress-strain curves to uniaxial (micropillar and micro-tension) stress-strain curves was achieved using a simple scaling relationship which shows good agreement for the unirradiated condition and poor agreement in post-yield behavior for the irradiated condition. The disagreement between spherical nanoindentation and uniaxial stress-strain curves is likely due to the plastic instability that occurs during uniaxial tests but is absent during spherical nanoindentation tests.

  12. Design and performance verification of a wideband scalable dual-polarized probe for spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2012-01-01

    A wideband scalable dual-polarized probe designed by the Electromagnetic Systems group at the Technical University of Denmark is presented. The design was scaled and two probes were manufactured for the frequency bands 1-3 GHz and 0.4-1.2 GHz. The results of the acceptance tests of the 0.4-1.2 GHz...... probe are briefly discussed. Since these probes represent so-called higher-order antennas, applicability of the recently developed higher-order probe correction technique [3] for these probes was investigated. Extensive tests were carried out for two representative antennas under test using...

  13. A high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet incorporating a single octupole lens for a low spherical aberration probe forming lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.

  14. Observation of a High Performance Operating Regime with Small Edge-Localized Modes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Tritz, K.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Menard, J.E.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Gates, D.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mueller, D.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report observation of a high performance scenario in the National Spherical Torus Experiment with very small edge-localized modes (ELMs). These ELMs have no measurable impact on stored energy and are consistent with high bootstrap current operation with line average density approaching Greenwald scaling. The ELM perturbation is observed to typically originate near the lower divertor region, as opposed to the outer midplane for ELMs described in the literature. If extrapolable, this scenario would provide an attractive operating regime for next step fusion experiments

  15. Spherical collapse of small masses in the ghost-free gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei; Netto, Tibério de Paula

    2015-01-01

    We discuss some properties of recently proposed models of a ghost-free gravity. For this purpose we study solutions of linearized gravitational equations in the framework of such a theory. We mainly focus on the version of the ghost-free theory with the exponential modification exp (◻/μ 2 )◻ −1 of the free propagator. The following three problems are discussed: (i) gravitational field of a point mass; (ii) Penrose limit of a point source boosted to the speed of light; and (iii) spherical gravitational collapse of null fluid. For the first problem we demonstrate that it can be solved by using the method of heat kernels and obtain a solution in a spacetime with arbitrary number of dimensions. For the second problem we also find the corresponding gyraton-type solutions of the ghost-free gravitational equations for any number of dimensions. For the third problem we obtain solutions for the gravitational field for the collapse of both “thin" and “thick" spherical null shells. We demonstrate how the ghost-free modification of the gravitational equations regularize the solutions of the linearized Einstein equations and smooth out their singularities.

  16. Spherical collapse of small masses in the ghost-free gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Netto, Tibério de Paula [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Departamento de Fisica - ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora,Campus da UFJF, CEP: 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2015-06-17

    We discuss some properties of recently proposed models of a ghost-free gravity. For this purpose we study solutions of linearized gravitational equations in the framework of such a theory. We mainly focus on the version of the ghost-free theory with the exponential modification exp (◻/μ{sup 2})◻{sup −1} of the free propagator. The following three problems are discussed: (i) gravitational field of a point mass; (ii) Penrose limit of a point source boosted to the speed of light; and (iii) spherical gravitational collapse of null fluid. For the first problem we demonstrate that it can be solved by using the method of heat kernels and obtain a solution in a spacetime with arbitrary number of dimensions. For the second problem we also find the corresponding gyraton-type solutions of the ghost-free gravitational equations for any number of dimensions. For the third problem we obtain solutions for the gravitational field for the collapse of both “thin' and “thick' spherical null shells. We demonstrate how the ghost-free modification of the gravitational equations regularize the solutions of the linearized Einstein equations and smooth out their singularities.

  17. Experimental and modeling studies of small molecule chemistry in expanding spherical flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santner, Jeffrey

    Accurate models of flame chemistry are required in order to predict emissions and flame properties, such that clean, efficient engines can be designed more easily. There are three primary methods used to improve such combustion chemistry models - theoretical reaction rate calculations, elementary reaction rate experiments, and combustion system experiments. This work contributes to model improvement through the third method - measurements and analysis of the laminar burning velocity at constraining conditions. Modern combustion systems operate at high pressure with strong exhaust gas dilution in order to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Additionally, flames under these conditions are sensitized to elementary reaction rates such that measurements constrain modeling efforts. Measurement conditions of the present work operate within this intersection between applications and fundamental science. Experiments utilize a new pressure-release, heated spherical combustion chamber with a variety of fuels (high hydrogen content fuels, formaldehyde (via 1,3,5-trioxane), and C2 fuels) at pressures from 0.5--25 atm, often with dilution by water vapor or carbon dioxide to flame temperatures below 2000 K. The constraining ability of these measurements depends on their uncertainty. Thus, the present work includes a novel analytical estimate of the effects of thermal radiative heat loss on burning velocity measurements in spherical flames. For 1,3,5-trioxane experiments, global measurements are sufficiently sensitive to elementary reaction rates that optimization techniques are employed to indirectly measure the reaction rates of HCO consumption. Besides the influence of flame chemistry on propagation, this work also explores the chemistry involved in production of nitric oxide, a harmful pollutant, within flames. We find significant differences among available chemistry models, both in mechanistic structure and quantitative reaction rates. There is a lack of well

  18. Single-axis four-mirror system: large spherical primary and small fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranne, Andre

    1998-08-01

    A catoptric corrector of modest size can be used for large spherical primaries, easily integrated at the prime focus, this corrector gives back to the system, aspect and properties of 2-mirrors classical telescopes. In the last few years, progress in active and adaptative optics makes possible a lot of things, progress in measuring distances, new ideas on optical coatings, new materials and so on in a near future, all that makes the instrumentalist dreamy It is said that nobody knows today if the size of 3rd millennium telescopes will be limited or not by a theoretical, physical or technical phenomenon, thus let us imagine but with thoughtfulness because our projects will be surely restricted by financial considerations

  19. Measurements probing small-x physics using the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Myagkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The high-energy pp collisions at the LHC provide unique opportunity to study particle flow and event shapes of the hadronic final state particles. Evolution of the event shape variables, such as the transverse thrust, thrust minor and transverse sphericity have been studied for minimum bias events. Particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event have been measured using calorimeter jet events. Separate inclusive jet and exclusive dijet event selections are included in this study for various observables. The production of jets in association with a vector boson is an important process to study the contribution of multi-particle interactions and for understanding the effect of QCD radiation on forward and central jet activity. ATLAS results on events with vector boson plus jets are compared with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable and excellent choice for fluorescence sensing. One of the key factors influencing the FA value for any molecule is the molar mass of the molecule being measured. As a result, the FA method with functional nucleic acid aptamers has been limited to macromolecules such as proteins and is generally not applicable for the analysis of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. We report here a molecular mass amplifying strategy to construct anisotropy aptamer probes for small molecules. The probe is designed in such a way that only when a target molecule binds to the probe does it activate its binding ability to an anisotropy amplifier (a high molecular mass molecule such as protein), thus significantly increasing the molecular mass and FA value of the probe/target complex. Specifically, a mass amplifying probe (MAP) consists of a targeting aptamer domain against a target molecule and molecular mass amplifying aptamer domain for the amplifier protein. The probe is initially rendered inactive by a small blocking strand partially complementary to both target aptamer and amplifier protein aptamer so that the mass amplifying aptamer domain would not bind to the amplifier protein unless the probe has been activated by the target. In this way, we prepared two probes that constitute a target (ATP and cocaine respectively) aptamer, a thrombin (as the mass amplifier) aptamer, and a fluorophore. Both probes worked well against their corresponding small molecule targets, and the detection limits for ATP and cocaine were 0.5 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively. More importantly, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, ATP in cell media and cocaine in urine were directly detected without any tedious sample pretreatment. Our results established that our molecular mass amplifying strategy can be used to design aptamer probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective

  1. Small-x QCD physics probed with jets in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00226059

    2014-01-01

    The latest CMS jet measurements in p-p collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, sensitive to small-x QCD physics, are discussed. These include inclusive forward jet and simultaneous forward-central jet production, as well as production ratios and azimuthal angle decorrelations of jets widely separeted in rapidity.

  2. ASDB: a resource for probing protein functions with small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Peng; Yan, Xin; Zheng, Minghao; Zhou, Huihao; Xu, Yuehua; Du, Yunfei; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    : Identifying chemical probes or seeking scaffolds for a specific biological target is important for protein function studies. Therefore, we create the Annotated Scaffold Database (ASDB), a computer-readable and systematic target-annotated scaffold database, to serve such needs. The scaffolds in ASDB were derived from public databases including ChEMBL, DrugBank and TCMSP, with a scaffold-based classification approach. Each scaffold was assigned with an InChIKey as its unique identifier, energy-minimized 3D conformations, and other calculated properties. A scaffold is also associated with drugs, natural products, drug targets and medical indications. The database can be retrieved through text or structure query tools. ASDB collects 333 601 scaffolds, which are associated with 4368 targets. The scaffolds consist of 3032 scaffolds derived from drugs and 5163 scaffolds derived from natural products. For given scaffolds, scaffold-target networks can be generated from the database to demonstrate the relations of scaffolds and targets. ASDB is freely available at http://www.rcdd.org.cn/asdb/with the major web browsers. junxu@biochemomes.com or xujun9@mail.sysu.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Probing the oxidation kinetics of small permalloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiaolei; Song, Xiao; Yin, Shiliu; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of permalloys is important to apply in a wide range. The oxidation and diffusion mechanisms of small permalloy particles with different Fe content are studied by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and microstructure characterizations. Fe 2 O 3 /(Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 plays a key role in the morphology evolution and diffusion mechanisms of small NiFe particles upon oxidation. The activation energies of grain boundary diffusion for the NiFe alloys increase from 141 kJ/mol to 208 kJ/mol as the Fe content increases from 0 to ~50 wt%. We have developed a diffusion process resolved temperature programed oxidation (PR-TPO) analysis method. Three diffusion mechanisms have been recognized by using this method: In addition to the grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion, our TGA analysis suggests that the phase conversion from Fe 2 O 3 to (Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 induces diffusion change and affects the diffusion process at the intermediate temperature. Relevant oxidation kinetics and diffusion mechanisms are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The oxidation mechanisms of small Permalloy particles with different Fe content is studied by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and microstructure characterizations. The activation energies of grain boundary diffusion for the NiFe alloys increases from 140 kJ/mol to 208 kJ/mol as the Fe content increases from 0 to 50 wt% as determined by TGA. We have developed a diffusion process resolved temperature programed oxidation (DPR-TPO) analysis method, and three diffusion mechanisms have been recognized by using this method: In addition to the well-known grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion, we found that the phase conversion from Fe 2 O 3 to (Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 will induce diffusion changes and affect the diffusion process at the intermediate temperature. The diffusion processes can be characterized by the corresponding characteristic peak temperatures in temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) analysis. This work not only

  4. Reflection-mode micro-spherical fiber-optic probes for in vitro real-time and single-cell level pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-02-01

    pH sensing at the single-cell level without negatively affecting living cells is very important but still a remaining issue in the biomedical studies. A 70 μm reflection-mode fiber-optic micro-pH sensor was designed and fabricated by dip-coating thin layer of organically modified aerogel onto a tapered spherical probe head. A pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was employed and covalently bonded within the aerogel networks. By tuning the alkoxide mixing ratio and adjusting hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) priming procedure, the sensor can be optimized to have high stability and pH sensing ability. The in vitro real-time sensing capability was then demonstrated in a simple spectroscopic way, and showed linear measurement responses with a pH resolution up to an average of 0.049 pH unit within a narrow, but biological meaningful pH range of 6.12-7.81. Its novel characterizations of high spatial resolution, reflection mode operation, fast response and high stability, great linear response within biological meaningful pH range and high pH resolutions, make this novel pH probe a very cost-effective tool for chemical/biological sensing, especially within the single cell level research field.

  5. The use of small diameter probing equipment for contaminated site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, T.M.; Spradlin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of contaminated sites being investigated in the United States. This increase in subsurface investigation has spurred a corresponding increase in the development of subsurface sampling tools and methods. The past five years, in particular, have seen the development of small diameter (1 double-prime to 1.4 double-prime O.D.) percussion driven probing tools which can be used for the recovery of soil vapor, soil core and groundwater samples. This development has placed heretofore unavailable tools at the disposal of site investigators. Mechanized, vehicle mounted soil probe systems apply both static force and hydraulically powered percussion hammers for tool placement. Static down forces up to 3,000 lbs combined with percussion hammers of eight (8) horsepower continuous output are typical on equipment available to the field investigator. Using these energies, probing tools have been used for sampling a variety of media at depths exceeding 70 feet. Advantages of probing equipment which have contributed to its increasing usage in recent years include: ease of mobilization, absence of borehole cuttings, minimization of surface disturbance, and speed of sample collection. This paper focuses on the field application of hydraulic probing equipment including: the suitability of probing operations with respect to various Boil types and lithologies to probing operations; sampler types and recovery quantities for various media, and innovative probing applications presently being tested

  6. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the impact of non-sphericity and small-scale surface roughness on the optical properties of hematite aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Nousiainen, Timo; Mauno, Paeivi

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comparative modelling study to investigate how different morphological features influence the optical properties of hematite aerosols. We consider high-order Chebyshev particles as a proxy for aerosol with a small-scale surface roughness, and spheroids as a model for nonspherical aerosols with a smooth boundary surface. The modelling results are compared to those obtained for homogeneous spherical particles. It is found that for hematite particles with an absorption efficiency of order unity the difference in optical properties between spheres and spheroids disappears. For optically softer particles, such as ice particles at far-infrared wavelengths, this effect can be observed for absorption efficiencies lower than unity. The convergence of the optical properties of spheres and spheroids is caused by absorption and quenching of internal resonances inside the particles, which depend both on the imaginary part of the refractive index and on the size parameter, and to some extent on the real part of the refractive index. By contrast, small-scale surface roughness becomes the dominant morphological feature for large particles. This effect is likely to depend on the amplitude of the surface roughness, the relative significance of internal resonances, and possibly on the real part of the refractive index. The extinction cross section is rather insensitive to surface roughness, while the single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and the Mueller matrix are strongly influenced. Small-scale surface roughness reduces the backscattering cross section by up to a factor of 2-3 as compared to size-equivalent particles with a smooth boundary surface. This can have important implications for the interpretation of lidar backscattering observations.

  8. Edge transport studies in the edge and scrape-off layer of the National Spherical Torus Experiment with Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A., E-mail: jboedo@ucsd.edu; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corp, 2400 Central Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Zweben, S.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Bell, R.; Kugel, H.; Leblanc, B.; Roquemore, L. A. [Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ahn, J. W.; Canik, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Crocker, N. [University of California Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Transport and turbulence profiles were directly evaluated using probes for the first time in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] in low (L) and high (H) confinement, low power (P{sub in}∼ 1.3 MW), beam-heated, lower single-null discharges. Radial turbulent particle fluxes peak near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) at ≈4×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in L-mode and are suppressed to ≈0.2×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in H mode (80%–90% lower) mostly due to a reduction in density fluctuation amplitude and of the phase between density and radial velocity fluctuations. The radial particle fluxes are consistent with particle inventory based on SOLPS fluid modeling. A strong intermittent component is identified. Hot, dense plasma filaments 4–10 cm in diameter, appear first ∼2 cm inside the LCFS at a rate of ∼1×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} and leave that region with radial speeds of ∼3–5 km/s, decaying as they travel through the SOL, while voids travel inward toward the core. Profiles of normalized fluctuations feature levels of 10% inside LCFS to ∼150% at the LCFS and SOL. Once properly normalized, the intermittency in NSTX falls in similar electrostatic instability regimes as seen in other devices. The L-H transition causes a drop in the intermittent filaments velocity, amplitude and number in the SOL, resulting in reduced outward transport away from the edge and a less dense SOL.

  9. Sensitivity study of micro four-point probe measurements on small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2010-01-01

    probes than near the outer ones. The sensitive area is defined for infinite film, circular, square, and rectangular test pads, and convergent sensitivities are observed for small samples. The simulations show that the Hall sheet resistance RH in micro Hall measurements with position error suppression...

  10. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  11. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...... investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small...... anechoic chambers. The performance deterioration in a small anechoic chamber, i.e., with a ring radius of 0.5 m, is demonstrated via simulations....

  12. Endocytic trafficking from the small intestinal brush border probed with FM dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    -linking galectins/intelectin, but little is known about the dynamic properties of this highly specialized membrane. Here, we probed the endocytic membrane trafficking from the brush border of organ cultured pig intestinal mucosal explants by use of a fixable, lipophilic FM dye. The fluorescent dye readily......, contributes to the overall permeability barrier of the gut. Key words: FM dye, small intestine, brush border, endocytosis....

  13. Spherical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  14. Development and clinical applications of a small peptide as a radiolabeled in vivo diagnostic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reubi, J.C.; Lamberts, S.W.; Krenning, E.

    1995-01-01

    Several dozens of small peptides, widely distributed in the human body, highly potent and important regulators of biological processes in numerous tissues, have been identified in the past several years. One of those, somatostatin, the first of such peptides used in the nuclear medicine field, has been developed as an in vivo labeled diagnostic probe for a variety of pathologies. Basic knowledge on somatostatin, somatostatin receptors and somatostatin target tissues as well as on the clinical implications of this diagnostic tool are briefly reviewed. (authors). 9 refs., 3 figs

  15. Direct comparison of Fe-Cr unmixing characterization by atom probe tomography and small angle scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.couturier55@hotmail.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Department of Materials Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); De Geuser, Frédéric; Deschamps, Alexis [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-11-15

    The fine microstructure obtained by unmixing of a solid solution either by classical precipitation or spinodal decomposition is often characterized either by small angle scattering or atom probe tomography. This article shows that a common data analysis framework can be used to analyze data obtained from these two techniques. An example of the application of this common analysis is given for characterization of the unmixing of the Fe-Cr matrix of a 15-5 PH stainless steel during long-term ageing at 350 °C and 400 °C. A direct comparison of the Cr composition fluctuations amplitudes and characteristic lengths obtained with both techniques is made showing a quantitative agreement for the fluctuation amplitudes. The origin of the discrepancy remaining for the characteristic lengths is discussed. - Highlights: •Common analysis framework for atom probe tomography and small angle scattering •Comparison of same microstructural characteristics obtained using both techniques •Good correlation of Cr composition fluctuations amplitudes from both techniques •Good correlation of Cr composition fluctuations amplitudes with classic V parameter.

  16. Probing the Small-scale Structure in Strongly Lensed Systems via Transdimensional Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daylan, Tansu; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Diaz Rivero, Ana; Dvorkin, Cora; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2018-02-01

    Strong lensing is a sensitive probe of the small-scale density fluctuations in the Universe. We implement a pipeline to model strongly lensed systems using probabilistic cataloging, which is a transdimensional, hierarchical, and Bayesian framework to sample from a metamodel (union of models with different dimensionality) consistent with observed photon count maps. Probabilistic cataloging allows one to robustly characterize modeling covariances within and across lens models with different numbers of subhalos. Unlike traditional cataloging of subhalos, it does not require model subhalos to improve the goodness of fit above the detection threshold. Instead, it allows the exploitation of all information contained in the photon count maps—for instance, when constraining the subhalo mass function. We further show that, by not including these small subhalos in the lens model, fixed-dimensional inference methods can significantly mismodel the data. Using a simulated Hubble Space Telescope data set, we show that the subhalo mass function can be probed even when many subhalos in the sample catalogs are individually below the detection threshold and would be absent in a traditional catalog. The implemented software, Probabilistic Cataloger (PCAT) is made publicly available at https://github.com/tdaylan/pcat.

  17. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  18. Spherical CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Geiger, Mario; Koehler, Jonas; Welling, Max

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined t...

  19. Assessing subunit dependency of the Plasmodium proteasome using small molecule inhibitors and active site probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; van der Linden, Wouter A; Verdoes, Martijn; Florea, Bogdan I; McAllister, Fiona E; Govindaswamy, Kavitha; Elias, Joshua E; Bhanot, Purnima; Overkleeft, Herman S; Bogyo, Matthew

    2014-08-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention for pathogens such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. However, due to the essential nature of this proteolytic pathway, proteasome inhibitors must avoid inhibition of the host enzyme complex to prevent toxic side effects. The Plasmodium proteasome is poorly characterized, making rational design of inhibitors that induce selective parasite killing difficult. In this study, we developed a chemical probe that labels all catalytic sites of the Plasmodium proteasome. Using this probe, we identified several subunit selective small molecule inhibitors of the parasite enzyme complex. Treatment with an inhibitor that is specific for the β5 subunit during blood stage schizogony led to a dramatic decrease in parasite replication while short-term inhibition of the β2 subunit did not affect viability. Interestingly, coinhibition of both the β2 and β5 catalytic subunits resulted in enhanced parasite killing at all stages of the blood stage life cycle and reduced parasite levels in vivo to barely detectable levels. Parasite killing was achieved with overall low host toxicity, something that has not been possible with existing proteasome inhibitors. Our results highlight differences in the subunit dependency of the parasite and human proteasome, thus providing a strategy for development of potent antimalarial drugs with overall low host toxicity.

  20. Pump-probe study of atoms and small molecules with laser driven high order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei

    A commercially available modern laser can emit over 1015 photons within a time window of a few tens of femtoseconds (10-15second), which can be focused into a spot size of about 10 mum, resulting in a peak intensity above 1014W/cm2. This paves the way for table-top strong field physics studies such as above threshold ionization (ATI), non-sequential double ionization (NSDI), high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.. Among these strong laser-matter interactions, high order harmonic generation, which combines many photons of the fundamental laser field into a single photon, offers a unique way to generate light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. High order harmonic photons are emitted within a short time window from a few tens of femtoseconds down to a few hundreds of attoseconds (10 -18second). This highly coherent nature of HHG allows it to be synchronized with an infrared (IR) laser pulse, and the pump-probe technique can be adopted to study ultrafast dynamic processes in a quantum system. The major work of this thesis is to develop a table-top VUV(EUV) light source based on HHG, and use it to study dynamic processes in atoms and small molecules with the VUV(EUV)-pump IR-probe method. A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus is used for momentum imaging of the interaction products. Two types of high harmonic pump pulses are generated and applied for pump-probe studies. The first one consists of several harmonics forming a short attosecond pulse train (APT) in the EUV regime (around 40 eV). We demonstrate that, (1) the auto-ionization process triggered by the EUV in cation carbon-monoxide and oxygen molecules can be modified by scanning the EUV-IR delay, (2) the phase information of quantum trajectories in bifurcated high harmonics can be extracted by performing an EUV-IR cross-correlation experiment, thus disclosing the macroscopic quantum control in HHG. The second type of high harmonic source

  1. Designing an array for performing Near-field Acoustic Holography with a small number of p-u probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Comesaña, Daniel; Wen, Junjie; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    , such approaches usually require that a large number of transducers is spatially distributed over the area of interest. This paper describes some practical considerations for the design and optimization of a compact sensor array for performing NAH with a small number of sound intensity p-u probes. Two sensor...

  2. Comparison of the FFT/matrix inversion and system matrix techniques for higher-order probe correction in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    correction of general high-order probes, including non-symmetric dual-polarized antennas with independent ports. The investigation was carried out by processing with each technique the same measurement data for a challenging case with an antenna under test significantly offset from the center of rotation...

  3. On the sensitivity of probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with high-order probes using double phi-step theta-scanning scheme against various measurement uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the relatively recently introduced double phi-step theta-scanning scheme and the probe correction technique associated with it is examined against the traditional phi-scanning scheme and the first-order probe correction. The important result of this paper is that the double phi......-step theta-scanning scheme is shown to be clearly less sensitive to the probe misalignment errors compared to the phi-scanning scheme. The two methods show similar sensitivity to noise and channel balance error....

  4. Innovative Design of a Laparoscopic Probe for Non-Invasive Intraoperative Detection of Small Endoluminal Digestive Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the design methodology, the prototype development and the ex-vivo testing of a sensing laparoscopic probe that could be used by surgeons and by surgeon’s assistive robotic systems for detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours. The proposed design framework guides the decision-makers towards a superior balance between quality, efficiency and surgical procedure issues in medical instruments development. A prototype of the sensitive laparoscopic probe for non-invasive intraoperative detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours was developed. The prototype was tested in ex-vivo experimental conditions – open and laparoscopic surgery. The results reveals that the developed prototype is easy to use, adequate and efficient in precise detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours in-between 60÷85% of cases.

  5. In Silico Mechanistic Profiling to Probe Small Molecule Binding to Sulfotransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Virginie Y.; Carbonell, Pablo; Lagorce, David; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Moroy, Gautier; Miteva, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Drug metabolizing enzymes play a key role in the metabolism, elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous molecules. While their principal role is to detoxify organisms by modifying compounds, such as pollutants or drugs, for a rapid excretion, in some cases they render their substrates more toxic thereby inducing severe side effects and adverse drug reactions, or their inhibition can lead to drug–drug interactions. We focus on sulfotransferases (SULTs), a family of phase II metabolizing enzymes, acting on a large number of drugs and hormones and showing important structural flexibility. Here we report a novel in silico structure-based approach to probe ligand binding to SULTs. We explored the flexibility of SULTs by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to identify the most suitable multiple receptor conformations for ligand binding prediction. Then, we employed structure-based docking-scoring approach to predict ligand binding and finally we combined the predicted interaction energies by using a QSAR methodology. The results showed that our protocol successfully prioritizes potent binders for the studied here SULT1 isoforms, and give new insights on specific molecular mechanisms for diverse ligands’ binding related to their binding sites plasticity. Our best QSAR models, introducing predicted protein-ligand interaction energy by using docking, showed accuracy of 67.28%, 78.00% and 75.46%, for the isoforms SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1E1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge our protocol is the first in silico structure-based approach consisting of a protein-ligand interaction analysis at atomic level that considers both ligand and enzyme flexibility, along with a QSAR approach, to identify small molecules that can interact with II phase dug metabolizing enzymes. PMID:24039991

  6. In silico mechanistic profiling to probe small molecule binding to sulfotransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Y Martiny

    Full Text Available Drug metabolizing enzymes play a key role in the metabolism, elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous molecules. While their principal role is to detoxify organisms by modifying compounds, such as pollutants or drugs, for a rapid excretion, in some cases they render their substrates more toxic thereby inducing severe side effects and adverse drug reactions, or their inhibition can lead to drug-drug interactions. We focus on sulfotransferases (SULTs, a family of phase II metabolizing enzymes, acting on a large number of drugs and hormones and showing important structural flexibility. Here we report a novel in silico structure-based approach to probe ligand binding to SULTs. We explored the flexibility of SULTs by molecular dynamics (MD simulations in order to identify the most suitable multiple receptor conformations for ligand binding prediction. Then, we employed structure-based docking-scoring approach to predict ligand binding and finally we combined the predicted interaction energies by using a QSAR methodology. The results showed that our protocol successfully prioritizes potent binders for the studied here SULT1 isoforms, and give new insights on specific molecular mechanisms for diverse ligands' binding related to their binding sites plasticity. Our best QSAR models, introducing predicted protein-ligand interaction energy by using docking, showed accuracy of 67.28%, 78.00% and 75.46%, for the isoforms SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1E1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge our protocol is the first in silico structure-based approach consisting of a protein-ligand interaction analysis at atomic level that considers both ligand and enzyme flexibility, along with a QSAR approach, to identify small molecules that can interact with II phase dug metabolizing enzymes.

  7. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Technique for Copy Number Analysis on Small Amounts of DNA Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina; Andersen, Paal; Larsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique is a sensitive technique for relative quantification of up to 50 different nucleic acid sequences in a single reaction, and the technique is routinely used for copy number analysis in various syndromes and diseases. The aim...... of the study was to exploit the potential of MLPA when the DNA material is limited. The DNA concentration required in standard MLPA analysis is not attainable from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) often used in neonatal screening programs. A novel design of MLPA probes has been developed to permit for MLPA...... analysis on small amounts of DNA. Six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were used in this study. DNA was extracted from both whole blood and DBSS and subjected to MLPA analysis using normal and modified probes. Results were analyzed using GeneMarker and manual Excel analysis. A total...

  8. A small molecular pH-dependent fluorescent probe for cancer cell imaging in living cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junbao; Li, Wenqi; Li, Juanjuan; Shi, Rongguang; Yin, Gui; Wang, Ruiyong

    2018-05-15

    A novel pH-dependent two-photon fluorescent molecular probe ABMP has been prepared based on the fluorophore of 2, 4, 6-trisubstituted pyridine. The probe has an absorption wavelength at 354 nm and corresponding emission wavelength at 475 nm with the working pH range from 2.20 to 7.00, especially owning a good liner response from pH = 2.40 to pH = 4.00. ABMP also has excellent reversibility, photostability and selectivity which promotes its ability in analytical application. The probe can be excited with a two-photon fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescence cell imaging indicated that the probe can distinguish Hela cancer cells out of normal cells with a two-photon fluorescence microscopy which suggested its potential application in tumor cell detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reaction-based small-molecule fluorescent probes for dynamic detection of ROS and transient redox changes in living cells and small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic detection of transient redox changes in living cells and animals has broad implications for human health and disease diagnosis, because intracellular redox homeostasis regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays important role in cell functions, normal physiological functions and some serious human diseases (e.g., cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, etc.) usually have close relationship with the intracellular redox status. Small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes can act as powerful tools for dynamic detection of ROS and redox changes in living cells and animals through fluorescence imaging techniques; and great advances have been achieved recently in the design and synthesis of small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes. This article highlights up-to-date achievements in designing and using the reaction-based small-molecule fluorescent probes (with high sensitivity and selectivity to ROS and redox cycles) in the dynamic detection of ROS and transient redox changes in living cells and animals through fluorescence imaging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  11. SIC, an intracerebral radiosensitive probe for in vivo neuropharmacology investigations in small laboratory animals: theoretical considerations and practical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, F.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Charon, Y.; Comar, D.; Leviel, V.; Pujol, J. F.; Valentin, L.

    2000-02-01

    Although high-resolution tomographs provide a new approach that strongly simplifies the measurement of in vivo tracer biodistribution and kinetics in small animals, they suffer from an important drawback: the need for animal anesthesia or immobilization, which restricts the neurophysiological investigations. Furthermore, quantitative in vivo experiments realized on the brain sometimes only require a simple measurement of the radioactivity achieved on a few local points and do not necessarily imply the use of a tomograph, which is a detector of high cost. These constraints led the authors to develop an interacerebral /spl beta/ sensitive probe, sonde intracerebrate (SIC) (French acronym of intracerebral probe) that will allow chronic measurements of the neurophysiological activity in awake and unrestrained small animals. The volume to which the probe is sensitive and the noise contributions to the relevant signal have been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. Characterizations of a first prototype based on a small piece of scintillating fiber (500-/spl mu/m diameter and 1-mm length) fused to a same diameter optical fiber coupled in turn to a photomultiplier are also presented. A first configuration of the detector is finally proposed.

  12. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  13. Development and characterization of a small electromembrane extraction probe coupled with mass spectrometry for real-time and online monitoring of in vitro drug metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugstad, Helene Bonkerud; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Jensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A small and very simple electromembrane extraction probe (EME-probe) was developed and coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and this system was used to monitor in real time in vitro metabolism by rat liver microsomes of drug substances from a small reaction...... (soft extraction). Soft extraction was mandatory in order not to affect the reaction kinetics by sample composition changes induced by the EME-probe. The EME-probe/MS-system was used to establish kinetic profiles for the in vitro metabolism of promethazine, amitriptyline and imipramine as model...

  14. Design and construction of small magnetic probes for a toroidal plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of probes were built with consideration given to the problems of heating, caused by bombardment by the hot plasma, interaction of the probe on the plasma, stray pick up by inaccurate alignment and accidental damage to the delicate coils. These problems were resolved by the following design criteria: 1. Heat resistant materials and thermocouple attached. 2. Dimensions kept to a minimum size. 3. Double layer coils wound back on themselfes and lead tightly twisted together. 4. Coils accurately aligned. 5. Protective covering over coils. (author)

  15. Iodination as a probe for small regions of disrupted secondary structure in double-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Nes, Ingolf F.; Wells, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    Conditions were established where the thallium-catalyzed iodination of random coil DNA proceeded 100–200 times faster than for native DNA. This reaction was explored as a probe for localized regions of disrupted base pairs in duplex DNA. A heteroduplex was constructed between DNA fragments produced...

  16. Dynamic characterization of small fibers based on the flexural vibrations of a piezoelectric cantilever probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Ye, Xuan; Li, Xide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cantilever-probe system excited by a piezoelectric actuator, and use it to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of a micro- and nanoscale fiber. Coupling the fiber to the free end of the cantilever probe, we found the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient of the fiber from the resonance frequency and the quality factor of the fiber-cantilever-probe system. The properties of Bacillus subtilis fibers measured using our proposed system agreed with tensile measurements, validating our method. Our measurements show that the piezoelectric actuator coupled to cantilever probe can be made equivalent to a clamped cantilever with an effective length, and calculated results show that the errors of measured natural frequency of the system can be ignored if the coupled fiber has an inclination angle of alignment of less than 10°. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the first or second resonant mode is the sensitive mode to test the sample’s dynamic stiffness, while the damping property has different sensitivities for the first four modes. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that the double-cantilever probe is also an effective sensitive structure that can be used to perform dynamic loading and characterize dynamic response. Our method has the advantage of using amplitude-frequency curves to obtain the dynamic mechanical properties without directly measuring displacements and forces as in tensile tests, and it also avoids the effects of the complex surface structure and deformation presenting in contact resonance method. Our method is effective for measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of fiber-like one-dimensional (1D) materials. (paper)

  17. Dynamic characterization of small fibers based on the flexural vibrations of a piezoelectric cantilever probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Ye, Xuan; Li, Xide

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a cantilever-probe system excited by a piezoelectric actuator, and use it to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of a micro- and nanoscale fiber. Coupling the fiber to the free end of the cantilever probe, we found the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient of the fiber from the resonance frequency and the quality factor of the fiber-cantilever-probe system. The properties of Bacillus subtilis fibers measured using our proposed system agreed with tensile measurements, validating our method. Our measurements show that the piezoelectric actuator coupled to cantilever probe can be made equivalent to a clamped cantilever with an effective length, and calculated results show that the errors of measured natural frequency of the system can be ignored if the coupled fiber has an inclination angle of alignment of less than 10°. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the first or second resonant mode is the sensitive mode to test the sample’s dynamic stiffness, while the damping property has different sensitivities for the first four modes. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that the double-cantilever probe is also an effective sensitive structure that can be used to perform dynamic loading and characterize dynamic response. Our method has the advantage of using amplitude-frequency curves to obtain the dynamic mechanical properties without directly measuring displacements and forces as in tensile tests, and it also avoids the effects of the complex surface structure and deformation presenting in contact resonance method. Our method is effective for measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of fiber-like one-dimensional (1D) materials.

  18. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  19. A Combined Time Domain Impedance Probe And Plasma Wave Receiver System For Small Satellite Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E. A.; Clark, D. C.; Vadepu, S. K.; Patra, S.

    2017-12-01

    A Time Domain Impedance Probe (TDIP) measures electron density and electron neutral collision frequencies in the ionosphere. This instrument has been tested on a sounding rocket flight and is now being further developed to fly on a NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Program (USIP) cubesat to be launched out of the ISS in 2019. Here we report on the development of a new combined TDIP and plasma wave instrument that can be used on cubesat platforms to measure local electron parameters, and also to receive or transmit electron scale waves. This combined instrument can be used to study short time and space scale phenomena in the upper ionosphere using only RF signals. The front end analog circuitry is dual-purposed to perform active or passive probing of the ambient plasma. Two dipole antennas are used, one is optimzed for impedance measurements, while the other is optimized for transmitter-receiver performance. We show our circuit realization, and initial results from laboratory measurements using the TDIP prototype modified for receiver function. We also show Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations of an electrically long antenna immersed in a magnetized plasma used to optimize the transmitter receiver performance.

  20. Small Molecules and Sum Frequency Generation Probes of Nanoparticulate TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2006-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 is known to photo catalytically mineralize a wide variety of pollutants and pathogens, both airborne and in aqueous solution. One of the major benefits of basing water treatment systems on TiO2 is that it is environmentally benign and so non toxic that it is used as a colorant in creamy salad dressing. The primary impediment to wide spread implementation of a TiO2 based system for water decontamination is that the quantum efficiency in contact with condense phase water is less than 5%. Since the quantum efficiency for destruction of airborne materials is greater than 80%, the potential for increased efficiency is very real. To convert the potential to practice, the oxidation mechanism needs to be more fully understood. We will report on the results of using a nonlinear optical spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) as an in situ probe of interactions at the TiO2 surface. Results suggest that the dominant oxidation mechanism converts from a direct to an indirect mechanism as the water content (vapor pressure) increases. This presentation will discuss the probe technique as well as the results.

  1. Development of an Integrated Data Acquisition System for a Small Flight Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Empey, Daniel M.; Skokova, Kristina A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    In support of the SPRITE concept, an integrated data acquisition system has been developed and fabricated for preliminary testing. The data acquisition system has been designed to condition traditional thermal protection system sensors, store their data to an on-board memory card, and in parallel, telemeter to an external system. In the fall of 2010, this system was integrated into a 14 in. diameter, 45 degree sphere cone probe instrumented with thermal protection system sensors. This system was then tested at the NASA Ames Research Center Aerodynamic Heating Facility's arc jet at approximately 170 W/sq. cm. The first test in December 2010 highlighted hardware design issues that were redesigned and implemented leading to a successful test in February 2011.

  2. Probing the perturbative NLO parton evolution in the small-x region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Pisano, C.; Reya, E.

    2005-01-01

    A dedicated test of the perturbative QCD NLO parton evolution in the very small-x region is performed. We find a good agreement with recent precision HERA data for F 2 p (x,Q 2 ), as well as with the present determination of the curvature of F 2 p . Characteristically, perturbative QCD evolutions result in a positive curvature which increases as xdecreases. Future precision measurements in the very small x-region, x -4 , could provide a sensitive test of the range of validity of perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  3. A nanobody targeting carcinoembryonic antigen as a promising molecular probe for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Meng, Ai-Min; Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a biomarker and therapy target for non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the most common type of lung cancer. Nanobodies with high target specificity are promising candidates to function as anti‑CEA probes. In the present study, the targeting effects of an anti‑CEA nanobody obtained from phage display were investigated using technetium‑99 m (99mTc) and fluorescence labeling. In vitro binding and immunofluorescent staining assays, as well as in vivo blood clearance and biodistribution assays were performed. High specificity and affinity of the nanobody for CEA‑positive H460 cells was observed in vitro. The pharmacokinetics assay of the 99mTc‑nanobody in Wistar rats demonstrated that the nanobody had appropriate T1/2α and T1/2β, which were 20.2 and 143.5 min, respectively. The biodistribution assay using H460 xenograft‑bearing nude mice demonstrated a high ratio of signal in tumor compared with background, which confirmed that the nanobody may be useful as a molecular probe for CEA‑positive cancer, particularly in NSCLC.

  4. Coronal in vivo forward-imaging of rat brain morphology with an ultra-small optical coherence tomography fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Bonin, Tim; Löffler, Susanne; Hüttmann, Gereon; Tronnier, Volker; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-02-01

    A well-established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: it should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT system utilizing a super-luminescent-diode with the center wavelength of 840 nm providing 14.5 μm axial resolution was used. A composite 125 μm diameter detecting probe with a gradient index (GRIN) fiber fused to a single mode fiber was employed. Signals were reconstructed into grayscale images by horizontally aligning A-scans from the same trajectory with different depths. The reconstructed images can display brain morphology along the entire trajectory. For scans of typical white matter, the signals showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for gray matter. Micro-structures such as axon bundles (70 μm) in the caudate nucleus are visible in the reconstructed images. This study explores the potential of OCT to be a navigation modality in brain surgery.

  5. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  6. High-throughput platform assay technology for the discovery of pre-microrna-selective small molecule probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Daniel A; Song, James M; Garner, Amanda L

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play critical roles in human development and disease. As such, the targeting of miRNAs is considered attractive as a novel therapeutic strategy. A major bottleneck toward this goal, however, has been the identification of small molecule probes that are specific for select RNAs and methods that will facilitate such discovery efforts. Using pre-microRNAs as proof-of-concept, herein we report a conceptually new and innovative approach for assaying RNA-small molecule interactions. Through this platform assay technology, which we term catalytic enzyme-linked click chemistry assay or cat-ELCCA, we have designed a method that can be implemented in high throughput, is virtually free of false readouts, and is general for all nucleic acids. Through cat-ELCCA, we envision the discovery of selective small molecule ligands for disease-relevant miRNAs to promote the field of RNA-targeted drug discovery and further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in cellular biology.

  7. Fluctuating local field method probed for a description of small classical correlated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Alexey N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal-equilibrated finite classical lattices are considered as a minimal model of the systems showing an interplay between low-energy collective fluctuations and single-site degrees of freedom. Standard local field approach, as well as classical limit of the bosonic DMFT method, do not provide a satisfactory description of Ising and Heisenberg small lattices subjected to an external polarizing field. We show that a dramatic improvement can be achieved within a simple approach, in which the local field appears to be a fluctuating quantity related to the low-energy degree(s) of freedom.

  8. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez, Louis A.

    2013-09-04

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pé rez, Louis A.; Chou, Kang Wei; Love, John A.; Van Der Poll, Thomas S.; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Nguyen, Thuc Quyen; Krä mer, Edward J.; Amassian, Aram; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2013-01-01

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Gauge/gravity duality for interactions of spherical membranes in 11-dimensional pp-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hok Kong; McLoughlin, Tristan; Wu Xinkai

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the gauge/gravity duality in the interaction between two spherical membranes in the 11-dimensional pp-wave background. On the supergravity side, we find the solution to the field equations at locations close to a spherical source membrane, and use it to obtain the light-cone Lagrangian of a spherical probe membrane very close to the source, i.e., with their separation much smaller than their radii. On the gauge theory side, using the BMN matrix model, we compute the one-loop effective potential between two membrane fuzzy spheres. Perfect agreement is found between the two sides. Moreover, the one-loop effective potential we obtain on the gauge theory side is valid beyond the small-separation approximation, giving the full interpolation between interactions of membrane-like objects and that of graviton-like objects

  11. Small-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropies as probe of the geometry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We perform detailed calculations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a cold dark matter (CDM)-dominated open universe with primordial adiabatic density perturbations for a variety of reionization histories. The CMB anisotropies depend primarily on the geometry of the universe, which in a matter-dominated universe is determined by Omega and the optical depth to the surface of last scattering. In particular, the location on the primary Doppler peak depends primarily on Omega and is fairly insensitive to the other unknown parameters, such as Omega(sub b), h, Lambda, and the shape of the power spectrum. Therefore, if the primordial density perturbations are adiabatic, measurements of CMB anisotropies on small scales may be used to determine Omega.

  12. Probing nanoparticle-macromolecule interaction and resultant structure by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswal, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles display unique and distinct characteristics from those of their constituent atoms and bulk materials which are being employed in numerous applications in the fields of medicine, electronics, optics, communications, energy, environment etc. Many of these applications require adjoining of nanoparticles with macromolecules such as proteins, polymers and surfactants to obtain functional objects. For example, nanoparticle-protein complexes are of great importance in controlling enzymatic behavior, targeted drug delivery and developing biocompatible materials. The nanoparticles interfaced with polymers are shown to be useful in developing protein sensor arrays. Interaction of surfactants with nanoparticles is utilized extensively for technical and industrial applications associated with colloidal stability, detergency and design of nanostructured functional interfaces. The interaction of two components, nanoparticles and macromolecule, strongly depends on the characteristics of both the nanoparticles (size, shape, surface roughness, charge density etc.) and macromolecules (type, charge, shape and solution conditions etc.) used. The interaction of macromolecule on nanoparticle surface is a cumulative effect of a number of forces such as electrostatic force, covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, non-polar interaction, hydrophobic interactions etc. These interactions depending on the system conditions can lead to various structures. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with the possibility to vary contrast is an ideal technique to study such multi-component systems. In this talk, some of our results of SANS from the complexes of nanoparticle-protein and nanoparticle surfactant systems will be discussed. (author)

  13. Percutaneous cryoablation of small hepatocellular carcinomas using a 17-gauge ultrathin probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.M. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, 712 Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Won, J.Y., E-mail: jywon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, 712 Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D.Y.; Lee, K.-H. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, 712 Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S.; Paik, Y.H.; Kim, J.K. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, 712 Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) of small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) using a 17 G ultrathin cryoprobe. Materials and methods: Twenty patients (male:female ratio14:6) with 20 HCCs, who were not surgical candidates, underwent ultrasound (US)-guided PCA for treatment of HCCs. Single HCCs less than 3 cm in diameter were included in this study. Ablation was performed using a 17 G cryoprobe. The effectiveness was determined by the changes in alpha-foetoprotein level and degree of tumour necrosis on follow-up computed tomography (CT); complete response (100% necrosis), partial response (100%>necrosis{>=}30%), stable disease (any cases not qualifying for either partial response or progressive disease) and progressive disease (increase of at least 20% in diameter of viable tumour). Haemoglobin, white blood cell count (WBC), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and total bilirubin were compared before and after the procedure, and the technical feasibility, complications, clinical outcomes and survival of each patient were also evaluated. Results: All procedures were technically successful. Each patient complained of negligible pain and there was no other procedure-related complication or mortality. The mean level of alpha-foetoprotein declined significantly from 53.2 to 20.4 ng/ml 1 month after the procedure (p < 0.05). At 1-month follow-up CT, there were 13 complete responses, four partial responses, three patients with stable disease, and no patients had progressive disease. Six of seven lesions that did not present with a complete response underwent further treatment. On long-term follow up (6-30 months; mean 20.7), a local recurrence was seen in one of 13 lesions (8%) with complete response revealed. Laboratory findings showed no significant changes except for the transient increase of SGOT and SGPT. Conclusion: US-guided PCA using a 17 G cryoprobe was feasible and

  14. Double phi-Step theta-Scanning Technique for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi

    2008-01-01

    Probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with an arbitrary probe set certain requirements on an applicable scanning technique. The computational complexity of the general high-order probe correction technique for an arbitrary probe, that is based on the Phi scanning, is O(N4...... a specific double Phi-step thetas scanning technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements. This technique not only constitutes an alternative spherical scanning technique, but it also enables formulating an associated probe correction technique for arbitrary probes with the computational complexity...

  15. Organic conjugated small molecule materials based optical probe for rapid, colorimetric and UV-vis spectral detection of phosphorylated protein in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Yang, Na; Liu, Yi

    2018-04-05

    A novel organic small molecule with D-Pi-A structure was prepared, which was found to be a promising colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis spetral probe for detection of phosphorylated proteins with the help of tetravalent zirconium ion. Such optical probe based on chromophore WYF-1 shows a rapid response (within 10s) and high selectivity and sensitivity for phosphorylated proteins, giving distinct colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis changes at 720 and 560nm. The detection limit for phosphorylated proteins was estimated to be 100nM. In addition, detection of phosphorylated proteins in placental tissue samples with this probe was successfully applied, which indicates that this probe holds great potential for phosphorylated proteins detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  17. Are Nanoparticles Spherical or Quasi-Spherical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2015-07-20

    The geometry of quasi-spherical nanoparticles is investigated. The combination of SEM imaging and electrochemical nano-impact experiments is demonstrated to allow sizing and characterization of the geometry of single silver nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Small molecule probes finely differentiate between various ds- and ss-DNA and RNA by fluorescence, CD and NMR response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnolatac, Ivo; Rogan, Iva; Majić, Boris; Tomić, Sanja [Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Deligeorgiev, Todor [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Horvat, Gordan [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science/Chemistry, Horvatovac 102A, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez [Slovenian NMR Centre, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia); EN-FIST Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne Fronte 13, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pescitelli, Gennaro [Department of Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 13, Pisa (Italy); Piantanida, Ivo, E-mail: pianta@irb.hr [Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-10-12

    Two small molecules showed intriguing properties of analytical multipurpose probes, whereby one chromophore gives different signal for many different DNA/RNA by application of several highly sensitive spectroscopic methods. Dyes revealed pronounced fluorescence ratiomeric differentiation between ds-AU-RNA, AT-DNA and GC-DNA in approximate order 10:8:1. Particularly interesting, dyes showed specific fluorimetric response for poly rA even at 10-fold excess of any other ss-RNA, and moreover such emission selectivity is preserved in multicomponent ss-RNA mixtures. The dyes also showed specific chiral recognition of poly rU in respect to the other ss-RNA by induced CD (ICD) pattern in visible range (400–500 nm), which was attributed to the dye-side-chain contribution to binding (confirmed by absence of any ICD band for reference compound lacking side-chain). Most intriguingly, minor difference in the side-chain attached to dye chromophore resulted in opposite sign of dye-ICD pattern, whereby differences in NMR NOESY contacts and proton chemical shifts between two dye/oligo rU complexes combined with MD simulations and CD calculations attributed observed bisignate ICD to the dimeric dye aggregate within oligo rU. - Highlights: • Novel dyes emit fluorescence only for poly rA even at high excess of all other ss-RNA. • Fluorescence response for AT-DNA is 8 times stronger than for GC-DNA. • Florescence induced by ds-RNA is 20% stronger that emission induced by ds-DNA. • Intrinsically non-chiral, dyes show strong and characteristic ICD response for poly rU.

  19. A useful PET probe [11C]BU99008 with ultra-high specific radioactivity for small animal PET imaging of I2-imidazoline receptors in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Zhang, Yiding; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Hatori, Akiko; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Ogawa, Masanao; Kurihara, Yusuke; Nengaki, Nobuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A positron emission tomography (PET) probe with ultra-high specific radioactivity (SA) enables measuring high receptor specific binding in brain regions by avoiding mass effect of the PET probe itself. It has been reported that PET probe with ultra-high SA can detect small change caused by endogenous or exogenous ligand. Recently, Kealey et al. developed [ 11 C]BU99008, a more potent PET probe for I 2 -imidazoline receptors (I 2 Rs) imaging, with a conventional SA (mean 76 GBq/μmol) showed higher specific binding in the brain. Here, to detect small change of specific binding for I 2 Rs caused by endogenous or exogenous ligand in an extremely small region, such as hypothalamus in the brain, we synthesized and evaluated [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA as a useful PET probe for small-animal PET imaging of I 2 Rs. Methods: [ 11 C]BU99008 was prepared by [ 11 C]methylation of N-desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl iodide. Biodistribution, metabolite analysis, and brain PET studies were conducted in rats. Results: [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA in the range of 5400–16,600 GBq/μmol were successfully synthesized (n = 7), and had appropriate radioactivity for in vivo study. In the biodistribution study, the mean radioactivity levels in all investigated tissues except for the kidney did not show significant difference between [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA and that with conventional SA. In the metabolite analysis, the percentage of unchanged [ 11 C]BU99008 at 30 min after the injection of probes with ultra-high and conventional SA was similar in rat brain and plasma. In the PET study of rats' brain, radioactivity level (AUC 30–60 min ) in the hypothalamus of rats injected with [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA (64 [SUV ∙ min]) was significantly higher than that observed for that with conventional SA (50 [SUV ∙ min]). The specific binding of [ 11 C]BU99008 with ultra-high SA (86% of total binding) for I 2 R was higher than that of

  20. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  1. Spherical near-field scanning at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. E.; Jensen, F.

    1988-01-01

    The early work (1969-79) on spherical near-field antenna measurements at the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) is outlined. A spherical near-field transmission formula is described and the first probe-corrected spherical near-field measurements are discussed. The TUD-ESA (European Space Agency...

  2. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  3. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Strain mapping under spherical indentations using transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cackett, A.; Hardie, C.; Wilkinson, A.; Dicks, K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to restrictions on both the specimen volumes available and the activity levels research facilities can handle, testing techniques on the micron-scale are very attractive for the study of irradiated material. However, the results of such small tests are convoluted by plasticity size-effects. Spherical nano-indentation is increasingly used to probe irradiated material, but to characterise the area of plastic deformation surrounding indentations a method capable of providing crystallographic information at extremely high spatial resolution is required. Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) is a novel diffraction technique that can be performed in a scanning electron microscope. Using this technique, spatial resolutions below 10 nm have been achieved. Initial results, shown here, demonstrate the use of TKD in mapping the lattice rotations caused by indentation produced with a spherical diamond tip. With the addition of strain mapping software the plastic zone size was also evaluated for the first time using diffraction patterns generated via TKD. For a tip of radius 15 μm, inserted into Fe to a strain of 0.07, the plastic zone was observed to extend 1.3 μm to either side of the incident location of indentation and the deformation depth was approximately 0.5 μm. (authors)

  5. Local pH Monitoring of Small Cluster of Cells using a Fiber-Optic Dual-Core Micro-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Xiao, Hai; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-03-31

    Biological studies of tissues and cells have enabled numerous discoveries, but these studies still bear potential risks of invalidation because of cell heterogeneity. Through high-accuracy techniques, recent studies have demonstrated that discrepancies do exist between the results from low-number-cell studies and cell-population-based results. Thus the urgent need to re-evaluate key principles on limited number of cells has been provoked. In this study, a novel designed dual-core fiber-optic pH micro-probe was fabricated and demonstrated for niche environment pH sensing with high spatial resolution. An organic-modified silicate (OrMoSils) sol-gel thin layer was functionalized by entrapping a pH indicator, 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), on a ~70 μm sized probe tip. Good linear correlation between fluorescence ratio of I 560 nm /I 640 nm and intercellular pH values was obtained within a biological-relevant pH range from 6.20 to 7.92 (R 2 = 0.9834), and with a pH resolution of 0.035 ± 0.005 pH units. The probe's horizontal spatial resolution was demonstrated to be less than 2mm. Moreover, the probe was evaluated by measuring the localized extracellular pH changes of cultured human lung cancer cells (A549) when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs). Results showed that the probe has superior capability for fast, local, and continual monitoring of a small cluster of cells, which provides researchers a fast and accurate technique to conduct local pH measurements for cell heterogeneity-related studies.

  6. Probing the emitter site of Renilla luciferase using small organic molecules; an attempt to understand the molecular architecture of the emitter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Farajollah; Emamzadeh, Rahman; Nazari, Mahboobeh; Rasa, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    Renilla luciferase is a sensitive enzyme and has wide applications in biotechnology such as drug screening. Previous studies have tried to show the catalytic residues, nevertheless, the accurate architecture and molecular behavior of its emitter site remains uncharacterized. In this study, the activity of Renilla luciferase, in the presence of two small organic molecules including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isopropanol was considered and the structure was studied by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, the interaction of small organic molecules with the Renilla luciferase was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetics studies showed that at low concentration of DMSO (16.6-66mM) and isopropanol (19.3-76mM) the K m changed and a competitive inhibition pattern was observed. Moreover, spectroscopy studies reveled that the changes of activity of Renilla luciferase in the presence of low concentrations of small organic molecules was not associated with structural collapse or severe changes in the enzyme conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that DMSO and isopropanol, as probing molecules, were both able to bind to the emitter site and remained with the residues of the emitter site. Based on the probing data, the architecture of the emitter site in the "non-binding" model was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of duplex stainless steels by TEM [transmission electron microscopy], SANS [small-angle neutron scattering], and APFIM [atom-probe field ion microscopy] techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1987-06-01

    Results are presented of complementary characterization of aged duplex stainless steels by advanced metallographic techniques, including transmission and high-voltage electron microscopies; small-angle neutron scattering; and atom-probe field ion microscopy. On the basis of the characterization, the mechanisms of aging embrittlement have been shown to be associated with the precipitation of Ni- and Si-rich G phase and Cr-rich α' in the ferrite, and M 23 C 6 carbides on the austenite-ferrite phase boundaries. 19 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  8. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  9. Bioorthogonal cyclization-mediated in situ self-assembly of small-molecule probes for imaging caspase activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Deju; Shuhendler, Adam J.; Cui, Lina; Tong, Ling; Tee, Sui Seng; Tikhomirov, Grigory; Felsher, Dean W.; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-06-01

    Directed self-assembly of small molecules in living systems could enable a myriad of applications in biology and medicine, and already this has been used widely to synthesize supramolecules and nano/microstructures in solution and in living cells. However, controlling the self-assembly of synthetic small molecules in living animals is challenging because of the complex and dynamic in vivo physiological environment. Here we employ an optimized first-order bioorthogonal cyclization reaction to control the self-assembly of a fluorescent small molecule, and demonstrate its in vivo applicability by imaging caspase-3/7 activity in human tumour xenograft mouse models of chemotherapy. The fluorescent nanoparticles assembled in situ were imaged successfully in both apoptotic cells and tumour tissues using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy. This strategy combines the advantages offered by small molecules with those of nanomaterials and should find widespread use for non-invasive imaging of enzyme activity in vivo.

  10. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  11. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  13. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  14. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Ph.; Rosenfeld, R.; Steer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity

  15. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Ph. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Rosenfeld, R. [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, 01140-070, São Paulo (Brazil); Steer, D.A., E-mail: brax@spht.saclay.cea.fr, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: daniele.steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, UMR 7164, CNRS, Université Paris 7, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-08-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  16. Spherical Collapse in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Steer, D A

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  17. High-energy radiation monitoring based on radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization. I : Small volume in situ probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warman, J.M.; De Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.

    2009-01-01

    A method of radiation dosimetry is described which is based on the radiation-induced initiation of polymerization of a bulk monomer (e.g. methyl methacrylate) containing a small concentration (about 100 ppm) of a compound which is non-fluorescent but which becomes highly fluorescent when it is

  18. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin; Schade, Nicholas B.; Sun, Li; Fan, Jonathan A.; Bae, Doo Ri; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Lee, Gaehang; Capasso, Federico; Sacanna, Stefano; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-01-01

    isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even

  19. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-01-01

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k ∼ 4 Mpc –1 . Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  20. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  1. Spherical torus, compact fusion at low field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-02-01

    A spherical torus is obtained by retaining only the indispensable components on the inboard side of a tokamak plasma, such as a cooled, normal conductor that carries current to produce a toroidal magnetic field. The resulting device features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (ranging from below 2 to about 1.3), a naturally elongated D-shaped plasma cross section, and ramp-up of the plasma current primarily by noninductive means. As a result of the favorable dependence of the tokamak plasma behavior to decreasing aspect ratio, a spherical torus is projected to have small size, high beta, and modest field. Assuming Mirnov confinement scaling, an ignition spherical torus at a field of 2 T features a major radius of 1.5 m, a minor radius of 1.0 m, a plasma current of 14 MA, comparable toroidal and poloidal field coil currents, an average beta of 24%, and a fusion power of 50 MW. At 2 T, a Q = 1 spherical torus will have a major radius of 0.8 m, a minor radius of 0.5 m, and a fusion power of a few megawatts

  2. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  3. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of small particles brought back from the asteroid Itokawa by the space probe Hayabusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The probe in the title launched in May 2003, landed on the asteroid 25143 (Itokawa) to collect the surface material, and returned to the desert of Australia in June 2010. The material carried in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was found to be >1,500 particles of extraterrestrial origin. This paper reports the results of activation analysis of a part of particles for the purpose of characterizing the elemental composition. The size of particles was mostly <100 mc-m and the mass, several 10s mc-g. The experiment was performed preliminarily on Kilabo meteorite using Kyoto University Research Reactor (KURR) as a neutron source, and then on 1 Itokawa particle named RA-QD02-0049, which was activated for 19 hr. The cooled particle was found to be split mainly in 2 parts (0049-1 and -2), which were subjected to analysis of gamma ray with Ge semiconductor detector in the KURR Institute and Kanazawa University. Analysis revealed that the 2 particles contained 8 elements of Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Ir, which were then quantitated with similarly neutron irradiated Allende meteorite, basalt JB-1 and highly purified Fe, and with previous findings by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) showing the Itokawa particle was an olivine. Finally, 0049-1 and -2 were found to be of mass of 1.6 and 1.5 mc-g, respectively, based on which the calculated contents of the 8 elements revealed that they were homogeneously existed in the Itokawa particle. Comparison of elemental composition of the particle with those of various intra- and extra-terrestrial rocks and meteorites suggested that Itokawa had a feature of elements aggregated at the early stage after formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. (T.T.)

  5. Eu(III)-functionalized MIL-124 as fluorescent probe for highly selectively sensing ions and organic small molecules especially for Fe(III) and Fe(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-14

    A layerlike MOF (MIL-124, orGa2(OH)4(C9O6H4)) has been prepared and chosen as a parent compound to encapsulate Eu(3+) cations by one uncoordinated carbonyl group in its pores. The Eu(3+)-incorporated sample (Eu(3+)@MIL-124) is fully characterized, which shows excellent luminescence and good fluorescence stability in water or other organic solvents. Subsequently, we choose Eu(3+)@MIL-124 as sensitive probe for sensing metal ions, anions, and organic small molecules because of its robust framework. Studying of the luminescence properties reveals that the complex Eu(3+)@MIL-124 was developed as a highly selective and sensitive probe for detection of Fe(3+) (detection limit, 0.28 μM) and Fe(2+) ions through fluorescence quenching of Eu(3+) and MOF over other metal ions. In connection to this, a probable sensing mechanism was also discussed in this paper. In addition, when Eu(3+)@MIL-124 was immersed in the different anions solutions and organic solvents, it also shows highly selective for Cr2O7(2-)(detection limit, 0.15 μM)and acetone. Remarkably, it is the first Eu-doped MOF to exhibit an excellent ability for the detection of Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) in an aqueous environment without any structural disintegration of the framework.

  6. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  7. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations

  8. Two fast temperature sensors for probing of the atmospheric boundary layer using small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wildmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of temperature sensors are designed and tested: a thermocouple and a fine wire resistance thermometer. The intention of this study is to figure out which kind of measurement principle is in general more suited for atmospheric boundary layer meteorology with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA. The sensors are calibrated in a NIST traceable climate chamber and validated in flight against tower measurements, radiosondes and remote sensing. The sensors have a measurement range of at least −10–50 °C, an absolute RMS error of less than ±0.2 K which is stable over the lifetime of the sensors, and a resolution of about 0.01 K. Both devices are tested for typical errors like radiation error and adiabatic heating, as well as for their dynamic response. Spectral resolutions of up to approximately 10 Hz can be obtained with both sensors, which makes them suitable for turbulence measurement. Their low cost of less than 100 EUR in pure hardware is a major advantage for research with small RPA.

  9. Two fast temperature sensors for probing of the atmospheric boundary layer using small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildmann, N.; Mauz, M.; Bange, J.

    2013-08-01

    Two types of temperature sensors are designed and tested: a thermocouple and a fine wire resistance thermometer. The intention of this study is to figure out which kind of measurement principle is in general more suited for atmospheric boundary layer meteorology with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). The sensors are calibrated in a NIST traceable climate chamber and validated in flight against tower measurements, radiosondes and remote sensing. The sensors have a measurement range of at least -10-50 °C, an absolute RMS error of less than ±0.2 K which is stable over the lifetime of the sensors, and a resolution of about 0.01 K. Both devices are tested for typical errors like radiation error and adiabatic heating, as well as for their dynamic response. Spectral resolutions of up to approximately 10 Hz can be obtained with both sensors, which makes them suitable for turbulence measurement. Their low cost of less than 100 EUR in pure hardware is a major advantage for research with small RPA.

  10. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  11. Effect of surfactant excess on the stability of low-polarity ferrofluids probed by small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, V. I., E-mail: vip@nf.jinr.ru; Avdeev, M. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Bulavin, L. A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine); Almasy, L. [Hungarian Academy of Science, Wigner Research Centre for Physics (Hungary); Grigoryeva, N. A. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Aksenov, V. L. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structures of ferrofluids (FFs) based on nonpolar solvent decahydronaphthalene, stabilized by saturated monocarboxylic acids with hydrocarbon chains of different lengths, C16 (palmitic acid) and ?12 (lauric acid), with an excess of acid molecules, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. It is found that the addition of acid to an initially stable system with optimal composition leads to more significant structural changes (related to aggregation) than those observed previously for this class of FFs. A comparison of the influence of monocarboxylic acids on the stability of nonpolar FFs suggests that the enhancement of aggregation is much more pronounced in the case of palmitic acid excess. This fact confirms the conclusion of previous studies, according to which an increase in the hydrocarbon chain length in a saturated acid reduces the efficiency of the corresponding FF stabilization.

  12. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  13. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Norbert G W; Delfos, Rene; Ooms, Gijs; Westerweel, Jerry, E-mail: n.g.w.warncke@tudelft.nl [Laboratory for Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  14. Probing the nature of AX J0043-737: Not an 87 ms pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, C.; Ballet, J.; Esposito, P.; Haberl, F.; Tiengo, A.; Filipović, M. D.; Acero, F.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: AX J0043-737 is a source in the ASCA catalogue whose nature is uncertain. It is most commonly classified as a Crab-like pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) following apparent detection of pulsations at 87 ms from a single ASCA observation. A follow-up ASCA observation was not able to confirm this, and the X-ray detection of the source has not been reported since. Methods: We studied the nature of the source with a dedicated XMM-Newton observation. We ascertained the source position, searched for the most probable counterpart, and studied the X-ray spectrum. We also analysed other archival observations with the source in the field of view to study its long-term variability. Results: With the good position localisation capability of XMM-Newton, we identify the counterpart of the source as MQS J004241.66-734041.3, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) behind the SMC at a redshift of 0.95. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed power law with a photon-index of Γ = 1.7, which is consistent with that expected from AGNs. By comparing the current XMM-Newton observation with an archival XMM-Newton and two other ASCA observations of the source, we find signatures of long-term variability, another common phenomenon in AGNs. All of the above are consistent with AX J0043-737 being an AGN behind the SMC.

  15. The spin chirality in MnSi single crystal probed by small angle scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, A.I.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Chetverikov, Yu.O.; Georgii, R.; Boeni, P.; Eckerlebe, H.; Pranzas, K.; Roessli, B.

    2004-01-01

    The weak itinerant ferromagnet MnSi orders with a left-handed helical spin structure below T C =29 K. The helicity with a vector m=[S 1 xS 2 ]/S 2 along the crystallographic axis [1 1 1] is realized by an antisymmetric Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. The small angle diffraction study with polarized neutrons on a single MnSi crystal was performed within the temperature range from 10 K to T C and the magnetic field B from 1 to 350 mT. The single crystal was oriented in such a way that two axes [1 1 1] and [1 1 -1] were set in a plane perpendicular to the incident beam. Four major diffraction peaks at ±q 1 and ±q 2 along the axes and four minor peaks at q=±q 1 ±q 2 were observed. The intensity I p =I(+P 0 )+I(-P 0 ), the polarization P p =[I(+P 0 )-I(-P 0 )]/I p and the position q p of the peaks were measured as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. From intensity of the peaks the chiral critical exponent is obtained as β=0.47±0.04

  16. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  17. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  18. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  19. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  20. Spherical Casimir pistons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.uk [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-07

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  1. Spherical Casimir pistons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2011-01-01

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  2. Fluorescence of molecules placed near a spherical particle: Rabi splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dvoynenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical study of spontaneously emitted spectra of point-like source placed near spherical Ag particle was performed. It was shown that near-field electromagnetic interaction between a point-like emitter and spherical Ag particle leads to strong coupling between them at very small emitter-metal surface distances. It was shown that values of Rabi splitting are quantitatively close to that of emitter-flat substrate interaction.

  3. Small-size automated probe on the base of UAV with vertical takeoff and landing for meteorological support of environmentally hazardous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnikov, N.M.; Azarov, A.S.; Chekulaev, I.I.; Akmulin, D.V.; Sitnikova, V.I.; Katyunin, A.D.; Ulanovskij, A.Eh.

    2016-01-01

    Mock-up specimen of meteorological probe on the base of rotocopter is developed and its laboratory and field testings are carried out. The weight of the probe with 200 g airlift is near 1 kg. The probe is started up from the land, the further flight and landing occur in automatic mode. It allows to measure vertical distributions of meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, moisture, wind velocity and direction) up to 1500 m. The given probe with equipment for measuring pollutant concentrations can be used for meteorological and ecological monitoring of environmentally hazardous objects (NPPs, chemical plants etc.) [ru

  4. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek; Pietrasik, Joanna; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2010-01-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek

    2010-12-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. JUST: Joint Upgraded Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Filatov, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main goals, ideas and the programme of JUST, spherical tokamak (ST) for the plasma burn investigation, are presented. The place and prospects of JUST in thermonuclear investigations are discussed. (author)

  7. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  8. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    ; Arbitrary order of the spherical wave, arbitrary radius of the spherical antenna, as well as arbitrarily large core permeability and/or permittivity, given an inversely proportional frequency variation of the imaginary part(s) and an arbitrary dispersion of the real part(s) - thus describing both lossless...... with a magnetic loss tangent of 1 and relative permeability of 300 yield Q/e equal 65% of the Chu lower bound, with a simultaneous e of 71%....

  9. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  10. Collisions of droplets on spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2017-10-01

    Head-on collisions between droplets and spherical particles are examined for water droplets in the diameter range between 170 μm and 280 μm and spherical particles in the diameter range between 500 μm and 2000 μm. The droplet velocities range between 6 m/s and 11 m/s, while the spherical particles are fixed in space. The Weber and Ohnesorge numbers and ratio of droplet to particle diameter were between 92 deposition and splashing regimes, a regime is observed in the intermediate region, where the droplet forms a stable crown, which does not breakup but propagates along the particle surface and passes around the particle. This regime is prevalent when the droplets collide on small particles. The characteristics of the collision at the onset of rim instability are also described in terms of the location of the film on the particle surface and the orientation and length of the ejected crown. Proper orthogonal decomposition identified that the first 2 modes are enough to capture the overall morphology of the crown at the splashing threshold.

  11. Development of a virtual probe tip with an application to high aspect ratio microscale features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauza, Marcin B.; Hocken, Robert J.; Smith, Stuart T.; Woody, Shane C.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement of microscale features remains a challenging metrology problem. For example, to assess a high aspect ratio small hole it is currently common to cut a cross section and measure the features of interest using an atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, or scanning electron microscope. Typically, these metrology tools may be suitable for surface finish measurement but often lack the capability for dimensional metrology. The aim of this article is to discuss the development of a high aspect-ratio microscale probe for measurement of microscale features. A 700:1 high aspect ratio probe shank is fabricated with a 7 μm diameter, and attached at one end to an oscillator. The oscillator produces a standing wave in the oscillating probe shank as opposed to conventional probes that use a microscale sphere on the end of a comparatively rigid shank. As a result of the standing wave formed in steady state vibration, the free end of the shank generates an amplitude of oscillation greater than the probe shank diameter. Thus, the probe does not require a spherical ball to serve as the contact point and simply uses the contact diameter of the free end of the vibrating shank. This methodology is referred to as a virtual probe tip. The virtual probe tip in conjunction with a nanopositioning scanner is used to measure surface profile measurements over traverse lengths of 130 μm. In this article, results from profiles of a 500 nm step height and a ruby sphere of diameter 1 mm are presented. Experiments in this article indicate the ability to repeatedly resolve surface features of less than 5 nm while maintaining bandwidths greater than 1 kHz. Furthermore, adhesion problems often encountered with micrometer scaled probes were not observed during profile measurements with this virtual probe

  12. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  13. Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon

    2009-01-01

    By holding a complex object in multiple optical traps, it may be harmonically bound with respect to both its position and its orientation. In this way a small probe, or nanotool, can be manipulated in three dimensions and used to measure and apply directed forces, in the manner of a scanning probe microscope. In this paper we evaluate the thermal motion of such a probe held in holographic optical tweezers, by solving the Langevin equation for the general case of a set of spherical vertices linked by cylindrical rods. The concept of a corner frequency, familiar from the case of an optically trapped sphere, is appropriately extended to represent a set of characteristic frequencies given by the eigenvalues of the product of the stiffness matrix and the inverse hydrodynamic resistance matrix of the tool. These eigenvalues may alternatively be interpreted as inverses of a set of characteristic relaxation times for the system. The approach is illustrated by reference to a hypothetical tool consisting of a triangular arrangement of spheres with a lateral probe. The characteristic frequencies and theoretical resolution of the device are derived; variations of these quantities with tool size and orientation and with the optical power distribution, are also considered.

  14. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  15. Nearly collisionless spherical accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fluid-like gas accretes much more efficiently than a collisionless gas. The ability of an accreting gas to behave like a fluid depends on the relationship of the mean free path of a gas particle at r → infinity lambdasub(infinity), to the typical length scales associated with the star-gas system. This relationship is examined in detail. For constant collision cross-section evidence is found for a rapid changeover from collisionless to fluid-like accretion flow when lambdasub(infinity) drops below a certain value, but for hard Coulomb collisions, the transition is more gradual, and is sensitive to the adiabatic index of the gas at r→ infinity. To these results must be added the effects of the substantial cusp of bound particles, which always develops in a system with arbitrarily small but non-zero cross-section. The density run in such a cusp depends on the collision properties of the particles. 'Loss-cone' accretion from the cusp may in some cases exceed the predicted accretion rate. (author)

  16. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  17. Spherical Pendulum, Actions, and Spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Peter H.; Dullin, Holger R.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiersig, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The classical and quantum mechanics of a spherical pendulum are worked out, including the dynamics of a suspending frame with moment of inertia θ. The presence of two separatrices in the bifurcation diagram of the energy-momentum mapping has its mathematical expression in the hyperelliptic nature of

  18. Compact fusion energy based on the spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, A.; Costley, A. E.; Windsor, C. G.; Asunta, O.; Brittles, G.; Buxton, P.; Chuyanov, V.; Connor, J. W.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Huang, B.; Hugill, J.; Kukushkin, A.; Kingham, D.; Langtry, A. V.; McNamara, S.; Morgan, J. G.; Noonan, P.; Ross, J. S. H.; Shevchenko, V.; Slade, R.; Smith, G.

    2018-01-01

    Tokamak Energy Ltd, UK, is developing spherical tokamaks using high temperature superconductor magnets as a possible route to fusion power using relatively small devices. We present an overview of the development programme including details of the enabling technologies, the key modelling methods and results, and the remaining challenges on the path to compact fusion.

  19. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  20. Nonlinear spherical perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Rajvanshi, Manvendra; Bagla, J. S.

    2018-06-01

    Observations have confirmed the accelerated expansion of the universe. The accelerated expansion can be modelled by invoking a cosmological constant or a dynamical model of dark energy. A key difference between these models is that the equation of state parameter w for dark energy differs from ‑1 in dynamical dark energy (DDE) models. Further, the equation of state parameter is not constant for a general DDE model. Such differences can be probed using the variation of scale factor with time by measuring distances. Another significant difference between the cosmological constant and DDE models is that the latter must cluster. Linear perturbation analysis indicates that perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy do not grow to have a significant amplitude at small length scales. In this paper we study the response of quintessence dark energy to non-linear perturbations in dark matter. We use a fully relativistic model for spherically symmetric perturbations. In this study we focus on thawing models. We find that in response to non-linear perturbations in dark matter, dark energy perturbations grow at a faster rate than expected in linear perturbation theory. We find that dark energy perturbation remains localised and does not diffuse out to larger scales. The dominant drivers of the evolution of dark energy perturbations are the local Hubble flow and a supression of gradients of the scalar field. We also find that the equation of state parameter w changes in response to perturbations in dark matter such that it also becomes a function of position. The variation of w in space is correlated with density contrast for matter. Variation of w and perturbations in dark energy are more pronounced in response to large scale perturbations in matter while the dependence on the amplitude of matter perturbations is much weaker.

  1. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  2. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  3. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  4. Probing Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolutions at the Small Scales: Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction for Advanced Applications in [Phase 3 Memory,] 3D IC (Integrated Circuits) and Solar PV (Photovoltaic) Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, I. [Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design (SUTD) (Singapore); Tippabhotla, S. K. [Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design (SUTD) (Singapore); Tamura, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budiman, A. S. [Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design (SUTD) (Singapore)

    2016-10-21

    Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction (μXRD) allows characterization of a crystalline material in small, localized volumes. Phase composition, crystal orientation and strain can all be probed in few-second time scales. Crystalline changes over a large areas can be also probed in a reasonable amount of time with submicron spatial resolution. However, despite all the listed capabilities, μXRD is mostly used to study pure materials but its application in actual device characterization is rather limited. This article will explore the recent developments of the μXRD technique illustrated with its advanced applications in microelectronic devices and solar photovoltaic systems. Application of μXRD in microelectronics will be illustrated by studying stress and microstructure evolution in Cu TSV (through silicon via) during and after annealing. Here, the approach allowing study of the microstructural evolution in the solder joint of crystalline Si solar cells due to thermal cycling will be also demonstrated.

  5. Initial assessments of ignition spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Borowski, S.K.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Initial assessments of ignition spherical tori suggest that they can be highly cost effective and exceptionally small in unit size. Assuming advanced methods of current drive to ramp up the plasma current (e.g., via lower hybrid wave at modest plasma densities and temperatures), the inductive solenoid can largely be eliminated. Given the uncertainties in plasma energy confinement times and the effects of strong paramagnetism on plasma pressure, and allowing for the possible use of high-strength copper alloys (e.g., C-17510, Cu-Ni-Be alloy), ignition spherical tori with a 50-s burn are estimated to have major radii ranging from 1.0 to 1.6 m, aspect ratios from 1.4 to 1.7, vacuum toroidal fields from 2 to 3 T, plasma currents from 10 to 19 MA, and fusion power from 50 to 300 MW. Because of its modest field strength and simple poloidal field coil configuration, only conventional engineering approaches are needed in the design. A free-standing toroidal field coil/vacuum vessel structure is assessed to be feasible and relatively independent of the shield structure and the poloidal field coils. This exceptionally simple configuration depends significantly, however, on practical fabrication approaches of the center conductor post, about which there is presently little experience. 19 refs

  6. Crack propagation on spherical pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1975-01-01

    The risk presented by a crack on a pressure vessel built with a ductile steel cannot be well evaluated by simple application of the rules of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, which only apply to brittle materials. Tests were carried out on spherical vessels of three different scales built with the same steel. Cracks of different length were machined through the vessel wall. From the results obtained, crack initiation stress (beginning of stable propagation) and instable propagation stress may be plotted against the lengths of these cracks. For small and medium size, subject to ductile fracture, the resulting curves are identical, and may be used for ductile fracture prediction. Brittle rupture was observed on larger vessels and crack propagation occurred at lower stress level. Preceedings curves are not usable for fracture analysis. Ultimate pressure can be computed with a good accuracy by using equivalent energy toughness, Ksub(1cd), characteristic of the metal plates. Satisfactory measurements have been obtained on thin samples. The risks of brittle fracture may then judged by comparing Ksub(1cd) with the calculated K 1 value, in which corrections for vessel shape are taken into account. It is thus possible to establish the bursting pressure of cracked spherical vessels, with the help of two rules, one for brittle fracture, the other for ductile instability. A practical method is proposed on the basis of the work reported here

  7. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Wenxiang, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Xi, Yan, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Wang, Ge, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu [Biomedical Imaging Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  9. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Xi, Yan; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  10. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  11. The measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flows in a small diameter pipe using a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Bian, Peng; Han, Yun-Feng; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-01-01

    We design a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe to measure the flow parameters of gas–liquid two-phase flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 20 mm. The designed conductance probe consists of a phase volume fraction sensor (PVFS) and a cross-correlation velocity sensor (CCVS). Through inserting an insulated flow deflector in the central part of the pipe, the gas–liquid two-phase flows are forced to pass through an annual space. The multiple electrodes of the PVFS and the CCVS are flush-mounted on the inside of the pipe wall and the outside of the flow deflector, respectively. The geometry dimension of the PVFS is optimized based on the distribution characteristics of the sensor sensitivity field. In the flow loop test of vertical upward gas–liquid two-phase flows, the output signals from the dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe are collected by a data acquisition device from the National Instruments (NI) Corporation. The information transferring characteristics of local flow structures in the annular space are investigated using the transfer entropy theory. Additionally, the kinematic wave velocity is measured based on the drift velocity model to investigate the propagation behavior of the stable kinematic wave in the annular space. Finally, according to the motion characteristics of the gas–liquid two-phase flows, the drift velocity model based on the flow patterns is constructed to measure the individual phase flow rate with higher accuracy. (paper)

  12. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  13. Spherical subsystem of galactic radiosources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1975-05-01

    The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.

  14. Buckling strength of spherical shells under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, H.; Kokubo, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Hayasaka, Y.; Kume, T.; Nagata, T.

    1995-01-01

    Many studies on buckling of cylindrical shells have been conducted, and many buckling evaluation equations have been proposed for actual plant designs; however, buckling of spherical shells under combined horizontal and vertical loads cannot be evaluated due to insufficient data. There is a particular lack of buckling data for spherical shells under lateral loads. To establish a method for estimating the buckling strength of spherical shells, we investigate the interactions between horizontal and vertical (compressive tensile) loads by conducting buckling tests. Applying several combinations of these loads in tests and using computer linear analysis, we obtain interaction curves. This study reports on the buckling tests conducted using spherical shell 1120 mm in dia., 0.7 mm thick and 696 mm high, which are shaped individually by press-forming and finally joined together by four meridional welds, using a specially made jig. Initial imperfections before testing and local deformations after each loading increment during testing are measured with special measuring equipment, and the interaction curve of horizontal and vertical loads and effect of imperfection on the buckling strength of spherical shells are obtained. Nonlinear FEM programs are developed using an 8-node isoparametric shell element and a four-node quadrilateral element of C 0 type with reduced integration based upon a Mindlin-Reissner theory which includes transverse shear. Actual initial imperfections are generally in irregular patterns. Thus, there may be several definitions of the equivalent magnitudes of initial imperfections related to buckling loads. Equivalent magnitudes have no practical meaning unless they can be obtained easily not only for small structures such as test shells but also for large actual structures. In the present study, we define the equivalent magnitude of initial imperfections as the maximum local ruggedness measured radially from a circular temperature having a radius equal

  15. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  16. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  17. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation

  18. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  19. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  20. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  1. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...... a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit...

  3. Spherical bodies of constant width

    OpenAIRE

    Lassak, Marek; Musielak, Michał

    2018-01-01

    The intersection $L$ of two different non-opposite hemispheres $G$ and $H$ of a $d$-dimensional sphere $S^d$ is called a lune. By the thickness of $L$ we mean the distance of the centers of the $(d-1)$-dimensional hemispheres bounding $L$. For a hemisphere $G$ supporting a %spherical convex body $C \\subset S^d$ we define ${\\rm width}_G(C)$ as the thickness of the narrowest lune or lunes of the form $G \\cap H$ containing $C$. If ${\\rm width}_G(C) =w$ for every hemisphere $G$ supporting $C$, we...

  4. Photons in a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Vlad, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of black body radiation at the absolute temperature T, in an ideal spherical cavity of radius R, is studied. The departures from the classical predictions of Planck's theory, due to the discrete energies of the radiation quanta confined inside the cavity, depend on the adiabatic invariant RT and are significant for RT≤ 1 cm K. Special attention was paid to evidence sudden changes in the spectrum intensities, forbidden bands of frequency, as well as major modifications of the total energy for RT≤ 1 cm K. Similar effects were present in case of a cubic cavity too. (authors)

  5. Surface- and interface-plasmon modes on small semiconducting spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, D.; Colliex, C.; Trebbia, P.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the electronic properties of small particles is of major interest because of their intriguing physicochemical properties. The very small electron probes available in scanning transmission electron microscopes offer unique capabilities for investigating small particles with subnanometer spatial resolution. The correlation between electron-energy-loss spectra and energy-filtered images is of great help in pinpointing the excitations under study. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of collective excitation modes in the bulk and at the interfaces and surfaces of small spherical silicon particles covered with a thin oxide coating. Among other results, our experimental measurements have shown that there exists a surface-mode excitation at 3--4 eV, precisely localized on the external surface of the oxide layer. Classical dielectric theory is used in interpreting these results, by invoking the presence of an ultrathin conductive layer

  6. Tumour functional sphericity from PET images. Prognostic value in NSCLC and impact of delineation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Laurent, Baptiste; Fayad, Hadi; Jaouen, Vincent; Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, IBSAM, UBO, UBL, Brest (France); Cheze Le Rest, Catherine [LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, IBSAM, UBO, UBL, Brest (France); CHU Miletrie, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France)

    2018-04-15

    Sphericity has been proposed as a parameter for characterizing PET tumour volumes, with complementary prognostic value with respect to SUV and volume in both head and neck cancer and lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate its dependency on tumour delineation and the resulting impact on its prognostic value. Five segmentation methods were considered: two thresholds (40% and 50% of SUV{sub max}), ant colony optimization, fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), and gradient-aided region-based active contour. The accuracy of each method in extracting sphericity was evaluated using a dataset of 176 simulated, phantom and clinical PET images of tumours with associated ground truth. The prognostic value of sphericity and its complementary value with respect to volume for each segmentation method was evaluated in a cohort of 87 patients with stage II/III lung cancer. Volume and associated sphericity values were dependent on the segmentation method. The correlation between segmentation accuracy and sphericity error was moderate (ρ from 0.24 to 0.57). The accuracy in measuring sphericity was not dependent on volume (ρ < 0.4). In the patients with lung cancer, sphericity had prognostic value, although lower than that of volume, except for that derived using FLAB for which when combined with volume showed a small improvement over volume alone (hazard ratio 2.67, compared with 2.5). Substantial differences in patient prognosis stratification were observed depending on the segmentation method used. Tumour functional sphericity was found to be dependent on the segmentation method, although the accuracy in retrieving the true sphericity was not dependent on tumour volume. In addition, even accurate segmentation can lead to an inaccurate sphericity value, and vice versa. Sphericity had similar or lower prognostic value than volume alone in the patients with lung cancer, except when determined using the FLAB method for which there was a small

  7. On-Orbit Verification of Luminance Based Target Tracking and Faint Body Extractions by a Small Telescope on the World's First Micro-Interplanetary Space Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Ariu, Kaito; Ikari, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yosuke; Nagata, Kazutaka; Matsuguma, Toshihiro; Inamori, Takaya; Miyamura, Norihide; Funase, Ryu; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, low cost and quick development of very small satellites ranging from CubeSats of 1 kg to micro-satellites of approximately 50 kg have allowed advances in space development and application. Although most of these satellites are in Earth orbits, a small spacecraft for deep-space missions has been developed and launched for the first time in the world. The Proximate Object Close Flyby with Optical Navigation (PROCYON) micro-interplanetary spacecraft, developed by the University ...

  8. Theory of Langmuir probes in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudit, I.D.; Woods, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    A theory has been developed for electron retardation by Langmuir probes of several geometries in a general anisotropic plasma with arbitrary probe orientation and valid for any sheath thickness. Electron densities and electron velocity distribution functions (EVDFs) are obtained from the second derivative of probe I-V curves, as in Druyvesteyn's original method, which was developed for isotropic plasmas. Fedorov had extended the latter method in the context of a thin sheath approximation, to axisymmetric plasmas, in which the EVDF is expanded in a series of Legendary polynomials. In the present work an expansion in a series of spherical harmonics is employed, and the coordinate transformations are handled using the irreducible representation of the three dimensional rotation group. It is shown that the Volterra integral equations that must be solved to obtain the expansion coefficients of the EVDF from the second derivative data are no more complicated in the general case that hose for the axisymmetric plasma. Furthermore in the latter case the results can be shown to be equivalent to Fedrov's thin sheath expression. For the case of planar probes a formulation based on first derivatives of the I-V curves has been obtained. If data is obtained at enough different probe orientation of a one sided planar disc probe, any number of spherical harmonic coefficient functions may be obtained by inverting a set of linear equations and the complete EVDF deduced. For a cylindrical probe or a two-sided planar disc probe the integration of the second derivative of the probe current gives the exact electron density with any arbitrary probe orientation and any degree of plasma anisotropy

  9. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Interactions between charged spherical macroions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.J.; Falk, M.L.; Robbins, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to study the screened interactions between charged spherical macroions surrounded by discrete counterions, and to test previous theories of screening. The simulations were performed in the primitive cell of the bcc lattice, and in the spherical Wigner endash Seitz cell that is commonly used in approximate calculations. We found that the Wigner endash Seitz approximation is valid even at high volume fractions φ and large macroion charges Z, because the macroion charge becomes strongly screened. Pressures calculated from Poisson endash Boltzmann theory and local density functional theory deviate from MC values as φ and Z increase, but continue to provide upper and lower bounds for the MC results. While Debye endash Hueckel (DH) theory fails badly when the bare charge is used, MC pressures can be fit with an effective DH charge, Z DH , that is nearly independent of volume fraction. As Z diverges, Z DH saturates at zψ max R m /λ, where z is the counterion charge, R m is the macroion radius, λ is the Bjerrum length, and ψ max is a constant of order 10. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Ono

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000

  12. Casimir effect in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The analytic regularization method is applied to study the Casimir effect for spherical cavities. Although many works have been presented in the past few years, problems related to the elimination of the regulator parameter still remain. A way to calculate the zero point energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell which is a miscellaneous of those presented early is here proposed, How a cancelation of divergent terms occurs and how a finite parte is obtained after the elimination of the regulator parameter is shown. As a by-product the zero point energy of the interior vibration modes is obtained and this has some relevance to the quarks bag model. This relev ance is also discussed. The calculation of the energy fom the density view is also discussed. Some works in this field are criticized. The logarithmic divergent terms in the zero point energy are studied when the interior and exterior of the sphere are considered as a medium not dispersive and characterized by a dielectric constants ε 1 and ε 2 and peermeability constants μ 1 and μ 2 respectivelly. The logarithmic divergent terms are not present in the case of ε i μ i =K, with K some constant and i=1,2. (author) [pt

  13. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  14. Fluid Fuel Fluctuations in the Spherical Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many authors tried to solve a task concerning small fluctuations of the incompressible ideal liquid, which partially fills a stationary tank of any shape. There is a long list of references to this subject. The article presents a task solution on own fluctuations of liquid in spherical capacity, with boundary conditions on a free surface and a surface with a resistance – drain surface. Relevance of problem consists in assessment of influence of intra tank devices (measuring, intaking, damping devices, etc. on the liquid fuel fluctuations. The special attention is paid to finding the own values and frequencies of the equations of disturbed flow fluctuations with dissipation available on the boundary surfaces. In contrast to the previous examples, the lowering speed and the free surface area at undisturbed state are variable.The article also considers a variation formulation of the auxiliary boundary tasks. In solution of variation tasks, the attached Legendre's functions were used as coordinate functions. Further, after substitution of the variation tasks solution in the boundary conditions and the subsequent mathematical operations the characteristic equation was obtained. To obtain solutions of the cubic characteristic equation Cardano formulas were used. The article also considers the task on the own motions of liquid filling a capacity between two concentric spheres and flowing out via the intake in case there is a free surface. Reliability of the obtained numerical results is confirmed by comparison with calculation results of frequencies resulting from solutions of a task on the own fluctuations of liquid in the spherical capacity with the constant depth of liquid. All numerical calculations were performed using the Matlab environment.

  15. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin

    2013-12-23

    Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Theoretical study on the laser-driven ion-beam trace probe in toroidal devices with large poloidal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Xiao, C.; Chen, Y.; Xu, T.; Yu, Y.; Xu, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Lin, C.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a new diagnostic method, Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), has been proposed to reconstruct 2D profiles of the poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in the tokamak devices. A linear assumption and test particle model were used in those reconstructions. In some toroidal devices such as the spherical tokamak and the Reversal Field Pinch (RFP), Bp is not small enough to meet the linear assumption. In those cases, the error of reconstruction increases quickly when Bp is larger than 10% of the toroidal magnetic field (Bt), and the previous test particle model may cause large error in the tomography process. Here a nonlinear reconstruction method is proposed for those cases. Preliminary numerical results show that LITP could be applied not only in tokamak devices, but also in other toroidal devices, such as the spherical tokamak, RFP, etc.

  17. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  18. Plasma gradient effects on double-probe measurements in the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laakso

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects on double-probe electric field measurements induced by electron density and temperature gradients are investigated. We show that on some occasions such gradients may lead to marked spurious electric fields if the probes are assumed to lie at the same probe potential with respect to the plasma. The use of a proper bias current will decrease the magnitude of such an error. When the probes are near the plasma potential, the magnitude of these error signals, ∆E, can vary as ∆E ~ Te(∆ne/ne+0.5∆Te, where Te is the electron temperature, ∆ne/ne the relative electron density variation between the two sensors, and ∆Te the electron temperature difference between the two sensors. This not only implies that the error signals will increase linearly with the density variations but also that such signatures grow with Te, i.e., such effects are 10 times larger in a 10-eV plasma than in a 1-eV plasma. This type of error is independent of the probe separation distance provided the gradient scale length is much larger than this distance. The largest errors occur when the probes are near to the plasma potential. At larger positive probe potentials with respect to the plasma potential, the error becomes smaller if the probes are biased, as is usually the case with spherical double-probe experiments in the tenuous magnetospheric plasmas. The crossing of a plasma boundary (like the plasmapause or magnetopause yields an error signal of a single peak. During the crossing of a small structure (e.g., a double layer the error signal appears as a bipolar signature. Our analysis shows that errors in double-probe measurements caused by plasma gradients are not significant at large scale (»1 km plasma boundaries, and may only be important in cases where small-scale (<1 km, internal gradient structures exist. Bias currents tailored for each plasma parameter regime (i.e., variable bias current would o1q1improve the double-probe response to gradient

  19. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  20. The ETE spherical Tokamak project. IAEA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Del Bosco, E.; Berni, L.A.; Ferreira, J.G.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of October, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  1. Spherical sila- and germa-homoaromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongfang; Hirsch, Andreas; Nagase, Shigeru; Thiel, Walter; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2003-12-17

    Guided by the 2(N + 1)2 electron-counting rule for spherical aromatic molecules, we have designed various spherical sila- and germa-homoaromatic systems rich in group 14 elements. Their aromaticity is revealed by density-functional computations of their structures and the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). Besides the formerly used endohedral inclusion strategy, spherical homoaromaticity is another way to stabilize silicon and germanium clusters.

  2. Fabrication of Spherical AlSi10Mg Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Spherical AlSi10Mg powders were prepared by radio frequency plasma spheroidization from commercial AlSi10Mg powders. The fabrication process parameters and powder characteristics were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, laser particle size analyzer, powder rheometer, and UV/visible/infrared spectrophotometer were used for analyses and measurements of micrographs, phases, granulometric parameters, flowability, and laser absorption properties of the powders, respectively. The results show that the obtained spherical powders exhibit good sphericity, smooth surfaces, favorable dispersity, and excellent fluidity under appropriate feeding rate and flow rate of carrier gas. Further, acicular microstructures of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders are composed of α-Al, Si, and a small amount of Mg2Si phase. In addition, laser absorption values of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders increase obviously compared with raw material, and different spectra have obvious absorption peaks at a wavelength of about 826 nm.

  3. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  4. WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljebotn, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L 2 log 2 L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L ∼ 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.

  5. Tumour functional sphericity from PET images: prognostic value in NSCLC and impact of delineation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Laurent, Baptiste; Fayad, Hadi; Jaouen, Vincent; Visvikis, Dimitris; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze

    2018-04-01

    Sphericity has been proposed as a parameter for characterizing PET tumour volumes, with complementary prognostic value with respect to SUV and volume in both head and neck cancer and lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate its dependency on tumour delineation and the resulting impact on its prognostic value. Five segmentation methods were considered: two thresholds (40% and 50% of SUV max ), ant colony optimization, fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), and gradient-aided region-based active contour. The accuracy of each method in extracting sphericity was evaluated using a dataset of 176 simulated, phantom and clinical PET images of tumours with associated ground truth. The prognostic value of sphericity and its complementary value with respect to volume for each segmentation method was evaluated in a cohort of 87 patients with stage II/III lung cancer. Volume and associated sphericity values were dependent on the segmentation method. The correlation between segmentation accuracy and sphericity error was moderate (|ρ| from 0.24 to 0.57). The accuracy in measuring sphericity was not dependent on volume (|ρ| value, although lower than that of volume, except for that derived using FLAB for which when combined with volume showed a small improvement over volume alone (hazard ratio 2.67, compared with 2.5). Substantial differences in patient prognosis stratification were observed depending on the segmentation method used. Tumour functional sphericity was found to be dependent on the segmentation method, although the accuracy in retrieving the true sphericity was not dependent on tumour volume. In addition, even accurate segmentation can lead to an inaccurate sphericity value, and vice versa. Sphericity had similar or lower prognostic value than volume alone in the patients with lung cancer, except when determined using the FLAB method for which there was a small improvement in stratification when the parameters were combined.

  6. How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…

  7. Spherical Tensor Calculus for Local Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    In 3D image processing tensors play an important role. While rank-1 and rank-2 tensors are well understood and commonly used, higher rank tensors are rare. This is probably due to their cumbersome rotation behavior which prevents a computationally efficient use. In this chapter we want to introduce the notion of a spherical tensor which is based on the irreducible representations of the 3D rotation group. In fact, any ordinary cartesian tensor can be decomposed into a sum of spherical tensors, while each spherical tensor has a quite simple rotation behavior. We introduce so called tensorial harmonics that provide an orthogonal basis for spherical tensor fields of any rank. It is just a generalization of the well known spherical harmonics. Additionally we propose a spherical derivative which connects spherical tensor fields of different degree by differentiation. Based on the proposed theory we present two applications. We propose an efficient algorithm for dense tensor voting in 3D, which makes use of tensorial harmonics decomposition of the tensor-valued voting field. In this way it is possible to perform tensor voting by linear-combinations of convolutions in an efficient way. Secondly, we propose an anisotropic smoothing filter that uses a local shape and orientation adaptive filter kernel which can be computed efficiently by the use spherical derivatives.

  8. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Perturbations in elastic constants and density distinguish a volume inhomogeneity from its homoge- neous surroundings. The equation of motion for the first order scattering is studied in the perturbed medium. The scattered waves are generated by the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity.

  9. Electrical properties of spherical syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, R S; Barcilon, V; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    Syncytial tissues consist of many cells whose intracellular spaces are electrically coupled one to another. Such tissues typically include narrow, tortuous extracellular space and often have specialized membranes at their outer surface. We derive differential equations to describe the potentials induced when a sinusoidal or steady current is applied to the intracellular space with a microelectrode. We derive solutions for spherical preparations with isotropic properties or with a particular anisotropy in effective extracellular and intracellular resistivities. Solutions are presented in an approximate form with a simple physical interpretation. The leading term in the intracellular potential describes an "isopotential" cell in which there is no spatial variation of intracellular potential. The leading term in the extracellular potential, and thus the potential across the inner membranes, varies with radial position, even at zero frequency. The next term of the potentials describes the direct effects of the point source of current and, for the parameters given here, acts as a series resistance producing a large local potential drop essentially independent of frequency. A lumped equivalent circuit describes the "low frequency" behavior of the syncytium, and a distributed circuit gives a reasonably accurate general description. Graphs of the spatial variation and frequency dependence of intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane potential are given, the response to sinusoidal currents is used to calculate numerically the response to a step function of current.

  10. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  11. Alfven Eigenmodes in spherical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, Mikhail P.; Sharapov, Sergei E.; Berk, Herbert L.; Pinches, Simon D.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities are often excited by fast super-Alfvenic ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) in plasmas of the spherical tokamaks START and MAST (toroidal magnetic confinement devices in which the minor a and major R 0 radii of the torus are comparable, R 0 /a≅1.2/1.8). These instabilities are seen as discrete weakly-damped toroidal and elliptical Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs and EAEs) with frequencies tracing in time the Alfven scaling with the equilibrium magnetic field and plasma density, or as energetic particle modes (EPMs) whose frequencies don't start from TAE-frequency and sweep down in time faster than the equilibrium parameters change. In some discharges the beam drives Aflvenic-type modes that start from the TAE frequency and sweep in both up- and down- directions. Such electromagnetic perturbations are interpreted as 'hole-clump' long-living nonlinear fluctuations of the fast ion distribution function predicted by Berk-Breizman-Petviashvili [Phys. Lett. A238 (1998) 408]. It is found on both START and MAST that the Alfven instabilities weaken in their mode amplitude and in the number of unstable modes as the pressure of the thermal plasma increases, in agreement with increased thermal ion Landau damping and the pressure effect on core-localised TAEs. (author)

  12. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  13. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  14. The spheric tokamak programme at Culham

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Spherical Tokamak (ST) is the low aspect ratio limit of the conventional tokamak, and appears to offer attractive physics properties in a simpler device. The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) experiment provided the world's first demonstration of the properties of hot plasmas in an ST configuration, and was operational at Culham from January 1991 to March 1998, obtaining plasma current of up to 300 kA and pulse durations of ∼ 50 ms. Its successor, MAST is scheduled to obtain first plasma in Autumn 1998 and is a purpose built, high vacuum machine designed to have a tenfold increase in plasma volume with plasma currents up to 2 MA. Current drive and heating will be by a combination of induction-compression as on START, a high-performance central solenoid, 1.5 MW ECRH and 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection. The promising results from START are reviewed, and the many challenges posed for the next generation of purpose-built STs (such as MAST) are described. (author)

  15. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  16. Laser driven compression and neutron generation with spherical shell targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Hammerling, P.; Johnson, R.R.; Kubis, J.J.; Mayer, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    Laser-driven implosion experiments using DT-gas-filled spherical glass-shell targets are described. Neutron yields to 5 x 10 7 are produced from implosions of small ( -- 55 μm-diameter) targets spherically illuminated with an on-target laser power of 0.4 terawatt. Nuclear reaction product diagnostics, X-ray pinhole photographs, fast-ion spectra and X-ray measurements are used in conjunction with hydrodynamic computer code simulations to investigate the implosion phenomenology as well as the target corona evolution. Simulations using completely classical effects are not able to describe the full range of experimental data. Electron or radiation preheating may be required to explain some implosion measurements. (auth.)

  17. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  18. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  19. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S{sup 4}MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Karin M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65213 (United States); Rubio, Monica [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Smith, J. D. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43603 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: sandstrom@mpia.de [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S{sup 4}MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 {mu}m features relative to the 11.3 {mu}m feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 {mu}m features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies-namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  20. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S4MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Karin M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B. T.; Ingalls, James G.; Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Jackson, James M.; Leroy, Adam K.; Li, Aigen; Rubio, Mónica; Simon, Joshua D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S 4 MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 μm features relative to the 11.3 μm feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 μm features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies—namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  1. Electromagnetic power flow between opposite sides of a lossy dielectric sphere using spherical vector wave expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of communication in near field region. The proposed example is the communication between two small antennas, which are modelled as an electric dipole antenna (transmitter) and a small box (receiver), near a sphere that models a head. Spherical vector wave...

  2. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  3. A Compact Magnetic Field-Based Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Miniature Spherical Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to their efficient locomotion and natural tolerance to hazardous environments, spherical robots have wide applications in security surveillance, exploration of unknown territory and emergency response. Numerous studies have been conducted on the driving mechanism, motion planning and trajectory tracking methods of spherical robots, yet very limited studies have been conducted regarding the obstacle avoidance capability of spherical robots. Most of the existing spherical robots rely on the “hit and run” technique, which has been argued to be a reasonable strategy because spherical robots have an inherent ability to recover from collisions. Without protruding components, they will not become stuck and can simply roll back after running into bstacles. However, for small scale spherical robots that contain sensitive surveillance sensors and cannot afford to utilize heavy protective shells, the absence of obstacle avoidance solutions would leave the robot at the mercy of potentially dangerous obstacles. In this paper, a compact magnetic field-based obstacle detection and avoidance system has been developed for miniature spherical robots. It utilizes a passive magnetic field so that the system is both compact and power efficient. The proposed system can detect not only the presence, but also the approaching direction of a ferromagnetic obstacle, therefore, an intelligent avoidance behavior can be generated by adapting the trajectory tracking method with the detection information. Design optimization is conducted to enhance the obstacle detection performance and detailed avoidance strategies are devised. Experimental results are also presented for validation purposes.

  4. Advanced spherical near-field antenna measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The DTU-ESA facility has since the 1980es provided highly accurate antenna radiation pattern measurements and gain calibration by use of the probe corrected spherical nearfield technique, both for ESA (the European Space Agency) and other customers and continues to do so. Recent years activities...... and research carried out at the facility are presented in the article. Since 2004 several antenna test facility comparison campaigns were carried out between a number of European antenna measurement facilities. The first campaigns laid the foundation for the later comparisons in providing experience...... in the period 2005–2006 following a series of investigatory measurements and facility updates during 2003–2005. Antenna diagnostics by a SWE-to-PWE transformation presents a case where highly accurate antenna measurements and a plane wave back-projection enable antenna diagnostics by examination...

  5. Imprints of spherical nontrivial topologies on the cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Anastasia; Jaffe, Andrew

    2007-08-24

    The apparent low power in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy power spectrum derived from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe motivated us to consider the possibility of a nontrivial topology. We focus on simple spherical multiconnected manifolds and discuss their implications for the CMB in terms of the power spectrum, maps, and the correlation matrix. We perform a Bayesian model comparison against the fiducial best-fit cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant based both on the power spectrum and the correlation matrix to assess their statistical significance. We find that the first-year power spectrum shows a slight preference for the truncated cube space, but the three-year data show no evidence for any of these spaces.

  6. New results from Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    New results from Globus-M spherical tokamak (ST) are presented. Reported are the achievements of high plasma current of 0.36 MA and high toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T. Plasma column stability in Globus-M is conserved at low edge safety factors and high plasma densities. Achieved lowest safety factor was q(cyl) 19 m -3 . New methods of density increase are discussed. Low-density boarder of operational space is investigated. Runaway electrons properties and conditions of their generation are investigated. Results look promising for STs. Plasma-wall interaction study was performed. Silicon probes were installed into vacuum vessel. They were exposed to boronization, first, and then deposited film interacted with plasma. Discussed are film properties. Briefly described are new diagnostic tools installed on tokamak. Status and preliminary results obtained with auxiliary heating systems are shown. (author)

  7. with Spherical Scanning Using the Minimum Number of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two efficient probe-compensated near-field-far-field transformations with spherical scanning for antennas having two dimensions very different from the third one are here developed. They rely on the nonredundant sampling representations of the electromagnetic fields and on the optimal sampling interpolation expansions, and use effective antenna modellings. In particular, an antenna with a predominant dimension is no longer considered as enclosed in a sphere but in a cylinder ended in two half spheres, whereas a surface formed by two circular “bowls” with the same aperture diameter but different lateral bends is adopted to shape an antenna with two predominant dimensions. These modellings are able to fit very well a lot of antennas by properly setting their geometric parameters. It is so possible to remarkably lower the number of data to be acquired, thus significantly reducing the measurement time. Numerical tests assessing the accuracy and the robustness of the techniques are reported.

  8. Monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemin, V.; Uribe, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this article we show that monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum can be interpreted as a Maslov effect: i.e. as multi-valuedness of a certain generating function of the quantum energy levels. (orig.)

  9. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  10. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  11. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  12. Feasibility study for the Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Baylor, L.R.

    1985-10-01

    The design of the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) is discussed. The physics of the plasma are given in a magnetohydrodynamic model. The structural aspects and instrumentation of the device are described. 19 refs., 103 figs

  13. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  14. Confinement of Neutral Beam Ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The loss of neutral-beam ions to the wall has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by means of thermocouples, an infrared (IR) camera, and a Faraday cup probe. The losses tend to exhibit the expected dependences on plasma current, tangency radius of the injector, and plasma outer gap. However, the thermocouples and the Faraday cups indicate substantially different levels of loss and this difference has yet to be understood

  15. Spherical model for superfluidity in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, S.; Ziman, T.A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The spherical model is solved on a hypercubic lattice in d dimensions, each bond of which is decorated with l spins. The thermodynamic functions and the helicity modulus, analogous to a superfluid density, are calculated. We find that at least two spherical fields are required for the model to exhibit low-temperature properties that can approximate reasonably those of O(n) models. The heuristic prediction that the critical temperature behaves as T/sub c/(l)approx.(l+1) -1 is checked for the model and found to hold quite accurately even for small l(> or approx. =2). The helicity modulus and magnetization of the two-constraint spherical model are found to scale approximately with the critical temperature, but the relation between them is more complex than in the undecorated model. This relation is used to check heuristic arguments concerning the helicity modulus at low temperatures. We comment on the relevance to physical systems, in particular, the problem of boson condensation in a restricted geometry

  16. Visual Detection and Tracking System for a Spherical Amphibious Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxiang; Pan, Shaowu; Shi, Liwei; Guo, Ping; He, Yanlin; Tang, Kun

    2017-04-15

    With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system was designed and implemented in this study. Given the restrictions presented by the amphibious environment and the small-sized spherical amphibious robot, an industrial camera and vision algorithms using adaptive appearance models were adopted to construct the proposed system. To handle the problem of light scattering and absorption in the underwater environment, the multi-scale retinex with color restoration algorithm was used for image enhancement. Given the environmental disturbances in practical amphibious scenarios, the Gaussian mixture model was used to detect moving targets entering the field of view of the robot. A fast compressive tracker with a Kalman prediction mechanism was used to track the specified target. Considering the limited load space and the unique mechanical structure of the robot, the proposed vision system was fabricated with a low power system-on-chip using an asymmetric and heterogeneous computing architecture. Experimental results confirmed the validity and high efficiency of the proposed system. The design presented in this paper is able to meet future demands of spherical amphibious robots in biological monitoring and multi-robot cooperation.

  17. Visual Detection and Tracking System for a Spherical Amphibious Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxiang; Pan, Shaowu; Shi, Liwei; Guo, Ping; He, Yanlin; Tang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system was designed and implemented in this study. Given the restrictions presented by the amphibious environment and the small-sized spherical amphibious robot, an industrial camera and vision algorithms using adaptive appearance models were adopted to construct the proposed system. To handle the problem of light scattering and absorption in the underwater environment, the multi-scale retinex with color restoration algorithm was used for image enhancement. Given the environmental disturbances in practical amphibious scenarios, the Gaussian mixture model was used to detect moving targets entering the field of view of the robot. A fast compressive tracker with a Kalman prediction mechanism was used to track the specified target. Considering the limited load space and the unique mechanical structure of the robot, the proposed vision system was fabricated with a low power system-on-chip using an asymmetric and heterogeneous computing architecture. Experimental results confirmed the validity and high efficiency of the proposed system. The design presented in this paper is able to meet future demands of spherical amphibious robots in biological monitoring and multi-robot cooperation. PMID:28420134

  18. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  19. Primitive chain network simulations of probe rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yuichi; Amamoto, Yoshifumi; Pandey, Ankita; Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2017-09-27

    Probe rheology experiments, in which the dynamics of a small amount of probe chains dissolved in immobile matrix chains is discussed, have been performed for the development of molecular theories for entangled polymer dynamics. Although probe chain dynamics in probe rheology is considered hypothetically as single chain dynamics in fixed tube-shaped confinement, it has not been fully elucidated. For instance, the end-to-end relaxation of probe chains is slower than that for monodisperse melts, unlike the conventional molecular theories. In this study, the viscoelastic and dielectric relaxations of probe chains were calculated by primitive chain network simulations. The simulations semi-quantitatively reproduced the dielectric relaxation, which reflects the effect of constraint release on the end-to-end relaxation. Fair agreement was also obtained for the viscoelastic relaxation time. However, the viscoelastic relaxation intensity was underestimated, possibly due to some flaws in the model for the inter-chain cross-correlations between probe and matrix chains.

  20. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  1. Plasma density measurement with ring-type cutoff probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.; You, S.J.; Na, B.K.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, Y.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Oh, W.Y.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a cutoff probe with a ring-type detection tip enclosing a bar-type radiation tip. A comparative study between a proposed ring-type cutoff (RTC) probe and a conventional bar-type cutoff (BTC) probe showed that the RTC probe solved the problem of the BTC probe, the large measurement uncertainty of the electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma source. This improved characteristics of the RTC probe might have originated from the geometrical structure of the RTC probe concerning the monopole antennae radiation. This proposed cutoff probe can be expected to expand the applicable diagnostic range and to enhance the sensitivity of the cutoff probe. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe with a ring type detection tip is proposed. ► Comparative experiment and simulation were conducted. ► The proposed probe showed a small uncertainty of measured plasma density. ► Improved characteristics might be originated from the geometrical structure

  2. Note: Attenuation motion of acoustically levitated spherical rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, P.; Hong, Z. Y.; Yin, J. F.; Yan, N.; Zhai, W.; Wang, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Here we observe the attenuation motion of spherical rotors levitated by near-field acoustic radiation force and analyze the factors that affect the duration time of free rotation. It is found that the rotating speed of freely rotating rotor decreases exponentially with respect to time. The time constant of exponential attenuation motion depends mainly on the levitation height, the mass of rotor, and the depth of concave ultrasound emitter. Large levitation height, large mass of rotor, and small depth of concave emitter are beneficial to increase the time constant and hence extend the duration time of free rotation.

  3. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  4. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  5. Double Layer of a Gold Electrode Probed by AFM Force Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, D.; Kleijn, J.M.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lyklema, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy was used to determine the electric double layer interactions between a gold electrode and a spherical silica probe. The double layer properties of the gold/solution interface were varied through the pH and salt concentration of the electrolyte, as well as by

  6. Probing polymer nanocomposite morphology by small angle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyamide nanocomposite films were prepared from nanometer-sized silica particles having particle radius of gyration (g) of about 66 Å and trimesoyl chloride--phenylene diamine-based polyamides having macromolecular units of about 100-140 Å. The nanoscale morphology of the samples was characterized using ...

  7. Probing the small distance structure of canonical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.

    2010-01-01

    In canonical quantum gravity, the formal functional integral includes an integration over the local conformal factor, and we propose to perform the functional integral over this factor before doing any of the other functional integrals. By construction, the resulting effective theory would be

  8. Holographic probes of collapsing black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maxfield, Henry

    2014-01-01

    We continue the programme of exploring the means of holographically decoding the geometry of spacetime inside a black hole using the gauge/gravity correspondence. To this end, we study the behaviour of certain extremal surfaces (focusing on those relevant for equal-time correlators and entanglement entropy in the dual CFT) in a dynamically evolving asymptotically AdS spacetime, specifically examining how deep such probes reach. To highlight the novel effects of putting the system far out of equilibrium and at finite volume, we consider spherically symmetric Vaidya-AdS, describing black hole formation by gravitational collapse of a null shell, which provides a convenient toy model of a quantum quench in the field theory. Extremal surfaces anchored on the boundary exhibit rather rich behaviour, whose features depend on dimension of both the spacetime and the surface, as well as on the anchoring region. The main common feature is that they reach inside the horizon even in the post-collapse part of the geometry. In 3-dimensional spacetime, we find that for sub-AdS-sized black holes, the entire spacetime is accessible by the restricted class of geodesics whereas in larger black holes a small region near the imploding shell cannot be reached by any boundary-anchored geodesic. In higher dimensions, the deepest reach is attained by geodesics which (despite being asymmetric) connect equal time and antipodal boundary points soon after the collapse; these can attain spacetime regions of arbitrarily high curvature and simultaneously have smallest length. Higher-dimensional surfaces can penetrate the horizon while anchored on the boundary at arbitrarily late times, but are bounded away from the singularity. We also study the details of length or area growth during thermalization. While the area of extremal surfaces increases monotonically, geodesic length is neither monotonic nor continuous

  9. Thermo-mechanical screening tests to qualify beryllium pebble beds with non-spherical pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.reimann@partner.kit.edu [IKET, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fretz, Benjamin [KBHF GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pupeschi, Simone [IAM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. • Spherical pebbles are considered as the candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest. • Thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for non-spherical beryllium grades. • Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT) were used to measure the stress–strain relations and the thermal conductivity. • A small experimental set-up had to be used and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance. • Compared to spherical pebble beds, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer and mainly the thermal conductivity is lower. - Abstract: In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. Fairly spherical pebbles are considered as a candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest because production costs are much lower. Yet, thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for these beryllium grades, and the blanket relevant potential of these grades cannot be judged. Screening experiments were performed with three different grades of non-spherical beryllium pebbles, produced by different companies, accompanied by experiments with the reference beryllium pebble beds. Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT), were performed to measure both the stress–strain relation and the thermal conductivity, k, at different stress levels. Because of the limited amounts of the non-spherical materials, the experimental set-ups were small and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance in order to prove that the used design was appropriate. Compared to the pebble beds consisting of spherical pebbles, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer (smaller stress for a given strain), and, mainly as a consequence of this, for a given strain value, the thermal conductivity is lower. This

  10. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  11. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  12. ELSA- The European Levitated Spherical Actruator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Serin, J.; Telteu-Nedelcu, D.; De La Vallee Poussin, H.; Onillon, E.; Rossini, L.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction sphere is a magnetic bearing spherical actuator consisting of a permanent magnet spherical rotor that can be accelerated in any direction. It consists of an 8-pole permanent magnet spherical rotor that is magnetically levitated and can be accelerated about any axis by a 20-pole stator with electromagnets. The spherical actuator is proposed as a potential alternative to traditional momentum exchange devices such as reaction wheels (RWs) or control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). This new actuator provides several benefits such as reduced mass and power supply allocated to the attitude and navigation unit, performance gain, and improved reliability due to the absence of mechanical bearings. The paper presents the work done on the levitated spherical actuator and more precisely the electrical drive including its control unit and power parts. An elegant breadboard is currently being manufactured within the frame of an FP7 project. This project also comprises a feasibility study to show the feasibility of integrating such a system on a flight platform and to identify all the challenges to be solved in terms of technology or components to be developed.

  13. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, P. S., E-mail: Ants@isan.troitsk.ru; Dorokhin, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30–40 kA and a rise rate of ~10{sup 12} A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  14. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  16. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  17. The spherical harmonics method, II (application to problems with plane and spherical symmetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1958-12-15

    The application of the spherical harmonic method to problems with plane or spherical symmetry is discussed in detail. The numerical results of some applications already made are included to indicate the degree of convergence obtained. Formulae for dealing with distributions of isotropic sources are developed. Tables useful in applying the method are given in Section 11. (author)

  18. Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, J.

    2018-05-01

    We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.

  19. Electromagnetic cloaking in higher order spherical cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhwa, H. H.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The inception of transformation optics has led to the realisation of the invisibility devices for various applications, one of which is spherical cloaking. In this paper, a formulation for a higher-order spherical cloak has been proposed to reduce its physical thickness significantly by introducing a nonlinear relation between the original and transformed coordinate systems and it has been verified using the ray tracing approach. Analysis has been carried out to observe the anomalies in the variation of refractive index for higher order cloaks indicating the presence of poles in the relevant equations. Furthermore, a higher-order spherical cloak with predefined values of the material characteristics on its inner and outer surfaces has been designed for practical application.

  20. A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.

  1. Spherical tokamak power plant design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Bond, A.; Edwards, J.; Karditsas, P.J.; McClements, K.G.; Mustoe, J.; Sherwood, D.V.; Voss, G.M.; Wilson, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    The very high β potential of the spherical tokamak has been demonstrated in the START experiment. Systems code studies show the cost of electricity from spherical tokamak power plants, operating at high β in second ballooning mode stable regime, is comparable with fossil fuels and fission. Outline engineering designs are presented based on two concepts for the central rod of the toroidal field (TF) circuit - a room temperature water cooled copper rod or a helium cooled cryogenic aluminium rod. For the copper rod case the TF return limbs are supported by the vacuum vessel, while for the aluminium rod the TF coils form an independent structure. In both cases thermohydraulic and stress calculations indicate the viability of the design. Two-dimensional neutronics calculations show the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency without an inboard blanket. The spherical tokamak has unique maintenance possibilities based on lowering major component structures into a hot cell beneath the device and these are discussed

  2. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  3. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  4. Flow and scour around spherical bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer

    2003-01-01

    Spherical bodies placed in the marine environment may bury themselves due to the action of the waves and the current on the sediment in their immediate neighborhood. The present study addresses this topic by a numerical and an experimental investigation of the flow and scour around a spherical body...... results except in the critical flow regime. For flow around a near-wall sphere, a weak horseshoe vortex emerges as the gap ratio becomes less than or equal to 0.3. In Chapter 3, a RANS flow solver has been used to compute the bed shear stress for a near-wall sphere. The model results compare well...... 4, an experimental study on the scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in sand for steady current and waves has been carried out. The effect of the contraction of streamlines is found to be the key element in the scour process both for steady current and waves. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  5. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  6. Development of a contact probe incorporating a Bragg grating strain sensor for nano coordinate measuring machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, H; Hsu, H-Y; Kong, L X; Wedding, A B

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fibre based micro contact probe system with high sensitivity and repeatability. In this optical fibre probe with a fused spherical tip, a fibre Bragg grating has been utilized as a strain sensor in the probe stem. When the probe tip contacts the surface of the part, a strain will be induced along the probe stem and will produce a Bragg wavelength shift. The contact signal can be issued once the wavelength shift signal is produced and demodulated. With the fibre grating sensor element integrated into the probe directly, the probe system shows a high sensitivity. In this work, the strain distributions along the probe stem with the probe under axial and lateral load are analysed. A simulation of the strain distribution was performed using the finite element package ANSYS 11. Performance tests using a piezoelectric transducer stage with a displacement resolution of 1.5 nm yielded a measurement resolution of 60 nm under axial loading

  7. Studies of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results from studies of Spherical Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (SIEC) are presented. This principle of IEC involves the confinement by multiple potential wells created by ion injection into a spherical device containing biased grids. A semitransparent cathode accelerates ions, generating a spherical ion-beam flow which converges at the center of the spherical volume, creating a space charge (potential well) region. An electron flow is created by the core (virtual anode) region, forming in turn a virtual cathode. Ions trapped inside this well oscillate back and forth until they fuse or degrade in energy. Such multiple wells with virtual anodes and cathodes, have been called ''Poissors'' following the original work by Farnsworth and by Hirsch. Fusion within the core occurs by reactions between non-Maxwellian beam-beam type ions. This has the potential for achieving a high power density and also for burning both D-T and advanced fuels. If successful, such a device would be attractive for a variety of high power density applications, e.g., space power or as a neutron source based on D-D or D-T operation. Simulations of recent SIEC experiments have been carried out using the XL-code, to solve Poisson's equation, self-consistently with the collisionless Vlasov equation in spherical geometry for several current species and grid parameters. The potential profile predictions are reasonably consistent with experimental results. Potential well measurements used a collimated proton detector. Results indicate that an ∼ 15-kV virtual anode, at least one centimeter in radius, was formed in a spherical device with a cathode potential of 30 kV using an ion current of ∼ 30 mA. Analysis indicates D + densities on the order of 10 9 cm -3 , and D 2 + densities on the order of 10 10 cm -3 . Steady-state D-D neutron emission of about 10 6 n/sec is observed

  8. Theory of axially symmetric probes in a collisionless magnetoplasma: Aligned spheroids, finite cylinders, and disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.; Laframboise, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A theory is presented for current collection by electrostatic probes in a collisionless, Maxwellian plasma containing a uniform magnetic field B, where the probes are spheroids or finite cylinders whose axis of symmetry is aligned with B, or disks perpendicular to B. The theory yields upper-bound and adiabatic-limit currents for the attracted particle species. For the repelled species, it yields upper and lower bounds. This work is an extension of existing theory for spherical probes by Rubinstein and Laframboise

  9. Accuracy of Topcon CM-1000 videokeratoscope on spherical test surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Yern, E; Fimia-Gil, A; Mateos, F; Carretero, L

    1997-01-01

    Many videokeratoscopes use mathematical formulas to calculate corneal radii; calculations depend on slope, curvature, coordinate position, or focal properties of the surface. Accuracy of each type of videokeratoscope must be evaluated. A controversy exists about whether axial or tangential methods best provide a precise description of corneal shape; therefore results with the Topcon CM-1000 using both methods were evaluated. Measurements were done on black polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spherical calibrated surfaces. Lenses were first aligned and measured and then misaligned in different directions and measured. Results for each position were compared with the zero or alignment position. Accuracy of the CM-1000 was high even under extreme misalignment conditions. Tolerance to misalignment was high (about 300 mm). Misalignment-induced variations in the output results were small (usually less than 0.05 mm). However, important variations (more than 1.00 diopter [D]) were found for the lowest measured radius (6 mm). In some cases, small differences between axial and tangential radii for the same point could be found. With the exception of extremely low radii of curvature, the CM-1000 was accurate for measuring spherical surfaces. Further investigation remains to be done on aspheric surfaces and in clinical practice.

  10. Coherent radiation by a spherical medium of resonant atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sudhakar; Glauber, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation by the atoms of a resonant medium is a cooperative process in which the medium participates as a whole. In two previous papers we treated this problem for the case of a medium having slab geometry, which, under plane-wave excitation, supports coherent waves that propagate in one dimension. We extend the treatment here to the three-dimensional problem, focusing principally on the case of spherical geometry. By regarding the radiation field as a superposition of electric and magnetic multipole fields of different orders, we express it in terms of suitably defined scalar fields. The latter fields possess a sequence of exponentially decaying eigenmodes corresponding to each multipole order. We consider several examples of spherically symmetric initial excitations of a sphere. Small uniformly excited spheres, we find, tend to radiate superradiantly, while the radiation from a large sphere with an initially excited inner core exhibits temporal oscillations that result from the participation of a large number of coherently excited amplitudes in different modes. The frequency spectrum of the emitted radiation possesses a rich structure, including a frequency gap for large spheres and sharply defined and closely spaced peaks caused by the small frequency shifts and even smaller decay rates characteristic of the majority of eigenmodes.

  11. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Development of a spherical neutron rem monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.G.; Madhavi, V.; Bansode, P.Y.; Jakati, R.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Desai, S.S.; Shaikh, A.M.; Sathian, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new neutron rem monitor based on spherical LINUS with the state of art electronic circuits has been designed in Electronics Division. This prototype instrument encompasses a spherical double polythene moderator to improve an isotropic response and a lead layer to extend its energy response compared to the conventional neutron rem monitors. A systematic testing and calibration of the energy and directional response of the prototype monitor have been carried out. Although the monitor is expected to perform satisfactorily upto an energy ∼ 55 MeV, at present its response has been tested upto 5 MeV. (author)

  13. Experimental studies of the large Debye length probe theory in a continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuma, M.; Chen, S.

    1977-01-01

    The Laplace limit probe theory for continuum plasmas, i.e., probe theory under the condition r/sub p//lambda/sub D/→0, where r/sub p/ is probe radius and lambda/sub D/ is Debye length, has been experimentally studied. The results show that the application limit of this theory is r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.44 for a spherical probe and r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.23 for a cylindrical probe

  14. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  15. Application of spherical diodes for megavoltage photon beams dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbés, Benigno; Azcona, Juan D.; Burguete, Javier; Martí-Climent, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) usually uses heterogeneous dose distributions in a given volume. Designing detectors for quality control of these treatments is still a developing subject. The size of the detectors should be small to enhance spatial resolution and ensure low perturbation of the beam. A high uniformity in angular response is also a very important feature in a detector, because it has to measure radiation coming from all the directions of the space. It is also convenient that detectors are inexpensive and robust, especially to performin vivo measurements. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new detector for measuring megavoltage photon beams and to assess its performance to measure relative dose in EBRT. Methods: The detector studied in this work was designed as a spherical photodiode (1.8 mm in diameter). The change in response of the spherical diodes is measured regarding the angle of incidence, cumulated irradiation, and instantaneous dose rate (or dose per pulse). Additionally, total scatter factors for large and small fields (between 1 × 1 cm 2 and 20 × 20 cm 2 ) are evaluated and compared with the results obtained from some commercially available ionization chambers and planar diodes. Additionally, the over-response to low energy scattered photons in large fields is investigated using a shielding layer. Results: The spherical diode studied in this work produces a high signal (150 nC/Gy for photons of nominal energy of 15 MV and 160 for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and its angular dependence is lower than that of planar diodes: less than 5% between maximum and minimum in all directions, and 2% around one of the axis. It also has a moderated variation with accumulated dose (about 1.5%/kGy for 15 MV photons and 0.7%/kGy for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and a low variation with dose per pulse (±0.4%), and its behavior is similar to commercial diodes in total scatter factor measurements. Conclusions: The measurements of relative dose using

  16. Application of spherical diodes for megavoltage photon beams dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbés, Benigno; Azcona, Juan D; Burguete, Javier; Martí-Climent, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) usually uses heterogeneous dose distributions in a given volume. Designing detectors for quality control of these treatments is still a developing subject. The size of the detectors should be small to enhance spatial resolution and ensure low perturbation of the beam. A high uniformity in angular response is also a very important feature in a detector, because it has to measure radiation coming from all the directions of the space. It is also convenient that detectors are inexpensive and robust, especially to perform in vivo measurements. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new detector for measuring megavoltage photon beams and to assess its performance to measure relative dose in EBRT. The detector studied in this work was designed as a spherical photodiode (1.8 mm in diameter). The change in response of the spherical diodes is measured regarding the angle of incidence, cumulated irradiation, and instantaneous dose rate (or dose per pulse). Additionally, total scatter factors for large and small fields (between 1 × 1 cm(2) and 20 × 20 cm(2)) are evaluated and compared with the results obtained from some commercially available ionization chambers and planar diodes. Additionally, the over-response to low energy scattered photons in large fields is investigated using a shielding layer. The spherical diode studied in this work produces a high signal (150 nC/Gy for photons of nominal energy of 15 MV and 160 for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and its angular dependence is lower than that of planar diodes: less than 5% between maximum and minimum in all directions, and 2% around one of the axis. It also has a moderated variation with accumulated dose (about 1.5%/kGy for 15 MV photons and 0.7%/kGy for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and a low variation with dose per pulse (± 0.4%), and its behavior is similar to commercial diodes in total scatter factor measurements. The measurements of relative dose using the spherical diode described in this

  17. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  18. Preparations of spherical polymeric particles from Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spherical Polymeric Particles (SPP) have been prepared from Tanzanian Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) by suspension polymerization technique involving either step-growth or chain- growth polymerization mechanisms. The sizes of the SPP, which ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm were strongly influenced by the amounts of ...

  19. Sphericity in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.

    1977-01-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) of Arima and Iachello is examined. The transition between the rotational and vibrational modes of even-even nuclei is presented as a function of a sphericity parameter, which is determined primarily from yrast band spectra. The backbending feature is reasonably reproduced. (author)

  20. Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...

  1. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  2. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses

    2009-01-01

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  3. MAST: a Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darke, A.C.; Harbar, J.R.; Hay, J.H.; Hicks, J.B.; Hill, J.W.; McKenzie, J.S.; Morris, A.W.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Todd, T.N.; Voss, G.M.; Watkins, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The highly successful tight aspect ratio tokamak research pioneered on the START machine at Culham, together with the attractive possibilities of the concept, suggest a larger device should be considered. The design of a Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak is described, operating at much higher currents and over longer pulses than START and compatible with strong additional heating. (orig.)

  4. A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…

  5. Sparse acoustic imaging with a spherical array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Xenaki, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of methods for sound source localization and sound field reconstruction with spherical microphone arrays have been proposed. These arrays have properties that are potentially very useful, e.g. omni-directionality, robustness, compensable scattering, etc. This paper propo...

  6. Validity of spherical quantitative refractometry: application to laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benattar, R.; Popovics, C.

    1983-01-01

    We report an experimental laser technique of quantitative Schlieren imaging of spherical plasmas combined with streak camera recording. We show that quantitative refractometry applies for small values of refraction angles, i.e., when the law giving the refraction angle versus the impact parameter of rays passing through the plasma is a linearly decreasing function

  7. Quality control of radiosurgery: dosimetry with micro camera in spherical mannequin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Villalon, F. J.; Navarro Guirado, F.; Garci Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Moreno Saiz, C.

    2013-01-01

    The dosimetry of small field is part of quality control in the treatment of cranial radiosurgery. In this work the results of absorbed dose in the isocenter, Planner, with those obtained from are compared experimentally with a micro-camera into an spherical mannequin. (Author)

  8. Control and Data Acquisition for the Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA-CR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christian; Gonzalez, Jeferson; Carvajal, Johan; Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R loan to our laboratory via NI-Costa Rica. The interface with the energy, gas fueling, and security systems are also presented. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contract 17592, National Instruments of Costa Rica.

  9. A cable-free impedance and gain measurement technique for electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    are represented in terms of spherical wave expansions (SWEs), and the propagation is accounted for by a transmission formula. In this paper the measurement results by the proposed technique will be presented for several AUTs, including a standard gain horn antenna, a monopole antenna, and an electrically small......Impedance and gain measurements for electrically small antennas represent a great challenge due to influences of the feeding cable. The leaking current along the cable and scattering effects are two main issues caused by the feed line. In this paper, a novel cable-free antenna impedance and gain...... measurement technique for electrically small antennas is proposed. The antenna properties are extracted by measuring the signal scattered by the antenna under test (AUT), when it is loaded with three known loads. The technique is based on a rigorous electromagnetic model where the probe and AUT...

  10. Spherical Bessel transform via exponential sum approximation of spherical Bessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu

    2018-02-01

    A new algorithm for numerical evaluation of spherical Bessel transform is proposed in this paper. In this method, the spherical Bessel function is approximately represented as an exponential sum with complex parameters. This is obtained by expressing an integral representation of spherical Bessel function in complex plane, and discretizing contour integrals along steepest descent paths and a contour path parallel to real axis using numerical quadrature rule with the double-exponential transformation. The number of terms in the expression is reduced using the modified balanced truncation method. The residual part of integrand is also expanded by exponential functions using Prony-like method. The spherical Bessel transform can be evaluated analytically on arbitrary points in half-open interval.

  11. Eigenmodes of three-dimensional spherical spaces and their application to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Weeks, Jeffrey; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Gausmann, Evelise; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian operator in multi-connected three-dimensional spherical spaces. General mathematical results and analytical solutions for lens and prism spaces are presented. Three complementary numerical methods are developed and compared with our analytic results and previous investigations. The cosmological applications of these results are discussed, focusing on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In particular, whereas in the Euclidean case too-small universes are excluded by present CMB data, in the spherical case, candidate topologies will always exist even if the total energy density parameter of the universe is very close to unity

  12. Eigenmodes of three-dimensional spherical spaces and their application to cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Roland [CE-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Weeks, Jeffrey [15 Farmer St, Canton, NY 13617-1120 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO, CNRS-FRE 2435, 98 bis, Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Gausmann, Evelise [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Rua Pamplona, 145 Bela Vista - Sao Paulo - SP, CEP 01405-900 (Brazil); Luminet, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Univers et Theories, CNRS-FRE 2462, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2002-09-21

    This paper investigates the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian operator in multi-connected three-dimensional spherical spaces. General mathematical results and analytical solutions for lens and prism spaces are presented. Three complementary numerical methods are developed and compared with our analytic results and previous investigations. The cosmological applications of these results are discussed, focusing on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In particular, whereas in the Euclidean case too-small universes are excluded by present CMB data, in the spherical case, candidate topologies will always exist even if the total energy density parameter of the universe is very close to unity.

  13. Biasing, acquisition, and interpretation of a dense Langmuir probe array in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ruzic, D. N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 60181 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of electronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe, and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer SOL current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful interpretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in complementary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to midplane measurements is made.

  14. Biasing, Acquisition and Interpretation of a Dense Langmuir Probe Array in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M.A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D.

    2010-01-01

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiments (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of elec- tronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer (SOL) current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful inter- pretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in comple- mentary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to mid-plane measurements is made.

  15. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  16. Towards a Prototype of a Spherical Tippe Top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ciocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among spinning objects, the tippe top exhibits one of the most bizarre and counterintuitive behaviours. The commercially available tippe tops basically consist of a section of a sphere with a rod. After spinning on its rounded body, the top flips over and continues spinning on the stem. The commonly used simplified mathematical model for the tippe top is a sphere whose mass distribution is axially but not spherically symmetric, spinning on a flat surface subject to a small friction force that is due to sliding. Three main different dynamical behaviours are distinguished: tipping, nontipping, hanging, that is, the top rises but converges to an intermediate state instead of rising all the way to the vertical state. Subclasses according to the stability of relative equilibria can further be distinguished. Our concern is the degree of confidence in the mathematical model predictions, we applied 3D printing and rapid prototyping to manufacture a “3-in-1 toy” that could catch the three main characteristics defining the three main groups in the classification of spherical tippe tops as mentioned above. We propose three designs. This “toy” is suitable to validate the mathematical model qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Divertor heat flux mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Maingi, R.; Gates, D. A.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boedo, J. A.; Bush, C. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mueller, D.; NSTX Team

    2009-02-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6MWm-2to0.5-2MWm-2 in small-ELM 0.8-1.0MA, 4-6MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of the outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  18. Spherical aberration correction with threefold symmetric line currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji; Takaoka, Akio; Munro, Eric

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that N-fold symmetric line current (henceforth denoted as N-SYLC) produces 2N-pole magnetic fields. In this paper, a threefold symmetric line current (N3-SYLC in short) is proposed for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration of round lenses. N3-SYLC can be realized without using magnetic materials, which makes it free of the problems of hysteresis, inhomogeneity and saturation. We investigate theoretically the basic properties of an N3-SYLC configuration which can in principle be realized by simple wires. By optimizing the parameters of a system with beam energy of 5.5keV, the required excitation current for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration coefficient of 400 mm is less than 1AT, and the residual higher order aberrations can be kept sufficiently small to obtain beam size of less than 1 nm for initial slopes up to 5 mrad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From Spheric to Aspheric Solid Polymer Lenses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yung Hung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in the use of MEMS technology to fabricate micro-optofluidic polymer solid lenses in order to achieve the desired profile, focal length, numerical aperture, and spot size. The resulting polymer solid lenses can be applied in optical data storage systems, imaging systems, and automated optical inspection systems. In order to meet the various needs of different applications, polymer solid lenses may have a spherical or aspherical shape. The method of fabricating polymer solid lenses is different from methods used to fabricate tunable lenses with variable focal length or needing an external control system to change the lens geometry. The current trend in polymer solid lenses is toward the fabrication of microlenses with a high numerical aperture, small clear aperture (<2 mm, and high transmittance. In this paper we focus on the use of thermal energy and electrostatic force in shaping the lens profile, including both spherical and aspherical lenses. In addition, the paper discusses how to fabricate a lens with a high numerical aperture of 0.6 using MEMS and also compares the optical characteristics of polymer lens materials, including SU-8, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA, and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC. Finally, new concepts and applications related to micro-optofluidic lenses and polymer materials are also discussed.

  20. Controlled drug release on amine functionalized spherical MCM-41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi, Agnes, E-mail: szegedi@chemres.hu [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Popova, Margarita; Goshev, Ivan [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Klebert, Szilvia [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Mihaly, Judit [Institute of Molecular Pharmacology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary)

    2012-10-15

    MCM-41 silica with spherical morphology and small particle sizes (100 nm) was synthesized and modified by post-synthesis method with different amounts of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). A comparative study of the adsorption and release of a model drug, ibuprofen, was carried out. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, N{sub 2} physisorption, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. A new method was developed for the quantitative determination of amino groups in surface modified mesoporous materials by the ninhydrin reaction. Good correlation was found between the amino content of the MCM-41 materials determined by the ninhydrin method and their ibuprofen adsorption capacity. Amino modification resulted in high degree of ibuprofen loading and slow release rate in comparison to the parent non-modified MCM-41. - Graphical abstract: Determination of surface amino groups by ninhidrin method. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spherical MCM-41 modified by different amounts of APTES was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ibuprofen (IBU) adsorption and release characteristics was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ninhydrin reaction was used for the quantitative determination of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stoichiometric amount of APTES is enough for totally covering the surface with amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good correlation was found between the amino content and IBU adsorption capacity.

  1. Controlled drug release on amine functionalized spherical MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi, Agnes; Popova, Margarita; Goshev, Ivan; Klébert, Szilvia; Mihály, Judit

    2012-01-01

    MCM-41 silica with spherical morphology and small particle sizes (100 nm) was synthesized and modified by post-synthesis method with different amounts of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). A comparative study of the adsorption and release of a model drug, ibuprofen, was carried out. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, N 2 physisorption, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. A new method was developed for the quantitative determination of amino groups in surface modified mesoporous materials by the ninhydrin reaction. Good correlation was found between the amino content of the MCM-41 materials determined by the ninhydrin method and their ibuprofen adsorption capacity. Amino modification resulted in high degree of ibuprofen loading and slow release rate in comparison to the parent non-modified MCM-41. - Graphical abstract: Determination of surface amino groups by ninhidrin method. Highlights: ► Spherical MCM-41 modified by different amounts of APTES was studied. ► Ibuprofen (IBU) adsorption and release characteristics was tested. ► The ninhydrin reaction was used for the quantitative determination of amino groups. ► Stoichiometric amount of APTES is enough for totally covering the surface with amino groups. ► Good correlation was found between the amino content and IBU adsorption capacity.

  2. Full-Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas in Three-Layered Spherical Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of three-layered spherical microstrip antenna has been analyzed based on Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG triangular basis functions using mixed potential integral equation (MPIE. Firstly, the model of antenna and the dyadic Green’s function in spherical microstrip antennas are given at the beginning of this paper. Then, due to the infinite series convergence problem, asymptotic extraction approach is presented to accelerate the Green’s functions convergence speed when source and field points are located in the same layer and different layers. The convergence speed can be accelerated observably by using this method. Finally, in order to simplify impedance matrix elements calculation at the junction of the probe and patch, a novel division fashion of pair of triangles is adopted in this paper. The input impedance result obtained shows the validity and effectiveness of the analysis method comparing with published data.

  3. Non-conformal contact mechanical characteristic analysis on spherical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-zhi, G.; Bin, H.; Zheng-ming, G.; Feng-mei, Y.; Jin, Q [The 2. Artillery Engineering Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    Non-conformal spherical-contact mechanical problems is a three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical contact. Due to the complexity of the problem of spherical-contact and difficulties of solving higher-order partial differential equations, problems of three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical-contact is still no exact analytical method for solving. It is based on three-dimensional taper model is proposed a model based on the contour surface of the spherical contact and concluded of the formula of the contact pressure and constructed of finite element model by contact pressure distribution under the non-conformal spherical. The results shows spherical contact model can reflect non-conformal spherical-contacting mechanical problems more than taper-contacting model, and apply for the actual project.

  4. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eigenmodes; spherical resonators; spherical dielectric resonators; quality factors. PACS No. 42.50. .... Alternatively, introducing the angular momentum operator L defined as, L = (1/j)( r × ∇) ...... referee of the article for some helpful comments.

  5. Theory of corticothalamic brain activity in a spherical geometry: Spectra, coherence, and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukta, K. N.; MacLaurin, J. N.; Robinson, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Corticothalamic neural field theory is applied to a spherical geometry to better model neural activity in the human brain and is also compared with planar approximations. The frequency power spectrum, correlation, and coherence functions are computed analytically and numerically. The effects of cortical boundary conditions and resulting modal aspects of spherical corticothalamic dynamics are explored, showing that the results of spherical and finite planar geometries converge to those for the infinite planar geometry in the limit of large brain size. Estimates are made of the point at which modal series can be truncated and it is found that for physiologically plausible parameters only the lowest few spatial eigenmodes are needed for an accurate representation of macroscopic brain activity. A difference between the geometries is that there is a low-frequency 1 /f spectrum in the infinite planar geometry, whereas in the spherical geometry it is 1 /f2 . Another difference is that the alpha peak in the spherical geometry is sharper and stronger than in the planar geometry. Cortical modal effects can lead to a double alpha peak structure in the power spectrum, although the main determinant of the alpha peak is corticothalamic feedback. In the spherical geometry, the cross spectrum between two points is found to only depend on their relative distance apart. At small spatial separations the low-frequency cross spectrum is stronger than for an infinite planar geometry and the alpha peak is sharper and stronger due to the partitioning of the energy into discrete modes. In the spherical geometry, the coherence function between points decays monotonically as their separation increases at a fixed frequency, but persists further at resonant frequencies. The correlation between two points is found to be positive, regardless of the time lag and spatial separation, but decays monotonically as the separation increases at fixed time lag. At fixed distance the correlation has peaks

  6. Quality metric for spherical panoramic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Vladyslav; Choi, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR)/ augmented reality (AR) applications allow users to view artificial content of a surrounding space simulating presence effect with a help of special applications or devices. Synthetic contents production is well known process form computer graphics domain and pipeline has been already fixed in the industry. However emerging multimedia formats for immersive entertainment applications such as free-viewpoint television (FTV) or spherical panoramic video require different approaches in content management and quality assessment. The international standardization on FTV has been promoted by MPEG. This paper is dedicated to discussion of immersive media distribution format and quality estimation process. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed objective quality estimation method had been verified with spherical panoramic images demonstrating good correlation results with subjective quality estimation held by a group of experts.

  7. Simplified discrete ordinates method in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsawi, M.A.; Abdurrahman, N.M.; Yavuz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors extend the method of simplified discrete ordinates (SS N ) to spherical geometry. The motivation for such an extension is that the appearance of the angular derivative (redistribution) term in the spherical geometry transport equation makes it difficult to decide which differencing scheme best approximates this term. In the present method, the angular derivative term is treated implicitly and thus avoids the need for the approximation of such term. This method can be considered to be analytic in nature with the advantage of being free from spatial truncation errors from which most of the existing transport codes suffer. In addition, it treats the angular redistribution term implicitly with the advantage of avoiding approximations to that term. The method also can handle scattering in a very general manner with the advantage of spending almost the same computational effort for all scattering modes. Moreover, the methods can easily be applied to higher-order S N calculations

  8. Spherical harmonics and integration in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, H de; Sommen, F

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the classical theory of spherical harmonics in R m is extended to superspace using techniques from Clifford analysis. After defining a super-Laplace operator and studying some basic properties of polynomial null-solutions of this operator, a new type of integration over the supersphere is introduced by exploiting the formal equivalence with an old result of Pizzetti. This integral is then used to prove orthogonality of spherical harmonics of different degree, Green-like theorems and also an extension of the important Funk-Hecke theorem to superspace. Finally, this integration over the supersphere is used to define an integral over the whole superspace, and it is proven that this is equivalent with the Berezin integral, thus providing a more sound definition of the Berezin integral

  9. Spherical projections and liftings in geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodey, Paul; Kiderlen, Markus; Weil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies and to rad......We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies...... and to radial functions of star bodies. We then investigate averages of lifted projections and show that they correspond to self-adjoint intertwining operators. We obtain formulas for the eigenvalues of these operators and use them to ascertain circumstances under which tomographic measurements determine...... the original bodies. This approach via mean lifted projections leads us to some unexpected relationships between seemingly disparate geometric constructions....

  10. Spherical Cancer Models in Tumor Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Bastien Weiswald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D in vitro models have been used in cancer research as an intermediate model between in vitro cancer cell line cultures and in vivo tumor. Spherical cancer models represent major 3D in vitro models that have been described over the past 4 decades. These models have gained popularity in cancer stem cell research using tumorospheres. Thus, it is crucial to define and clarify the different spherical cancer models thus far described. Here, we focus on in vitro multicellular spheres used in cancer research. All these spherelike structures are characterized by their well-rounded shape, the presence of cancer cells, and their capacity to be maintained as free-floating cultures. We propose a rational classification of the four most commonly used spherical cancer models in cancer research based on culture methods for obtaining them and on subsequent differences in sphere biology: the multicellular tumor spheroid model, first described in the early 70s and obtained by culture of cancer cell lines under nonadherent conditions; tumorospheres, a model of cancer stem cell expansion established in a serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors; tissue-derived tumor spheres and organotypic multicellular spheroids, obtained by tumor tissue mechanical dissociation and cutting. In addition, we describe their applications to and interest in cancer research; in particular, we describe their contribution to chemoresistance, radioresistance, tumorigenicity, and invasion and migration studies. Although these models share a common 3D conformation, each displays its own intrinsic properties. Therefore, the most relevant spherical cancer model must be carefully selected, as a function of the study aim and cancer type.

  11. Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.C.; Akers, R.; Allfrey, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak are presented, exploiting its high β capability, normal conducting TF coils, compact core, high natural elongation, disruption resilience and low capital cost. We concentrate here on two particular applications: a volume neutron source (VNS) for component testing and a power plant, addressing engineering and physics issues for steady state operation. The prospect of nearer term burning plasma ST devices are discussed in the conclusions. (author)

  12. Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.C.; Akers, R.; Allfrey, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak are presented, exploiting its high β capability, normal conducting TF coils, compact core, high natural elongation, disruption resilience and low capital cost. We concentrate here on two particular applications: a volume neutron source (VNS) for component testing and a power plant, addressing engineering and physics issues for steady state operation. The prospect of nearer term burning plasma ST devices are discussed in the conclusions. (author)

  13. Particles in spherical electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, H.; Thaller, B.

    1984-03-01

    If the time-dependence of a Hamiltonian can be compensated by an appropriate symmetry transformation, the corresponding quantum mechanical problem can be reduced to an effectively stationary one. With this result we investigate the behavior of nonrelativistic particles in a spherical radiation field produced by a rotating source. Then the symmetry transformation corresponds to a rotation. We calculate the transition probabilities in Born approximation. The extension to problems involving an additional Coulomb potential is briefly discussed. (Author)

  14. New mathematical framework for spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambo, Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio; Piccione, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    A theorem, giving necessary and sufficient condition for naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric non-static spacetimes under hypotheses of physical acceptability, is formulated and proved. The theorem relates the existence of singular null geodesics to the existence of regular curves which are supersolutions of the radial null geodesic equation, and allows us to treat all the known examples of naked singularities from a unified viewpoint. New examples are also found using this approach, and perspectives are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  15. Spherical tokamak without external toroidal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.; Avinash, K.; Srinivasan, R.

    2001-01-01

    A spherical tokamak design without external toroidal field coils is proposed. The tokamak is surrounded by a spheromak shell carrying requisite force free currents to produce the toroidal field in the core. Such equilibria are constructed and it is indicated that these equilibria are likely to have robust ideal and resistive stability. The advantage of this scheme in terms of a reduced ohmic dissipation is pointed out. (author)

  16. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  17. Indicators of Mass in Spherical Stellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, John B.; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Neilson, Hilding R.

    2013-04-01

    Mass is the most important stellar parameter, but it is not directly observable for a single star. Spherical model stellar atmospheres are explicitly characterized by their luminosity ( L⋆), mass ( M⋆), and radius ( R⋆), and observations can now determine directly L⋆ and R⋆. We computed spherical model atmospheres for red giants and for red supergiants holding L⋆ and R⋆ constant at characteristic values for each type of star but varying M⋆, and we searched the predicted flux spectra and surface-brightness distributions for features that changed with mass. For both stellar classes we found similar signatures of the stars’ mass in both the surface-brightness distribution and the flux spectrum. The spectral features have been use previously to determine log 10(g), and now that the luminosity and radius of a non-binary red giant or red supergiant can be observed, spherical model stellar atmospheres can be used to determine a star’s mass from currently achievable spectroscopy. The surface-brightness variations of mass are slightly smaller than can be resolved by current stellar imaging, but they offer the advantage of being less sensitive to the detailed chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  18. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high β-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect

  19. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high {beta}-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect.

  20. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  1. Integrals of products of spherical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, O.

    1975-01-01

    Various branches of mathematical physics use integral formulas of the products of spherical functions. In quantum mechanics and in transport theory the integrals ∫sub((4π))dΩ vectorYsub(s)sup(t)(Ω vector)Ysub(l)sup(k)(Ω vector)Ysub(n)sup(m)(Ω vector), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)sup(t)(μ)Psub(l)sup(k)(μ)Psub(n)sup(m)(μ), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)(μ)Psub(l)(μ)Psub(n)(μ) are generally applied, where Ysub(α)sup(β)(Ω vector) are spherical harmonics, Psub(α)sup(β)(μ) are associated Legendre functions, and Psub(α)(μ) are Legendre polynomials. In the paper, the general procedure of calculating the integrals of the products of any combination of spherical functions is given. The procedure is referred to in a report on the boundary conditions for the cylindrical geometry in neutron transport theory for both the outer and inner cylindrical boundaries. (author)

  2. Heat transfer enhancement in energy storage in spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, Hisham; Alatiqi, Imad; Al-Sahali, Mohammad; Al-Hajirie, Khalida

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage is an attractive option to conserve limited energy resources, where more than 50% of the generated industrial energy is discarded in cooling water and stack gases. This study focuses on the evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in phase change energy storage units. The experiments are performed using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads. The experiments are conducted by inserting a single spherical capsule filled with wax and metal beads in a stream of hot/cold air. Experimental measurements include the temperature field within the spherical capsule and in the air stream. To determine the enhancement effects of the metal beads, the measured data is correlated against those for a spherical capsule filled with pure wax. Data analysis shows a reduction of 15% in the melting and solidification times upon increasing the number and diameter of the metal beads. This reduction is caused by a similar decrease in the thermal load of the sphere due to replacement of the wax by metal beads. The small size of the spherical capsule limits the enhancement effects; this is evident upon comparison of the heat transfer in a larger size, double pipe energy storage unit, where 2% of the wax volume is replaced with metal inserts, result in a three fold reduction in the melting/solidification time and a similar enhancement in the heat transfer rate

  3. Planar ESPAR Array Design with Nonsymmetrical Pattern by Means of Finite-Element Method, Domain Decomposition, and Spherical Wave Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of a 3D domain decomposition finite-element and spherical mode expansion for the design of planar ESPAR (electronically steerable passive array radiator made with probe-fed circular microstrip patches is presented in this work. A global generalized scattering matrix (GSM in terms of spherical modes is obtained analytically from the GSM of the isolated patches by using rotation and translation properties of spherical waves. The whole behaviour of the array is characterized including all the mutual coupling effects between its elements. This procedure has been firstly validated by analyzing an array of monopoles on a ground plane, and then it has been applied to synthesize a prescribed radiation pattern optimizing the reactive loads connected to the feeding ports of the array of circular patches by means of a genetic algorithm.

  4. Kohn-Sham potentials for fullerenes and spherical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlyukh, Y.; Berakdar, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a procedure for the construction of accurate Kohn-Sham potentials of quasispherical molecules starting from the first-principles valence densities. The method is demonstrated for the case of icosahedral C 20 2+ and C 60 molecules. Provided the density is N representable the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem guarantees the uniqueness of the obtained potentials. The potential is iteratively built following the suggestion of R. van Leeuwen and E. J. Baerends [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994)]. The high symmetry of the molecules allows a parametrization of the angular dependence of the densities and the potentials using a small number of symmetry-adapted spherical harmonics. The radial behavior of these quantities is represented on a grid and the density is reconstructed from the approximate potential by numerically solving the coupled-channel Kohn-Sham equations. Subsequently, the potential is updated and the procedure is continued until convergence is achieved.

  5. Overview and initial results of the ETE spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berni, L.A.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Ludwig, G.O.; Oliveira, R.M.; Shibata, C.S.; Barbosa, L.F.F.P.W.; Vilela, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The ETE spherical tokamak is a small size aspect-ratio machine with major and minor radius of 30 cm and 20 cm, respectively. The vessel was made of Inconel 625 and provides good access for plasma diagnostics through 58 Conflat ports. The first plasma was obtained at the end of 2000 and presently plasma currents of about 45 kA lasting for about 4 ms with electron temperature up to 160 eV and densities of 2.2x10 19 m -3 are routinely obtained. Achievement of the designed parameters for the first phase of operation is expected by the end of this year, with plasma current up to 200 kA lasting for about 15 ms. This paper describes some details of the ETE project, construction and mainly the first results and analysis of basic parameters. (author)

  6. Transient Transport Experiments in the CDX-U Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Munsat; P.C. Efthimion; B. Jones; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; D. Stutman; G. Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Electron transport has been measured in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) using two separate perturbative techniques. Gas modulation at the plasma edge was used to introduce cold-pulses which propagate towards the plasma center, providing time-of-flight information leading to a determination of chi(subscript e) as a function of radius. Sawteeth at the q=1 radius (r/a ∼ 0.15) induced heat-pulses which propagated outward towards the plasma edge, providing a complementary time-of-flight based chi(subscript e) profile measurement. This work represents the first localized measurement of chi(subscript e) in a spherical torus. It is found that chi(subscript e) = 1-2 meters squared per second in the plasma core (r/a < 1/3), increasing by an order of magnitude or more outside of this region. Furthermore, the chi(subscript e) profile exhibits a sharp transition near r/a = 1/3. Spectral and profile analyses of the soft X-rays, scanning interferometer, and edge probe data show no evidence of a significant magnetic island causing the high chi(subscript e) region

  7. The Role of Structural Enthalpy in Spherical Nucleic Acid Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lam-Kiu; Wang, Ziwei; Schatz, George C; Luijten, Erik; Mirkin, Chad A

    2018-05-23

    DNA hybridization onto DNA-functionalized nanoparticle surfaces (e.g., in the form of a spherical nucleic acid (SNA)) is known to be enhanced relative to hybridization free in solution. Surprisingly, via isothermal titration calorimetry, we reveal that this enhancement is enthalpically, as opposed to entropically, dominated by ∼20 kcal/mol. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the observed enthalpic enhancement results from structurally confining the DNA on the nanoparticle surface and preventing it from adopting enthalpically unfavorable conformations like those observed in the solution case. The idea that structural confinement leads to the formation of energetically more stable duplexes is evaluated by decreasing the degree of confinement a duplex experiences on the nanoparticle surface. Both experiment and simulation confirm that when the surface-bound duplex is less confined, i.e., at lower DNA surface density or at greater distance from the nanoparticle surface, its enthalpy of formation approaches the less favorable enthalpy of duplex formation for the linear strand in solution. This work provides insight into one of the most important and enabling properties of SNAs and will inform the design of materials that rely on the thermodynamics of hybridization onto DNA-functionalized surfaces, including diagnostic probes and therapeutic agents.

  8. Parameter-free Locality Sensitive Hashing for Spherical Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahle, Thomas Dybdahl; Pagh, Rasmus; Aumüller, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a data structure for *spherical range reporting* on a point set S, i.e., reporting all points in S that lie within radius r of a given query point q. Our solution builds upon the Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) framework of Indyk and Motwani, which represents the asymptotically best...... solutions to near neighbor problems in high dimensions. While traditional LSH data structures have several parameters whose optimal values depend on the distance distribution from q to the points of S, our data structure is parameter-free, except for the space usage, which is configurable by the user...... query time bounded by O(t(n/t)ρ), where t is the number of points to report and ρ∈(0,1) depends on the data distribution and the strength of the LSH family used. We further present a parameter-free way of using multi-probing, for LSH families that support it, and show that for many such families...

  9. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  10. Watermarking on 3D mesh based on spherical wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Qiu; Dai, Min-Ya; Bao, Hu-Jun; Peng, Qun-Sheng

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we propose a robust watermarking algorithm for 3D mesh. The algorithm is based on spherical wavelet transform. Our basic idea is to decompose the original mesh into a series of details at different scales by using spherical wavelet transform; the watermark is then embedded into the different levels of details. The embedding process includes: global sphere parameterization, spherical uniform sampling, spherical wavelet forward transform, embedding watermark, spherical wavelet inverse transform, and at last resampling the mesh watermarked to recover the topological connectivity of the original model. Experiments showed that our algorithm can improve the capacity of the watermark and the robustness of watermarking against attacks.

  11. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  12. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  13. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  14. Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Geroux, C.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Constantino, T.; Popov, M.; Walder, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Studies of stellar convection typically use a spherical-shell geometry. The radial extent of the shell and the boundary conditions applied are based on the model of the star investigated. We study the impact of different two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from an established one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star, like our sun at 106 years of age. Aims: We analyze how the radial extent of the spherical shell changes the convective dynamics that result in the deep interior of the young sun model, far from the surface. In the near-surface layers, simple small-scale convection develops from the profiles of temperature and density. A central radiative zone below the convection zone provides a lower boundary on the convection zone. The inclusion of either of these physically distinct layers in the spherical shell can potentially affect the characteristics of deep convection. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over tens or even hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: To measure the impact of the spherical-shell geometry and our treatment of boundaries, we evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, so that our results are focused toward studies exploiting the so

  15. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  16. Spherical transceivers for ultrafast optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A.; Collier, Christopher M.; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Born, Brandon; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2016-02-01

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) offers the potential for high-speed and mobile operation in indoor networks. Such OWC systems often employ a fixed transmitter grid and mobile transceivers, with the mobile transceivers carrying out bi-directional communication via active downlinks (ideally with high-speed signal detection) and passive uplinks (ideally with broad angular retroreflection and high-speed modulation). It can be challenging to integrate all of these bidirectional communication capabilities within the mobile transceivers, however, as there is a simultaneous desire for compact packaging. With this in mind, the work presented here introduces a new form of transceiver for bi-directional OWC systems. The transceiver incorporates radial photoconductive switches (for high-speed signal detection) and a spherical retro-modulator (for broad angular retroreflection and high-speed all-optical modulation). All-optical retromodulation are investigated by way of theoretical models and experimental testing, for spherical retro-modulators comprised of three glasses, N-BK7, N-LASF9, and S-LAH79, having differing levels of refraction and nonlinearity. It is found that the spherical retro-modulator comprised of S-LAH79, with a refractive index of n ≍ 2 and a Kerr nonlinear index of n2 ≍ (1.8 ± 0.1) × 10-15 cm2/W, yields both broad angular retroreflection (over a solid angle of 2π steradians) and ultrafast modulation (over a duration of 120 fs). Such transceivers can become important elements for all-optical implementations in future bi-directional OWC systems.

  17. On- and off-eye spherical aberration of soft contact lenses and consequent changes of effective lens power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J

    2003-02-01

    Soft contact lenses produce a significant level of spherical aberration affecting their power on-eye. A simple model assuming that a thin soft contact lens aligns to the cornea predicts that these effects are similar on-eye and off-eye. The wavefront aberration for 17 eyes and 33 soft contact lenses on-eye was measured with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The Zernike coefficients describing the on-eye spherical aberration of the soft contact lens were compared with off-eye ray-tracing results. Paraxial and effective lens power changes were determined. The model predicts the on-eye spherical aberration of soft contact lenses closely. The resulting power change for a +/- 7.00 D spherical soft contact lens is +/- 0.5 D for a 6-mm pupil diameter and +/- 0.1 D for a 3-mm pupil diameter. Power change is negligible for soft contact lenses corrected for off-eye spherical aberration. For thin soft contact lenses, the level of spherical aberration and the consequent power change is similar on-eye and off-eye. Soft contact lenses corrected for spherical aberration in air will be expected to be aberration-free on-eye and produce only negligibly small power changes. For soft contact lenses without aberration correction, for higher levels of ametropia and large pupils, the soft contact lens power should be determined with trial lenses with their power and p value similar to the prescribed lens. The benefit of soft contact lenses corrected for spherical aberration depends on the level of ocular spherical aberration.

  18. Spherically symmetric self-similar universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1979-10-01

    A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.

  19. The generalized spherical model of ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costache, G.

    1977-12-01

    The D→ infinity of the D-vectorial model of a ferromagnetic film with free surfaces is exactly solved. The mathematical mechanism responsible for the onset of a phase transition in the system is a generalized sticking phenomenon. It is shown that the temperature at which the sticking appears, the transition temperature of the model is monotonously increasing with increasing the number of layers of the film, contrary to what happens in the spherical model with overall constraint. Certain correlation inequalities of Griffiths type are shown to hold. (author)

  20. The spherical tokamak fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Voss, G.; Ahn, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a 1GW(e) steady state fusion power plant, based on the spherical tokamak concept, has been further iterated towards a fully self-consistent solution taking account of plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. In particular a plausible solution to exhaust handling is proposed and the steam cycle refined to further improve efficiency. The physics design takes full account of confinement, MHD stability and steady state current drive. It is proposed that such a design may offer a fusion power plant which is easy to maintain: an attractive feature for the power plants following ITER. (author)

  1. The status of the Brazilian spherical detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O D; Andrade, L A; Filho, L Camargo; Costa, C A; Araujo, J C N de; Neto, E C de Rey; Souza, S T de; Fauth, A C; Frajuca, C; Frossati, G; Furtado, S R; Furtado, V G S; Magalhaes, N S; Jr, R M Marinho; Matos, E S; Meliani, M T; Melo, J L; Miranda, O D; Jr, N F Oliveira; Ribeiro, K L; Salles, K B M; Stellati, C; Jr, W F Velloso

    2002-01-01

    The first phase of the Brazilian Graviton Project is the construction and operation of the gravitational wave detector Mario Schenberg at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. This gravitational wave spherical antenna is planned to feature a sensitivity better than h = 10 -21 Hz -1/2 at the 3.0-3.4 kHz bandwidth, and to work not only as a detector, but also as a testbed for the development of new technologies. Here we present the status of this detector

  2. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  3. Galileon radiation from a spherical collapsing shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-García, Javier [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 15, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á. [Instituto Universitario de Física Fundamental y Matemáticas (IUFFyM),Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2017-01-17

    Galileon radiation in the collapse of a thin spherical shell of matter is analyzed. In the framework of a cubic Galileon theory, we compute the field profile produced at large distances by a short collapse, finding that the radiated field has two peaks traveling ahead of light fronts. The total energy radiated during the collapse follows a power law scaling with the shell’s physical width and results from two competing effects: a Vainshtein suppression of the emission and an enhancement due to the thinness of the shell.

  4. Equivalent-spherical-shield neutron dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Robinson, H.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron doses through 162-cm-thick spherical shields were calculated to be 1090 and 448 mrem/h for regular and magnetite concrete, respectively. These results bracket the measured data, for reinforced regular concrete, of /approximately/600 mrem/h. The calculated fraction of the high-energy (>20 MeV) dose component also bracketed the experimental data. The measured and calculated doses were for a graphite beam stop bombarded with 100 nA of 800-MeV protons. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Spherical Panoramas for Astrophysical Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-05-01

    Data immersion has advantages in astrophysical visualization. Complex multi-dimensional data and phase spaces can be explored in a seamless and interactive viewing environment. Putting the user in the data is a first step toward immersive data analysis. We present a technique for creating 360° spherical panoramas with astrophysical data. The three-dimensional software package Blender and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to immerse users in data exploration. Several examples employing these methods exhibit how the technique works using different types of astronomical data.

  6. Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)

  7. Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.

  8. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  9. Spherical aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; Kuo, P-L; Cheng, Y-C

    2009-01-01

    Alkylated triethylenetetramine (C12E3) was synthesized and used as both a reductant in the preparation of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl 4 and a stabilizer in the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanoparticles. In acidic aqueous solution, spherical aggregates (with a diameter of about 202 ± 22 nm) of gold nanoparticles (with the mean diameter of ∼18.7 nm) were formed. The anion-induced ammonium adsorption of the alkylated amines on the gold nanoparticles was considered to provide the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance between the gold nanoparticles, which constituted the barrier that prevented the individual particles from coagulating. However, as the amino groups became deprotonated with increasing pH, the ammonium adsorption was weakened, and the amino groups were desorbed from the gold surface, resulting in discrete gold particles. The results indicate that the morphology of the reduced gold nanoparticles is controllable through pH-'tunable' aggregation under the mediation of the amino groups of alkylated amine to create spherical microstructures.

  10. Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2001-10-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX experimental facility has been operating reliably and its capabilities steadily improving. Due to relatively efficient ohmic current drive and benign halo current behavior, the plasma current was increased to 1.4 MA, which is well above the design value of 1 MA. The plasmas at 1 MA are now routinely heated by NBI to the average toroidal beta value of 20 percent range at 3 kG with electrons and ions in the 1-2 keV range. Even with the “L-mode” edge, the energy confinement time can well exceed the so-called L-mode (and even H-mode) scaling values. As a part of ST tool development, High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating has demonstrated efficient electron heating with the central electron temperatures reaching 3.7 keV. HHFW induced H-modes have been also observed. For CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) non-inductive start-up, CHI discharges of up to 300 kA of toroidal current and 300 msec duration have been produced from zero current using = 25 kA of injected current. The poster presentation will also include the near term NSTX facility upgrade plan.

  11. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  12. Rotating field current drive in spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.; Storer, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of driving a steady Hall current in plasmas using a rotating magnetic field is studied both numerically and analytically in the approximation of negligible ion flow. A spherical plasma bounded by an insulating wall and immersed in a uniform magnetic field which has both a rotating component (for current drive) and a constant ''vertical'' component (for MHD equilibrium) is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of an expansion of field quantities in vector spherical harmonics. The numerical code SPHERE solves the resulting pseudo-harmonic equations by a multiple shooting technique. The results presented, in addition to being relevant to non-inductive current drive generally, have a direct relevance to the rotamak experiments. For the case of no applied vertical field the steady state toroidal current driven by the rotating field per unit volume of plasma is several times less than in the long cylinder limit for a plasma of the same density, resistivity and radius. The application of a vertical field, which for certain parameter regimes gives rise to a compact torus configuration, improves the current drive dramatically and in many cases gives ''better'' current drive than the long cylinder limit. This result is also predicted by a second order perturbation analysis of the pseudo-harmonic equations. A steady state toroidal field is observed which appears consistent with experimental observations in rotamaks regarding magnitude and spatial dependence. This is an advance over previous analytical theory which predicted an oppositely directed toroidal field of undefined magnitude. (author)

  13. Cauchy-perturbative matching reexamined: Tests in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Burkhard; Pazos, Enrique; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years progress has been made on several fronts making it possible to revisit Cauchy-perturbative matching (CPM) in numerical relativity in a more robust and accurate way. This paper is the first in a series where we plan to analyze CPM in the light of these new results. One of the new developments is an understanding of how to impose constraint-preserving boundary conditions (CPBC); though most of the related research has been driven by outer boundaries, one can use them for matching interface boundaries as well. Another front is related to numerically stable evolutions using multiple patches, which in the context of CPM allows the matching to be performed on a spherical surface, thus avoiding interpolations between Cartesian and spherical grids. One way of achieving stability for such schemes of arbitrary high order is through the use of penalty techniques and discrete derivatives satisfying summation by parts (SBP). Recently, new, very efficient and high-order accurate derivatives satisfying SBP and associated dissipation operators have been constructed. Here we start by testing all these techniques applied to CPM in a setting that is simple enough to study all the ingredients in great detail: Einstein's equations in spherical symmetry, describing a black hole coupled to a massless scalar field. We show that with the techniques described above, the errors introduced by Cauchy-perturbative matching are very small, and that very long-term and accurate CPM evolutions can be achieved. Our tests include the accretion and ring-down phase of a Schwarzschild black hole with CPM, where we find that the discrete evolution introduces, with a low spatial resolution of Δr=M/10, an error of 0.3% after an evolution time of 1,000,000M. For a black hole of solar mass, this corresponds to approximately 5s, and is therefore at the lower end of timescales discussed e.g. in the collapsar model of gamma-ray burst engines

  14. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  15. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  16. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  17. In vivo biodistribution of stable spherical and filamentous micelles probed by high-sensitivity SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, L.; Ivashchenko, O.; Marsman, I. J C; Laan, A.C.; Denkova, A.G.; Waton, g; Beekman, F.J.; Schosseler, F.; Mendes, E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how nanoparticle properties such as size, morphology and rigidity influence their circulation time and biodistribution is essential for the development of nanomedicine therapies. Herein we assess the influence of morphology on cellular internalization, in vivo biodistribution and

  18. Optimization of magnetic field system for glass spherical tokamak GLAST-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Ahmad, S; Naveed, M A; Deeba, F; Javeed, M Aqib; Batool, S; Hussain, S; Vorobyov, G M

    2017-01-01

    GLAST-III (Glass Spherical Tokamak) is a spherical tokamak with aspect ratio A = 2. The mapping of its magnetic system is performed to optimize the GLAST-III tokamak for plasma initiation using a Hall probe. Magnetic field from toroidal coils shows 1/ R dependence which is typical with spherical tokamaks. Toroidal field (TF) coils can produce 875 Gauss field, an essential requirement for electron cyclotron resonance assisted discharge. The central solenoid (CS) of GLAST-III is an air core solenoid and requires compensation coils to reduce unnecessary magnetic flux inside the vessel region. The vertical component of magnetic field from the CS in the vacuum vessel region is reduced to 1.15 Gauss kA −1 with the help of a differential loop. The CS of GLAST can produce flux change up to 68 mVs. Theoretical and experimental results are compared for the current waveform of TF coils using a combination of fast and slow capacitor banks. Also the magnetic field produced by poloidal field (PF) coils is compared with theoretically predicted values. It is found that calculated results are in good agreement with experimental measurement. Consequently magnetic field measurements are validated. A tokamak discharge with 2 kA plasma current and pulse length 1 ms is successfully produced using different sets of coils. (paper)

  19. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    phase, both with and without SDS, was established by NMR self-diffusion. In addition H-2 NMR relaxation experiments have demonstrated that the micelles in the cubic phase are non-spherical, having grown and changed shape upon formation of the cubic phase from the micellar solution. Small angle...... associated with the micellar cubic phase, Pm3n and Fd3m. The micellar volumes calculated for these space groups are similar and are consistent with a change in micellar geometry from spherical to prolate.......The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...

  20. Full-angle tomographic phase microscopy of flowing quasi-spherical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villone, Massimiliano M; Memmolo, Pasquale; Merola, Francesco; Mugnano, Martina; Miccio, Lisa; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Ferraro, Pietro

    2017-12-19

    We report a reliable full-angle tomographic phase microscopy (FA-TPM) method for flowing quasi-spherical cells along microfluidic channels. This method lies in a completely passive optical system, i.e. mechanical scanning or multi-direction probing of the sample is avoided. It exploits the engineered rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel. Here we demonstrate significant progress with respect to the state of the art of in-flow TPM by showing a general extension to cells having almost spherical shapes while they are flowing in suspension. In fact, the adopted strategy allows the accurate retrieval of rotation angles through a theoretical model of the cells' rotation in a dynamic microfluidic flow by matching it with phase-contrast images resulting from holographic reconstructions. So far, the proposed method is the first and the only one that permits to get in-flow TPM by probing the cells with full-angle, achieving accurate 3D refractive index mapping and the simplest optical setup, simultaneously. Proof of concept experiments were performed successfully on human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, opening the way for the full characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the new paradigm of liquid biopsy.

  1. Measurement of Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The change in the turbulence intensity of an air jet resulting from the addition of particles to the flow is measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry. Three distinct shapes are considered: the prolate spheroid, the disk and the sphere. Measurements of the carrier phase and particle phase velocities...... at the centerline of the jet are carried out for mass loadings of 0.5, 1, 1.6 and particle sizes 880μm, 1350μm, 1820μm for spherical particles. For each non-spherical shape only a single size and loading are considered. The turbulence modulation of the carrier phase is found to highly dependent on the turbulence......, the particle mass flow and the integral length scale of the flow. The expression developed on basis of spherical particles only is applied on the data for the non-spherical particles. The results suggest that non-spherical particles attenuate the carrier phase turbulence significantly more than spherical...

  2. The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1996-07-01

    Many model eyes have been proposed; they differ in optical characteristics and therefore have different aberrations and image quality. In predicting the visual performance of the eye, we are most concerned with the central foveal vision. Spherical aberration is the only on-axis monochromatic aberration and can be used as a criterion to assess the degree of resemblance of eye models to the human eye. We reviewed and compiled experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye, calculated the spherical aberration of several different categories of model eyes and compared the calculated results to the experimental data. Results show an over-estimation of spherical aberration by all models, the finite schematic eyes predicting values of spherical aberration closest to the experimental data. Current model eyes do not predict the average experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye. A new model eye satisfying this assessment criterion is required for investigations of the visual performance of the eye.

  3. Energy, Vacuum, Gas Fueling, and Security Systems for the Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA-CR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jeferson; Soto, Christian; Carvajal, Johan; Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R security systems for MEDUSA-CR device. The interface with the control and data acquisition systems based on National Instruments (NI) software (LabView) and hardware (on loan to our laboratory via NI-Costa Rica) are also presented. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contract 17592, National Instruments of Costa Rica.

  4. Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zade S S; Patil K D; Mulkalwar P N

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid.The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole.We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng[Phys.Lett.A 266 (2000) 249]to the non-spherical case.

  5. Spherical solitons in Earth’S mesosphere plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annou, K.; Annou, R.

    2016-01-01

    Soliton formation in Earth’s mesosphere plasma is described. Nonlinear acoustic waves in plasmas with two-temperature ions and a variable dust charge where transverse perturbation is dealt with are studied in bounded spherical geometry. Using the perturbation method, a spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation that describes dust acoustic waves is derived. It is found that the parameters taken into account have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves in spherical geometry

  6. On the phase diagram of non-spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Wautelet, M; Hecq, M

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of nanoparticles is known to be a function of their size. In the literature, this is generally demonstrated for cases where their shape is spherical. Here, it is shown theoretically that the phase diagram of non-spherical particles may be calculated from the spherical case, at the same surface area/volume ratio, both with and without surface segregation, provided the surface tension is considered to be isotropic.

  7. Ageing of uranyl gel spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Urbanek, V.; Vosecek, V.; Skvor, V.

    1978-01-01

    The structure and chemical composition of U(VI) gel are described and the course of crystal growth in ageing process at 22+-2 degC was found. Store conditions of probes had no influence on crystal growth rate. However, the way of probe storage influenced the quality and appearance of the xerogel obtained by drying via azeotropic distillation. The gel particles stored under trichloroethylene had a good appearance also after storing for 44 hours long. Particles stored in air saturated with H 2 O and NH 3 showed a worse appearance already after 20 hours. After 70 hours particles of spiny form were found. The worst particles were those stored under a trichloroethylene-ethylalcohol mixture. For storing purposes trichloroethylene was recommended as the most appropriate medium of gel protection. (author)

  8. On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia

    2011-01-01

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.

  9. Nuclear structure investigations on spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, J.; Calarco, J.; Dawson, J.; Hersman, F.W.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: electron scattering studies on spherical nuclei; electron scattering from collective states in deformed nuclei; proton and pion scattering studies; 12 C(e,e'p) and 16 O(e,e'p); 12 C(e,e'α) and 16 O(e,e'α); studies at high q at Bates; measurements with rvec e at Bates; 12 C(γ,p); future directions in giant resonance studies; proton knockout from 16 O; quasielastic studies at Bates; triple coincidence studies of nuclear correlations; contributions to (e,e'2p) at KIKHEF; contributions to instrumentation at CEBAF; instrumentation development at UNH; the Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid; shell model and core polarization calculations; and the relativistic nuclear model

  10. Saltation movement of large spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Z.; Dolansky, J.; Kysela, B.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of the saltation motion of a large spherical particle in an open channel. The channel bottom was roughed by one layer of glass rods of diameter 6 mm. The plastic spheres of diameter 25.7 mm and density 1160 kgm-3 were fed into the water channel and theirs positions were viewed by a digital camera. Two light sheets were placed above and under the channel, so the flow was simultaneously lighted from the top and the bottom. Only particles centers of which moved through the light sheets were recorded. Using a 2D PIV method the trajectories of the spheres and the velocity maps of the channel flow were analyzed. The Lattice-Boldzmann Method (LBM) was used to simulate the particle motion.

  11. Coulomb potentials between spherical heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwe, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Coulomb interaction between spherical nuclei having arbitrary radial nuclear charge distributions is calculated. All these realistic Coulomb potentials are given in terms of analytical expressions and are available for immediate application. So in no case a numerical computation of the Coulomb integral is required. The parameters of the charge distributions are taken from electron scattering analysis. The Coulomb self-energies of the charge distributions used are also calculated analytically in a closed form. For a number of nucleus-nucleus pairs, the Coulomb potentials derived from realistic charge distributions are compared with those normally used in various nucleus-nucleus optical model calculations. In this connection a detailed discussion of the problem how to choose consistently Coulomb parameters for different approximations is given. (orig.)

  12. Application studies of spherical tokamak plasma merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yasushi; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2012-01-01

    The experiment of plasma merging and heating has long history in compact torus studies since Wells. The study of spherical tokamak (ST), starting from TS-3 plasma merging experiment of Tokyo University in the late 1980s, is followed by START of Culham laboratory in the 1900s, TS-4 and UTST of Tokyo University and MAST of Culham laboratory in the 2000s, and last year by VEST of Soul University. ST has the following advantages: 1) plasma heating by magnetic reconnection at a MW-GW level, 2) rapid start-up of high beta plasma, 3) current drive/flux multiplication and distribution control of ST plasma, 4) fueling and helium-ash exhaust. In the present article, we emphasize that magnetic reconnection and plasma merging phenomena are important in ST plasma study as well as in plasma physics. (author)

  13. Confined detonations with cylindrical and spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linan, A.; Lecuona, A.

    1979-01-01

    An imploding spherical or cylindrical detonation, starting in the interface of the detonantion with an external inert media, used as a reflector, creates on it a strong shock wave moving outward from the interface. An initially weak shock wave appears in the detonated media that travels toward the center, and it could reach the detonation wave, enforcing it in its process of implosion. To describe the fluid field, the Euler s equations are solved by means of expansions valid for the early stages of the process. Isentropic of the type P/pγ-K for the detonated and compressed inert media are used. For liquid or solid reflectors a more appropriate equation is used. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling

  15. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  16. Laser Pulse Heating of Spherical Metal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of spherical metal particles with the sizes ranging from nanometers to millimeters. We employ the exact Mie solution of the diffraction problem and solve the heat-transfer equation to determine the maximum temperature rise at the particle surface as a function of optical and thermometric parameters of the problem. Primary attention is paid to the case when the thermal diffusivity of the particle is much larger than that of the environment, as it is in the case of metal particles in fluids. We show that, in this case, for any given duration of the laser pulse, the maximum temperature rise as a function of the particle size reaches a maximum at a certain finite size of the particle. We suggest simple approximate analytical expressions for this dependence, which cover the entire parameter range of the problem and agree well with direct numerical simulations.

  17. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  18. Spherical Nb single crystals containerlessly grown by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Y.S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical Nb (T m =2750 K) single crystals were grown via containerless electrostatic levitation (ESL). Samples became spherical at melting in levitation and undercooled typically 300-450 K prior to nucleation. As-processed samples were still spherical without any macroscopic shape change by solidification showing a uniform dendritic surface morphology. Crystallographic {111} planes exposed in equilateral triangular shapes on the surface by preferential macroetching and spotty back-reflection Laue patterns confirm the single crystal nature of the ESL-processed Nb samples. No hysteresis in magnetization between zero field and field cooling also implies a clean defect-free condition of the spherical Nb single crystals

  19. Investigation of spherical and concentric mechanism of compound droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness are always needed in the inertial confined fusion (ICF experiments. Driven by the need to control the shape of water-in-oil (W1/O compound droplets, the effects of the density matching level, the interfacial tension and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field on the sphericity and wall thickness uniformity of the resulting polymer shells were investigated and the spherical and concentric mechanisms were also discussed. The centering of W1/O compound droplets, the location and movement of W1/O compound droplets in the external phase (W2 were significantly affected by the density matching level of the key stage and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field. Therefore, by optimizing the density matching level and rotation speed, the batch yield of polystyrene (PS shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness increased. Moreover, the sphericity also increased by raising the oil/water (O/W2 interfacial tension, which drove a droplet to be spherical. The experimental results show that the spherical driving force is from the interfacial tension affected by the two relative phases, while the concentric driving force, as a resultant force, is not only affected by the three phases, but also by the continuing fluid field. The understanding of spherical and concentric mechanism can provide some guidance for preparing polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness.

  20. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-05-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  1. Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-02-01

    A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.

  2. Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/micros, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-microm in diameter

  3. A theoretical-electron-density databank using a model of real and virtual spherical atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassour, Ayoub; Domagala, Slawomir; Guillot, Benoit; Leduc, Theo; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian

    2017-08-01

    A database describing the electron density of common chemical groups using combinations of real and virtual spherical atoms is proposed, as an alternative to the multipolar atom modelling of the molecular charge density. Theoretical structure factors were computed from periodic density functional theory calculations on 38 crystal structures of small molecules and the charge density was subsequently refined using a density model based on real spherical atoms and additional dummy charges on the covalent bonds and on electron lone-pair sites. The electron-density parameters of real and dummy atoms present in a similar chemical environment were averaged on all the molecules studied to build a database of transferable spherical atoms. Compared with the now-popular databases of transferable multipolar parameters, the spherical charge modelling needs fewer parameters to describe the molecular electron density and can be more easily incorporated in molecular modelling software for the computation of electrostatic properties. The construction method of the database is described. In order to analyse to what extent this modelling method can be used to derive meaningful molecular properties, it has been applied to the urea molecule and to biotin/streptavidin, a protein/ligand complex.

  4. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  5. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Spherically Imploded ICF Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from spherically imploded inertial fusion capsules-type targets have been obtained for the first time at the Omega OMEGA laser facility to characterize the in-flight properties of ICF ablators. In these experiments, the non-collective, or microscopic particle behavior, of imploding CH and Be shells, was probed using a 9 keV Zn He-alpha x-ray source at scattering angles of 113^o and 135^o. for two drive pulse shapes.As an example, the analysis of In-flight scattering measurements from one set of directly-driven compressed 8600 μm-diameter, 40-μm thick Be shells taken (4.2 ns after the start of the compression beamswhen compressed a factor of 4.83x) yielded electron densities of ˜ 1.2±0.23x10^24cm-3, temperatures of ˜13±32 eV, and an ionization state of Be(+2), with uncertainties in the temperature and density of about 40% and 20%. These conditions resulting in an inferred adiabat (ratio of plasma pressure to Fermi degenerate pressure) of 1.797 +0.3/-.5 with an error of about 30%. The high signal-to-noise and high signal-to-background ratio of data obtained in these experiments provides a platform for studying the adiabat of other indirect-drive ICF ablators such as CH and High Density Carbon (HDC) ablators and demonstrates the viability of using this diagnostic to study the in-flight properties adiabat of implosion targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  6. Initial results from the Wisconsin Spherically Convergent Ion Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J.; Foucher, B.S.; Wainwright, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Spherically Convergent Ion Focus (SCIF) is an alternative plasma confinement scheme in which ions are electrostatically confined, accelerated, and concentrated at fusion-relevant energies. This concept has been recently promoted for various near-term applications including waste disposal, particle production, neutron radiography and tomography, plastic explosive detection, materials research, and medical isotope production. The Wisconsin SCIF experiments are designed to evaluate the practicality of the SCIF concept for given applications. In the experiment, a wire globe serves as a simple means of producing the trapping potential well and the ion source consists of a cold, uniform plasma at the edge. Hydrogen ions formed from the background neutral gas are typically accelerated to energies of 5--20 kV, and measured cathode grid currents approach the space-charge limit for concentric spheres. Core size measurements utilize spectrally-filtered CCD camera images of the visible emission from the core region, and the minimal observed core radius of 0.6 cm (HWHM) is within a factor of 2--3 of the theoretical convergence ratio for the device. Neutral particle interactions and potential asymmetries imposed by the grid lead to non-ideal convergence, as evidenced by measured potential asymmetries and core size dependence on cathode grid spacing. Floating probes with 30 kV isolation have allowed unique measurements of the density, electric potential and temperature in the converged core. The ratio of core to edge density is 10--20, which is in good agreement with scaling from radial flux conservation

  7. Electric double layer electrostatics of pH-responsive spherical polyelectrolyte brushes in the decoupled regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the behavior and properties of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPEBs), which are polyelectrolyte brushes grafted to a spherical core, is fundamental to many applications in biomedical, chemical and petroleum engineering as well as in pharmaceutics. In this paper, we study the pH-responsive electrostatics of such SPEBs in the decoupled regime. In the first part of the paper, we derive the scaling conditions in terms of the grafting density of the PEs on the spherical core that ensure that the analysis can be performed in the decoupled regime. In such a regime the elastic and the excluded volume effects of polyelectrolyte brushes (PEBs) can be decoupled from the electrostatic effects associated with the PE charge and the induced EDL. As a consequence the PE brush height, assumed to be dictated by the balance of the elastic and excluded volume effects, can be independent of the electrostatic effects. In the second part, we quantify the pH-responsive electrostatics of the SPEBs - we pinpoint that the radial monomer distribution for a given brush molecule exhibit a non-unique cubic distribution that decays away from the spherical core. Such a monomer distribution ensures that the hydrogen ion concentration is appropriately accounted for in the description of the SPEB thermodynamics. We anticipate that the present analysis, which provides possibly one of the first models for probing the electrostatics of pH-responsive SPEBs in a thermodynamically-consistent framework, will be vital for understanding the behavior of a large number of entities ranging from PE-coated NPs and stealth liposomes to biomolecules like bacteria and viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase behavior of charged hydrophobic colloids on flat and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Colm P.

    For a broad class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the transition from isotropic fluid to crystalline solid is described by the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson and Young (KTHNY). According to this theory, long-range order is achieved via elimination of the topological defects which proliferate in the fluid phase. However, many natural and man-made 2D systems posses spatial curvature and/or non-trivial topology, which require the presence of topological defects, even at T=0. In principle, the presence of these defects could profoundly affect the phase behavior of such a system. In this thesis, we develop and characterize an experimental system of charged colloidal particles that bind electrostatically to the interface between an oil and an aqueous phase. Depending on how we prepare the sample, this fluid interface may be flat, spherical, or have a more complicated geometry. Focusing on the cases where the interface is flat or spherical, we measure the interactions between the particles, and probe various aspects of their phase behavior. On flat interfaces, this phase behavior is well-described by KTHNY theory. In spherical geometries, however, we observe spatial structures and inhomogeneous dynamics that cannot be captured by the measures traditionally used to describe flat-space phase behavior. We show that, in the spherical system, ordering is achieved by a novel mechanism: sequestration of topological defects into freely-terminating grain boundaries ("scars"), and simultaneous spatial organization of the scars themselves on the vertices of an icosahedron. The emergence of icosahedral order coincides with the localization of mobility into isolated "lakes" of fluid or glassy particles, situated at the icosahedron vertices. These lakes are embedded in a rigid, connected "continent" of locally crystalline particles.

  9. Expanding probe repertoire and improving reproducibility in human genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Shirley, Ben C.; Knoll, Joan H. M.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic DNA hybridization relies on probes composed of single copy (sc) genomic sequences. Sc sequences in probe design ensure high specificity and avoid cross-hybridization to other regions of the genome, which could lead to ambiguous results that are difficult to interpret. We examine how the distribution and composition of repetitive sequences in the genome affects sc probe performance. A divide and conquer algorithm was implemented to design sc probes. With this approach, sc probes can include divergent repetitive elements, which hybridize to unique genomic targets under higher stringency experimental conditions. Genome-wide custom probe sets were created for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray genomic hybridization. The scFISH probes were developed for detection of copy number changes within small tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. The microarrays demonstrated increased reproducibility by eliminating cross-hybridization to repetitive sequences adjacent to probe targets. The genome-wide microarrays exhibited lower median coefficients of variation (17.8%) for two HapMap family trios. The coefficients of variations of commercial probes within 300 nt of a repetitive element were 48.3% higher than the nearest custom probe. Furthermore, the custom microarray called a chromosome 15q11.2q13 deletion more consistently. This method for sc probe design increases probe coverage for FISH and lowers variability in genomic microarrays. PMID:23376933

  10. Microbial properties of soil aggregates created by earthworms and other factors: spherical and prismatic soil aggregates from unreclaimed post-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouz, J.; Kristufek, V.; Liveckova, M.; van Loo, D.; Jacobs, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Charles University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Studies

    2011-01-15

    Soil aggregates between 2 and 5 mm from 35- and 45-year-old unreclaimed post-mining sites near Sokolov (Czech Republic) were divided into two groups: spherical and prismatic. X-ray tomography indicated that prismatic aggregates consisted of fragments of claystone bonded together by amorphous clay and roots while spherical aggregates consisted of a clay matrix and organic fragments of various sizes. Prismatic aggregates were presumed to be formed by plant roots and physical processes during weathering of Tertiary mudstone, while earthworms were presumed to contribute to the formation of spherical aggregates. The effects of drying and rewetting and glucose addition on microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and counts of bacteria in these aggregates were determined. Spherical aggregates contained a greater percentage of C and N and a higher C-to-N ratio than prismatic ones. The C content of the particulate organic matter was also higher in the spherical than in the prismatic aggregates. Although spherical aggregates had a higher microbial respiration and biomass, the growth of microbial biomass in spherical aggregates was negatively correlated with initial microbial biomass, indicating competition between bacteria. Specific respiration was negatively correlated with microbial biomass. Direct counts of bacteria were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Bacterial numbers were more stable in the center than in the surface layers of the aggregates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that bacteria often occurred as individual cells in prismatic aggregates but as small clusters of cells in spherical aggregates. Ratios of colony forming units (cultivatable bacteria) to direct counts were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Spherical aggregates also contained faster growing bacteria.

  11. Interpretation of plasma impurity deposition probes. Analytic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeby, P. C.

    1987-10-01

    Insertion of a probe into the plasma induces a high speed flow of the hydrogenic plasma to the probe which, by friction, accelerates the impurity ions to velocities approaching the hydrogenic ion acoustic speed, i.e., higher than the impurity ion thermal speed. A simple analytic theory based on this effect provides a relation between impurity fluxes to the probe Γimp and the undisturbed impurity ion density nimp, with the hydrogenic temperature and density as input parameters. Probe size also influences the collection process and large probes are found to attract a higher flux density than small probes in the same plasma. The quantity actually measured, cimp, the impurity atom surface density (m-2) net-deposited on the probe, is related to Γimp and thus to nimp by taking into account the partial removal of deposited material caused by sputtering and the redeposition process.

  12. Computation of higher spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux for neutron transport problems in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.; Sharma, A.

    2000-01-01

    The integral form of one-speed, spherically symmetric neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering is considered. Two standard problems are solved using normal mode expansion technique. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving their singular integral equations. It is shown that these expansion coefficients provide a representation of all spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux as a superposition of Bessel functions. It is seen that large errors occur in the computation of higher moments unless we take certain precautions. The reasons for this phenomenon are explained. They throw some light on the failure of spherical harmonics method in treating spherical geometry problems as observed by Aronsson

  13. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - Small business creation base type (Preparation of monodispersed spherical particles for solder materials for application to high density semiconductor packaging - 2nd year); 1998 nendo komitsudo handotai jisso no tame no tanbunsan kyukei handa ryushi no sakusei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Fine solder grains have been developed, spherical in shape, uniform in diameter, high in dimensional precision, and high in surface cleanliness, which are necessary for the establishment of next-generation technologies of flip chip bonding and ball grid array which are indispensable for high-density high-reliability packaging of electronic devices such as LSI (large scale integration). Results attained in fiscal 1998 are described. A pulse pressure aided orifice injection method was used. Monodispersed grains are prepared for the Pb-63Sn solder and Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder. In the case of a 200{mu}m-large orifice, the grain diameter was controlled to fall in the range of 190-210{mu}m and the accuracy was not lower than {+-}6{mu}m. The main goal of this project has been accomplished now that these figures were attained without a sorting process and satisfy the most rigorous conditions currently proposed by the industrial circle involved. The flow of hot liquid out of the orifice and the splitting process of grains were clarified by thermal hydraulic analysis. It was found that grains split and fly not because of instability due to Rayleigh surface waves but because of their liberation from surface tension when equipped with critical kinetic energy. (NEDO)

  14. Combination of biological treatment of waste air and liquid effluents in small and medium-sized businesses by using spherical carrier media in exchange with each other. Final report; Kombination der biologischen Behandlung von Abluft- und Abwasserreinigung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen durch die Verwendung von kugeligen Traegermaterialien im gegenseitigen Austausch. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.M.; Brunk, M.; Bentz, P.; Bach, K.; Marcos del Rio, O.; Stahl, B.; Wolf, C.

    2002-05-08

    A combined system for biological treatment of solvent-contaminated liquid and gaseous effluents was to be constructed. The system was to be mobile for demonstration purposes in industrial processes and was to serve for dimensioning of full-scale systems. The system works by a combined process via exchange of spherical carriers with a growth of micro-organisms. Two pilot systems of the Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik, one for liquid and one for gaseous effluents, were combined for this purpose, ensuring exchange of carrier materials between the two units. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe im Rahmen dieses F+E-Vorhabens war es gewesen, eine kombinierte biologische Abluft- und Abwasserreinigungsanlage - speziell fuer loesungsmittelhaltige Abluft und Abwaesser - zu untersuchen. Dazu sollte eine Anlage aufgebaut werden, die auch als Demonstrations- und Versuchsanlage zu Industriebetrieben gebracht und dort zur Dimensionierung von full-scale-Anlage eingesetzt werden kann. Idee fuer dieses Vorhaben war gewesen, die Kombination beider Behandlungssysteme ueber den Austausch von mit Mikroorganismen bewachsenem Traegermaterial herzustellen. Am Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik existierte bereits eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Abwasserreinigung mit kugeligem Traegermaterial (Vario-Bio-Reaktor) und eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Behandlung von Abluft nach dem Trickling-Filter-Prinzip mit ebenfalls kugeligem Traegermaterial. Diese beiden Anlagen sollten miteinander kombiniert und der Austausch des Traegermaterials hergestellt werden. (orig.)

  15. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  16. Spherical particle Brownian motion in viscous medium as non-Markovian random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Andrey N.; Skripkin, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a spherical particle in an infinite medium is described by the conventional methods and integral transforms considering the entrainment of surrounding particles of the medium by the Brownian particle. It is demonstrated that fluctuations of the Brownian particle velocity represent a non-Markovian random process. The features of Brownian motion in short time intervals and in small displacements are considered. -- Highlights: → Description of Brownian motion considering the entrainment of medium is developed. → We find the equations for statistical characteristics of impulse fluctuations. → Brownian motion at small time intervals is considered. → Theoretical results and experimental data are compared.

  17. Phased array concept for the ultrasonic inservice inspection of the spherical bottom of BWR-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekow, G.; Wuestenberg, H.; Moehrle, W.; Schulz, E.

    1989-01-01

    The spherical bottom of BWR-pressure vessels contains holes for the nozzles of control rods and instrumentation. Up to now the detectable areas for the ultrasonic inspection are the accessible ligaments between the nozzles with an orientation parallel and transverse to the manipulator rails. Some licensing authorities demand an inspection technique capable of reliably detecting significant crack initiation in all critical areas near the cladding of the spherical inner surface. By order and in cooperation with the HEW we have developed a computer controlled equipment with two ultrasonic probes containing four linear arrays and a digitized A-scan storage for documentation and evaluation of inspection results. The manipulator guided probe movement in the paths between the nozzles of the spherical bottom is controlled by a computer program. This program determines for each array system and for each coupling position the beam angle as a function of the variable skewing angle to realize detection conditions suited to possible crack positions at the longitudinal, transverse and diagonal ligaments between the nozzles for control rods and instrumentation. (orig./HP)

  18. Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1990-01-01

    An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived

  19. Cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic wave modulations in dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nonlinear wave modulation of planar and non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic waves (DAW) propagating in dusty plasmas, in the presence of non-extensive distribu- tions for ions and electrons is investigated. By employing multiple scales technique, a cylindrically and spherically modified ...

  20. Systematic Calibration for a Backpacked Spherical Photogrammetry Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. Y.; Su, B. W.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    A spherical camera can observe the environment for almost 720 degrees' field of view in one shoot, which is useful for augmented reality, environment documentation, or mobile mapping applications. This paper aims to develop a spherical photogrammetry imaging system for the purpose of 3D measurement through a backpacked mobile mapping system (MMS). The used equipment contains a Ladybug-5 spherical camera, a tactical grade positioning and orientation system (POS), i.e. SPAN-CPT, and an odometer, etc. This research aims to directly apply photogrammetric space intersection technique for 3D mapping from a spherical image stereo-pair. For this purpose, several systematic calibration procedures are required, including lens distortion calibration, relative orientation calibration, boresight calibration for direct georeferencing, and spherical image calibration. The lens distortion is serious on the ladybug-5 camera's original 6 images. Meanwhile, for spherical image mosaicking from these original 6 images, we propose the use of their relative orientation and correct their lens distortion at the same time. However, the constructed spherical image still contains systematic error, which will reduce the 3D measurement accuracy. Later for direct georeferencing purpose, we need to establish a ground control field for boresight/lever-arm calibration. Then, we can apply the calibrated parameters to obtain the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of all spherical images. In the end, the 3D positioning accuracy after space intersection will be evaluated, including EOPs obtained by structure from motion method.

  1. Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll

    2002-01-01

    The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations

  2. Invariants of the spherical sector in conformal mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Saghatelian, Armen; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A direct relation is established between the constants of motion for conformal mechanics and those for its spherical part. In this way, we find the complete set of functionally independent constants of motion for the so-called cuboctahedric Higgs oscillator, which is just the spherical part of the rational A 3 Calogero model (describing four Calogero particles after decoupling their center of mass).

  3. Effect of the spherical Earth on a simple pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the period of a simple pendulum in the gravitational field of the spherical Earth. Effectively, gravity is enhanced compared with the often used flat Earth approximation, such that the period of the pendulum is shortened. We discuss the flat Earth approximation, and show when the corrections due to the spherical Earth may be of interest.

  4. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  5. Erosion and damage by hard spherical particles on glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikkerveer, P.J.; Verspui, M.A.; Skerka, G.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Solid particle impact of hard spherical particles on glass is of fundamental interest because of the presence of a number of different impact regimes. Understanding the impact of spherical particles is also a step toward modeling the behavior of rounded particles. This paper verifies theoretical

  6. Equilibrium spherically curved two-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van Dantzig, R.

    2005-01-01

    To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N < 800) equilibrium configu- rations are traced

  7. Field emission sensing for non-contact probe recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Fèbre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In probe recording an array of thousands of nanometer-sharp probes is used to write and read on a storage medium. By using micro-electromechanical system technology (MEMS) for fabrication, small form factor memories with high data density and low power consumption can be obtained. Such a system is

  8. Measurement of local flow pattern in boiling R12 simulating PWR conditions with multiple optical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    center of particles is presented. Moreover, some numerical simulations gives the uncertainty induced by this treatment method. We quantify the uncertainty on gas velocity and on granulometric properties when, at the measurement point, there is a velocity gradient, a gradient of particles number and a gradient or particles diameter. Then, we detail the data acquisition system which measures the frequency of particles intercepted by the probe, the histogram of time of flight between the two fibers and the histogram of vapor time of the first P.I.F. Moreover, a numerical scope acquires the raw signal to check that the probe works properly. Finally, we present some of the results we obtained. A wide range of thermal hydraulic parameters has been covered (more than 10000 measurements have been performed). We first show that we can get a criteria to check that our particles have a spherical shape. We also find that rise and fall time of the electrical signal are strongly correlated with the gas velocity and we expect it will be possible to perform velocity measurements with a single fiber probe (after a specific calibration which is under definition). The concluding remarks deals with the future developments. A first work concern probes able to measure in the real conditions of a PWR (16 MPa and 340 deg. C). Another development concerns the size of the sensitive part for probes with classical optical fibres. We intend to get nanometric tips to minimize flow disturbance, increase accuracy for small particles measurements and get multiple probes (four fibres) with low dimensions for local measurements of interfacial area density. We also intend to extend the capability of our data acquisition system in order to keep more information on the P.I.F. (author)

  9. Acoustic radiation force control: Pulsating spherical carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    The interaction between harmonic plane progressive acoustic beams and a pulsating spherical radiator is studied. The acoustic radiation force function exerted on the spherical body is derived as a function of the incident wave pressure and the monopole vibration characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) of the body. Two distinct strategies are presented in order to alter the radiation force effects (i.e., pushing and pulling states) by changing its magnitude and direction. In the first strategy, an incident wave field with known amplitude and phase is considered. It is analytically shown that the zero- radiation force state (i.e., radiation force function cancellation) is achievable for specific pulsation characteristics belong to a frequency-dependent straight line equation in the plane of real-imaginary components (i.e., Nyquist Plane) of prescribed surface displacement. It is illustrated that these characteristic lines divide the mentioned displacement plane into two regions of positive (i.e., pushing) and negative (i.e., pulling) radiation forces. In the second strategy, the zero, negative and positive states of radiation force are obtained through adjusting the incident wave field characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) which insonifies the radiator with prescribed pulsation characteristics. It is proved that zero radiation force state occurs for incident wave pressure characteristics belong to specific frequency-dependent circles in Nyquist plane of incident wave pressure. These characteristic circles divide the Nyquist plane into two distinct regions corresponding to positive (out of circles) and negative (in the circles) values of radiation force function. It is analytically shown that the maximum amplitude of negative radiation force is exactly equal to the amplitude of the (positive) radiation force exerted upon the sphere in the passive state, by the same incident field. The developed concepts are much more deepened by considering the required

  10. Novel, spherically-convergent ion systems for neutron source and fusion energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Nebel, R.A.; Ribe, F.L.; Schauer, M.M.; Schranck, L.S.; Umstadter, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Combining spherical convergence with electrostatic or electro-magnetostatic confinement of a nonneutral plasma offers the possibility of high fusion gain in a centimeter-sized system. The physics principles, scaling laws, and experimental embodiments of this approach are presented. Steps to development of this approach from its present proof-of-principle experiments to a useful fusion power reactor are outlined. This development path is much less expensive and simpler, compared to that for conventional magnetic confinement and leads to different and useful products at each stage. Reactor projections show both high mass power density and low to moderate wall loading. This approach is being tested experimentally in PFX-I (Penning Fusion eXperiment-Ions), which is based on the following recent advances: 1) Demonstration, in PFX (our former experiment), that it is possible to combine nonneutral electron plasma confinement with nonthermal, spherical focussing; 2) Theoretical development of the POPS (Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere) concept, which allows spherical compression of thermal-equilibrium ions; 3) The concept of a massively-modular approach to fusion power, and associated elimination of the critical problem of extremely high first wall loading. PFX-I is described. PFX-I is being designed as a small (<1.5 cm) spherical system into which moderate-energy electrons (up to 100 kV) are injected. These electrons are magnetically insulated from passing to the sphere and their space charge field is then used to spherically focus ions. Results of initial operation with electrons only are presented. Deuterium operation can produce significant neutron output with unprecedented efficiency (fusion gain Q). copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Theory and applications of spherical microphone array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Jarrett, Daniel P; Naylor, Patrick A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the signal processing algorithms that have been developed to process the signals acquired by a spherical microphone array. Spherical microphone arrays can be used to capture the sound field in three dimensions and have received significant interest from researchers and audio engineers. Algorithms for spherical array processing are different to corresponding algorithms already known in the literature of linear and planar arrays because the spherical geometry can be exploited to great beneficial effect. The authors aim to advance the field of spherical array processing by helping those new to the field to study it efficiently and from a single source, as well as by offering a way for more experienced researchers and engineers to consolidate their understanding, adding either or both of breadth and depth. The level of the presentation corresponds to graduate studies at MSc and PhD level. This book begins with a presentation of some of the essential mathematical and physical theory relevant to ...

  12. A modular spherical harmonics approach to the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanc, F.; Rohach, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A modular nodal method was developed for solving the neutron transport equation in 2-D xy coordinates. The spherical harmonic expansion was used for approximating the second-order even-parity form of the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions of the spherical harmonics approximation were derived in a form to have forms analogous to the partial currents in the neutron diffusion equation. Relations were developed for generating both the second-order spherical harmonic equations and the boundary conditions in an automated computational algorithm. Nodes using different orders of the spherical harmonics approximation to the transport equation were interfaced through mixed-type boundary conditions. The determination of spherical harmonic orders implemented in the nodes were determined by the scheme in an automated manner. Results of the method compared favorably to benchmark problems. (author)

  13. Interaction of a ballistic probe with gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerovsky, Zden; Greason, William D

    2008-01-01

    Free-flying metal probes are used to determine charge densities in gaseous media containing free charge or low density plasma. The trajectory of the probe is ensured either by gravity or by propelling the probe to a certain velocity at the launch site. While travelling, the probe charge changes from its launch-site magnitude to that related to the space charge density existing along the trajectory. The degree to which the probe's arrival-site charge magnitude matches the space charge density in the area of interest depends on the probe shape and on the charge exchange processes between the probe body and the medium. The paper studies a probe acting as a free-flying charge carrier in air, and discusses the problems that may lead to an imbalance between the charge collected by the probe in the area of interest and the charge measured at the arrival site. The analysis and the described experiments are of the ballistic type: a small, triboelectrically pre-charged metal probe was propelled on a horizontal path, and the charge carried by the probe was measured at several points along the trajectory by means of contact-free induction rings; the initial and final charges were determined by static Faraday cups. A charge disparity was found under certain conditions, and its degree explained by the effects of the charge carrier potential. The studied probe charges ranged from 10 to 50 nF, and the fly-times needed to cross a one-meter path ranged from 20 to 40 ms. The probe to gas charge exchange experiments and their analysis yielded conditions under which the probe lost approximately 10 % of its charge. The results of our study may be of interest to those who intend to use the free-flying probe technique for the determination of space charge density.

  14. Temperature Condition and Spherical Shell Shape Variation of Space Gauge-Alignment Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high precision spherical shell is one of the geometrical shape embodiments of a gaugealignment spacecraft to determine and control a radar channel energy potential of the ground-based complex for the traffic control of space objects. Passive relays of signals and some types of smallsized instrumentation standard reflectors used for radar gauge and alignment have the same shape. Orbits of the considered spacecraft can be either circular with a height of about 1000 km, including those close to the polar, or elliptical with an apogee of up to 2200 km.In case there is no thermal control system in spacecrafts of these types the solar radiation is a major factor to define the thermal state of a spherical shell in the illuminated orbit area. With the shell in fixed position with respect to direction towards the Sun an arising uneven temperature distribution over its surface leads to variation of the spherically ideal shell shape, which may affect the functional characteristics of the spacecraft. The shell rotation about an axis perpendicular to the direction towards the Sun may reduce an unevenness degree of the temperature distribution.The uneven temperature distribution over the spherical shell surface in conditions of the lowEarth space and this unevenness impact on the shell shape variation against its spherical shape can be quantively estimated by the appropriate methods of mathematical modeling using modification of a previously developed mathematical model to describe steady temperature state of such shell on the low-Earth orbit. The paper considers the shell made from a polymeric composite material. Its original spherical shape is defined by rather low internal pressure. It is assumed that equipment in the shell, if any, is quite small-sized. This allows us to ignore its impact on the radiative transfer in the shell cavity. Along with defining the steady temperature distribution over the shell surface at its fixed orientation with respect to

  15. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  16. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  17. Excitation of Alfvenic instabilities in spherical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClements, K.G.; Appel, L.C.; Hole, M.J.; Thyagaraja, A.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding energetic particle confinement in spherical tokamak (STs) is important for optimising the design of ST power plants, and provides a testbed for theoretical modelling under conditions of strong toroidicity and shaping, and high beta. MHD analysis of some recent beam-heated discharges in the MAST ST indicates that high frequency modes observed in these discharges can be identified as toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) and elliptical Alfven Eigenmodes (EAEs). It is possible that such modes could strongly enhance fusion alpha-particle transport in an ST power plant. Computations of TAE growth rates for one particular MAST discharge, made using the HAGIS guiding centre code and benchmarked against analytical estimates, indicate strong drive by sub-Alfvenic neutral beam ions. HAGIS computations using higher mode amplitudes than those observed indicate that whereas co-passing beam ions provide the bulk of he TAE drive, counter-passing ions provide the dominant component of TAE-induced particle losses. Axisymmetric Alfvenic mode activity has been detected during ohmic discharges in MAST. These observations are shown by computational modelling to be consistent with the excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAEs) with n=0 and low m, driven impulsively by low frequency MHD. (author)

  18. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  19. Spherical images and inextensible curved folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2018-02-01

    In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982), 10.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes. We verify their special cases by a graphical treatment according to a method of Gauss. We replace the fold curve by a piecewise linear path, which connects vertices of intersecting pairs of hinge lines. Inspired by the d-cone analysis by Farmer and Calladine [Int. J. Mech. Sci. 47, 509 (2005), 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.013], we construct the spherical images for developable folding of successive vertices: the operating conditions of the special cases in Duncan and Duncan are then revealed straightforwardly by the geometric relationships between the images. Our approach may be used to synthesize folding patterns for novel deployable and shape-changing surfaces without need of complex calculation.

  20. Spherical dust collapse in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider here whether it is possible to recover cosmic censorship when a transition is made to higher-dimensional spacetimes, by studying the spherically symmetric dust collapse in an arbitrary higher spacetime dimension. It is pointed out that if only black holes are to result as the end state of a continual gravitational collapse, several conditions must be imposed on the collapsing configuration, some of which may appear to be restrictive, and we need to study carefully if these can be suitably motivated physically in a realistic collapse scenario. It would appear, that, in a generic higher-dimensional dust collapse, both black holes and naked singularities would develop as end states as indicated by the results here. The mathematical approach developed here generalizes and unifies the earlier available results on higher-dimensional dust collapse as we point out. Further, the dependence of black hole or naked singularity end states as collapse outcomes on the nature of the initial data from which the collapse develops is brought out explicitly and in a transparent manner as we show here. Our method also allows us to consider here in some detail the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse

  1. Scaling laws for spherical pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.P.; Palleschi, V.; Vaselli, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spherical pinch (SP) experiments, the plasma heated at the center of a cell to reach ignition temperature is confined by imploding shock waves for a time long enough to satisfy the Lawson criterion for plasma fusion. In earlier theoretical studies, the expansion of the central plasma either is neglected or is assumed to be radially uniform. The energy is considered to be deposited instantaneously at the center of the cell and the nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved to study the temporal evolution of the central plasma. Incorporating the ignition condition for the average temperature of the expanding fireball, and its confinement by imploding convergent shock waves, which may be fired from the periphery of the cell with some time delay, the scaling laws for satisfying the Lawson criterion are investigated in detail. The relevant calculations indicate that the cumulative effects of the convergent shock waves in the vicinity of the center of the cell play an important role in these scaling laws. (author)

  2. Spherical radial basis functions, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbert, Simon; Morton, Tanya M

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to be devoted to the theory and applications of spherical (radial) basis functions (SBFs), which is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising techniques for solving problems where approximations are needed on the surface of a sphere. The aim of the book is to provide enough theoretical and practical details for the reader to be able to implement the SBF methods to solve real world problems. The authors stress the close connection between the theory of SBFs and that of the more well-known family of radial basis functions (RBFs), which are well-established tools for solving approximation theory problems on more general domains. The unique solvability of the SBF interpolation method for data fitting problems is established and an in-depth investigation of its accuracy is provided. Two chapters are devoted to partial differential equations (PDEs). One deals with the practical implementation of an SBF-based solution to an elliptic PDE and another which describes an SBF approach for solvi...

  3. Failure internal pressure of spherical steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.

    1985-01-01

    An application of the British CEGB's R6 Failure Assessment Approach to the determination of failure internal pressure of nuclear power plant spherical steel containments is presented. The presence of hypothetical cracks both in the base metal and in the welding material of the containment, with geometrical idealizations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section XI), was taken into account in order to analyze the sensitivity of the failure assessment with the values of the material fracture properties. Calculations of the elastoplastic collapse load have been performed by means of the Finite Element System SAMCEF. The clean axisymmetric shell (neglecting the influence of nozzles and minor irregularities) and two major penetrations (personnel and emergency locks) have been taken separately into account. Large-strain elastoplastic behaviour of the material was considered in the Code, using lower bounds of true stress-true strain relations obtained by testing a collection of tensile specimens. Assuming the presence of cracks in non-perturbed regions, the reserve factor for test pressure and the failure internal pressure have been determined as a function of the flaw depth. (orig.)

  4. Spherical Process Models for Global Spatial Statistics

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-11-28

    Statistical models used in geophysical, environmental, and climate science applications must reflect the curvature of the spatial domain in global data. Over the past few decades, statisticians have developed covariance models that capture the spatial and temporal behavior of these global data sets. Though the geodesic distance is the most natural metric for measuring distance on the surface of a sphere, mathematical limitations have compelled statisticians to use the chordal distance to compute the covariance matrix in many applications instead, which may cause physically unrealistic distortions. Therefore, covariance functions directly defined on a sphere using the geodesic distance are needed. We discuss the issues that arise when dealing with spherical data sets on a global scale and provide references to recent literature. We review the current approaches to building process models on spheres, including the differential operator, the stochastic partial differential equation, the kernel convolution, and the deformation approaches. We illustrate realizations obtained from Gaussian processes with different covariance structures and the use of isotropic and nonstationary covariance models through deformations and geographical indicators for global surface temperature data. To assess the suitability of each method, we compare their log-likelihood values and prediction scores, and we end with a discussion of related research problems.

  5. Transitions between compound states of spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskii, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Wigner's statistical matrices are used to study the average reduced g widths and their dispersion for g transitions from a compound state c to another state f, with a lower excitation energy but of arbitrary complexity, for spherical nuclei. It is found that the Porter--Thomas distribution holds for the g widths for all cases of practical interest. In g transitions between compound states c and c' with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV, the most important transitions are M1 transitions involving the major many-quasiparticle components of state c and E1 transitions involving the minor components of state c. It is shown that the strength functions predicted by the various theories for M1 and E1 transitions between compound states with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV are similar. Preference is assigned to the M1-transition version because of experimental results on (n,ga) reactions with thermal and resonance neutrons

  6. Painleve-Gullstrand synchronizations in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization is a slicing of the spacetime by a family of flat space-like 3-surfaces. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, we show that a Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization only exists in the region where (dr) 2 ≤ 1, r being the curvature radius of the isometry group orbits (2-spheres). This condition states that the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy of these 2-spheres is not negative and has an intrinsic meaning in terms of the norm of the mean extrinsic curvature vector. It also provides an algebraic inequality involving the Weyl curvature scalar and the Ricci eigenvalues. We prove that the energy and momentum densities associated with the Weinberg complex of a Painleve-Gullstrand slice vanish in these curvature coordinates, and we give a new interpretation of these slices by using semi-metric Newtonian connections. It is also outlined that, by solving the vacuum Einstein's equations in a coordinate system adapted to a Painleve-Gullstrand synchronization, the Schwarzschild solution is directly obtained in a whole coordinate domain that includes the horizon and both its interior and exterior regions.

  7. Study on wall recycling behaviour in CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyay, R.; Zushi, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Okamoto, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Ryoukai, T.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments to study wall recycling behaviour have been performed in the small spherical tokamak compact plasma-wall interaction experimental device (CPD) from the viewpoint of global as well as local plasma wall interaction condition. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma of typically ∼50 to 400 ms duration is produced using ∼40 to 80 kW RF power. In order to study the global wall recycling behaviour, pressure measurements are carried out just before and after the ECR plasma in the absence of any external pumping. The recycling behaviour is found to change from release to pumping beyond a certain level of pressure value which is again found to be a function of shot history. The real-time local wall behaviour is studied in similar RF plasma using a rotating tungsten limiter, actively coated with lithium. Measurement of H α light intensity in front of the rotating surface has indicated a clear reduction (∼10%) in the steady-state hydrogen recycling with continuous Li gettering of several minutes

  8. Modelling, simulation and experiment of the spherical flexible joint stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The spherical flexible joint is extensively used in engineering. It is designed to provide flexibility in rotation while bearing vertical compression load. The linear rotational stiffness of the flexible joint is formulated. The rotational stiffness of the bonded rubber layer is related to inner radius, thickness and two edge angles. FEM is used to verify the analytical solution and analyze the stiffness. The Mooney–Rivlin, Neo Hooke and Yeoh constitutive models are used in the simulation. The experiment is taken to obtain the material coefficient and validate the analytical and FEM results. The Yeoh model can reflect the deformation trend more accurately, but the error in the nearly linear district is bigger than the Mooney–Rivlin model. The Mooney–Rivlin model can fit the test result very well and the analytical solution can also be used when the rubber deformation in the flexible joint is small. The increase of Poisson's ratio of the rubber layers will enhance the vertical compression stiffness but barely have effect on the rotational stiffness.

  9. Ultrasonically determined fill pressure and density in closed spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaki, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in which the D 2 fill pressure has been determined for several closed millimeter-size aluminum and beryllium shells. The vibrational resonance frequency spectrum of the shells was used to calculate the sound velocity of the interior gas. This velocity, along with the equation-of-state, determined the gas pressure and density. The accuracy in determining the fill conditions is within 0.5% in both pressure and density for near critical density (ρ approx-gt 9 mol/L) gas over a wide range of temperatures (190 K to 300 K). Reduced accuracy was apparent at low density. An attempt was made to determine the fill density of one shell by acoustic observation of the dew point temperature. While this temperature was recorded very accurately, the uncertainty in the saturated vapor density curve near the critical point yielded inaccurate results. These methods were shown to be unaffected by small deviations in the sphericity of the gas-filled cavity

  10. Binding of Lysozyme to Spherical Poly(styrenesulfonate Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte gels are useful as carriers of proteins and other biomacromolecules in, e.g., drug delivery. The rational design of such systems requires knowledge about how the binding and release are affected by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the components. To this end we have investigated the uptake of lysozyme by weakly crosslinked spherical poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS microgels and macrogels by means of micromanipulator assisted light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS in an aqueous environment. The results show that the binding process is an order of magnitude slower than for cytochrome c and for lysozyme binding to sodium polyacrylate gels under the same conditions. This is attributed to the formation of very dense protein-rich shells in the outer layers of the microgels with low permeability to the protein. The shells in macrogels contain 60 wt % water and nearly charge stoichiometric amounts of lysozyme and PSS in the form of dense complexes of radius 8 nm comprising 30–60 lysozyme molecules. With support from kinetic modelling results we propose that the rate of protein binding and the relaxation rate of the microgel are controlled by the protein mass transport through the shell, which is strongly affected by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The mechanism explains, in turn, an observed dependence of the diffusion rate on the apparent degree of crosslinking of the networks.

  11. Gamma transitions between compound states in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskij, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Average values of the reduced γ widths and their dispersions are investigated, basing on the Wigner statistical matrix method, for γ transitions from a compound state c into a less-energy excited state f of an arbitrary complexity in spherical nuclei. It is shown that in all the cases of practical interest the Porter-Thomas distribution is valid for the γ widths. It is found that in the γ transitions between compound states c and c' with Esub(γ) <= 2 MeV the dominating role is played by the M1 transitions due to the main multiquasiparticle states of c, and by the E1 transitions, due to small components of the state c. In framework of the existent theoretical schemes it is shown that the strength functions of the M1 and E1 transitions between the compound states with Esub(γ) <2 MeV are close. It is deduced thet the variant of the M1 transitions is preferable in view of the experimental results on the (n, γα) reactions induced by thermal and resonance neutrons

  12. The Mechanics of a Chain or Ring of Spherical Magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Hall, Cameron L.; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Strong magnets, such as neodymium-iron-boron magnets, are increasingly being manufactured as spheres. Because of their dipolar characters, these spheres can easily be arranged into long chains that exhibit mechanical properties reminiscent of elastic strings or rods. While simple formulations exist for the energy of a deformed elastic rod, it is not clear whether or not they are also appropriate for a chain of spherical magnets. In this paper, we use discrete-to-continuum asymptotic analysis to derive a continuum model for the energy of a deformed chain of magnets based on the magnetostatic interactions between individual spheres. We find that the mechanical properties of a chain of magnets differ significantly from those of an elastic rod: while both magnetic chains and elastic rods support bending by change of local curvature, nonlocal interaction terms also appear in the energy formulation for a magnetic chain. This continuum model for the energy of a chain of magnets is used to analyze small deformations of a circular ring of magnets and hence obtain theoretical predictions for the vibrational modes of a circular ring of magnets. Surprisingly, despite the contribution of nonlocal energy terms, we find that the vibrations of a circular ring of magnets are governed by the same equation that governs the vibrations of a circular elastic ring. Copyright © by SIAM.

  13. THEORY OF MUM FOR METAL SPHERICAL ROTOR WITH CONTACTLESS SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaoxia; Gao Zhongyu; Wang Yongliang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the motion equations of an unbalanced spherical rotor with contactless suspension,three methods of MUM (mass unbalance measurement) are put forward to measure the total mass unbalance,radical mass unbalance and radical mass unbalance of the rotor.Total mass unbalance is obtained when the unbalanced rotor plays as a simple pendulum in static situation.The pendulant period and pendulant midpoint indicate magnitude and direction of total mass unbalance of the rotor respectively.Analysis of the motion equations by using the averaging method yields that the rotor will do a special side oscillation when an auxiliary system makes the rotor spin about its pole axis which is orientating toward the local vertical.The radical mass unbalance can be obtained by building a proper displacement sensor to sense the amplitude of the side oscillation.Necessary analysis of the motion equations also shows that when the rotor spins at a small angular velocity and the rotary axis is perpendicular to the vertical,the pole axis of the rotor will precess slowly about the vertical by virtue of the axial mass unbalance.The axial mass unbalance can be estimated from the time history of the spin vector of the rotor.Finally,measurement precision of the three methods is compared and how the external torque affects the measurement precision for the three methods are examined.

  14. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  15. Reactive probing of macroscopically quantum mechanical SQUID rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prance, R.J.; Clark, T.D.; Whiteman, R.; Diggins, J.; Ralph, J.F.; Prance, H.; Spiller, T.P.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the energy level structure of ultra small capacitance SQUID rings can be probed adiabatically at radio frequency using both dynamical and quasistatic reactive techniques. ((orig.))

  16. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...

  17. An Adaptive Langmuir Probe for CubeSats and Explorers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build an Adaptive Langmuir Probe (ALP) for CubeSats designed to mitigate spacecraft charging unique to small platforms. This project builds a new...

  18. Studies of spherical tori, stellarators and anisotropic pressure with M3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, L.E.; Park, W.; Hudson, S.; Tang, X.-Z.; Strauss, H.R.; Stutman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project simulates plasmas using multiple levels of physics, geometry, and grid models in one code package. The M3D code has been extended to fundamentally nonaxisymmetric and small aspect ratio, R/a>or∼1, configurations. Applications include the nonlinear stability of the NSTX spherical torus and the spherical pinch, and the relaxation of stellarator equilibria. The fluid-level physics model has been extended to evolve the anisotropic pressures p jparallel and p jperpendicular for the ion and electron species. Results show that when the density evolves, other terms in addition to the neoclassical collisional parallel viscous force, such as B· ∇p e in the Ohm's law, can be strongly destabilizing for nonlinear magnetic islands. (author)

  19. Sustainment of spherical tokamak by means of repetitive injection of compact torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Shin; Matsura, Ken; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Sustainment of spherical tokamak (S.T.) has been studied. A compact torus (C.T.) plasma was injected into confinement region by magnetized coaxial gun. For start-up and sustainment of large main spherical tokamak, single pulsed injection of small C.T. is not sufficient in many cases. C.T.plasma injection of high repetition rate is required. For this purpose magnetized coaxial gun was driven with high repetition rate current. The first injected C.T. plasma could start-up S.T. without other help. The repetitive C.T. injection grew and sustained the S.T. plasma. A CCD camera with fast gated image intensifier took a cross sectional view of S.T. during the repetitive C.T. injection. (author)

  20. Reverse depletion effects and the determination of ligand density on some spherical bioparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunxiang [Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University (China); Liu, Yanhui, E-mail: ionazati@itp.ac.cn; Fan, Yangtao; Liu, Yijun; Li, Qiancheng; Xu, Houqiang, E-mail: houqiangxu@yahoo.com [Guizhou University (China)

    2016-06-15

    In cell environments crowded with macromolecules, the depletion effects act and assist in the assembly of a wide range of cellular structures, from the cytoskeleton to the chromatin loop, which are well accepted. But a recent quantum dot experiment indicated that the dimensions of the receptor–ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins in cell environments. In this article, a continuum elastic model is constructed to resolve the competition between the dimension of the receptor–ligand complex and depletion effects in the endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle. Our results show that the depletion effects do not always assist endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle; while the dimension of the ligand–receptor complex is larger than the size of a small bioparticle in cell environments, the depletion effects do not work and reverse effects appear. The ligand density covered on the virus can be identified quantitatively.

  1. Anisotropic plasmon-coupling dimerization of a pair of spherical electron gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Balassis, Antonios; Huang, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered a novel feature in the plasmon excitations for a pair of Coulomb-coupled non-concentric spherical two-dimensional electron gases (S2DEGs). Our results show that the plasmon excitations for such pairs depend on the orientation with respect to the external electromagnetic probe field. The origin of this anisotropy of the inter-sphere Coulomb interaction is due to the directional asymmetry of the electrostatic coupling of electrons in excited states which depend on both the angular momentum quantum number L and its projection M on the axis of quantization taken as the probe E-field direction. We demonstrate the anisotropic inter-sphere Coulomb coupling in space and present semi-analytic results in the random-phase approximation both perpendicular and parallel to the axis of quantization. For the incidence of light with a finite orbital or spin angular momentum, the magnetic field generated from an induced oscillating electric dipole on one sphere can couple to an induced magnetic dipole on another sphere in a way that is dependent on whether the direction is parallel or perpendicular to the probe E field. Such an effect from the plasmon spatial correlation is expected to be experimentally observable by employing circularly polarized light or a helical light beam for incidence. The S2DEG serves as a simple model for fullerenes as well as metallic dimers, when the energy bands are far apart. (paper)

  2. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  3. Modeling the Interaction of Mineral Dust with Solar Radiation: Spherical versus Non-spherical Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust, emitted from arid and semi-arid regions, is the most dominant atmospheric aerosol by mass. Beside detrimental effect on air quality, airborne dust also influences the atmospheric radiation by absorbing and scattering solar and terrestrial radiation. As a result, while the long-term radiative impacts of dust are important for climate, the short-term effects are significant for the photovoltaic energy production. Therefore, it is a vital requirement to accurately forecast the effects of dust on energy budget of the atmosphere and surface. To this end, a major issue is the fact that dust particles are non-spherical. Thus, the optical properties of such particles cannot be calculated precisely using the conventional methods like Mie theory that are often used in climate and numerical weather forecast models. In this study, T-Matrix method is employed, which is able to treat the non-sphericity of particles. Dust particles are assumed to be prolate spheroids with aspect ratio of 1.5 distributed in three lognormal modes. The wavelength-dependent refractive indices of dust are used in T-Matrix algorithm to calculate the extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and backscattering ratio at different wavelengths. These parameters are then implemented in ICON-ART model (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic model with Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) to conduct a global simulation with 80 km horizontal resolution and 90 vertical levels. April 2014 is selected as the simulation period during which North African dust plumes reached central Europe and Germany. Results show that treatment of non-sphericity reduces the dust AOD in the range of 10 to 30%/. The impacts on diffuse and direct radiation at global, regional and local scales show strong dependency on the size distribution of the airborne dust. The implications for modeling and remote sensing the dust impacts on solar energy are also discussed.

  4. A study of response time of pitot pressure probes designed for rapid response and protection of transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An eight orifice probe, designed to protect the transducer without the use of a baffle, was compared to a standard orifice-baffle probe in the small shock tube and in the expansion tube under normal run conditions. In both facilities, the response time of eight orifice probe was considerable better than the standard probe design.

  5. Probing the recreational home –The cultural probe as a communicative tool for researcher and user

    OpenAIRE

    Kristav, Per

    2005-01-01

    How can qualitative, ethnographic and emotional aspects from probe users be mapped at the same time as they get something meaningful in return? The emphasis is here on intellectual rewards during probe work rather than future good designs that in a long term perspective can be beneficial for the probe user. This case study has elaborated the traditional use of cultural probes [1] with a selection of ten families with small children in the Öresund region. The idea was to evoke thoughts abou...

  6. HFE and Spherical Cryostats MC Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    The copper vessel containing the nEXO TPC is surrounded by a buffer of HFE, a liquid refrigerant with very low levels of radioactive element contamination. The HFE is contained within the cryostat's inner vessel, which is in turn inside the outer vessel. While some HFE may be necessary for stable cooling of nEXO, it is possible that using substantially more than necessary for thermal reasons will help reduce backgrounds originating in the cryostats. Using a larger amount of HFE is accomplished by making the cryostat vessels larger. By itself, increasing the cryostat size somewhat increases the background rate, as the thickness of the cryostat wall must increase at larger sizes. However, the additional space inside the cryostat will be filled with HFE which can absorb gamma rays headed for the TPC. As a result, increasing the HFE reduces the number of backgrounds reaching the TPC. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between HFE thickness and background rate. Ultimately, this work should support choosing a cryostat and HFE size that satisfies nEXO's background budget. I have attempted to account for every consequence of changing the cryostat size, although naturally this remains a work in progress until a final design is achieved. At the moment, the scope of the study includes only the spherical cryostat design. This study concludes that increasing cryostat size reduces backgrounds, reaching neglible backgrounds originating from the cryostat at the largest sizes. It also shows that backgrounds originating from the inherent radioactivity of the HFE plateau quickly, so may be considered essentially fixed at any quantity of HFE.

  7. Potential of an emissive cylindrical probe in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtman, A; Zoler, D; Makrinich, G

    2011-08-01

    The floating potential of an emissive cylindrical probe in a plasma is calculated for an arbitrary ratio of Debye length to probe radius and for an arbitrary ion composition. In their motion to the probe the ions are assumed to be collisionless. For a small Debye length, a two-scale analysis for the quasineutral plasma and for the sheath provides analytical expressions for the emitted and collected currents and for the potential as functions of a generalized mass ratio. For a Debye length that is not small, it is demonstrated that, as the Debye length becomes larger, the probe potential approaches the plasma potential and that the ion density near the probe is not smaller but rather is larger than it is in the plasma bulk.

  8. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  9. Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)

  10. Virial theorem and hypervirial theorem in a spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Chen Jingling; Zhang Fulin

    2011-01-01

    The virial theorem in the one- and two-dimensional spherical geometry are presented in both classical and quantum mechanics. Choosing a special class of hypervirial operators, the quantum hypervirial relations in the spherical spaces are obtained. With the aid of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, these relations can be used to formulate a perturbation theorem without wavefunctions, corresponding to the hypervirial-Hellmann-Feynman theorem perturbation theorem of Euclidean geometry. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and two-dimensional Coulomb system in the spherical spaces are given as two sample examples to illustrate the perturbation method. (paper)

  11. Non-Spherical Microcapsules for Increased Core Content Volume Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to advance microencapsulation from the standard spherical microcapsule to a non-spherical, high-aspect ratio (HAR), elongated microcapsule. This was to be accomplished by developing reproducible methods of synthesizing or fabricating robust, non-spherical, HAR microcapsules. An additional goal of this project was to develop the techniques to the point where scale-up of these methods could be examined. Additionally, this project investigated ways to apply the microencapsulation techniques developed as part of this project to self-healing formulations.

  12. Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pode, Zohar; Peri-Naor, Ronny; Georgeson, Joseph M.; Ilani, Tal; Kiss, Vladimir; Unger, Tamar; Markus, Barak; Barr, Haim M.; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescent molecular probes have become valuable tools in protein research; however, the current methods for using these probes are less suitable for analysing specific populations of proteins in their native environment. In this study, we address this gap by developing a unimolecular fluorescent probe that combines the properties of small-molecule-based probes and cross-reactive sensor arrays (the so-called chemical 'noses/tongues'). On the one hand, the probe can detect different proteins by generating unique identification (ID) patterns, akin to cross-reactive arrays. On the other hand, its unimolecular scaffold and selective binding enable this ID-generating probe to identify combinations of specific protein families within complex mixtures and to discriminate among isoforms in living cells, where macroscopic arrays cannot access. The ability to recycle the molecular device and use it to track several binding interactions simultaneously further demonstrates how this approach could expand the fluorescent toolbox currently used to detect and image proteins.

  13. Cortical surface registration using spherical thin-plate spline with sulcal lines and mean curvature as features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-04-30

    Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  15. Particle Trapping and Dropouts in Magnetic Turbulence in a Spherical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooprakai, P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2006-12-01

    The observed dropouts of solar energetic particles from impulsive solar events (i.e., the inhomogeneity and sharp gradients in particle density) indicate the partial filamentation of magnetic connection from small regions of the corona to Earth orbit. This can be understood in terms of persistent trapping of field lines due to small- scale topological structures in the solar wind. We further explore how this turbulence structure should be manifest in particle observations, by evaluating particle trajectories obtained from the Newton-Lorentz equations. By adapting a two-component model of turbulence to spherical geometry, we include the adiabatic focusing of particles. The 2D magnetic field is generated by either 1) a 2D fast Fourier transform, a valid approximation over a small angular region, or 2) a spherical harmonic series with ℓ up to 2000. Dropout features at 1 AU are clearly indicated for low-energy particles, but these features are washed out for E >~ 100 MeV. Different time-intensity profiles are found at locations at 1 AU that are distinct with regard to the small-scale topology. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and NASA Grant NNG05GG83G.

  16. Gamma-Ray Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter James

    1988-12-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work. The central concept lies in the representation of the aperture shell by a sequence of binary digits. This, coupled with the mode of operation which is data encoding within an axial slice of space, leads to the fundamental imaging equation in which the coding operation is conveniently described by a circulant matrix operator. The coding/decoding process is a classic coded-aperture problem, and various estimators to achieve decoding are discussed. Some estimators require a priori information about the object (or object class) being imaged; the only unbiased estimator that does not impose this requirement is the simple inverse-matrix operator. The effects of noise on the estimate (or reconstruction) is discussed for general noise models and various codes/decoding operators. The choice of an optimal aperture for detector count times of clinical relevance is examined using a statistical class-separability formalism.

  17. Design innovations of the next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Kessel, C.; Peng, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path is complementary to the tokamak burning plasma experiment such as ITER as it focuses toward the compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher toroidal beta regimes to improve the design of DEMO and a Power Plant. To support the ST development path, one option of a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) device is examined. NSST is a 'performance extension' (PE) stage ST with a plasma current of 5 - 10 MA, R = 1.5, B T ≤ 2.7 T with flexible physics capability to 1) Provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of the CTF, 2) Explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, 3) Contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high β toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the TFTR site to minimize the cost and time required for the construction. (author)

  18. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Kessel, C.; Neumeyer, C.; Schmidt, J.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.; Grisham, L.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jarboe, T.; Jun, C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Viola, M.; Wilson, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2003-01-01

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction

  19. Asymmetry reversal of ion collection by mach probes in flowing unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, E; Hershkowitz, N

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of ion current in flowing unmagnetized plasmas were performed with planar and spherical Mach probes in two different devices, one a dc multi-dipole plasma device for subsonic flow within a presheath region and the other a double plasma device for supersonic flow. Asymmetry reversal, which is higher ion current to the downstream side of the probe compared with the upstream side current, was observed for high probe bias compared with the electron temperature, relatively low ion drift velocity and Debye length comparable to probe radius. These data are in qualitative agreement with a recent numerical calculation by Hutchinson. As suggested by Hutchinson, it was found that the current ratio depended on the plasma parameters, especially for finite Debye length and high probe bias. Asymmetry reversal emphasizes the lack of validity of using the current ratio except for narrow parameter ranges. This study is the first experiment to demonstrate the non-intuitive phenomenon predicted by Hutchinson's numerical calculation

  20. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  2. Twin probes for space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.

    1978-01-01

    The twin probe method, proposed by Bertotti and Colombo (1972) to get rid of nongravitational forces in interplanetary space, can be applied to a near-Earth orbit to eliminate the atmospheric drag. Two equal pairs of probes, each pair consisting of two passive, small and dense spheres of equal surface and different masses, are flown on a circular orbit at an altitude of about 300 km. Each pair determines the motion of an ideal point which feels only the gravitational forces. They are separated by a distance d of (100/200) km and are tracked from a spacecraft or the Space Shuttle, flying at the same altitude. The relative motion of the two ideal points is reconstructed and yields a measurement of the fine structure of the Earth gravitational field, corresponding to a harmonic order l approximately a/d (a is the radius of the Earth). The tracking can be done by laser ranging to the four spheres, covered by corner reflectors; Doppler ranging is more convenient for higher values of l and can also be used. The accuracy in the compensation of the non-gravitational forces and in the measurements one needs for a given l are discussed in detail. (author)

  3. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  4. Analytic theory of the spherical electron to ion convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeyen, J.T.; Miller, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations will be presented which indicate that one could, with high efficiency, convert the electron beam energy transported from many pinched diode to ions at a reasonably sized evacuated spherical shell - or a light bulb

  5. Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias

    This study deals with the interaction between turbulence and non-spherical particles and represents an extension of the modeling framework for particleladen flows. The effect of turbulence on particles is commonly referred to as turbulent dispersion while the effect of particles on the carrier....... This study encompass an outlook on existing work, an experimental study, development of a numerical model and a case study advancing the modeling techniques for pulverized coal combustion to deal with larger non-spherical biomass particles. Firstly, existing knowledge concerning the motion of non......-spherical particles and turbulence modulation are outlined. A complete description of the motion of non-spherical particles is still lacking. However, evidence suggests that the equation of motion for a sphere only represent an asymptotical value for a more general, but yet unformulated, description of the motion...

  6. Spherical convolutions and their application in molecular modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Frellsen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks are increasingly used outside the domain of image analysis, in particular in various areas of the natural sciences concerned with spatial data. Such networks often work out-of-the box, and in some cases entire model architectures from image analysis can be carried over...... to other problem domains almost unaltered. Unfortunately, this convenience does not trivially extend to data in non-euclidean spaces, such as spherical data. In this paper, we introduce two strategies for conducting convolutions on the sphere, using either a spherical-polar grid or a grid based...... of spherical convolutions in the context of molecular modelling, by considering structural environments within proteins. We show that the models are capable of learning non-trivial functions in these molecular environments, and that our spherical convolutions generally outperform standard 3D convolutions...

  7. A variational solution of transport equation based on spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Ben'ai

    2002-01-01

    A variational method with differential forms gives better precision for numerical solution of transport critical problem based on spherical geometry, and its computation seems simple than other approximate methods

  8. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  9. On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random dynamic load. ... In this paper, we investigate a dynamical system in a random setting of dual ... characterization of the random process for determining the dynamic buckling load ...

  10. Some comments on the hydrogen atom in a spherical enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Koo, E.L.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Some properties of the ground state energy solutions for the hydrogen atom in a spherical enclosure are discussed. The application of the many-point Pade approximants to this kind of systems inside a box is consider also. (Author) [pt

  11. Spherical collapse in quintessence models with zero speed of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge; Senatore, Leonardo; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We study the spherical collapse model in the presence of quintessence with negligible speed of sound. This case is particularly motivated for w Q /Ω m . This gives a distinctive modification of the total mass function at low redshift

  12. Aircraft navigation and surveillance analysis for a spherical earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This memorandum addresses a fundamental function in surveillance and navigation analysis : quantifying the geometry of two or more locations relative to each other and to a spherical earth. Here, geometry refers to: (a) points (idealized lo...

  13. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  14. Present status and future prospects of spherical aberration corrected TEM/STEM for study of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy. (topical review)

  15. Volume of the domain visited by N spherical Brownian particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhkovskii, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The average value and variance of the volume of the domain visited in time t by N spherical Brownian particles starting initially at the same point are presented as quadratures of the solutions of simple diffusion problems of the survival of a point Brownian particle in the presence of one and two spherical traps. As an illustration, explicit time dependences are obtained for the average volume in one and three dimensions

  16. Effect of Rolling Resistance in Dem Models With Spherical Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubina Radek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rolling resistance is an artificial moment arising on the contact of two discrete elements which mimics resistance of two grains of complex shape in contact rolling relatively to each other. The paper investigates the influence of rolling resistance on behaviour of an assembly of spherical discrete elements. Besides the resistance to rolling, the contacts between spherical particles obey the Hertzian law in normal straining and Coulomb model of friction in shear.

  17. Features of spherical uranium-graphite HTGR fuel elements control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreindlin, I.I.; Oleynikov, P.P.; Shtan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Control features of spherical HTGR uranium-graphite fuel elements with spherical coated fuel particles are mainly determined by their specific construction and fabrication technology. The technology is chiefly based on methods of ceramic fuel (fuel microspheres fabrication) and graphite production practice it is necessary to deal with a lot of problems from determination of raw materials properties to final fuel elements testing. These procedures are described

  18. Features of spherical uranium-graphite HTGR fuel elements control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreindlin, I I; Oleynikov, P P; Shtan, A S

    1985-07-01

    Control features of spherical HTGR uranium-graphite fuel elements with spherical coated fuel particles are mainly determined by their specific construction and fabrication technology. The technology is chiefly based on methods of ceramic fuel (fuel microspheres fabrication) and graphite production practice it is necessary to deal with a lot of problems from determination of raw materials properties to final fuel elements testing. These procedures are described.

  19. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  20. Donated chemical probes for open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Susanne; Ackloo, Suzanne; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Bauser, Marcus; Baryza, Jeremy L; Blagg, Julian; Böttcher, Jark; Bountra, Chas; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Carter, Adrian J; Damerell, David; Dötsch, Volker; Drewry, David H; Edwards, Aled M; Edwards, James; Elkins, Jon M; Fischer, Christian; Frye, Stephen V; Gollner, Andreas; Grimshaw, Charles E; IJzerman, Adriaan; Hanke, Thomas; Hartung, Ingo V; Hitchcock, Steve; Howe, Trevor; Hughes, Terry V; Laufer, Stefan; Li, Volkhart Mj; Liras, Spiros; Marsden, Brian D; Matsui, Hisanori; Mathias, John; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Owen, Dafydd R; Pande, Vineet; Rauh, Daniel; Rosenberg, Saul H; Roth, Bryan L; Schneider, Natalie S; Scholten, Cora; Singh Saikatendu, Kumar; Simeonov, Anton; Takizawa, Masayuki; Tse, Chris; Thompson, Paul R; Treiber, Daniel K; Viana, Amélia Yi; Wells, Carrow I; Willson, Timothy M; Zuercher, William J; Knapp, Stefan; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke

    2018-04-20

    Potent, selective and broadly characterized small molecule modulators of protein function (chemical probes) are powerful research reagents. The pharmaceutical industry has generated many high-quality chemical probes and several of these have been made available to academia. However, probe-associated data and control compounds, such as inactive structurally related molecules and their associated data, are generally not accessible. The lack of data and guidance makes it difficult for researchers to decide which chemical tools to choose. Several pharmaceutical companies (AbbVie, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, MSD, Pfizer, and Takeda) have therefore entered into a pre-competitive collaboration to make available a large number of innovative high-quality probes, including all probe-associated data, control compounds and recommendations on use (https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de">https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.dehttps://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de/">/). Here we describe the chemical tools and target-related knowledge that have been made available, and encourage others to join the project. © 2018, Müller et al.