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Sample records for sm-based filled skutterudite

  1. Magnetic properties of Sm-based filled skutterudite phosphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, R.; Sekine, C.; Shimaya, Y.; Shirotani, I.; Matsuhira, K.; Doi, Y.; Hinatsu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Amitsuka, H

    2003-05-01

    Filled skutterudites SmFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} and SmOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} have been prepared at high temperature and high pressure. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in both compounds shows metallic behavior. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements indicate that SmFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} shows a ferromagnetic ordering at 1.5 K, whereas SmOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} is an antiferromagnet with a T{sub N} of 4.6 K.

  2. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  3. Exotic behaviours in the Pr-based filled skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H; Sugawara, H; Namiki, T; Saha, S R; Osaki, S; Matsuda, T D; Aoki, Y; Inada, Y; Shishido, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    The exotic features of the Pr-based filled skutterudites are reviewed based on the electronic transport properties, specific heat and de Haas-van Alphen experiments, putting the emphasis on PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 . As references, the experiments on the related La- and Ce-filled skutterudites are also examined and discussed. Compared to their La reference compounds, the Fermi surface is very similar in PrOs 4 Sb 12 , suggesting the well localized character of 4f electrons, while it looks largely different in PrFe 4 P 12 . For the cyclotron effective mass, both PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 exhibit a strong enhancement, in reasonable agreement with the large specific heat coefficient

  4. Raman scattering study of filled skutterudite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, N; Kojima, R; Hasegawa, T; Takasu, Y; Udagawa, M; Kondo, T; Takeda, N; Ikeno, T; Ishikawa, K; Sugawara, H; Kikuchi, D; Sato, H; Sekine, C; Shirotani, I

    2007-01-01

    Raman scattering of skutterudite compounds RT 4 X 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Yb, T=Fe, Ru and Os, X=P and Sb) have been measured. All first-order Raman active phonons are observed and are assigned as the pnicogen vibrations. At the low energy region, the second-order phonons, due to the vibration of the rare earth ions with a flat phonon dispersion, are observed in the spectra of RRu 4 P 12 (R=La and Sm) and ROs 4 Sb 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm). The appearance of the second-order phonons in the spectra is caused by an anharmonic vibrations of rare earth ions in large cage space and a large density of state due to the flat phonon dispersion. However, in spite of the similar cage space, the 2nd-order phonons are hardly observed for RFe 4 Sb 12 and RRu 4 Sb 12 . Thus, these results suggest that the dynamics of the rare earth ion is closely related to not only the cage size but also the electronic state due to the transition metals. Raman spectra of PrRu 4 P 12 show the drastic spectral change due to the metal-insulator transition. The phonon spectra and crystal field excitations due to the structural change have been assigned above and below the transition temperature

  5. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  6. Charge fluctuation in Ce-based filled-skutterudite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M; Niki, H; Mukuda, H; Kitaoka, Y; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2009-01-01

    We carried out 121,123 Sb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs 4 Sb 12 to investigate an anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 . The full width of half maximum of the NQR spectrum shows a step-like increase at 115 K with decreasing temperature (T). The nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1/T 2 also shows a divergence at the same T. These results are considered to be caused by a distribution of the electric field gradient (EFG) and its fluctuation, which might arise from a small deformation of the cage which consists of twelve Sb. It is considered that the anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 at T ∼ 120 K is originated from an unique crystal structure of the filled skutterudite.

  7. Fabrication of stable electrode/diffusion barrier layers for thermoelectric filled skutterudite devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Qing; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Disclosed are methods for the manufacture of n-type and p-type filled skutterudite thermoelectric legs of an electrical contact. A first material of CoSi.sub.2 and a dopant are ball-milled to form a first powder which is thermo-mechanically processed with a second powder of n-type skutterudite to form a n-type skutterudite layer disposed between a first layer and a third layer of the doped-CoSi.sub.2. In addition, a plurality of components such as iron, and nickel, and at least one of cobalt or chromium are ball-milled form a first powder that is thermo-mechanically processed with a p-type skutterudite layer to form a p-type skutterudite layer "second layer" disposed between a first and a third layer of the first powder. The specific contact resistance between the first layer and the skutterudite layer for both the n-type and the p-type skutterudites subsequent to hot-pressing is less than about 10.0 .mu..OMEGA.cm.sup.2.

  8. Influence of high energy β-radiation on thermoelectric performance of filled skutterudites compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jikun, E-mail: jikunchen@seas.harvard.edu [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Xia, Xugui; Qiu, Pengfei; Li, Yulong [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Chuanjing; Han, Yunsheng [Nuctech Company Limited, Beijing (China); Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Qingxiu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Huaibi, E-mail: chenhb@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Impact by MeV β-rays irradiation on skutterudite TE material was investigated. • Monte-Carlo simulation is used to simulate the deposited energy irradiations. • The high deposited energy does not change the TE performance. • The light irradiation does not show a significant impact on TE materials. - Abstract: The influence of MeV β-rays irradiation on the thermoelectric performance of n-type filled skutterudite material has been investigated using an electron accelerator. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation base on Fluka code, the deposited energy in the sample material from the irradiation is estimated, which shows a large power deposited around 50 W/mm. Nevertheless, the thermoelectric performances of the filled skutterudite samples are compared before and after irradiations. It indicates that the thermoelectric material will not be easily jeopardized by ‘light’ irradiations with energy lower than MeV range.

  9. Influence of high energy β-radiation on thermoelectric performance of filled skutterudites compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jikun; Zha, Hao; Xia, Xugui; Qiu, Pengfei; Li, Yulong; Wang, Chuanjing; Han, Yunsheng; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Jin, Qingxiu; Chen, Huaibi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact by MeV β-rays irradiation on skutterudite TE material was investigated. • Monte-Carlo simulation is used to simulate the deposited energy irradiations. • The high deposited energy does not change the TE performance. • The light irradiation does not show a significant impact on TE materials. - Abstract: The influence of MeV β-rays irradiation on the thermoelectric performance of n-type filled skutterudite material has been investigated using an electron accelerator. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation base on Fluka code, the deposited energy in the sample material from the irradiation is estimated, which shows a large power deposited around 50 W/mm. Nevertheless, the thermoelectric performances of the filled skutterudite samples are compared before and after irradiations. It indicates that the thermoelectric material will not be easily jeopardized by ‘light’ irradiations with energy lower than MeV range

  10. Improved thermoelectric performance of n-type Ca and Ca-Ce filled skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Daniel R.; Liu, Chang; Ellison, Nicole D. [Optimal CAE, Plymouth, Michigan 48170 (United States); Salvador, James R.; Meyer, Martin S.; Haddad, Daad B. [General Motors Research and Development, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Wang, Hsin; Cai, W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    Thermoelectric (TE) technology for use in automotive waste heat recovery is being advanced by General Motors with support from the US Department of Energy. Skutterudites are a very promising material for this application of TE technology due to their superior mechanical properties and good TE performance. Double-filled Yb{sub x}Ba{sub y}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} with ZT values around 1.1 at 750 K are the best performing n-type skutterudites produced on a large scale using an economically viable approach of melt spinning (MS) in conjunction with spark plasma sintering (SPS). Another economical production method on the tons scale, the melt quench annealing (MQA) technique, has been recently claimed by Treibacher Industrie AG, further information is available [G. Rogl et al., Acta Mater. 76, 434–448 (2014)]. A possible hurdle to commercial implementation of these materials is the use of rare earths as the fillers to reduce thermal conductivity and improve the electrical transport properties. It will be shown herein that skutterudites double-filled with Ca and Ce, both of which are lower-cost fillers, display markedly different TE properties depending on whether they are produced by MQA or MS + SPS synthesis techniques. Ca and Ce double-filled skutterudites prepared by MS + SPS have TE properties that are superior to the same compositions prepared by MQA and that are comparable to the best performing Yb and Ba filled materials. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the unusually poor transport properties of MQA Ca-filled skutterudites can be ascribed to deleterious secondary phases, which is contrary to reports in the literature attempting to explain these irregularities via band structure features.

  11. Structural, electronic, and thermal properties of indium-filled InxIr4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. K.; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The "phonon-glass/electron-crystal" approach has been implemented through incorporation of "rattlers" into skutterudite void sites to increase phonon scattering and thus increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Indium filled IrSb3 skutterudites are reported for the first time. Polycrystalline samples of InxIr4Sb12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H2 and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of InxIr4Sb12 was found to be close to 0.18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinements reveal all InxIr4Sb12 phases crystallized in body-centered cubic structure (space group : Im 3 bar) with ∼8% antimony site vacancy and with indium partially occupying the 16f site. Unlike known rattler filled skutterudites, under synthetic conditions employed, indium filling in IrSb3 significantly increases the electrical resistivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient (n-type) while reducing the thermal conductivity by ∼30%. The resultant power factor offsets the decrease in total thermal conductivity giving rise to a substantial decrease in ZT. Principal thermoelectric properties of InxM4Sb12 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) phases are compared. As iridium is a 5d transition metal, zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization were performed to unravel the effect of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic properties. These results serve to advance the understanding of filled skutterudites, and provide additional insight on the less explored smaller "rattlers" and their influence on key thermoelectric properties.

  12. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Pr-based filled skutterudites: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priya; Nautiyal, Shashank; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary skutterudites materials exhibit good electronic properties due to the unpaired d- and f- electrons of the transition and rare-earth metals, respectively. In this communication, we have performed the structural optimization of Pr-based filled skutterudite (PrCo4P12) for the first time and obtained the electronic band structure, density of states and magnetic moments by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Our obtained magnetic moment of PrCo4P12 is ˜ 1.8 µB in which main contribution is due to Pr atom. Behavior of this material is metallic and it is most stable in body centered cubic (BCC) structure.

  13. Preparation and thermopower of new mischmetal-based partially filled skutterudites Mm yFe4-x(Co/Ni) xSb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, B.; Berardan, D.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Rouleau, O.; Leroy, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on sample preparation and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) in the series Mm y Fe 4-x (Co/Ni) x Sb 12 with Mm being mischmetal. We show the possibility of preparing mischmetal-based partially filled skutterudites without any segregation of the rare-earths. Room temperature thermopower is similar in mischmetal-based skutterudites to cerium- or ytterbium-based partially filled skutterudites

  14. 121Sb-NMR study of filled skutterudite CeOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M.; Niki, H.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    121 Sb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of filled skutterudite compound CeOs 4 Sb 12 has been carried out to investigate a spin fluctuation below T∼25K. In spite of a powdered sample, many sharp peaks, similar to a data for single crystal, were observed because of an orientation of the sample from the anisotropy of the magnetization. A numerical calculation well reproduces resonance fields for Sb(1) sites with H parallel V zz . The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1/T 1 T shows continuous decrease with increasing magnetic field, indicating a suppression of the spin fluctuation by the field

  15. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrus, D; Sales, B C; Keppens, V [and others

    1997-07-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic cage. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, rattling ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  16. Electrical and thermal transport properties of Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites with ultrahigh carrier concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For filled skutterudites, element Yb is one of the most common and important fillers. However, the optimal carrier concentration range in Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites has not been determined as a result of the low Yb filling fraction limit. In this study, a non-equilibrium fabrication process (MS-SPS process, consisting of a melt-spinning method and a spark plasma sintering technique, has been applied to prepare Y bxCo4Sb12 samples. The Yb filling fraction is successfully extended to 0.35, which provides the possibility to clarify the optimal carrier concentration range for Yb-filled skutterudites. High carrier concentrations, with a maximum of around 1 × 1021 cm−3, were achieved in the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples due to the significantly enhanced Yb filling fractions. The phase compositions, lattice parameters, electrical and thermal transport properties of the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples with high carrier concentrations were systematically investigated. An optimal carrier concentration range of around 5 ∼ 6 × 1020 cm−3, corresponding to the actual Yb filling fraction of around 0.21∼0.26, has been determined, which displays the highest thermoelectric performance in Y bxCo4Sb12 thermoelectric materials.

  17. Novel strongly correlated electron states in filled skutterudite lanthanide osmium antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maple, M.B.; Frederick, N.A.; Ho, P.-C.; Yuhasz, W.M.; Sayles, T.A.; Butch, N.P.; Jeffries, J.R.; Taylor, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent measurements on the filled skutterudite compounds Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12 , NdOs 4 Sb 12 , and SmOs 4 Sb 12 are discussed. Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12 displays superconductivity for all values of x with a minimum at x=0.6, and only the compounds with x 4 Sb 12 and the BCS superconductivity of PrRu 4 Sb 12 . NdOs 4 Sb 12 is a heavy fermion ferromagnet, with a sharp transition observed at 1.0K. SmOs 4 Sb 12 is also a heavy fermion material, and it may display weak ferromagnetic behavior below 2.6K

  18. NMR study of magnetic properties in filled skutterudite compound EuRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magishi, Ko-ichi; Iwahashi, Yoshinori; Horimoto, Takuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Saito, Takahito; Koyama, Kuniyuki

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of 31 P NMR measurements on a Eu-based filled skutterudite phosphide EuRu 4 P 12 with ferromagnetic transition at T C =18K in order to investigate the magnetic properties from a microscopic point of view. The temperature dependence of the Knight shift is similar to that of the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 is practically constant at higher temperatures above 50K due to the interaction of the 31 P nucleus with fluctuating local moments at the Eu 2+ sites, but decreases rapidly at low temperatures below T C , indicating the supression of the spin fluctuations by magnetic ordering

  19. Specific heat of filled skutterudite PrOs4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Kihou, Kunihiro; Sekine, Chihiro; Shirotani, Ichimin

    2005-01-01

    We report the specific heat of filled skutterudite compounds PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 down to 1.8K. The specific heat divided by temperature C(T)/T in PrOs 4 P 12 shows a shoulder around 13K. This shoulder is caused by a Schottky anomaly due to a crystalline electric field effect. The electronic specific heat coefficients γ of PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 are estimated to be 56.5 and 21.6mJ/K 2 mol, respectively. The value of γ in PrOs 4 P 12 is 2.6 times larger than that in LaOs 4 P 12

  20. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  1. Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency of CoSb3-based skutterudites by double filling with K and Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKurosaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of thallium (Tl and potassium (K double-filled cobalt antimonide (CoSb3-based skutterudites with nominal compositions TlxK0.3Co4Sb12 (x = 0.1–0.3 were investigated. The filling fraction of Tl in CoSb3 was enhanced by co-filling with K, which resulted in all of the samples showing the filled-skutterudite single phase. Owing to the high filling ratio, the carrier concentration in the sample with x = 0.3 was as high as 4.3 × 1020 cm−3 at room temperature. Furthermore, quite low lattice thermal conductivity (as low as 0.9 W m−1 K−1 was obtained for the sample with x = 0.3, probably because of strong phonon scattering by the Tl and K co-rattling effect, which resulted in a maximum zT of around one at 773 K.

  2. Electronic structure and thermoelectricity of filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, 796001 (India); Sandeep [Condensed Matter Theory Research Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Thapa, R.K. [Condensed Matter Theory Research Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Mandal, P.K. [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India)

    2016-07-05

    First-principles calculations of the energy band structure and density of states of filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} have been performed to understand the origin of thermoelectricity. The calculations are carried out using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of LDA approach. CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is a metal with bands crossing Fermi energy level more than twice with indirect energy band gap of ∼0.09 eV above the Fermi energy level. The study of the elastic properties suggests the ductile nature of the material with covalent contribution in the atomic bonding. Our calculations performed for the density of electronic states near the Fermi energy level show that the large thermo-power at room temperature originates from the hybridized Ru-d and Sb-p orbitals. The study of the thermal transport properties suggests the high value of Seebeck coefficient with figure of merit (ZT) = 0.12, which is consistent to the values obtained for the analogous compounds. - Highlights: • CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is ductile material with covalent contribution in bonding. • An indirect energy bandgap of 0.09 eV is present above the Fermi energy level. • The crossing of E{sub F} by the energy bands increases the number of DOS at E{sub F}. • Fermi level is situated within the valence region. • The thermal efficiency of the material is 0.12 at room temperature.

  3. The filled skutterudite PrOs4Sb12: superconductivity and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, M.A.

    2005-12-01

    The filled skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 is the first Pr-based heavy fermion superconductor. This thesis addresses several important open questions including the determination of the quasi-particle mass renormalisation, the nature and mechanism of superconductivity, and the intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the double superconducting transition seen in the specific heat. A fit of the specific heat with magnetic interactions between the ions Pr is proposed. We extract from it an electronic term of between 300-750 mJ/K 2 .mol(Pr). Analysis of the specific heat jump provides evidence that heavy carriers are involved in Cooper pairing and that superconductivity is strongly coupled. Extensive characterizations by specific heat, resistivity, susceptibility measurements show that a double transition appears in the best samples. Nevertheless we bring the first serious doubts on the intrinsic nature of the double transition, because we have found samples with a single sharp transition at Tc2 and because the ratio of the two specific heat jumps shows strong dispersion among the samples. Furthermore we have measured the superconducting phase diagrams with an A.C. specific heat technique under magnetic field and under pressure up to 4.2 GPa, and we show that the two transitions, Tc1 and Tc2, exhibit similar behaviours with magnetic field and pressure. We find a strong change in the pressure dependence of Tc's above 2 GPa which might be related to a change in the nature of the superconductivity under pressure (at least partially mediated by fluctuations and only by phonons at respectively low and high pressure) which may be linked to the increase of the crystal field gap of the Pr ions. Analysis of the upper critical field shows the presence of at least two superconducting bands and concludes to a singlet nature of the pairing. A strong distortion of the flux-line lattice, which is constant with temperature and field, is obtained by small angle neutron scattering measurement

  4. Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of indium filled In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x = 0.05, 0.2) and indium cerium filled Ce{sub 0.05}In{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesselmann, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany); Klobes, Benedikt [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS und Peter Gruenberg Institute PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Dasgupta, Titas [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India); Gourdon, Olivier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hermann, Raphael [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS und Peter Gruenberg Institute PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Mueller, Eckhard [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany); Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The thermoelectric properties on polycrystalline single (In) and double filled (Ce, In) skutterudites are characterized between 300 and 700 K. Powder neutron diffraction measurements of the skutterudite compositions In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x = 0.05, 0.2) and Ce{sub 0.05}In{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} as a function of temperature (12-300 K) were carried out, which gives more insight into the structural data of single and double-filled skutterudites. Results show that due to the annealing treatment, a Sb deficiency is detectable and thus verifies defects at the Sb lattice site of the skutterudite. Furthermore, we show by electron microprobe analysis that a considerable amount of indium is lost during synthesis and post-processing for the single indium filled samples, but not for the double cerium and indium skutterudite sample. In our experiments, the double-filled skutterudite is superior to the single-filled skutterudite composition due to a higher charge carrier density, a comparable lattice thermal resistivity, and a higher density of states effective mass. Furthermore, we obtained a significantly higher Einstein temperature for the double-filled skutterudite composition in comparison to the single-filled species, which reflects the high sensitivity due to filling of the void lattice position within the skutterudite crystal. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. NMR study of partially filled skutterudites AxCo4Sb12 (A = Yb, Ba, Sr, Ca) and BaxYbyCo4Sb12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yefan; Sirusi, Ali; Ross, Joseph; Ballikaya, Sedat; Uher, Ctirad; Chen, Yuqi; Sekine, Chihiro

    Partially filled Co-Sb skutterudites have been of considerable interest as thermoelectric materials, particularly with multiple filling for which high ZT values can be obtained. This is due in part to control of phonon thermal conductivity, but also the change in composition leads to subtle changes in electronic behavior as well as magnetism due both to rare earth filler atoms and to native defects. We measured 59Co NMR on several partially filled AxCo4Sb12 skutterudites in order to investigate such behavior. From the T-dependent NMR shifts along with T1 relaxation times we can separate metallic shift contributions from those due to local moments. We compare the results to predicted band-edge behavior with multiple minima, and the estimated g factors, by matching this behavior to transport measurements. Also the behavior of Yb-filled samples provides an estimate of the conduction band mediation of the magnetic response, and we also find magnetic shifts in Ba-doped skutterudite which we address in terms of Co mixed-valence behavior. This work was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation, Grant No. A-1526. Synthesis work was partly supported by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 23340092) from the Japan Society.

  6. Density-functional band-structure calculations for La-, Y-, and Sc-filled CoP3-based skutterudite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevvik, O.M.; Prytz, O.

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure, thermodynamic stability, and electronic structure of La-, Y-, and Sc-filled CoP 3 are predicted from density-functional band-structure calculations. The size of the cubic voids in the skutterudite structure is changed much less than the difference in size between the different filling atoms, and we expect that the larger rattling amplitude of the smaller Sc and Y atoms may decrease the lattice thermal conductivity of Sc- and Y-filled structures significantly compared to La-filled structures. The solubility of La, Y, and Sc in CoP 3 is calculated to be around 5, 3-6 %, and below 1% at 0 K, respectively. Based on similar systems, this is expected to increase considerably if Fe is substituted for Co. Fe substitution is also expected to compensate the increased charge carrier concentration of the filled structures that is seen in the calculated electron density of states. In conclusion, Sc- or Y-filled (FeCo)P 3 skutterudite structures are promising materials for thermoelectric applications

  7. Electronic band structure, magnetic, transport and thermodynamic properties of In-filled skutterudites InxCo4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, J; Da Ros, V; Lenoir, B; Dauscher, A; Candolfi, C; Masschelein, P; Hejtmanek, J; Kutorasinski, K; Tobola, J; Smith, R I; Stiewe, C; Müller, E

    2013-01-01

    The thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of polycrystalline In x Co 4 Sb 12 (0.0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.26) skutterudites were investigated and analysed between 2 and 800 K by means of electrical resistivity, thermopower, thermal conductivity and specific heat measurements. Hall effect, sound velocity and thermal expansion measurements were also made in order to gain insights into the transport and elastic properties of these compounds. The impact of the In filling on the crystal structure as well as the thermal dynamics of the In atoms were tracked down to 4 K using powder neutron diffraction experiments. Analyses of the transport data were compared with the evolution of the electronic band structure with x determined theoretically within the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method with the coherent potential approximation. These calculations indicate that In gives rise to a remarkably large p-like density of states located at the conduction band edge. The electrical properties show typical trends of heavily doped semiconductors regardless of the In content. The thermal transport in CoSb 3 is strongly influenced by the presence of In in the voids of the crystal structure resulting in a drop in the lattice thermal conductivity values in the whole temperature range. The low value of the Grüneisen parameter suggests that this decrease mainly originates from enhanced mass-fluctuations and point-defect scattering mechanisms. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ∼ 1.0 at 750 K was achieved at the maximum In filling fraction, i.e. for x = 0.26. (paper)

  8. Investigations of structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of lutetium filled skutterudite LuFe4P12 under pressure effect: FP-LMTO method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudia Keltouma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ternary cubic filled skutterudite compound were calculated. We have computed the elastic modulus and its pressure dependence. From the elastic parameter behavior, it is inferred that this compound is elastically stable and ductile in nature. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which phononic effects are considered, the effect of pressure P (0 to 50 GPa and temperature T (0 to 3000 °C on the lattice constant, elastic parameters, bulk modulus B, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient α, internal energy U, entropy S, Debye temperature θD, Helmholtz free energy A, and Gibbs free energy G are investigated.

  9. Magnetic properties of the filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 synthesized under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, C; Uchiumi, T; Shirotani, I; Matsuhira, kazuyuki; Sakakibara, T; Goto, T; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 under high pressure. The magnetic properties of GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 have been studied by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. Magnetic experiments suggest that the Gd and Tb ions in the compounds have trivalent state. The compound GdRu4P12 displays features that suggest the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering below TN=22 K. In TbRu4P1...

  10. Crystal structure and high temperature transport properties of Yb-filled p-type skutterudites YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-01-01

    Partially Yb-filled Fe substituted polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with nominal compositions YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb 12, with varying filler concentrations x, were synthesized by reacting the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions and filling fractions were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients for the specimens increase with increasing temperature and plateau at around 750 K. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing Yb filling fraction, and bipolar conduction becomes evident and increases at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.8 was obtained at 750 K for Yb 0.47Co2.6Fe1.4Sb12. The thermoelectric properties and potential for further optimization are discussed in light of our results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dependence of the superconducting transition temperature of the filled skutterudite compound PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} on hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroozani, N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hamlin, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Schilling, J.S., E-mail: jss@wuphys.wustl.edu [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Baumbach, R.E.; Lum, I.K.; Shu, L.; Huang, K.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-02-14

    Highlights: ► Superconductivity in the filled skutterudite PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}. ► Dependence of T{sub c} on purely hydrostatic pressure to 0.6 GPa. ► Comparison of lattice pressure to external pressure effects on superconductivity. ► Evidence for magnetic pair-breaking effects. -- Abstract: The temperature-dependent ac susceptibility of the filled skutterudite superconductor PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} has been measured under hydrostatic He-gas pressure to 0.58 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} decreases linearly with pressure P from 7.91 K at ambient pressure to 7.83 K at 0.58 GPa, giving the rate dT{sub c}/dP = −0.19 ± 0.03 K/GPa. Evidence is presented that suggests that the value of T{sub c} in this compound is slightly reduced due to magnetic pair-breaking effects from the Pr{sup 3+} cations.

  12. Influence of Ni on the thermoelectric properties of the partially filled calcium skutterudites Ca.sub.y./sub.Co.sub.4-x./sub.Ni.sub.x./sub.Sb.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puyet, M.; Dauscher, A.; Lenoir, B.; Bellouard, C.; Stiewe, C.; Müller, E.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Tobola, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 24 (2007), 245110/1-245110/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : partially filled skutterudites * thermoelectric properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  13. Muon spin relaxation and rotation studies of the filled skutterudite alloys praseodymium osmium ruthenium antimonide and praseodymium lanthanum osmium antimonide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei

    Some filled skutterudite compounds have recently been found to exhibit very interesting properties. The first Pr-based heavy-fermion superconductor, PrOs4Sb12, is an intriguing material due to the unusual properties of both its normal and superconducting states. Comprehensive muon spin rotation and relaxation studies and magnetic susceptibility measurements, described in this dissertation, have been performed to investigate the microscopic properties of PrOs4Sb12 and its Ru and La doped alloys. The temperature dependence of penetration depth measured in the vortex state of PrOs4Sb12 using transverse-field muon spin rotation (TF-muSR) is weaker than those measured by radiofrequency measurements. A scenario based on two-band superconductivity in PrOs4Sb 12, is proposed to resolve this difference. TF-muSR experiments also suggest the suppression of superfluid density with Ru doping, probably due to impurity scattering. In addition, magnetic susceptibility data as well as analysis of the muSR data in PrOs4Sb12 reveal a nearly linear relation of mu+ Knight shift vs. magnetic susceptibility. This suggests that the muon charge does not affect the crystalline electric field splitting of Pr3+ near neighbors. Additional evidence comes from the fact that the superconducting transition temperature Tc measured from muSR is consistent with the bulk superconducting values. Zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF-muSR) experiments have been carried out in the Pr(Os1-xRux) 4Sb12 and Pr1-yLayOs 4Sb12 alloy systems to investigate the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking found in an earlier ZF-muSR study of the end compound PrOs 4Sb12. The results from measurements at KEK, Japan, suggest that Ru doping is considerably more efficient than La doping in suppressing TRS breaking superconducting in PrOs4Sb12. However, we think that the spontaneous local field that indicates TRS breaking detected by ZF-muSR may depend on sample quality if those fields are from inhomogeneity in the

  14. FP-LAPW calculations of the elastic, electronic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, A.; Rai, D.P.; Chettri, Sandeep; Khenata, R.; Thapa, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure, elastic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu 4 Sb 12 using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The electronic structure calculation suggests an indirect band gap semiconducting nature of the material with energy band gap of 0.08 eV. The analysis of the elastic constants at relaxed positions reveals the ductile nature of the sample material with covalent contribution in the inter-atomic bonding. The narrow band gap semiconducting nature with high value of Seebeck coefficient suggests the possibility of the thermoelectric application of the material. The analysis of the thermal transport properties confirms the result obtained from the energy band structure of the material with high thermopower and dimensionless figure of merit 0.19 at room temperature.

  15. The filled skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}: superconductivity and correlations; La skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}: supraconductivite et correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Measson, M.A

    2005-12-15

    The filled skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is the first Pr-based heavy fermion superconductor. This thesis addresses several important open questions including the determination of the quasi-particle mass renormalisation, the nature and mechanism of superconductivity, and the intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the double superconducting transition seen in the specific heat. A fit of the specific heat with magnetic interactions between the ions Pr is proposed. We extract from it an electronic term of between 300-750 mJ/K{sup 2}.mol(Pr). Analysis of the specific heat jump provides evidence that heavy carriers are involved in Cooper pairing and that superconductivity is strongly coupled. Extensive characterizations by specific heat, resistivity, susceptibility measurements show that a double transition appears in the best samples. Nevertheless we bring the first serious doubts on the intrinsic nature of the double transition, because we have found samples with a single sharp transition at Tc2 and because the ratio of the two specific heat jumps shows strong dispersion among the samples. Furthermore we have measured the superconducting phase diagrams with an A.C. specific heat technique under magnetic field and under pressure up to 4.2 GPa, and we show that the two transitions, Tc1 and Tc2, exhibit similar behaviours with magnetic field and pressure. We find a strong change in the pressure dependence of Tc's above 2 GPa which might be related to a change in the nature of the superconductivity under pressure (at least partially mediated by fluctuations and only by phonons at respectively low and high pressure) which may be linked to the increase of the crystal field gap of the Pr ions. Analysis of the upper critical field shows the presence of at least two superconducting bands and concludes to a singlet nature of the pairing. A strong distortion of the flux-line lattice, which is constant with temperature and field, is obtained by small angle neutron scattering

  16. “Pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon of p-type filled skutterudite Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xia, Xugui; Huang, Xiangyang; Gu, Ming [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Qiu, Yuting [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Lidong, E-mail: chenlidong@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}Co{sub 1}Sb{sub 12} exhibits “pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon at high temperature. • The highest oxidation rate of Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}Co{sub 1}Sb{sub 12} appears around 800 K. • Severe periodically oxide layer peeling-off behavior is observed around 800 K. • The co-existence of Fe and Co is responsible for the poor oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of p-type filled skutterudite Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} in air was investigated and the oxidation mechanism was discussed in this study. Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} exhibits interesting “pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon around 800 K. The bulk sample completely disintegrates into a crowd of plate-like particles under this temperature range after only 24 h exposure in air. However, this abnormal oxidation phenomenon is not observed at temperature below 750 K or above 850 K. This result is consistent with the thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry measurements which show that the oxidation rate for Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} around 800 K is the highest among 650–900 K. Microstructure observations suggest that this “pesting”-like oxidation is related with the severe periodically oxide layer peeling-off behavior around 800 K, which makes the Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} samples are easy to be oxidized because the fresh substrate surface is always exposed to high concentration oxygen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicated that in the oxide scale the direct contact of Fe{sup 3+}-oxide and CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 4} which possess different formation/growth rate and volume expansion coefficient should be responsible for this peculiar oxide layer peeling-off behavior around 800 K. This work can serve as an important reference for the designation of M{sub y}Fe{sub 4−x}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 12}-based skutterudite thermoelectric device.

  17. f-electron-nuclear hyperfine-coupled multiplets in the unconventional charge order phase of filled skutterudite PrRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yuji; Namiki, Takahiro; Saha, Shanta R.; Sato, Hideyuki; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Shiina, Ryousuke; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The filled skutterudite PrRu 4 P 12 is known to undergo an unconventional charge order phase transition at 63 K, below which two sublattices with distinct f-electron crystalline-electric-field ground states are formed. In this paper, we study experimentally and theoretically the properties of the charge order phase at very low temperature, particularly focusing on the nature of the degenerate triplet ground state on one of the sublattices. First, we present experimental results of specific heat and magnetization measured with high quality single crystals. In spite of the absence of any symmetry breaking, the specific heat shows a peak structure at T p =0.30 K in zero field; it shifts to higher temperatures as the magnetic field is applied. In addition, the magnetization curve has a remarkable rounding below 1 T. Then, we study the origin of these experimental findings by considering the hyperfine interaction between 4f electron and nuclear spin. We demonstrate that the puzzling behaviors at low temperatures can be well accounted for by the formation of 4f-electron-nuclear hyperfine-coupled multiplets, the first thermodynamical observation of its kind. (author)

  18. FP-LAPW calculations of the elastic, electronic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl 796001 (India); Chettri, Sandeep [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Thapa, R.K. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We have investigated the electronic structure, elastic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The electronic structure calculation suggests an indirect band gap semiconducting nature of the material with energy band gap of 0.08 eV. The analysis of the elastic constants at relaxed positions reveals the ductile nature of the sample material with covalent contribution in the inter-atomic bonding. The narrow band gap semiconducting nature with high value of Seebeck coefficient suggests the possibility of the thermoelectric application of the material. The analysis of the thermal transport properties confirms the result obtained from the energy band structure of the material with high thermopower and dimensionless figure of merit 0.19 at room temperature.

  19. Study of 5f electron based filled skutterudite compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, a thermoelectric (TE) material: FP-LAPW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Rai, D.P., E-mail: dibyaprakashrai@gmail.com [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, 3 Heqing Road, Beijing 100084 (China); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modlisation Mathmatique (LPQ3M), Dpartement de Technologie, Universit de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Maibam, J. [Department of Physics, Assam University, Silchar 788011 (India); Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Thapa, R.K., E-mail: r.k.thapa@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} shows a semi-metallic behavior with pseudo gap. • The inherent dense band near E{sub F} facilitate the charge carriers. • The magnetic moment within LSDA and mBJ are underestimated. • The inclusion of onsite Coulomb repulsion (U) in LSDA has improved the result. • The results obtained from LSDA + U are consistent with the experimental data. - Abstract: We have studied the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties along with the thermoelectric properties of an undoped filled skutterudite EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The LSDA, LSDA + U and a new exchange-correlation functional called modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential based on density functional theory (DFT) were used for studying material properties. The Eu-f and Fe-d are strongly correlated elements thus the inclusion of Coulomb repulsion (U) expected to give an exact ground state properties. The exchange-splitting of Eu-4f states were analyzed to explain the ferromagnetic behavior of EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (half-metallic behavior). The numerical values of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties are estimated in the framework of the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation. The calculation of thermal transport properties at various temperature shows the high value of Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit (ZT) = 0.25 at room temperature in consistent to the experimental results.

  20. High-Pressure Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Ge-Substituted Filled Skutterudite Compounds; LnxCo4Sb12−yGey, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukuoka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new Ge-substituted skutterudite compounds with the general composition of LnxCo4Sb12−yGey, where Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, is prepared by high-pressure and high-temperature reactions at 7 GPa and 800 °C. They have a cubic unit cell and the lattice constant for each compound is 8.9504 (3, 8.94481 (6, 8.9458 (3, and 8.9509 (4 Å for the La, Ce, Pr, and Nd derivatives, respectively. Their chemical compositions, determined by electron prove microanalysis, are La0.57Co4Sb10.1Ge2.38, Ce0.99Co4Sb9.65Ge2.51, Pr0.97Co4Sb9.52Ge2.61, and Nd0.87Co4Sb9.94Ge2.28. Their structural parameters are refined by Rietveld analysis. The guest atom size does not affect the unit cell volume. The Co–Sb/Ge distance mainly determines the unit cell size as well as the size of guest atom site. The valence state of lanthanide ions is 3+.

  1. Thermoelectric skutterudite compositions and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Yang, Jian; Yan, Xiao; He, Qinyu; Chen, Gang; Hao, Qing

    2014-11-11

    Compositions related to skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials are disclosed. Such compositions can result in materials that have enhanced ZT values relative to one or more bulk materials from which the compositions are derived. Thermoelectric materials such as n-type and p-type skutterudites with high thermoelectric figures-of-merit can include materials with filler atoms and/or materials formed by compacting particles (e.g., nanoparticles) into a material with a plurality of grains each having a portion having a skutterudite-based structure. Methods of forming thermoelectric skutterudites, which can include the use of hot press processes to consolidate particles, are also disclosed. The particles to be consolidated can be derived from (e.g., grinded from), skutterudite-based bulk materials, elemental materials, other non-Skutterudite-based materials, or combinations of such materials.

  2. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  3. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  4. Preparation and chemical properties of the skutterudites (Ce-Yb) yFe4-x(Co/Ni) xSb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardan, D.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Rouleau, O.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-01-01

    The double-filled skutterudites Ce y/2 Yb y/2 Fe 4-x Co x Sb 12 and Ce y/2 Yb y/2 Fe 4-x Ni x Sb 12 have been synthesized as single phase materials. The evolution of the lattice parameters and of the filling fractions with substitutions on the transition metal site have been studied by X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. Both results were compared to that of single filled series (Ce/Yb) y Fe 4-x (Co/Ni) x Sb 12 . It shows that double-filled skutterudites can be understood as a solid solution between single filled ones. The valence states of Ce and Yb in all series have been studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L 3 edges, and we discuss their relationships with structural parameters. Ce is always trivalent, whereas Yb valence state decreases as Yb fraction increases. No distortion of the environment or sub-position of Yb in the cage have been seen by neutron diffraction. The Seebeck coefficient has been measured using a home made apparatus from 120 K to 300 K. It shows a crossover from p- to n-type conductivity for Co or Ni rich skutterudites in the six series. We discuss the influence on the room temperature thermopower of valence states, filling fractions and substitution rate on the transition metal site. Thermopower seems to be only driven by charge carriers concentration

  5. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of p-Type PrzFe4-xCoxSb12 skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2014-01-01

    p-Type Pr z Fe 4-x Co x Sb 12 (z = 0.8, 1.0 and x = 0, 0.5, 1.0) skutterudites were synthesized by encapsulated melting and annealing and were consolidated with hot pressing. The effects of Pr filling and Co substitution for Fe (charge compensation) on the transport and the thermoelectric properties were examined. A few secondary phases, such as Sb and FeSb 2 , were formed together with the skutterudite phase, but the formation was suppressed with increasing Pr and Co contents. We confirmed that Pr filled in the voids and that Co was substituted for Fe in all specimens because the lattice constant increased with increasing Pr content and decreased with increasing Co content. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly with increasing temperature, showing degenerate semiconductor characteristics. The Hall and the Seebeck coefficients showed positive signs, indicating that the major carriers were holes (p-type conduction). The electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity were decreased due to a decrease in the carrier concentration with increasing Pr and Co contents. As a result, the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was improved by Pr filling and Co substitution, and a maximum ZT = 0.89 was obtained at 723 K for Pr 0.8 Fe 3 CoSb 12 .

  6. Local structure investigation of Ga and Yb dopants in Co4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanyun; Chen, Ning; Clancy, J. P.; Salvador, James R.; Kim, Chang-Yong; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Kim, Young-June

    2017-12-01

    We report comprehensive x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies at both the Ga K edge and Yb L2 edge to elucidate the local structure of Ga and Yb dopants in YbxGayCo4Sb12 . Our extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirm that Ga atoms occupy two crystallographic sites: one is the 24 g site replacing Sb, and the other is the 2 a site in the off-center void position. We find that the occupancy ratio of these two sites varies significantly as a function of the filling fraction of additional Yb, which exclusively occupies the 2 a on-center site. At low concentrations of Yb, Ga24 g and Ga2 a dopants coexist and they form a charge-compensated compound defect proposed by Qiu et al. [Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 3194 (2013), 10.1002/adfm.201202571]. The Ga24 g occupancy increases gradually with increasing Yb concentration, and almost all Ga occupies the 24 g site for the highest Yb concentration studied (x =0.4 ). In addition to the local structural evidence provided by our EXAFS data, we also present x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra, which show a small Ga K -edge energy shift as a function of Yb concentration consistent with the change from predominantly Ga2 a to Ga24 g states. Our result suggests that the increased solubility of Yb in Yb-Ga co-doped Co4Sb12 skutterudites is due to the increased Ga24 g electron acceptor, and thus provides an important strategy to optimize the carrier concentration in partially filled skutterudites.

  7. High temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites BaxYbyCo4-zFezSb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Several polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with compositions Ba xYb yCo 4-zFe zSb 12, with varying filler concentrations x and y, and z = 1 to 2, were synthesized by reacting the constituents and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 820 K. The Yb filling fraction increased with Fe content while the amount of Fe substitution had little influence on the Ba filling fraction. High purity specimens were obtained when the Fe content was low. Bipolar conduction contributed to the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.7 was obtained at 750 K for the specimen with the highest Fe content and filling fraction. The potential for thermoelectric applications is also discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Transport properties of partially-filled Ce{sub y}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uher, C; Chen, B; Hu, S; Morelli, D T; Meisner, G P

    1997-07-01

    The authors have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of Ce{sub y}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} filled skutterudites with the filling fraction y {le} 0.1. These compounds are n-type materials that develop a magnetic moment upon the presence of trivalent cerium. Cerium has a strong influence on all transport properties and even in small amounts it drastically reduces the lattice thermal conductivity. The resulting figures of merit are comparable to the values established previously for the p-type filled skutterudites.

  9. Tests results of skutterudite based thermoelectric unicouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Hamed H.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Caillat, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Tests were performed of skutterudite based unicouples with (MAY-04) and without (MAR-03) metallic coating on the legs near the hot junction to quantify the effect on reducing performance degradation with operation time. The p-legs in the unicouples were made of CeFe 3.5 Co 0.5 Sb 12 and the n-legs of CoSb 3 . The MAY-04 test was performed in vacuum (∼9 x 10 -7 torr) for ∼2000 h at hot and cold junction temperatures of 892.1 ± 11.9 K and 316.1 ± 5.5 K, respectively, while the MAR-03 test was performed in argon cover gas (0.051-0.068 MPa) at 972.61 ± 10.0 K and 301.1 ± 5.1 K, respectively. The argon cover gas decreased antimony loss from the legs in the MAR-03 test, but marked degradation in performance occurred over time. Conversely, the metallic coating in the MAY-04 test was very effective in reducing performance degradation of the unicouple. Because the cross sectional areas of the legs in MAY-04 were larger than those in MAR-03, the measured electrical power of the former is much higher than that of the latter, but the Beginning of Test (BOT) open circuit voltages, V oc (204.2 mV) for both unicouples were almost the same. The peak electrical power of the MAY-04 unicouple decreased 12.35% from 1.62W e at BOT to 1.42W e after ∼2000 h of testing, while that of the MAR-03 unicouple decreased 25.37% from 0.67 to 0.5W e after 261 h of testing at the above temperatures. The estimated peak efficiency of the MAY-04 unicouple, shortly after BOT (10.65%), was only ∼0.37% points lower than the theoretical value, calculated assuming zero side heat losses and zero contact resistance per leg

  10. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  11. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of high pressure synthesized lithium and calcium double-filled CoSb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium and calcium are inefficient filling elements of CoSb3 at ambient pressure, but show nice filling behavior under high pressure. In this work, we synthesized Li/Ca double-filled CoSb3 with high pressure synthesis method. The products show the skutterudite structure of Im3¯ symmetry. Thermoelectric properties were effectively enhanced through Li and Ca co-filling. For the optimal Li0.08Ca0.18Co4Sb12 sample, the power factor maintains a relatively high value over the whole measurement temperature range and peaks at 4700μWm−1K−2, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is greatly suppressed, leading to a maximal ZT of 1.18 at 700 K. Current work demonstrates high pressure synthesis as an effective method to produce multiple elemental filled CoSb3 skutterudites.

  13. Electronic and Transport Properties of LaNi4Sb12 Skutterudite: Modified Becke-Johnson Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Singh, Srishti; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2018-05-01

    We carried out an ab initio study of structural, electronic, thermodynamic, and thermoelectric properties of the lanthanum-filled skutterudite, LaNi4Sb12. Generalized gradient approximation and modified Becke-Johnson potentials were employed for the exchange-correlation potential. The electronic structure calculations display the metallic behavior of the compound. The alloy offers low lattice thermal conductivity along with a high Seebeck coefficient with a value of - 158 (μVK-1) at room temperature. The effect of high pressure and temperature on thermal properties like thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter are also investigated by means of a quasi-harmonic Debye model. The large Seebeck coefficient and high power factor exhibited by LaNi4Sb12 make it an attractive candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  14. Structure and Chemical Bond of Thermoelectric Ce-Co-Sb Skutterudites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The correlations among composition,structure,chemical bond and thermoelectric property of skutterudites CoSb3 and CeCo5Fe3Sb12 have been studied by using density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method.Three models for this study were proposed and calculated by which the "rattling" pattern was described.Model 1 is with Ce in the center,model 2 is with Ce away the center and near to Sb,and model 3 is also with Ce away the center but near to Fe.The calculated results show that in model 3,the ionic bond is the strongest,but the covalent bond is the weakest.Due to the different changes between ionic and covalent bond,there is less difference in the stability among the models 1,2 and 3.Therefore,these different models can exist at the same time,or can translate from one to another more easily.In other words,the "rattling" pattern has taken place.Unfilled model of CoSb3,without Ce and Fe,is called model 4.The covalent bond of Co-Sb or Fe-Sb in models 1,2 and 3 is weaker than that of Co-Sb in model 4,as some electrical cloud of Sb takes part in the covalent bond of Ce-Sb in the filled models.The result is consistent with the experimental result that the thermal conductivity of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is lower than that of CoSb3,and the thermoelectric property of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is superior to that of CoSb3.

  15. Synthesis crystal stuctrure and thermoelectric properties of the ternary skutterudite Fe2Pd2Sb12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Laufek, F.; Plecháček, T.; Plášil, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 493, 1-2 (2010), s. 50-54 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Fe2Pd2Sb12 * crystal structure * skutterudite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2010

  16. Phase stability and lattice thermal conductivity reduction in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with chalcogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battabyal, M., E-mail: manjusha.battabyal@project.arci.res.in; Priyadarshini, B.; Gopalan, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), IIT M Research Park, Taramani, Chennai-600113 (India); Pradipkanti, L.; Satapathy, Dillip K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We report a significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of the CoSb{sub 3} skuttertudites, doped with chalcogen atoms. Te/Se chalcogen atoms doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite samples (Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Se{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Te{sub 0.05}Se{sub 0.05}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}) are processed by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. X-ray diffraction data combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate the doping of Te/Se chalcogen atoms in the skutterudite. The temperature dependent X-ray diffraction confirms the stability of the Te/Se doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite phase and absence of any secondary phase in the temperature range starting from 300 K to 773 K. The Raman spectroscopy reveals that different chalcogen dopant atoms cause different resonant optical vibrational modes between the dopant atom and the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice. These optical vibrational modes do scatter heat carrying acoustic phonons in a different spectral range. It was found that among the Te/Se chalcogen atoms, Te atoms alter the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice vibrations to a larger extent than Se atoms, and can potentially scatter more Sb related acoustic phonons. The Debye model of lattice thermal conductivity confirms that the resonant phonon scattering has important contributions to the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites doped with Te/Se chalcogen atoms. Lattice thermal conductivity ∼ 0.9 W/mK at 773 K is achieved in Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites, which is the lowest value reported so far in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with single Te chalcogen atom.

  17. On the chemical synthesis route to bulk-scale skutterudite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Mohsen Y.; Saleemi, Mohsin; Han, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more intimat......, compaction of the powders with SPS technique provided a safe route to maintaining the nanopowder size and achieving low thermal conductivity (3 W/mK). The proposed method can easily be scaled up and adopted by the industry.......In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more...

  18. Atomistic explanation of brittle failure of thermoelectric skutterudite CoSb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Hanus, Riley; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    CoSb 3 based skutterudite thermoelectric material has superior thermoelectric properties, but the low fracture toughness prevents its widespread commercial application. To determine the origin of its brittle failure, we examined the response of shear deformation in CoSb 3 along the most plausible slip system (010)/<100>, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the brittle failure of CoSb 3 arises from the formation of shear bands due to the destruction of Sb4-rings and the slippage of Co-octahedraes. This leads to the breakage of Co-octahedraes and cavitation, resulting in the crack opening and mechanical failure.

  19. Low-temperature anomalies of photoinduced second harmonic generation in skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennois, R; Kityk, I V; Terki, F; Charar, S; Muntzer, A; Kasperczyk, J; Ravot, D; Tedenac, J C

    2003-01-01

    Photoinduced second harmonic generation (PISHG) was found in skutterudite compounds of CeFe 4 Sb 12 and Ce 0.7 Fe 3.5 Ni 0.5 Sb 12 . Measurements versus temperature, pump-probe delaying time and external magnetic field were performed. The studied compounds belong to moderate heavy fermion compounds (HFC) in the ground state. The PISHG signals appear at 6.8 and 4.9 K for CeFe 4 Sb 12 and Ce 0.7 Fe 3.5 Ni 0.5 Sb 12 , respectively. We suspect that these signals are due to anharmonic electron-phonon interactions creating a charge density non-centrosymmetry. The observed effects are caused either by a possible phase transition or by drastic changes in the electron structure of the HFC with decreasing temperature

  20. High-temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites Ba0.15Yb x Co3FeSb12 and Yb y Co3FeSb9As3

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-08-28

    Two series of p-type polycrystalline skutterudites, Ba0.15YbxCo3FeSb12 and YbyCo3FeSb9As3 with varying Yb concentrations, were synthesized by solid-state reaction and then densified by hot pressing. The phase and stoichiometries of the resulting materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, while their high-temperature transport properties were investigated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities increased linearly with increasing temperature for the double-filled specimens. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities did not change very much for the As-substituted specimens. The thermal conductivity for all specimens decreased with increasing temperature up to 700 K, corresponding to the plateau in the Seebeck coefficient, and then increased again due to bipolar diffusion. We find that double filling is a more feasible approach to thermoelectric property optimization than single filling with As substitution. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, and transport properties of Fe substituted rhombohedral skutterudite derivatives Co4−xFexGe6Se6

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Kaya

    2014-11-01

    We report on the synthesis and low temperature transport properties of rhombohedral derivatives of the cubic skutterudite CoSb3, namely Co4-xFexGe6Se6 with x = 0, 1, 1.5. Rietveld refinement and elemental analyses were used to identify the structure and stoichiometry of the compositions. The thermal conductivity was investigated by employing the Debye model with different phonon-scattering parameters. This investigation demonstrates that Fe substitution is feasible in these skutterudite derivatives and can significantly affect the transport properties as compared with Co4Ge6Se6. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, and transport properties of Fe substituted rhombohedral skutterudite derivatives Co4−xFexGe6Se6

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Kaya; Dong, Yongkwan; Puneet, Pooja; Tritt, Terry M.; Nolas, George S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and low temperature transport properties of rhombohedral derivatives of the cubic skutterudite CoSb3, namely Co4-xFexGe6Se6 with x = 0, 1, 1.5. Rietveld refinement and elemental analyses were used to identify the structure and stoichiometry of the compositions. The thermal conductivity was investigated by employing the Debye model with different phonon-scattering parameters. This investigation demonstrates that Fe substitution is feasible in these skutterudite derivatives and can significantly affect the transport properties as compared with Co4Ge6Se6. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of quasi-skutterudite PrCo2Ga8 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbunmi, Michael O.; Sondezi, Buyisiwe M.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.

    2018-05-01

    PrCo2Ga8 is an orthorhombic quasi-skutterudite type compound which crystallizes in the CaCo2Al8 structure type, with space group Pbam (No. 55). The Pr3+ ion has a site symmetry of Cs which predicts a crystal electric field (CEF) level splitting into 9 singlets for J = 4. However, a phase transition at Tm = 1.28 K is observed in electrical resistivity and specific heat results and is reported in this paper. The electrical resistivity shows an upturn below Tm due to the superzone-gap formation. This transition is tuneable in fields and is suppressed to lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields. The electronic specific heat Cp(T) / T increases below Tm and reaches a value of 7.37 J/(mol K2) at 0.4 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient, γ extracted from the low temperature analysis of C4f(T) / T is 637 mJ/(mol K2) indicating a possible mass enhancement of the quasiparticles. The calculated entropy value of 3.05 J/(mol K) is recovered around Tm exhibiting almost 53% of Rln2, where R is the universal gas constant. Magnetic susceptibility results obeys the Curie-Weiss law for data above 100 K with an estimated effective magnetic moment, μeff = 3.37 μB/Pr and Weiss temperature, θp = -124 K.

  4. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-10-24

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  5. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  6. Tests results and performance comparisons of coated and un-coated skutterudite based segmented unicouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.; Caillat, Thierry; Sakamoto, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Skutterudite based thermoelectric unicouples are being considered for use in Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPSs) to support NASA's planetary exploration missions. For these systems, which would be much lighter than state of the art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), it is important to ensure minimal degradation in the performance of unicouples that may be caused by material sublimation. In this work, two unicouples, JAN-04 with a thin metallic coating on the legs near the hot junction to suppress antimony sublimation and SEP-03 without coating, are tested for >1000 and 3600 h, respectively. The legs in the two unicouples are of almost the same dimensions and compositions; the p-legs are made of CeFe 3.5 Co 0.5 Sb 12 and Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 segments and the n-legs are made of CoSb 3 and Bi 2 Te 2.95 Se 0.05 segments. SEP-03 is tested at average hot and cold junction temperatures of 961.5 ± 22.0 and 296.3 ± 5.7 K, respectively, in argon gas at ∼0.068 MPa, and JAN-04 is tested at 962.8 ± 20.5 and 294.5 ± 3.3 K, respectively, initially in argon gas at the same pressure for ∼26.5 h then in vacuum ∼9.0 x 10 -7 Torr for >973.5 h. The measured open circuit voltage V oc (240 mV) and peak electrical power (1.64 W e ) for SEP-03 at the beginning of test (BOT) are higher than those for JAN-04 (188 mV and 0.84 W e , respectively). Although the argon gas effectively decreased the antimony loss from the legs of SEP-03, marked degradations in performance occurred. The estimated peak efficiency for SEP-03 decreased from 13.8% at BOT to 5.8% at end of test (EOT), and the peak power decreased from 1.64 W e at BOT to 0.48 W e at EOT, however, V oc decreased by ∼14%. The latter for JAN-04 decreased only by ∼3%, the estimated peak efficiency (∼12%) changed very little and the peak power decreased by ∼20%. Unlike SEP-03, the measured total and contact resistances of the legs in JAN-04 changed very little

  7. Pulsed laser deposition and thermoelectric properties of In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-07-29

    In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Process optimization studies revealed that a very narrow process window exists for the growth of single-phase skutterudite films. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measured in the temperature range 300-700 K revealed an irreversible change on the first heating cycle in argon ambient, which is attributed to the enhanced surface roughness of the films or trace secondary phases. A power factor of 0.68 W m-1 K-1 was obtained at ∼700 K, which is nearly six times lower than that of bulk samples. This difference is attributed to grain boundary scattering that causes a drop in film conductivity. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011.

  8. Grain boundary engineering with nano-scale InSb producing high performance InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudite thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric semiconductors based on CoSb3 hold the best promise for recovering industrial or automotive waste heat because of their high efficiency and relatively abundant, lead-free constituent elements. However, higher efficiency is needed before thermoelectrics reach economic viability for widespread use. In this study, n-type InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudites with high thermoelectric performance are produced by combining several phonon scattering mechanisms in a panoscopic synthesis. Using melt spinning followed by spark plasma sintering (MS-SPS, bulk InxCeyCo4Sb12+z alloys are formed with grain boundaries decorated with nano-phase of InSb. The skutterudite matrix has grains on a scale of 100–200 nm and the InSb nano-phase with a typical size of 5–15 nm is evenly dispersed at the grain boundaries of the skutterudite matrix. Coupled with the presence of defects on the Sb sublattice, this multi-scale nanometer structure is exceptionally effective in scattering phonons and, therefore, InxCeyCo4Sb12/InSb nano-composites have very low lattice thermal conductivity and high zT values reaching in excess of 1.5 at 800 K.

  9. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  10. First-principles calculations of the elastic, electronic, and optical properties of the filled skutterudites CeFe4P12 and ThFe4P12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khenata, R.; Bouhemadou, A.; Reshak, Ali H; Ahmed, R.; Rached, D.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2007), s. 463-468 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  11. Influence of Ni impurities on the thermoelectric properties of Ca-partially filled skutterudites Ca.sub.x./sub.Co.sub.4./sub.Sb.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puyet, M.; Lenoir, B.; Dauscher, A.; Candolfi, C.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Stiewe, C.; Müller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 22 (2012), "222105-1"-"222105-4" ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : performance * barium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012 http://apl.aip.org/

  12. Photoemission study of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and RhSb sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, H; Fujimori, A; Nagamoto, Y; Koyanagi, T; Sofo, J O

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and Co(Sb sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Te sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4) sub 3 by photoemission spectroscopy. Valence-band spectra revealed that a significant amount Sb 5p states are present near the Fermi level and are hybridized with Co 3d states just below it. The spectra are well reproduced by the band-structure calculation, suggesting that the effect of electron correlations is not important. When Te is substituted for Sb and n-type carriers are doped into CoSb sub 3 , the spectra are shifted to higher binding energies as described by the rigid-band model. From this shift and the free-electron model for the conduction and valence bands, we have estimated the band gap of CoSb sub 3 to be 0.03-0.04 eV, consistent with transport measurements. Photoemission spectra of RhSb sub 3 have also been measured and revealed expected similarities to and differences from those of CoSb sub 3. Unusual temperature dependence has been observed for the s...

  13. Thermoelectric property of fine-grained CoSb3 skutterudite compound fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weishu; Zhang Boping; Li Jingfeng; Zhao Lidong

    2007-01-01

    Skutterudite CoSb 3 polycrystalline materials were prepared using a combined process of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of SPS temperature on the thermoelectric properties was focused in this work with a special emphasis on the analysis of the size effects of grains. The average grain sizes decreased from 300 to 50 nm with decreasing SPS temperatures from 600 to 300 deg. C. The electrical resistivities of samples spark plasma sintered at 300-600 deg. C all decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a classic intrinsic conduction behaviour of semiconductors. The samples spark plasma sintered at 300-500 deg. C showed a positive Seebeck coefficient while the sample spark plasma sintered at 600 deg. C showed a negative Seebeck coefficient. The room-temperature thermal conductivities were reduced from 4.30 to 2.92 W m -1 K -1 as the grain sizes were decreased from 300 to 100 nm corresponding to SPS at 600 and 400 deg. C, respectively. The present work indicates that MA and SPS is a good combination for fabricating fine-grained CoSb 3 thermoelectric materials

  14. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  15. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  16. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  17. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Rare-earth (R) and transition metals (d) based skutterudites RM4Sb12: new materials for thermoelectric power generation; Etude de skutterudites de terres-rares (R) et de metaux d (M) du type RM4Sb12: de nouveaux materiaux thermoelectriques pour la generation d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardan, D.

    2004-07-15

    This thesis presents the physical and thermoelectric properties of new skutterudite compounds, with general formula R{sub y-p}R'{sub p}Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} (R and R' = Ce, Yb, Ba, La). It shows that Yb valence state decreases when Yb fraction increases. However, it does not depend on the temperature, which evidences a mixed valence state (two different valence states for two distinct crystallographic sites at a local point of view). Ce is always trivalent in these compounds. The character of the dominant interactions changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic when one goes from trivalent cerium or lanthanum to nearly divalent ytterbium or divalent barium. The effective paramagnetic moment has been separated into three contributions originating from Ce, Yb and [Fe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}]. The last one does not depend on the nature or on the valence state or R and R' atoms, but it decreases when Ni substitutes Fe. A magnetic transition occurs at 6.5 K for R = Yb and Ba, possibly to a spin glass state. Electrical and thermal transport properties have been determined from 5 K to 800 K, and the materials properties of the materials have been discussed concerning thermoelectric power generation. The power factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT are increased in Ce{sub y}/2Yb{sub y}/2Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} type skutterudites as compared to R{sub y}Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} type skutterudites. (author)

  19. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  20. A quantitative study of valence electron transfer in the skutterudite compound CoP3 by combining x-ray induced Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplas, S; Prytz, Oe; Karlsen, O B; Watts, J F; Taftoe, J

    2007-01-01

    We use the sum of the ionization and Auger energy, the so-called Auger parameter, measured from the x-ray photoelectron spectrum, to study the valence electron distribution in the skutterudite CoP 3 . The electron transfer between Co and P was estimated using models relating changes in Auger parameter values to charge transfer. It was found that each P atom gains 0.24 e - , and considering the unit formula CoP 3 this is equivalent to a donation of 0.72 e - per Co atom. This is in agreement with a recent electron energy-loss spectroscopy study, which indicates a charge transfer of 0.77 e - /atom from Co to P

  1. Thermoelectric properties of In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites with embedded PbTe or ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubilleau, C.; Lenoir, B.; Candolfi, C.; Masschelein, P. [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7198, Institut Jean Lamour, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Dauscher, A., E-mail: anne.dauscher@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7198, Institut Jean Lamour, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Guilmeau, E. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508, 6 boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Godart, C. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UMR 7182, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of nanostructured skutterudites ZnO or PbTe/In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12.} • Thermal conductivity modeling accounts for experimental results. • Greater lattice thermal conductivity decrease in In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} than in CoSb{sub 3}. • A max ZT of 1.05 is obtained at 700 K in a 2 wt% ZnO-containing sample. -- Abstract: Transport properties of the skutterudite compound In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} containing ZnO or PbTe nano-sized particles (2–12 wt%) were investigated by means of electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity between 5 and 800 K. The composite powders were prepared by freeze-drying the nanoparticles with micron-sized In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} powders. Densification was achieved by spark plasma sintering. All composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All the transport coefficients show similar temperature dependences suggesting little influence of the nature, semiconducting or insulating, of the nanoparticles. Both the electrical and the thermal conductivities decrease with increasing the PbTe or ZnO content. The impact of ZnO and PbTe on the thermal conductivity was modelled based on the Debye model taking into account a relaxation time constant reflecting phonon scattering by spherical nanoparticles. A maximum dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 1.05 at 700 K was achieved in a sample containing 2 wt% ZnO, a value quite similar to that of the reference In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} compound.

  2. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  3. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  4. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  5. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  6. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  7. Properties of thin N-type Yb0.14Co4Sb12 and P-type Ce0.09Fe0.67Co3.33Sb12 skutterudite layers prepared by laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeipl, Radek; Walachová, Jarmila; Lorinčík, J.; Leshkov, Sergey; Josieková, M.; Jelínek, M.; Kocourek, Tomáš; Jurek, Karel; Navrátil, Jiří; Beneš, L.; Plecháček, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2010), s. 523-527 ISSN 0734-2101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315; GA ČR GA203/07/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thermoelectrics * thin layers * skutterudites Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.291, year: 2010

  8. The ferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compound SmFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, N

    2003-01-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of a filled skutterudite compound, SmFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements revealed a ferromagnetic transition at 1.6 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity exhibits a Kondo-lattice behaviour and the electronic specific heat coefficient attains values as large as 370 mJ mol sup - sup 1 K sup - sup 2. This compound is thereby the first Sm-based heavy-fermion system found with a ferromagnetic ground state. The Kondo temperature is estimated to be about 30 K. (letter to the editor)

  9. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  10. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  11. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  12. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  15. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  16. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  17. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  18. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  19. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  20. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  1. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  2. Crystal structure, {sup 139}La NMR and transport properties of the As-based filled skutterudites LaOs{sub 4}As{sub 12} and PrOs{sub 4}As{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawryk, R.; Zogal, O.; Pietraszko, A.; Paluch, S.; Cichorek, T. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Yuhasz, W.M.; Sayles, T.A.; Ho, P.-C.; Yanagisawa, T.; Butch, N.P.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics and Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego (United States); Henkie, Z. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: Z.Henkie@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2008-02-28

    We have grown single crystals of LaOs{sub 4}As{sub 12} and PrOs{sub 4}As{sub 12}, which crystallize in the LaFe{sub 4}P{sub 12}-type structure (Im3-bar space group) with the lattice parameters of 8.542(1) A and 8.520(1) A, respectively. From a narrow {sup 139}La NMR line, we estimated an appreciable Knight shift ({sup 139}K) and a relatively long spin-lattice-relaxation time in the non-4f electron system LaOs{sub 4}As{sub 12}. Surprisingly, while {sup 139}K vary non-monotonically with temperature, the magnetic susceptibility increases upon cooling over the whole temperature range. Interestingly, the high-temperature dependence of the thermoelectric power of LaOs{sub 4}As{sub 12} is remarkably similar to that one of PrOs{sub 4}As{sub 12}.

  3. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  4. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  5. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  6. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  7. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  8. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  9. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  10. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  11. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  12. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  13. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  14. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  15. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  16. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  17. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  18. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  19. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  20. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  1. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  2. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  3. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  4. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  5. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  6. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  7. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  8. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  9. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  10. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  11. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  12. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  13. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  14. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  15. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  16. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  17. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  18. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  19. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  20. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  1. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  2. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  3. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  4. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  5. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  6. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  7. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  8. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  9. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  10. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  11. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  12. Boron filled siloxane polymers for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouriau, Andrea; Robison, Tom; Shonrock, Clinton; Simmonds, Steve; Cox, Brad; Pacheco, Adam; Cady, Carl

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate changes to structure-property relationships of 10B filled siloxane-based polymers when exposed to nuclear reactor radiation. Highly filled polysiloxanes were synthesized with the intent of fabricating materials that could shield high neutron fluences. The newly formulated materials consisted of cross-linked poly-diphenyl-methylsiloxane filled with natural boron and carbon nanofibers. This polymer was chosen because of its good thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as resistance to ionizing radiation thanks to the presence of aromatic groups in the siloxane backbone. Highly isotopically enriched 10B filler was used to provide an efficient neutron radiation shield, and carbon nanofibers were added to improve mechanical strength. This novel polymeric material was exposed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Labs to five different neutron/gamma fluxes consisting of very high neutron fluences within very short time periods. Thermocouples placed on the specimens recorded in-situ temperature changes during radiation exposure, which agreed well with those obtained from our MCNP simulations. Changes in the microstructural, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM, DSC, TGA, FT-IR NMR, solvent swelling, and uniaxial compressive load measurements. Our results demonstrate that these newly formulated materials are well-suitable to be used in applications that require exposure to different types of ionizing conditions that take place simultaneously.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  14. Fissure fillings from Gideaa, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1983-08-01

    The most frequent fissure filling minerals at Gideaa are calcite, chlorite, pyrite, laumontite, stilbite, smectite, quartz and epidote. Potentially young minerals, i.e. minerals which can be formed during present conditions, are smectite, calcite and quartz, Equilibrium calculations show that these minerals can be stable in the water analysed from Gideaa. In borehole Gi 2, the water exhibits a greater equilibrium with existing minerals in the fissures than water from Gi 4. This is due to the recharge of the water in Gi 4 and discharge of the water in Gi 2. When carbonate saturated water penetrated through the bedrock, calcite precipitated within the more superficial portions of the rock. However, both calcite and zeolite fissures fillings are associated with certain zones in the drill holes. A large number of fractures can be concluded to be of post-Jotnian age. Stilbite, calcite and smectite are associated with these fractures. Laumontite can also be assumed to belong here. The dolerites in the area exhibit a high fracture frequency but a relatively low hydraulic conductivity. This is due to the fact that smectite is very prevalent in the dolerite fractures, Several generations of fracturefilling minerals (above all calcite) have been found in a single fracture. Stable isotope analyses of fissure filling calcites indicate that there are three different groups of calcite. Most of the calcites could not have been precipitated from water of present-day isotope composition at Gideaa, whereas recent calcite may be found in one of the groups. Another group of calcite was precipitated during hydro-thermal conditions.(author)

  15. The effect of tube filling on the electronic properties of Fe filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella C.; Chimowa, George; Franklyn, Paul J.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Coville, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a twisted CNT filled with a bent single crystal of Fe. Insets from top to bottom show the power spectra of the corresponding regions, indicating the twisting of the Fe lattice. Inset in the top right shows the relative angling of the lattice fringes to accommodate the twisting of the Fe. Highlights: ► Synthesis of Fe filled CNTs with Fe content varying from 3 to 35%. ► TEM analysis indicates that Fe in the tubes is in contact with the CNTs. ► TEM analysis reveals that α-Fe crystallizes after CNT formation. ► Temperature dependent electronic transport measurements performed. ► Conductivity varies with the % Fe filling in the CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes filled with Fe nanostructures (Fe-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection method in a 1-stage horizontal CVD furnace and a bubbling method in a 2-stage horizontal CVD reactor. Fe-CNTs were obtained through the pyrolysis of a mixture of dichlorobenzene and ferrocene in 5%H 2 /Ar. Metal impurities from the Fe-CNTs were removed using 1 M HCl solution. CNTs filled with crystalline Fe nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires were obtained using these procedures. An intimate interaction between the Fe and the CNT was established by HRTEM studies. The α-Fe phase was observed to be the most dominant fraction found in the synthesized Fe-CNTs. The Fe 2 O 3 residue obtained from the TGA analysis revealed the amount of Fe filled inside the CNTs and this ranged between 3 and 31% by mass after purification. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the temperature range between 2.5 and 100 K for an entangled network of Fe-CNTs was measured. An increase in conductivity due to the increased Fe filling inside the CNTs with increased temperature was observed. The observed temperature dependence was explained in terms of variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. A transition from Efros–Shklovskii behavior at low % Fe filling of the CNTs to Mott 3D VRH behavior at

  16. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  20. Le déficit de filles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de la population est une tendance plus récente. C. Le déficit de filles. Le déséquilibre du ratio hommes-femmes en Inde. D. R. O. I. T. S. D. E. S. F. E. M. M. E. S. E. T. P. A. R. T. IC. I. P. A. T. IO. N. C. I. T. O. Y. E. N. N. E. CENTRE DE. RECHERCHES. POUR LE. DÉVELOPPEMENT. INTERNATIONAL. CRDI : Jason Taylor ...

  1. Evaluation of Flowable Fill Surface Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    general, traditional flowable fill is a low- viscosity , grout-like, cementitious blend commonly composed of portland cement, fine aggregate, and water...93.7 45.0 19.6 % Finer No. 200 7.0 0.5 9.1 % Gravel 2.2 0.0 56.1 % Sand 90.8 99.5 34.8 % Silt 3.2 < 0.5 6.8 % Clay 3.8 < 0.5 2.3 Fineness Modulus

  2. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  3. Fissure fillings from the Klipperaas study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Klipperaas study site is located within the Smaaland-Vaermland granitoid belt in southern Sweden. The area investigated can be subdivided into blocks with different hydraulic character and fracture frequency of the rocks. A fissure filling, study has been carried out within the area. This includes identification of the minerals, mineral frequency, textures within the fissures and isotope analyses of calcites. Four generation of fissure fillings, within the time space c. 1600 M.a. to present, has been distinguished. These are 1) quartz; 2) epidote + muscovite and adularia + hematite; 3) calcite + chlorite +/hematite; 4) calcite, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is observed that the surface water affect the uppermost part of the bedrock resulting in calcite dissolution, break down of pyrite and precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is also obvious from the fracture calcite frequency that calcite dissolution is more intensive close to and within the fracture zones. There, Fe-oxyhydroxide can be found down to at least 400 m depth. This gives valuable information about the physic-chemical character of the groundwater within the bedrock. Several fracture zones have been reactivated. It is also suspected that relatively late movements have taken place causing crushing of the rock and only a slight cementation of the crushed material is visible. Some of the fracture zones correspond to mafic dikes. These zones exhibit lower hydraulic conductivity than other zones due to fracture sealing by clay minerals but also by chlorite and calcite. (author)

  4. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  5. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  7. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a secondary remote control of a type acceptable to the Commandant. (c) The excess flow, internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50... § 98.25-50 Filling and discharge pipes. (a) Filling connections shall be provided with one of the...

  11. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  12. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  13. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  14. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  15. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  16. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  17. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  18. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  19. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  20. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  1. Polymer deformation and filling modes during microembossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Harry D.; King, William P.

    2004-12-01

    This work investigates the initial stages of polymer deformation during hot embossing micro-manufacturing at processing temperatures near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films having sufficient thickness such that polymer flow is not supply limited. Several stages of polymer flow can be observed by employing stamp geometries of various widths and varying imprint conditions of time and temperature to modulate polymer viscosity. Experiments investigate conditions affecting cavity filling phenomena, including apparent polymer viscosity. Stamps with periodic ridges of height and width 4 µm and periodicity 30, 50 and 100 µm emboss trenches into polymethyl methacrylate films at Tg - 10 °C time, temperature and load are correlated with replicated polymer shape, height and imprinted area. Polymer replicates are measured by atomic force microscopy and inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Cavity size and the temperature dependence of polymer viscosity significantly influence the nature of polymer deformation in hot embossing micro-manufacturing and must be accounted for in rational process design.

  2. Turbulent flow in a partially filled pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry; Cregan, Hope; Dodds, Jonathan; Poole, Robert; Dennis, David

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent flow in a pressure driven pipe running partially full has been investigated using high-speed 2D-3C Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry. With the field-of-view spanning the entire pipe cross section we are able to reconstruct the full three dimensional quasi-instantaneous flow field by invoking Taylor's hypothesis. The measurements were carried out over a range of flow depths at a constant Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter and bulk velocity of Re = 32 , 000 . In agreement with previous studies, the ``velocity dip'' phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum streamwise velocity occurs below the free surface was observed. A mean flow secondary current is observed near the free surface with each of the counter-rotating rollers filling the half-width of the pipe. Unlike fully turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel or pressurized square duct flow where the secondary flow cells appear in pairs about a corner bisector, the mean secondary motion observed here manifests only as a single pair of vortices mirrored about the pipe vertical centreline.

  3. Sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Wang Bo; Bao Liangjin; Zhou Duo; Long Haoqi; Song Zhixin; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of Np (Ⅴ) on the granite fracture filling materials were studied by batch experiments under anaerobic in Beishan groundwater. The impact of pH of groundwater, CO 3 2- , humic acid and different components of granite fracture filling materials on sorption of Np (Ⅴ) was investigated. The results show that the granite fracture filling materials have strong capacity of Np (Ⅴ) adsorption. The value of K d , for Np (Ⅴ) sorption on the granite fracture filling materials is 843 mL/g. With the increase of pH, the value of K d increases at first and then decreases. K d of Np sorption on granite fracture filling materials in the presence of CO 3 2- and humic acid decreases. The chlorite and feldspar are major contributors to the sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials. (authors)

  4. Effects of selective attention on perceptual filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P

    2006-03-01

    After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.

  5. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  6. Curing characteristics of flowable and sculptable bulk-fill composites

    OpenAIRE

    Miletic, Vesna; Pongpruenska, Pong; De Munck, Jan; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and correlate the degree of conversion (DC) with Vickers hardness (VH) and translucency parameter (TP) with the depth of cure (DoC) of five bulk-fill composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens per group, consisting of Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill ("TEC Bulk," Ivoclar Vivadent), SonicFill (Kerr), SDR Smart Dentin Replacement ("SDR," Dentsply), Xenius base ("Xenius," StickTech; commercialized as EverX Posterior, GC), Filtek Bul...

  7. [Cermet cements for milk tooth fillings. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Petschelt, A; Voss, A

    1989-06-01

    106 Ketac-Silver fillings in deciduous molars were reevaluated after 1 to 3.3 years, i.e. 25 month on the average. About 90% of 50 occlusal fillings and about 84% of 56 multisurface restorations were unchanged. Without claiming statistical evidence for their conclusiveness, we consider these results as an indication that cermet cements are a useful alternative to amalgam fillings in deciduous teeth, particularly since the life of these fillings is limited to the time until the milk tooth is physiologically lost.

  8. Method for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Prior to welding the zirconium alloy cladding tubes with end caps, they are automatically filled with nuclear fuel tablets and ceramic insulating tablets. The tablets are introduced into magazine drums and led through a drying oven to a discharging station. The empty cladding tubes are removed from this discharging station and filled with tablets. A filling stamp pushes out the columns of tablets in the magazine tubes of the magazine drum into the cladding tube. Weight and measurement of length determine the filled state of the cladding tube. The cladding tubes are then led to the welding station via a conveyor belt. (DG) [de

  9. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  10. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. COMSOL Multiphysics Model for HLW Canister Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesterson, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. Wastes containing high concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O can contribute to nepheline (generally NaAlSiO4) crystallization, which can sharply reduce the chemical durability of high level waste (HLW) glass. Nepheline crystallization can occur during slow cooling of the glass within the stainless steel canister. The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in a WTP HLW canister during filling and cooling. The intent of the model is to support scoping work in the laboratory. It is not intended to provide precise predictions of temperature profiles, but rather to provide a simplified representation of glass cooling profiles within a full scale, WTP HLW canister under various glass pouring rates. These data will be used to support laboratory studies for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of nepheline crystallization. The model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercially available software. The model results were compared to available experimental data, TRR-PLT-080, and were found to yield sufficient results for the scoping nature of the study. The simulated temperatures were within 60 ºC for the centerline, 0.0762m (3 inch) from centerline, and 0.2286m (9 inch) from centerline thermocouples once the thermocouples were covered with glass. The temperature difference between the experimental and simulated values reduced to 40 ºC, 4 hours after the thermocouple was covered, and down to 20 ºC, 6 hours after the thermocouple was covered

  12. Estimation of water-filled and air-filled porosity in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Water content and porosity vary considerably within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Measurement of these quantities has been based on core samples. A log-based approach offers the advantage of in-situ measurements, continuous throughout the borehole. This paper describes an algorithm which determines the air-filled and water-filled porosities from density and dielectric logs. The responses of density and dielectric logs are formulated in terms of the matrix properties, air-filled porosity and water-filled porosity. Porosity values obtained from logs from borehole USW G-2 are in reasonable agreement with estimates from core determinations

  13. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  14. Optimization of foam-filled bitubal structures for crashworthiness criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Guangyong; Li, Guangyao; Luo, Zhen; Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper aims to optimize foam-filled bitubal squared column for crashworthiness. ► It explores different formulations and configurations of design. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than foam-filled monotubal column. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than empty bitubal column. -- Abstract: Thin-walled structures have been widely used as key components in automobile and aerospace industry to improve the crashworthiness and safety of vehicles while maintaining overall light-weight. This paper aims to explore the design issue of thin-walled bitubal column structures filled with aluminum foam. As a relatively new filler material, aluminum foam can increase crashworthiness without sacrificing too much weight. To optimize crashworthiness of the foam-filled bitubal square column, the Kriging meta-modeling technique is adopted herein to formulate the objective and constraint functions. The genetic algorithm (GA) and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) are used to seek the optimal solutions to the single and multiobjective optimization problems, respectively. To compare with other thin-walled configurations, the design optimization is also conducted for empty bitubal column and foam-filled monotubal column. The results demonstrate that the foam-filled bitubal configuration has more room to enhance the crashworthiness and can be an efficient energy absorber.

  15. Theory Of Dewetting In A Filled Elastomer Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of dewetting between elastomeric binder and filler particles of highly filled elastomer under multiaxial tension and resulting dilatation of elastomer. Study directed toward understanding and predicting nonlinear stress-vs.-strain behavior of filled elastomeric rocket propellant, also applicable to rubber in highly loaded tire or in damping pad.

  16. Predicting heat transfer in long, R-134a filled thermosyphons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooten, M.H.M.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    When traditional air-to-air cooling is too voluminous, heat exchangers with long thermosyphons offer a good alternative. Experiments with a single thermosyphon with a large length-to-diameter ratio (188) and filled with R-134a are presented and analyzed. Saturation temperatures, filling ratios, and

  17. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  19. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  20. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, no physical access to the beam hall is required during routine filling operation. The system consists of ... PSI with the manual valve (MV) on the dewar kept open. For filling the detectors on one ... sequence the opening/closing of the valves depending upon the outlet temperature. By monitoring the time taken for ...

  1. Method and apparatus for filling cryogenic liquid cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, S.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a portable cryogenic liquid cylinder from a large stand tank. The invention employs a regulator valve to perform an automatic throttling function whereby the pressure in the liquid cylinder is maintained at a value slightly lower than the upstream pressure in the stand tank. This significantly reduces filling losses due to flashing

  2. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  3. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  4. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  5. Process for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A drying section is inserted in the production line for the automation of the filling process for fuel rods with nuclear fuel pellets. The pellets are taken in a drum magazine to a drying furnace and then pushed out one after the other into the can to be filled. (TK) [de

  6. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  7. Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance, Self-Study #31419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.

  8. Microbiological studies on bacterial isolates from penicillins filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aseptic processing is a critical method for the preparation of thermolabile sterile parenteral drug products. Sterile β-lactam antibiotics are extremely deactivated by heat, so the method of choice for their processing is through aseptic filling. The consequences of contamination on aseptically-filled products are harmful to the ...

  9. 27 CFR 4.72 - Metric standards of fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric standards of fill. 4.72 Section 4.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.72 Metric...

  10. Water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birle Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations on the water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay in humid climate. As the organic soil used for the fill contains geogenetically elevated concentrations of arsenic, particular attention is paid on the seepage flow through the fill. The test fill is 5 m high, 30 m long and 25 m wide. The fill consists of the organic clay compacted at water contents wet and dry of Proctor Optimum covered by a drainage mat and a 60 cm thick top layer. For the determination of the water balance extensive measuring systems were installed. The seepage at the bottom measured so far was less than 2 % of the precipitation. The interflow in the drainage mat above the compacted organic clay was of similar magnitude. The estimated evapotranspiration reached approx. 84 % of the precipitation. According to these measurements the percolation is much lower than the percolation of many landfill covers in humid climates.

  11. Development of gap filling technique in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Saito, Akira; Ishii, Takashi; Toguri, Satohito; Okihara, Mitsunobu; Iwasa, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    HLW is supposed to be disposed underground at depths more than 300 m in Japan. Buffer is an artificial barrier that controls radionuclides migrating into the groundwater. The buffer would be made of a natural swelling clay, bentonite. Construction technology for the buffer has been studied for many years, but studies for the gaps surrounding the buffer are little. The proper handling of the gaps is important for guaranteeing the functions of the buffer. In this paper, gap filling techniques using bentonite pellets have been developed in order to the gap having the same performance as the buffer. A new method for manufacturing high-density spherical pellets has been developed to fill the gap higher density ever reported. For the bentonite pellets, the filling performance and how to use were determined. And full-scale filling tests provided availability of the bentonite pellets and filling techniques. (author)

  12. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Maier, Diana; Buechner, Bernd; Hampel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  13. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  14. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE SONICFILL™ METHOD FOR LATERAL FILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BARANOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of bulk-fill type fillings realized with SONICFill™ over an 18 month interval, on a batch of patients with different ages and occupations. Materials and methods: the study was performed on a batch of 73 patients who addressed the Clinical of OdontologyEndodontics within the Platform of Practical Training (PIP of the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the ”Apollonia” University of Iaşi, between Octomber 1, 2014 - May 1, 2016, subjected to 91 bulk-fill fillings with SonicFill™ on the posterior teeth. Results and discussion: out of the total number of 73 patients, 56 came from the urban environment, and 17 - from the rural medium, the highest ratio being represented by the 21-30 year age group (45%, closely followed by the 31-40 year one (40%. As for gender distribution within the batch, nearly two-thirds are women, the rest being men. The education level influenced patients’ decision – that of accepting a new method of filling application. As to the types of teeth to which restorations were applied, the highest ratio is represented by lower molars (41%, followed by upper molars (23% and mandibular premolars (20%, the lowest number of restorations being applied to maxillary premolars. Out of the total number of 91 bulk-fill restorations, 28 were applied over a base filling while, in 63 restorations, the basic filling was absent. Conclusions: The SonicFill ™ system for bulk-fill posterior restorations has a number of advantages, such as: high photopolymerization depth, significant reduction of setting contraction, better composite adaptation to the cavity walls, long-term predictable clinical results.

  15. Quality of root fillings performed with two root filling techniques. An in vitro study using micro-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L; Wenzel, A; Wegge-Larsen, AM

    2013-01-01

    -section images from Micro-computed Tomography scans. Results. All root canal fillings had voids. Permutation test showed no statistically significant difference between the two root filling techniques in relation to presence of voids (p = 0.092). A statistically significant difference in obturation time between...

  16. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  17. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  18. Geomechanical investigations for the designing of cemented filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, P.

    1980-05-15

    Laboratory and in situ investigations have led to the identification of the main geomechanical parameters that condition the stability of the cemented fill in the Gavorrano pyrite mine (Tuscany, Italy); such parameters were used for working out a satisfactory mining method. The pyrite is mined with the descending horizontal slice method with integral cemented filling which is obtained by throwing a mixture of limestone aggregates and cement into the mined voids. The laboratory geomechanical investigations carried out on fill samples have pointed out that the physical and mechanical characteristics are highly variable and this is essentially due to the fact that the fill is cast into place by compressed air. In particular, it was pointed out that the strength depends upon the cement content and upon the porosity according to a power law. The in situ measurements of the convergence between the roof and the floor, and the load measurements pointed out the considerable importance of the horizontal and vertical joints that cross the fill mass and that are inevitably brought about by a discontinuity of the fill. The results of the study made it possible to adopt an acceptable geomechanical behaviour model of the fill. On the basis of this model the mining pattern was deeply modified, the width and the height of the slices were considerably enlarged and thus the output was improved.

  19. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunchun; Liu Weidong; Hou Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  20. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  1. Measuring Item Fill-Rate Performance in a Finite Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The standard treatment of fill rate relies on stationary and serially independent demand over an infinite horizon. Even if demand is stationary, managers are held accountable for performance over a finite horizon. In a finite horizon, the fill rate is a random variable. Studying the distribution is relevant because a vendor may be subject to financial penalty if she fails to achieve her target fill rate over a specified finite period. It is known that for a zero lead time, base-stock model, t...

  2. Fill Rates of Single-Stage and Multistage Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Sobel

    2004-01-01

    A supply system's fill rate is the fraction of demand that is met from on-hand inventory. This paper presents formulas for the fill rate of periodic review supply systems that use base-stock-level policies. The first part of the paper contains fill-rate formulas for a single-stage system and general distributions of demand. When demand is normally distributed, an exact expression uses only the standard normal distribution and density functions, and a good approximation uses only the standard ...

  3. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Saxena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials.

  4. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  5. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  7. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  8. Mechanical behaviour of dental composite filling materials using digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, J.M.; Lopes, H.; Vaz, M.A.P.; Campos, J.C. Reis

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common clinical problems in dentistry is tooth decay. Among the dental filling materials used to repair tooth structure that has been destroyed by decay are dental amalgam and composite materials based on acrylics. Dental amalgam has been used by dentists for the past 150 years as a dental restorative material due to its low cost, ease of application, strength, durability, and bacteriostatic effects. However its safety as a filling material has been questioned due to th...

  9. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  10. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  11. Method for filling a reactor with a catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for filling a reactor with a catalyst for the carbonylation of carbonylated compounds in the gas phase. According to said method, a SILP catalyst is covered with a filling agent which is liquid under normal conditions and is volatile under carbonylation reaction...... conditions, and a thus-treated catalyst is introduced into the reactor and the reactor is sealed....

  12. Countering Stryker’s Punch: Algorithmically Filling the Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Two current digital image editing programs are examined in the context of filling in missing visual image data from hole-punched United States Farm Security Administration (FSA) negatives. Specifically, Photoshop's Content-Aware Fill feature and GIMP's Resynthesizer plugin are evaluated and contrasted against comparable images. A possible automated workflow geared towards large scale editing of similarly hole-punched negatives is also explored. Finally, potential future research based upon th...

  13. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  14. Vibration characteristics of teak wood filled steel tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danawade, Bharatesh Adappa; Malagi, Ravindra Rachappa

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine fundamental frequency and damping ratio of teak wood filled steel tubes. Mechanically bonded teak wood filled steel tubes have been evaluated by experimental impact hammer test using modal analysis. The results of impact hammer test were verified and validated by finite element tool ANSYS using harmonic analysis. The error between the two methods was observed to be within acceptable limit.

  15. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  16. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  17. To Fill or Not to Fill: Sensitivity Analysis of the Influence of Resolution and Hole Filling on Point Cloud Surface Modeling and Individual Rockfall Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Olsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring unstable slopes with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been proven effective. However, end users still struggle immensely with the efficient processing, analysis, and interpretation of the massive and complex TLS datasets. Two recent advances described in this paper now improve the ability to work with TLS data acquired on steep slopes. The first is the improved processing of TLS data to model complex topography and fill holes. This processing step results in a continuous topographic surface model that seamlessly characterizes the rock and soil surface. The second is an advance in the automated interpretation of the surface model in such a way that a magnitude and frequency relationship of rockfall events can be quantified, which can be used to assess maintenance strategies and forecast costs. The approach is applied to unstable highway slopes in the state of Alaska, U.S.A. to evaluate its effectiveness. Further, the influence of the selected model resolution and degree of hole filling on the derived slope metrics were analyzed. In general, model resolution plays a pivotal role in the ability to detect smaller rockfall events when developing magnitude-frequency relationships. The total volume estimates are also influenced by model resolution, but were comparatively less sensitive. In contrast, hole filling had a noticeable effect on magnitude-frequency relationships but to a lesser extent than modeling resolution. However, hole filling yielded a modest increase in overall volumetric quantity estimates. Optimal analysis results occur when appropriately balancing high modeling resolution with an appropriate level of hole filling.

  18. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  19. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  20. High Fill-Factor Transport Experiments on the HCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, L R; Seidl, P A; Lund, S M

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion induction linacs have application as drivers for high energy density physics studies and ultimately as drivers for inertial fusion energy. Experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL explore heavy-ion beam transport at high fill factors (i.e., the ratio of the maximum transverse extent of the beam to the physical aperture). The fill factor has a large impact on the cost of multi-beam induction accelerators, the 80% fill factor compared with 60% would reduce the cost of an HIF driver by about 1/3. With a coasting low-emittance 1 MeV K + beam, transport through ten electrostatic quadrupoles was achieved at high beam fill factor (80%) without observed emittance growth and with little beam loss ((le) 1%), even though the initial beam distribution is neither ideal nor in thermal equilibrium, see Figure. While 10 quadrupoles are too few for settling questions of emittance evolution in a long system, they are very relevant for studying the rapid initial evolution of the emittance and beam profile that is expected in the front end of an accelerator. Studies at higher fill factors are planned, so that the failure mode can be established. Good envelope control was achieved, suggesting that, in a longer lattice of similar design, rematching only every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) will be sufficient. Agreement was reached between an improved envelope model and the data. Improvements to the model are: realistic quadrupole fringe fields based on 3D field calculations; quadrupole E z from the 3D lattice structure and corresponding radial focusing force; and corrections due to the grounded slit plates of the intercepting diagnostics that short out the self-field of the beam near those plates. We also find that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  1. Understanding the safety and tolerability of facial filling therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichova, Daniela; Borovaya, Alyona; Ruzicka, Thomas; Thomas, Peter; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2014-09-01

    Aesthetic medicine represents an emerging field for many specialties. Nowadays, a plethora of approaches are available to rejuvenate the human body and face, the latter being a frequent target for the placement of filling substances to correct wrinkles and volume loss. Nevertheless, based on the many products on the market, treating clinicians must pay specific attention to the properties of the respective materials, their associated side effects and any specific handling requirements to prevent potential short- and long-term adverse events. Types of filling materials, including biodegradable and non-biodegradable products, related complications, their conservative and invasive treatment options, as well as prevention strategies are described in this review. A profound knowledge of the facial anatomy as well as extensive experience with the various filling techniques and suitable materials for the respective areas remains crucial to prevent adverse events associated with filling procedures to the human face. Since side effects such as malar edema and foreign body granuloma do affect patients physically and psychologically to a significant extent and their successful treatment still remains challenging, further in depth studies on the tolerability of many filling materials utilized are required.

  2. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  3. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  5. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  6. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of pcomposites (pcomposite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous in vivo comparison of water-filled and air-filled pressure measurement catheters: Implications for good urodynamic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, A; Abrams, P; Bevan, W; Ellis-Jones, J; Gray, J; Hassine, A; Williams, J; Hashim, H

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the pressure readings obtained from air-filled catheters (AFCs) are the same as the readings from simultaneously inserted water-filled catheters (WFCs). It also aimed to make any possible recommendations for the use of AFCs to conform to International Continence Society (ICS) Good Urodynamic Practices (GUP). Female patients undergoing urodynamic studies in a single center had water-filled and air-filled catheters simultaneously measuring abdominal and intravesical pressure during filling with saline and during voiding. The pressures recorded by each system at each event during the test were compared using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analyses. 62 patients were recruited, of whom 51 had pressures that could be compared during filling, and 23 during voiding. On average, the pressures measured by the two systems were not significantly different during filling and at maximum flow, but the values for a given patient were found to differ by up to 10 cmH 2 O. This study shows that AFCs and WFCs cannot be assumed to register equal values of pressure. It has further shown that even when the p det readings are compared with their value at the start of a test, a divergence of values of up to 10 cmH 2 O remains. If AFCs are used, care must be taken to compensate for any p det variations that occur during patient movement. Before AFCs are adopted, new normal values for resting pressures need to be developed to allow good quality AFC pressure readings to be made. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:926-933, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  9. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  11. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Goldman, S.R.; Kline, J.L.; Dodd, E.S.; Gautier, C.; Grim, G.P.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.; Schmidt, D.W.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.G.; Dewald, E.L.; Landen, O.L.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments done at the National Ignition Facility laser [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] using gas-filled hohlraums demonstrate a key ignition design feature, i.e., using plasma pressure from a gas fill to tamp the hohlraum-wall expansion for the duration of the laser pulse. Moreover, our understanding of hohlraum energetics and the ability to predict the hohlraum soft-x-ray drive has been validated in ignition-relevant conditions. Finally, the laser reflectivity from stimulated Raman scattering in the fill plasma, a key threat to hohlraum performance, is shown to be suppressed by choosing a design with a sufficiently high ratio of electron temperature to density

  12. A liquid filled light distributor and a method of use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    the proximal end is arranged to be in optical communication with a light source and wherein the refractive index of the tube wall is n1 and the refractive index of the fluid is n2 and n1/n2 light from the light source travels along the longitudinal direction of the tubular body and that a part......The present invention relates to liquid filled light distributor comprising an elongated tubular body with a tube wall defining an in inner lumen filled with a liquid, said tubular body having -a proximal end closed by first closing means -a distal end closed by second closing means. Wherein...... of the light is emitted through the tube wall along at least a part of the tubular body. Further a method of use for the liquid filled light distributor is provided....

  13. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  14. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  15. Les mobiles de participation des filles au football et autonomisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à connaître les mobiles qui conditionnent les filles béninoises à pratiquer le football et à les analyser pour développer l'autonomisation des filles en rapport avec les défis du millénaire. Pour ce faire 108 joueuses, dont la moyenne d'âge est de 17 ans, réparties dans 9 équipes parmi les 17 équipes que ...

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  18. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  19. Effect of Different Filling Materials in Anammox Bacteria Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox is a process that ammonium as electron donor is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as electron acceptor. Compared to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, this process is used less oxygen and no organic material (methanol, glucose. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria (11-30 days is disadvantages. Therefore, batch reactors have been carried out in these bacteria enrichment. In this study continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge reactor (UASB using different filling materials disposing of sensitive and slow-growing Anammox bacteria out of the system is purposed. Design and Methods: System is operated up-flow column reactor at 2 days hydraulic retention time (HRT in 45 days. In this study, ceramic stones and Linpor filling material are used. Using synthetic wastewater containing ammonium and nitrite, Ar/CO2 anaerobic conditions (95/5% supplied with gas. System is operated at a temperature 253 C in UASB. Temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen are measured. Results: Both filling material reactors are operated in 45 days. Ceramic stones filling reactor is observed quickly reaches 90% were used reactor ammonium removal. The ammonium nitrogen removal was slower in Linpor filling materials reactor. Nitrite removal is reached up to 90% in both the reactor. When compared to the stoichiometric equation in Linpor was composed of large amounts of nitrate. At the end of 25 days the results were similar to ceramic stone filling reactor with Linpor filling material reactors. Conclusions and Original Value: Anammox process as from nitrogen removal processes was discovered in 1995. Anammox bacteria that make up this process due to very low growth rates of microbial bacteria in the system must be kept in the system. Most of the studies in the literature, these bacteria enrichment stage is started instead of a continuous batch reactor system. In this study

  20. Three-dimensional wedge filling in ordered and disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenall, M J; Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate interfacial structural and fluctuation effects occurring at continuous filling transitions in 3D wedge geometries. We show that fluctuation-induced wedge covariance relations that have been reported recently for 2D filling and wetting have mean-field or classical analogues that apply to higher-dimensional systems. Classical wedge covariance emerges from analysis of filling in shallow wedges based on a simple interfacial Hamiltonian model and is supported by detailed numerical investigations of filling within a more microscopic Landau-like density functional theory. Evidence is presented that classical wedge covariance is also obeyed for filling in more acute wedges in the asymptotic critical regime. For sufficiently short-ranged forces mean-field predictions for the filling critical exponents and covariance are destroyed by pseudo-one-dimensional interfacial fluctuations. We argue that in this filling fluctuation regime the critical exponents describing the divergence of length scales are related to values of the interfacial wandering exponent ζ(d) defined for planar interfaces in (bulk) two-dimensional (d = 2) and three-dimensional (d = 3) systems. For the interfacial height l w ∼ θ-α) -β w , with θ the contact angle and α the wedge tilt angle, we find β w = ζ(2)/2(1-ζ(3)). For pure systems (thermal disorder) we recover the known result β w = 1/4 predicted by interfacial Hamiltonian studies whilst for random-bond disorder we predict the universal critical exponent β ∼ even in the presence of dispersion forces. We revisit the transfer matrix theory of three-dimensional filling based on an effective interfacial Hamiltonian model and discuss the interplay between breather, tilt and torsional interfacial fluctuations. We show that the coupling of the modes allows the problem to be mapped onto a quantum mechanical problem as conjectured by previous authors. The form of the interfacial height probability distribution function predicted by

  1. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Academichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  2. Modelling of the filling up of a porous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1985-01-01

    A generalization of Darcy's law is constructed using Mixture Theory to describe the transient flow of an incompressible fluid through a rigid solid porous matrix. The model is used to study the process of filling-up of an one dimensional unsaturated porous medium that is mathematically described by a system of nonlinear hyperbolic equations that is non-homogeneous due to the drag force between the fluid and the solid matrix. The system is analysed throughly and solved numerically using the Glimm-Chorin method with a splitting to treat the non-homogeneous term. The results are discussed and shown to describe well the filling-up process. (Author) [pt

  3. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  4. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  5. Spectral interpolation - Zero fill or convolution. [image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Zero fill, or augmentation by zeros, is a method used in conjunction with fast Fourier transforms to obtain spectral spacing at intervals closer than obtainable from the original input data set. In the present paper, an interpolation technique (interpolation by repetitive convolution) is proposed which yields values accurate enough for plotting purposes and which lie within the limits of calibration accuracies. The technique is shown to operate faster than zero fill, since fewer operations are required. The major advantages of interpolation by repetitive convolution are that efficient use of memory is possible (thus avoiding the difficulties encountered in decimation in time FFTs) and that is is easy to implement.

  6. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  7. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  8. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T E; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  9. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  10. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial filling of prescriptions. 1306.13 Section 1306.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... by revising paragraph (a), effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text...

  11. Fire Response of Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Simon; Virdi, Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    Advanced and simplified methods of analysis and design for the fire resistance of structural elements and assemblages of structures have been developed in recent years. Some simplified methods for the fire design of concrete filled tubes have appeared in Eurocode 4 part 1.2. Experience to date in...... hollow sections....

  12. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  13. A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e o as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e o = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields

  14. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  15. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  16. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from two different vertical form filling experiments with SCC that have been completed as part of the experimental work in an ongoing Ph.D project. The project is carried out at the Danish Technological Institute in collaboration with the Technical...

  17. Constructing Delaunay triangulations along space-filling curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Fiat, A.; Sanders, P.

    2009-01-01

    Incremental construction con BRIO using a space-filling curve order for insertion is a popular algorithm for constructing Delaunay triangulations. So far, it has only been analyzed for the case that a worst-case optimal point location data structure is used which is often avoided in implementations.

  18. Biopharmaceutical formulations for pre-filled delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Jan; Darton, Nicholas J; Derham, Barry K; Royle, Nikki; Simpson, Iain

    2013-06-01

    Pre-filled syringes are becoming an increasingly popular format for delivering biotherapeutics conveniently and cost effectively. The device design and stable liquid formulations required to enable this pre-filled syringe format are technically challenging. In choosing the materials and process conditions to fabricate the syringe unit, their compatibility with the biotherapeutic needs to be carefully assessed. The biothereaputic stability demanded for the production of syringe-compatible low-viscosity liquid solutions requires critical excipient choices to be made. The purpose of this review is to discuss key issues related to the stability aspects of biotherapeutics in pre-filled devices. This includes effects on both physical and chemical stability due to a number of stress conditions the product is subjected to, as well as interactions with the packaging system. Particular attention is paid to the control of stability by formulation. We anticipate that there will be a significant move towards polymer primary packaging for most drugs in the longer term. The timescales for this will depend on a number of factors and hence will be hard to predict. Formulation will play a critical role in developing successful products in the pre-filled syringe format, particularly with the trend towards concentrated biotherapeutics. Development of novel, smart formulation technologies will, therefore, be increasingly important.

  19. Methodology for teaching facial filling with hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Ruiz, R; Laruccia, M M; Gerenutti, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the importance of the methodization in teaching facial dermal filling on the training of physicians who intend to work or are already working in the area of facial aesthetics. The methodology is based on the procedures performed in Iz Clinic of Plastic Surgery from 2007 to 2010, where the results of the use of dermal filling products were observed. We chose the hyaluronic acid for the methodization of education. Even being a safe procedure, the dermal filling needs to be done by trained professionals because some complications may occur. The theoretical discussion of facial anatomy, physiology and classification of aging, rheological characteristics of products and application techniques underpin the practical part, in which the live demo or supervision of the procedure is performed. The idealization of classes, both theoretical and practical, proposed in this work proved to be of great value in teaching physicians. The success of this method can be seen from the results achieved by students and by observing the drop in reports of adverse effects. After learning the techniques of facial dermal filling with products based on hyaluronic acid, a doctor may perform this therapy with other fillers, with harmonious results.

  20. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed...

  1. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) using different sizes/surface areas in three different regions of deformation that will be developed in 3 chapters. The characterization of the samples used in this work is described in

  2. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  3. Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres reduces the scattering from air–glass interfaces during Bragg grating writing in many layered photonic crystal fibres. Within experimental uncertainty, the grating index modulation of a grating written in germanium-doped photonic crystal fibre with 10 rings...

  4. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  5. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium systems. ... Comparisons between groups were applied using Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA for normally distributed data. The Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used when ...

  6. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  7. Ultrasonically determined fill pressure and density in closed spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaki, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in which the D 2 fill pressure has been determined for several closed millimeter-size aluminum and beryllium shells. The vibrational resonance frequency spectrum of the shells was used to calculate the sound velocity of the interior gas. This velocity, along with the equation-of-state, determined the gas pressure and density. The accuracy in determining the fill conditions is within 0.5% in both pressure and density for near critical density (ρ approx-gt 9 mol/L) gas over a wide range of temperatures (190 K to 300 K). Reduced accuracy was apparent at low density. An attempt was made to determine the fill density of one shell by acoustic observation of the dew point temperature. While this temperature was recorded very accurately, the uncertainty in the saturated vapor density curve near the critical point yielded inaccurate results. These methods were shown to be unaffected by small deviations in the sphericity of the gas-filled cavity

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pollutants emissions from filling stations and their impact on the air quality. Gas monitors were employed to identify the different pollutants present in the ambient air of the study areas. The results showed that the most prominent pollutants present in the ambient air are the volatile organic compounds ...

  9. Calculation of piping loads due to filling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald; Thiele, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Filling procedures in piping systems are usually not load cases that are studied by fluid dynamic and structure dynamic analyses with respect to the integrity of pipes and supports. Although, their frequency is higher than that of postulated accidental transients, therefore they have to be considered for fatigue analyses. The piping and support loads due to filling procedures are caused by the density differences if the transported fluids, for instance in flows with the transport of gas bubbles. The impact duration of the momentum forces is defined by the flow velocity and the length of discontinuities in the piping segments. Filling procedures end very often with a shock pressure, caused by the impact and decelerating of the fluid front at smaller cross sections. The suitability of the thermally hydraulics program RELAP/MOD3.3 for the calculation of realistic loads from filling procedures was studied, the results compared with experimental data. It is shown that dependent on the discretization level the loads are partial significantly underestimated.

  10. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  11. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  12. The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    sawdust of particle size 1.18mm and iron fillings of size 300µm, 20g binder (urea formaldehyde) concentration, hot ... The water absorption and thickness swell test results showed that the .... of this type of magnetic material include: easier.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a vegetable oil-based dielectric (non... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20...

  14. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 12 months prevalence of LBP prior to the study, severity of LBP, history of LBP, causative factors and management of LBP and its effect on filling stations attendant's activities and activities of daily living. It was adapted from a previous study Titled Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Traffic Warden in Lagos state. The data ...

  15. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  16. Evaluation of ac conductivity behaviour of graphite filled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled ...

  17. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  18. On Love's approximation for fluid-filled elastic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, E.; Mainardi, F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple procedure is set up to introduce Love's approximation for wave propagation in thin-walled fluid-filled elastic tubes. The dispersion relation for linear waves and the radial profile for fluid pressure are determined in this approximation. It is shown that the Love approximation is valid in the low-frequency regime. (author)

  19. 27 CFR 5.53 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 5.53 Section 5.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Withdrawal...

  20. 27 CFR 4.46 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 4.46 Section 4.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From...

  1. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  2. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  3. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  4. Pool fire upon a balsa-filled shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    When performing a safety assessment of a transport flask with balsa-filled shock absorbers it is important to know how the shock absorbers, which may have the outer skin punctured by an impact, will perform in a fire. A 30 minute pool test, which satisfied all the requirements of a thermal test under the IAEA regulations, was carried out upon a small, balsa-filled shock absorber. The outer steel shell was partly cut away exposing the wood to the fire and the air. The balsa wood prevented 90% of the heat from the fire from being transferred through the shock absorber, even though the balsa was only 133 mm thick. The maximum heat flux through to the inside of the shock absorber due to the burning of the balsa wood was relatively low, 2.8 kW/m 2 , and occurred 2 to 3 hours after the end of the pool fire. (author)

  5. Background in xenon filled X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Dwyer, J.; Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.

    1995-01-01

    Xenon based gas mixtures have been often used in proportional counters for X-ray astronomy in order to achieve a good efficiency in the medium/high X-ray energy range. Proportional counters flown on past missions (i.e. HEAO1 and EXOSAT) filled with Xe-based mixtures have shown a higher residual background (after that all the rejection techniques have been applied) with respect to Ar-based ones, operating in the same energy band and in the same radiation environment. We show, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, analytical computations and laboratory measurements, that such difference can be mostly understood in terms of higher internal background production and lower pulse discrimination efficiency in Xe-based gas filling, with respect to Ar-based ones. (orig.)

  6. Study on characteristics of coupled cavity chain filled with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianqing; Xiao Shu; Mo Yuanlong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by using rigorous field analysis, a coupled-cavity (CC) chain filled with plasma has been analyzed. How the hybrid wave between the cavity mode and plasma mode is formed has been studied. The periodical CC chain filled with plasma demonstrates periodical TG modes with a cutoff frequency of zero. When the plasma density increase to a large scale, the cavity mode of the CC chain overlaps the TG mode, these two modes couple with each other and form the hybrid modes. In the case of hybrid modes, the 'cold' bandwidth and the 'warm' bandwidth expand, and the coupled impedance increases about 5 times larger than that of the vacuum. As a whole, the slow wave characteristics are improved substantially due to the formation of the hybrid mode

  7. Electroactive thermoset shape memory polymer nanocomposite filled with nanocarbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns an electroactive thermoset styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite filled with nanosized (30 nm) carbon powders. With an increase of the incorporated nanocarbon powders of the SMP composite, its glass transition temperature (T g ) decreases and storage modulus increases. Due to the high micro-porosity and homogeneous distributions of nanocarbon powders in the SMP matrix, the SMP composite shows good electrical conductivity with a percolation of about 3.8%. This percolation threshold is slightly lower than that of many other carbon-based conductive polymer composites. Consequently, due to the relatively high electrical conductivity, a sample filled with 10 vol% nanocarbon powders shows a good electroactive shape recovery performance heating by a voltage of 30 V above a transition temperature of 56–69 °C

  8. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  9. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  10. Heat flow in a He II filled fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the influence of diameter, length, Kapitza conductance and temperature on the heat carrying capacity of an externally cooled, circular He II filled channel with zero net mass flow and of negligible wall thermal resistance. Topics considered include the internal convection mechanism and the heat transfer model (boundary conditions, solution procedure). The large apparent thermal conductivity of He-II is explained by the two fluid model as an internal convection in which there is a counter flow of the normal and superfluids with no net mass flow. A separate bath is considered in which an He-IIp (pressurized superfluid helium) filled fin is immersed which extends from the heated reservoir. A single heat sink can serve multiple heat sources

  11. Filling the gap in the European administrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Ellen; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    European administrative networks (EANs) are a key building block of the European Administrative Space (EAS). Crucially, they are to fill the gap between the EU’s policy ambitions and its limited administrative capacities. Whereas ample research has been done on policy preparation networks, the role...... of implementing EANs has received less attention in the EAS literature. This article fills this gap by providing a systematic review of relevant insights in four adjacent literatures: EU governance; international relations; public administration; and EU compliance. Employing a systematic literature review......, it reports divergent findings on EAN establishment, functioning and impact, as well as variant normative evaluations. These variant findings partly relate to a lack of comparative research, selective policy coverage and predominant focus on North-western states. We conclude by suggesting a number of lines...

  12. Flexural Behavior of GFRP Tubes Filled with Magnetically Driven Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Ju; Dong, Xinlong; Feng, Bing

    2018-01-08

    Experimental investigation of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) tubes that were filled with magnetically driven concrete was carried out to study the flexural behavior of specimens under bending. Specimens having different cross section and lengths were tested. The test specimens were fabricated by filling magnetically driven concrete into the GFRP tubes and the concrete was vibrated using magnetic force. Specimens vibrated using vibrating tube were also tested for comparison. In addition, specimens having steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were both tested to study the effect of reinforcing bars on the magnetically driven concrete. The load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, failure mode, and ultimate strengths of test specimens were obtained. Design methods for the flexural stiffness of test specimens were also discussed in this study.

  13. Calculation of loading on pipes during filling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Swidersky, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Filling processes in pipe systems do normally not belong to load design cases for which the integrity of pipelines and their mountings are verified with fluid- and structure-dynamic analysis. However, their frequency of occurrence is several times higher than those of the postulated incident-induced transients. That is why they have to be taken into consideration within fatigue analysis. The loading on pipes or rather on their mountings during filling processes originates from differences in the density of the transported fluids, e.g. at transport of gas slugs within water flow. The exposure time of the flow momentum force is fixed by the height of the flow velocity and by the length of discontinuities in the pipeline sections. Filling procedures frequently end with a pressure surge which was caused by the impingement and decelaration of the water plug at orifices in pipe systems. The calculation of such processes with 1D fluid-dynamic or rather thermal-hydraulic programs requires an idealization of the real form of the two phase flow or respectively of the two phase interface. In the past, several two phase flow regime maps were developed and implemented in codes for this. In this paper, the applicability of the thermo-hydraulic program RELAP5/MOD3.3 which is established in nuclear engineering is examined in order to calculate realistic loads from plug flows during the filling processes. For this, post-test calculations of experiments have been performed and the results have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the classical analytical approach according to Joukowsky. The comparison shows that, dependent on the discretization, the calculated loads are indeed partly underestimated, though the calculation results according to the Joukowsky-approach lie above the measurements. (orig.)

  14. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskaya, T; Melentyev, S; Pavlov, S

    2015-01-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated. (paper)

  15. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  16. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  17. Innovations in endodontic filling materials: guttapercha vs Resilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Francisco José; Gallina, Giuseppe; Gallottini, Livio; Russo, Riccardo; Cumbo, Enzo Maria

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete, tridimensional, hermetic sealing of the root canal system to prevent the entry of microorganisms or their products through both the coronal and apical pathways. Gutta-percha is the most widely used material for root canal filling and despite its numerous properties, such as biocompatibility and thermoplasticity, it has however an important limit: the lack of adhesion to the canal walls. Attempts to address this problem have been made over the years by using endodontic cements capable of bonding to canal dentine but their tendency to resorption in time can compromise the quality of treatment. The first step towards a real adhesive endodontic filling(4) is rather recent; in fact, it goes back to 2003 when, on the occasion of the American Dental Association (ADA) Annual Session, Resilon Research LLC introduced a new canal filling adhesive system based on a thermoplastic synthetic resin material called Resilon™. The real innovation of this system is its capacity of creating a core made of Resilon™ bonded to the cement which adheres to dentine walls previously conditioned with a self-etching primer(4) so no changes in the techniques of canal preparation are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two filling materials (gutta-percha and Resilon) to adapt to the canal anatomy, especially on the apical third, using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Our data suggest that in the third apical the gutta-percha best shows rheological properties that are as important as the bond capability.

  18. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic (shock responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3. The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber directions.

  19. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kuehn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations. (orig.)

  20. Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Robert; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported b...

  1. Contrast material filling of the peroneal tendon sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadravecz, Gy.; Grexa, E.

    1981-01-01

    In case of complaints after fracture of the calcaneus the common sheath of the peroneus tendons was filled up with contrast material. The tendon sheath was punctured Oehind the external ankle. The three-directional radiograms clearly showed the dislocation and compression of the tendons, caused by the exostosis of the calcaneus. The concomitant tendovaginitis caused the complaints. This alteration was observed in 11% of all the calcaneus fractures. (L.E.)

  2. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kühn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus

    2009-03-01

    The application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.

  3. The position control of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, E.J.; Park, M.K.; Yamane, R.; Oshima, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, in order to establish the technique of a nozzle-flapper system of a servo valve using magnetic fluid in hydraulic system, a governing equation regarding the levitation of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid is formulated. Using PID control, an experiment for the position control of a capsule was performed. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results found by the governing equation

  4. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  5. FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; BAUGH, W; STEINMAN, D.A.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Deuterium (D 2 ) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of ∼ 0.15 (micro)m/hr coatings with ∼ 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 (micro)m/hr, was considerably worse (∼ 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C

  6. Cardiovascular responses to apneic facial immersion during altered cardiac filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journeay, W Shane; Reardon, Francis D; Kenny, Glen P

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis that reduced cardiac filling, as a result of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and postexercise hypotension (PEH), would attenuate the reflex changes to heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SkBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) normally induced by facial immersion was tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular control mechanisms associated with apneic facial immersion during different cardiovascular challenges. Six subjects randomly performed 30-s apneic facial immersions in 6.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C water under the following conditions: 1) -20 mmHg LBNP, 2) +40 mmHg lower body positive pressure (LBPP), 3) during a period of PEH, and 4) normal resting (control). Measurements included SkBF at one acral (distal phalanx of the thumb) and one nonacral region of skin (ventral forearm), HR, and MAP. Facial immersion reduced HR and SkBF at both sites and increased MAP under all conditions (P filling during LBNP and PEH significantly attenuated the absolute HR nadir observed during the control immersion (P facial immersion can be attenuated when cardiac filling is compromised.

  7. Preservative loss from silicone tubing during filling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Rothkopf, Christian; Serafin, Daniel; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Significant loss of preservative was observed during filling of drug products during filling line stops. This study evaluated the losses of three commonly used preservatives in protein drugs, i.e. benzyl alcohol, phenol, and m-cresol. Concentration losses during static incubation were quantified and interpreted with regard to the potential driving forces for the underlying sorption, diffusion, and desorption steps. Partitioning from the solution into the silicone polymer was identified as the most decisive parameter for the extent of preservative loss. Additionally, the influence of tubing inner diameter, starting concentration as well as silicone tubing type was evaluated. Theoretical calculations assuming equilibrium between solution and tubing inner surface and one-directional diffusion following Fick's first law were used to approximate experimental data. Since significant losses were found already after few minutes, adequate measures must be taken to avoid deviations during filling of preservative-containing protein solutions that may impact product quality or antimicrobial efficacy. As a possible alternative to the highly permeable silicone tubing, a specific make of fluoropolymer tubing was identified being suitable for peristaltic pumps and not showing any preservative losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used data gap filling techniques which are applied to estimate relative potencies for mixtures of chemicals that contribute to an adverse outcome through a common biological target. For example, The TEF approach has been used for dioxin-like effects comparing individual chemical activity to that of the most toxic dioxin: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The aim of this case study was to determine whether integration of two data gap filling techniques: QSARs and TEFs improved the predictive outcome for the assessment of a set of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and their mixtures. PCBs are associated with many different adverse effects, including their potential for neurotoxicity, which is the endpoint of interest in this study. The dataset comprised 209 PCB congeners, out of which 87 altered in vitro Ca(2+) homeostasis from which neurotoxic equivalency values (NEQs) were derived. The preliminary objective of this case study was to develop a QSAR model to predict NEQ values for the 122 untested PCB congeners. A decision tree model was developed using the number of position specific chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl scaffold as a fingerprint descriptor. Three different positiona

  9. Iterative and variational homogenization methods for filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Taha

    Elastomeric composites have increasingly proved invaluable in commercial technological applications due to their unique mechanical properties, especially their ability to undergo large reversible deformation in response to a variety of stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces, electric and magnetic fields, changes in temperature). Modern advances in organic materials science have revealed that elastomeric composites hold also tremendous potential to enable new high-end technologies, especially as the next generation of sensors and actuators featured by their low cost together with their biocompatibility, and processability into arbitrary shapes. This potential calls for an in-depth investigation of the macroscopic mechanical/physical behavior of elastomeric composites directly in terms of their microscopic behavior with the objective of creating the knowledge base needed to guide their bottom-up design. The purpose of this thesis is to generate a mathematical framework to describe, explain, and predict the macroscopic nonlinear elastic behavior of filled elastomers, arguably the most prominent class of elastomeric composites, directly in terms of the behavior of their constituents --- i.e., the elastomeric matrix and the filler particles --- and their microstructure --- i.e., the content, size, shape, and spatial distribution of the filler particles. This will be accomplished via a combination of novel iterative and variational homogenization techniques capable of accounting for interphasial phenomena and finite deformations. Exact and approximate analytical solutions for the fundamental nonlinear elastic response of dilute suspensions of rigid spherical particles (either firmly bonded or bonded through finite size interphases) in Gaussian rubber are first generated. These results are in turn utilized to construct approximate solutions for the nonlinear elastic response of non-Gaussian elastomers filled with a random distribution of rigid particles (again, either firmly

  10. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  11. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT. The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1, followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1, and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P=0.292 and Revo-S (P=0.306. The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P=0.363; all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone.

  12. Impurity in a Luttinger liquid away from half-filling: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaojin Qin; Lu Yu; Fabrizio, M.; Oshikawa, M.; Affleck, I.

    1997-07-01

    Conformal field theory gives quite detailed predictions for the low energy spectrum and scaling exponents of a massless Luttinger liquid at generic filling in the presence of an impurity. While these predictions were verified for half-filled systems, there was till now no analysis away from this particular filling. Here, we fill in this gap by numerically investigating a quarter-filled system using the density matrix renormalization group technique. Our results confirm conformal field theory predictions, and suggest that they are indeed valid for arbitrary fillings. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  14. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  15. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  16. ABOUT WAVEFORM OF BRAKING CYLINDER FILLING IN FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  17. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) filled boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Hanisah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physic, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    In this study, nanocomposite using cellulose nanofibrils filled with different percentage of boron nitride (CNF-BN) were prepared. The objective of this research is to study the effect of different percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite produced. The CNF-BN nanocomposite were characterization by FT-IR, SEM and thermal conductivity. The FT-IR analysis of the CNF-BN nanocomposite shows all the characteristic peaks of cellulose and BN present in all samples. The dispersion of BN in CNF were seen through SEM analysis. The effect of different loading percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite were also investigated.

  18. Ultrasound propagation in dense aerogels filled with liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K; Ohmori, K; Abe, S; Kanamori, K; Nakanishi, K

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal ultrasound propagation was studied in dense aerogels filled with liquid 4 He. Sound velocity and attenuation were measured at the frequency of 6 MHz in both normal and superfluid phases. Pressure dependence of velocity and attenuation were also studied. Studied aerogels had porosities about 85%. They had two different types of structure, tangled strand structure and aggregated particles structure. The pore size distributions were narrow. Reduction of superfluid transition temperature mainly depended on not porosity but mean pore size. The structure of gel played an important role in sound velocity and attenuation.

  19. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1984-04-01

    A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe

  20. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe

  1. Surveillance - filling the gap between audits and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulombe, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, two major verification activities are accomplished at nuclear plants: audits and inspections. Both have their roots firmly planted in regulation. They are required elements of a quality assurance (QA) program. Inspection, focused on hardware, verifies that equipment meets its specified requirements. Auditing, focused on documentation, verifies, through objective evidence, that the QA program is being effectively implemented. Quality surveillance, focused on performance, verifies effective use of the plant's procedures and quality program. The surveillance concept provides a method to assure that the gap between the inspection function and the audit function is filled in

  2. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  3. An oxide filled extended trench gate super junction MOSFET structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai-Lin, Wang; Jun, Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an oxide filled extended trench gate super junction (SJ) MOSFET structure to meet the need of higher frequency power switches application. Compared with the conventional trench gate SJ MOSFET, new structure has the smaller input and output capacitances, and the remarkable improvements in the breakdown voltage, on-resistance and switching speed. Furthermore, the SJ in the new structure can be realized by the existing trench etching and shallow angle implantation, which offers more freedom to SJ MOSFET device design and fabrication. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Instrument for detecting gas bubbles in sodium filled pipework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, D

    1973-08-01

    An instrument employing an electromagnetic sensor is described. Gas bubbles down to 0.5 mm diameter can be detected in sodium filled pipework of 1 in. nominal bore at temperatures up to 400 deg C. Installation of the sensing head involves no break in the integrity of the pipework. Facilities to enable bubble size discrimination, bubble counting and timing pulse generation are provided in the signal processing unit. Initial operating experience has been gained on a sodium loop used for gas entrainment studies. (auth)

  5. Effect of the filler on radiolysis of filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, S.A.; Erastov, A.Kh.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Gostikina, A.V.; Mal'kov, A.M.; Korovkin, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the type and concentration of filler (A-175 Aerosil, PM-75 technical carbon, BS-100 white black, kaolin, titanium oxide) on the radiation yield of elastomers of different chemical nature was studied. The extreme character of the dependence of the radiation yield of paramagnetic centers on the concentration of filler, common to the systems studied, was established; it was due to the features of the colloid chemical structure of the filled elastomers and particularly to processes of cross-linking of the filter

  6. Holes in the ocean: Filling voids in bathymetric lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John B.; Yao, Xiaobai; Jordan, Thomas R.; Madden, Marguertie

    2011-04-01

    The mapping of coral reefs may be efficiently accomplished by the use of airborne laser bathymetry. However, there are often data holes within the bathymetry data which must be filled in order to produce a complete representation of the coral habitat. This study presents a method to fill these data holes through data merging and interpolation. The method first merges ancillary digital sounding data with airborne laser bathymetry data in order to populate data points in all areas but particularly those of data holes. What follows is to generate an elevation surface by spatial interpolation based on the merged data points obtained in the first step. We conduct a case study of the Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida and produced an enhanced digital elevation model in the ocean with this method. Four interpolation techniques, including Kriging, natural neighbor, spline, and inverse distance weighted, are implemented and evaluated on their ability to accurately and realistically represent the shallow-water bathymetry of the study area. The natural neighbor technique is found to be the most effective. Finally, this enhanced digital elevation model is used in conjunction with Ikonos imagery to produce a complete, three-dimensional visualization of the study area.

  7. Complications of cataract surgery in eyes filled with silicone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanclerz, Piotr; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Schwartz, Stephen G; Lipowski, Paweł

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate complications of cataract surgery in eyes filled with silicone oil. This retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series analyzed medical files of patients with eyes filled with silicone oil undergoing cataract surgery. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation was conducted with or without concurrent silicone oil removal. In this study, 121 eyes of 120 patients were included. In 32 eyes (26.4%) with evident silicone oil microemulsification or silicone oil-associated open-angle glaucoma, silicone oil was removed prior to phacoemulsification through a pars plana incision and no cases of posterior capsular rupture occurred during the subsequent cataract surgery. In the remaining 89 eyes, phacoemulsification was performed with silicone oil in the vitreous cavity. In these eyes, the rate of posterior capsular rupture was 9/89 (10.1%) and the rate of silicone oil migration into the anterior chamber through an apparently intact posterior capsule was 5/89 (5.6%). In 94 eyes (77.7%), an intraocular lens was inserted into the capsular bag, in 3 eyes (2.5%) into the sulcus, and in 1 eye (0.8%) a transscleral suturing was performed. In this series, complications related to the silicone oil were not uncommon during cataract surgery. In the majority of patients without evident silicone oil microemulsification or silicone oil-associated open-angle glaucoma, cataract surgery and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were performed while leaving the silicone oil in place.

  8. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F; Anania, M P; Brentegani, E; Biagioni, A; Chiadroni, E; Ferrario, M; Pompili, R; Romeo, S; Cianchi, A; Zigler, A

    2017-01-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented. (paper)

  9. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Brentegani, E.; Biagioni, A.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented.

  10. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltchaninov, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Kurkan, I K; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm 2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions

  11. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  12. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  13. Effective slip over partially filled microcavities and its possible failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhouyang; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Brandt, Luca; Kreiss, Gunilla

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the emerging applications of liquid-infused surfaces (LIS), we study the drag reduction and robustness of transverse flows over two-dimensional microcavities partially filled with an oily lubricant. Using separate simulations at different scales, characteristic contact line velocities at the fluid-solid intersection are first extracted from nanoscale phase field simulations and then applied to micronscale two-phase flows, thus introducing a multiscale numerical framework to model the interface displacement and deformation within the cavities. As we explore the various effects of the lubricant-to-outer-fluid viscosity ratio μ˜2/μ˜1 , the capillary number Ca, the static contact angle θs, and the filling fraction of the cavity δ , we find that the effective slip is most sensitive to the parameter δ . The effects of μ˜2/μ˜1 and θs are generally intertwined but weakened if δ 1 ), however, are immune to such failure due to their generally larger contact line velocity.

  14. Buoyancy of gas-filled bladders at great depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2018-02-01

    At high hydrostatic pressures exceeding 20 MPa or 200 bar, equivalent to depths exceeding ca.2000 m, the behaviour of gases deviates significantly from the predictions of standard equations such as Boyle's Law, the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation. The predictions of these equations are compared with experimental data for nitrogen, oxygen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C, at pressures up to 1100 bar (110 MPa) equivalent to full ocean depth of ca. 11000 m. Owing to reduced compressibility of gases at high pressures, gas-filled bladders at full ocean depth have a density of 847 kg m-3 for Oxygen, 622 kg m-3 for Nitrogen and 660 kg m-3 for air providing potentially useful buoyancy comparable with that available from man-made materials. This helps explain why some of the deepest-living fishes at ca. 7000 m depth (700 bar or 70 MPa) have gas-filled swim bladders. A table is provided of the density and buoyancy of oxygen, nitrogen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C from 100 to 1100 bar.

  15. Electrically modulated capillary filling imbibition of nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-04-01

    The flow of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the presence of an electric field is typically characterized by the variation in its rheological properties due to transition in its molecular arrangements. Here, we bring out a nontrivial interplay of a consequent alteration in the resistive viscous effects and driving electrocapillary interactions, toward maneuvering the capillary filling dynamics over miniaturized scales. Considering a dynamic interplay of the relevant bulk and interfacial forces acting in tandem, our results converge nicely to previously reported experimental data. Finally, we attempt a scaling analysis to bring forth further insight to the reported observations. Our analysis paves the way for the development of microfluidic strategies with previously unexplored paradigms of interaction between electrical and fluidic phenomenon, providing with an augmented controllability on capillary filling as compared to tthose reported to be achievable by the existing strategies. This, in turn, holds utilitarian scopes in improved designs of functional capillarities in electro-optical systems, electrorheological utilities, electrokinetic flow control, as well as in interfacing and imaging systems for biomedical microdevices.

  16. Gap Filling of Daily Sea Levels by Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Pashova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, intelligent methods as artificial neural networks are successfully applied for data analysis from different fields of the geosciences. One of the encountered practical problems is the availability of gaps in the time series that prevent their comprehensive usage for the scientific and practical purposes. The article briefly describes two types of the artificial neural network (ANN architectures - Feed-Forward Backpropagation (FFBP and recurrent Echo state network (ESN. In some cases, the ANN can be used as an alternative on the traditional methods, to fill in missing values in the time series. We have been conducted several experiments to fill the missing values of daily sea levels spanning a 5-years period using both ANN architectures. A multiple linear regression for the same purpose has been also applied. The sea level data are derived from the records of the tide gauge Burgas, which is located on the western Black Sea coast. The achieved results have shown that the performance of ANN models is better than that of the classical one and they are very promising for the real-time interpolation of missing data in the time series.

  17. Multiscale Modeling of Dewetting Damage in Highly Filled Particulate Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geubelle, P. H.; Inglis, H. M.; Kramer, J. D.; Patel, J. J.; Kumar, N. C.; Tan, H.

    2008-02-01

    Particle debonding or dewetting constitutes one of the key damage processes in highly filled particulate composites such as solid propellant and other energetic materials. To analyze this failure process, we have developed a multiscale finite element framework that combines, at the microscale, a nonlinear description of the binder response with a cohesive model of the damage process taking place in a representative periodic unit cell (PUC). To relate micro-scale damage to the macroscopic constitutive response of the material, we employ the mathematical theory of homogenization (MTH). After a description of the numerical scheme, we present the results of the damage response of a highly filled particulate composite subjected to a uniaxial macroscopic strain, and show the direct correlation between the complex damage processes taking place in the PUC and the nonlinear macroscopic constitutive response. We also present a detailed study of the PUC size and a comparison between the finite element MTH-based study and a micromechanics model of the dewetting process.

  18. Chaos and Beyond in a Water Filled Ultrasonic Resonance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazlo, Adler; Yost, W.; Cantrell, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Finite amplitude ultrasonic wave resonances in a one-dimensional liquid-filled cavity, formed by a narrow band transducer and a plane reflector, are reported. The resonances are observed to include not only the expected harmonic and subharmonic signals (1,2) but chaotic signals as well. The generation mechanism requires attaining a threshold value of the driving amplitude that the liquid-filled cavity system becomes sufficiently nonlinear in response. The nonlinear features of the system were recently investigated via the construction of an ultrasonic interferometer having optical precision. The transducers were compressional, undamped quartz and lithium niobate crystals having the frequency range 1-10 MHz, driven by a high power amplifier. Both an optical diffraction system to characterize the diffraction pattern of laser light normally incident to the cavity and a receiving transducer attached to an aligned reflector with lapped flat and parallel surfaces were used to assess the generated resonance response in the cavity. At least 5 regions of excitation are identified.

  19. Cherenkov radiation in a plasma-filled, dielectric coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianqiang

    2004-01-01

    Using the self-consistent linear field theory, Cherenkov radiation excitated by the beam-wave interaction of a thin annular relativistic electron beam in a plasma-filled, dielectric coaxial cylindrical waveguide was analyzed. The dispersion equation of the interaction, the synchronized condition and the wave growth rate were derived. The energy exchange between the wave and the electron beam in the presence of background plasma was discussed, and the effects of plasma density on the dispersion characteristics, the wave growth rate and the beam-wave energy exchange were calculated and discussed. It was clear that the Cherenkov radiation results from the coupling between the slow TM mode propagated along the waveguide and the negative-energy space-charge mode propagated along the beam, and the coupling strength is proportional to the beam density. It was theoretically demonstrated that due to the background plasma, the plasma-filled coaxial cylindrical Cherenkov maser could operate at higher frequency, get higher wave growth rate, or have higher beam current at the same operating frequency, leading to higher microwave output power. (authors)

  20. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  1. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rounsley Steve

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Results Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. Conclusions The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  2. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Adriana; Zheng, Chunfang; Zhu, Qian; Albert, Victor A; Rounsley, Steve; Sankoff, David

    2010-06-04

    There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  3. Wave propagation in plasma-filled wave-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, Philippe

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of wave propagation along a plasma column without external magnetic field. The author first present and comment various theoretical results, and dispersion curves plotted for the main modes (particularly, the bipolar mode). He tries to define fundamental magnitudes which characterise a plasma-filled wave-guide. He reports the comparison of some experimental results with the previous theoretical results. Based on the study of the bipolar mode, the author develops a method of measurement of plasma column density. In the last part, the author reports the study of the resonance of a plasma-containing cavity. Several resonances are highlighted and new dispersion curves are plotted by using a varying length cavity. He also addresses the coupling of plasma modes with guide modes, and thus indicates the shape of Brillouin diagrams for a plasma-filled wave-guide. Moreover, some phenomena highlighted during plasma column density measurements by using the cavity method could then be explained [fr

  4. Increased dependence on slow filling for left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease and a depressed systolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Ozaki, Masaharu; Furutani, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Kouzo; Saeki, Atsushi; Satoh, Shinichi; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of rapid filling, slow filling and atrial systole to the left ventricular(LV) filling volume were analyzed with the use of radionuclide ventriculography at rest, both globally and regionally, in 34 patients with isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patients included 17 with a normal ejection fraction (EF≥50%; group 1) and 17 with a depressed EF (<50%; group 2), and the data were compared with those obtained from 13 normal subjects. A computer program subdivided the LV image into 4 regions, and time-activity curves were constructed globally and regionally by reverse-gating from the R wave. In both groups the contribution of rapid filling to the LV filling volume was decreased significantly in the affected septal and apical regions, and in the global left ventricle compared with that in normal subjects. In group 1, the contribution of atrial systole showed an increase in these affected regions and in the global left ventricle. In contrast, in group 2, the atrial contribution was not increased globally or regionally as much as was expected. However, the contribution of slow filling was either increased significantly or tended to increase in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle. There were negative correlations between the contribution of rapid filling and that of slow filling in the global left ventricle (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and in each of the septal, apical and lateral regions (r≥-0.60, p<0.001), which suggested that the contribution of slow filling as well as of atrial systole undergoes an increase as rapid filling is impaired. Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, the left ventricle relies on slow filling as well as atrial systole to affect diastolic LV filling in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle in the presence of LV systolic dysfunction. (author)

  5. Zeolite-filled silicone rubber membranes. Experimental determination of concentration profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, H.J.C.; Boswerger, W.B.F.; Bargeman, D.; Bargeman, D.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Permeant concentrations in silicalite-filled silicone rubber membranes during pervaporation of propanol/water mixtures were measured using multi-layered membranes. Experimentally determined concentration profiles show that the propanol concentration in the silicalite-filled membrane increases with

  6. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  7. Improving methane gas sensing properties of multi-walled carbonnanotubes by vanadium oxide filling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chimowa, George

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of electrical properties and hence gas sensing properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by filling the inner wall with vanadium oxide is presented. Using a simple capillary technique, MWNTs are filled with vanadium metal...

  8. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, N; Bucuta, S; Draenert, M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the mechanical performance of seven bulk-fill RBCs (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SureFil SDR flow, Dentsply Caulk; x-tra base and x-tra fil, VOCO; Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE; SonicFill, Kerr; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) by determining their flexural strength (σ), reliability (Weibull parameter, m), flexural modulus (Eflexural), indentation modulus (YHU), Vickers hardness (HV), and creep (Cr). The significant highest flexural strengths were measured for SonicFill, x-tra base, and x-tra fil, while x-tra base, SureFil SDR flow, and Venus Bulk Fill showed the best reliability. The differences among the materials became more evident in terms of Eflexural and YHU, with x-tra fil achieving the highest values, while Filtek Bulk Fill and Venus Bulk Fill achieved the lowest. The enlarged depth of cure in bulk-fill RBCs seems to have been realized by enhancing the materials' translucency through decreasing the filler amount and increasing the filler size. The manufacturer's recommendation to finish a bulk-fill RBC restoration by adding a capping layer made of regular RBCs is an imperative necessity, since the modulus of elasticity and hardness of certain materials (SureFil SDR flow, Venus Bulk Fill, and Filtek Bulk Fill) were considerably below the mean values measured in regular nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs. The class of bulk-fill RBCs revealed similar flexural strength values as the class of nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs, and significantly higher values when compared to flowable RBCs. The modulus of elasticity (Eflexural), the indentation modulus (YHU), and the Vickers hardness (HV) classify the bulk-fill RBCs as between the hybrid RBCs and the flowable RBCs; in terms of creep, bulk-fill and the flowable RBCs perform similarly, both showing a significantly lower creep resistance when compared to the nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs.

  9. Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

  10. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  11. Macrobending loss properties of photonic crystal fibres with different air filling fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical analysis of macrobending losses of photonic crystal fibres with various air filling fractions. A scalar, effective-index method provides a good description of the losses for fibres with limited air filling fractions, whereas the method overestimates...... the losses for fibres with larger air filling fractions....

  12. Bulk-fill resin composites: polymerization contraction, depth of cure, and gap formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, A R; Havndrup-Pedersen, C; Honoré, D; Pedersen, M K; Pallesen, U

    2015-01-01

    The bulk-filling of deep, wide dental cavities is faster and easier than traditional incremental restoration. However, the extent of cure at the bottom of the restoration should be carefully examined in combination with the polymerization contraction and gap formation that occur during the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk-fill materials produced a significantly larger depth of cure and polymerization contraction. Although most of the bulk-fill materials exhibited a gap formation similar to that of the conventional resin composite, two of the low-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites, x-tra base and Venus Bulk Fill, produced larger gaps.

  13. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size. (b) There must be...

  14. Experimental investigation of bubble formation during capillary filling of SiO2 nanoslits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Bruus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    in the filling speed. In nanoslits with heights below 100 nm, pinned bubbles are continuously formed at the advancing liquid meniscus. This observed increase in bubble density, which increases the fluidic resistance, quantitatively coincides with an observed reduction of the filling speed during filling...

  15. Food Simulating Organic Solvents for Evaluating Crosslink Density of Bulk Fill Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. Ayad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate crosslink densities of two bulk fill composite resins and determine if the used Food Simulating Organic Solvent (FSOS affected them. Methods. Forty specimens were prepared from SureFill and SonicFill bulk fill composite resins, 20 each. All specimens were stored dry for 24 h. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: stored in ethanol (E 75% or in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK 100% for 24 h. Crosslink density was evaluated by calculating the difference between the Vickers hardness numbers of the specimens stored dry and after their storage in FSOS. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results. The means of crosslink density in E and MEK were 6.99% and 9.44% for SureFill and 10.54% and 11.92% for SonicFill, respectively. t-test displayed significant differences between crosslink densities of SureFill and SonicFill: (P<0.0001 in E and (P=0.02 in MEK and between crosslink densities of SureFill in E and MEK (P=0.02. Conclusions. Crosslink density of bulk fill composite resin can be evaluated using E or MEK. SureFill has higher crosslink density than SonicFill in both E and MEK.

  16. Urethane foam void filling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Under the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP's OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF's cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create depressions in the OSDF's cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP's OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP's D and D contractor on Plant 1, B and W Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, it is time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. Use of the oxy-acetylene torch exposes workers to health and safety hazards including the risk of burns, carbon monoxide, and airborne contamination of residual lead-based paints and other contaminants on the surface of the components being segmented. In addition, solvents used to remove paint from the components before segmenting them emit flammable, noxious fumes. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of placing large vessels intact in the OSDF without segmenting them. To prevent the walls of the vessels from collapsing under the overburden or from degradation, an innovative approach was employed which involved filling the voids in the vessels with a fluid material that hardened on standing. The hardened filling would support the walls of the vessels, and prevent them from collapsing. This report

  17. High pressure gas-filled cermet spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, Eh.A.; Yur'ev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of modernization of the R-48 and R-49 spark gaps making it possible to improve their electrical characteristics are presented. The design is described and characteristics of gas-filled cermet spark gaps are presented. By the voltage rise time of 5-6 μs in the Marx generator scheme they provide for the pulse break-through voltage of 120 and 150 kV. By the voltage rise time of 0.5-1 μs the break-through voltage of these spark gaps may be increased up to 130 and 220 kV. The proper commutation time is equal to ≤ 0.5 ns. Practical recommendations relative to designing cermet spark gaps are given [ru

  18. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  19. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... the effects of process parameters on cavity air evacuation, and the influence of air evacuation on the part flow length. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  20. Phasor analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different fill factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, Antonio; Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar; Moreno, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving power can be easily obtained without applying the usual Fourier transform operations required for these calculations. The proposed phasor technique is mathematically equivalent to the Fourier transform calculation of the diffraction order amplitude, and it can be useful to explain binary diffraction gratings in a simple manner in introductory physics courses. This theoretical analysis is illustrated with experimental results using a liquid crystal device to display diffraction gratings with different fill factors

  1. Phasor analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different fill factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Antonio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar [Instituto de BioingenierIa y Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2007-09-11

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving power can be easily obtained without applying the usual Fourier transform operations required for these calculations. The proposed phasor technique is mathematically equivalent to the Fourier transform calculation of the diffraction order amplitude, and it can be useful to explain binary diffraction gratings in a simple manner in introductory physics courses. This theoretical analysis is illustrated with experimental results using a liquid crystal device to display diffraction gratings with different fill factors.

  2. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  3. Gap filling of 3-D microvascular networks by tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, L; Plouraboue, F; Descombes, X

    2008-05-01

    We present a new algorithm which merges discontinuities in 3-D images of tubular structures presenting undesirable gaps. The application of the proposed method is mainly associated to large 3-D images of microvascular networks. In order to recover the real network topology, we need to fill the gaps between the closest discontinuous vessels. The algorithm presented in this paper aims at achieving this goal. This algorithm is based on the skeletonization of the segmented network followed by a tensor voting method. It permits to merge the most common kinds of discontinuities found in microvascular networks. It is robust, easy to use, and relatively fast. The microvascular network images were obtained using synchrotron tomography imaging at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. These images exhibit samples of intracortical networks. Representative results are illustrated.

  4. New model of universal gas-filled neutron tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bessarabskii, I.G.; Voitsik, L.R.; Mints, A.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The UNG-1 gas-filled neutron tube is serially produced. In type UNG neutron generators, the tube operates in the pulsed mode in the high voltage doubling circuit arrangement. During extended operation, its advantages were discovered: long operating time, fairly stable neutron yield, and simplicity of use and operation. However, the mean neutron yield (approx.10 7 s -1 ) generated by the tube in the optimal mode at the present time proved to be inadequate in solving numerous geophysical problems. So a model of a neutron tube, model UNG-2, was designed, ensuring an enhanced neutron yield of 10 8 s -1 in the continuous-operating mode. When the tube is connected to the high voltage doubling circuit, the mean neutron yield is only somewhat in excess of the neutron yield from the UNG-1 tube

  5. Investigation of the formation of Fe-filled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuther, H [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Mueller, C; Leonhardt, A; Kutz, M C, E-mail: reuther@fzd.d [Leibniz-Institute of Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    The formation of Fe-filled carbon nanotubes by thermal decomposition of ferrocene combined with a Fe-catalyst-nanostructuring on an oxidized Si substrate is investigated in the temperature range of 1015 - 1200 K. The optimal growth conditions for aligned and homogeneous carbon nanotubes are found at 1103 K. Moessbauer spectroscopy (both in transmission geometry and CEMS) was used to analyze and quantify the different formed Fe-phases. In general, {alpha}-Fe, {gamma}-Fe and Fe{sub 3}C are found to form within the carbon nanotubes. Depending on the growth conditions their fractions vary strongly. Moreover, an alignment of the {alpha}-Fe in the tubes could be detected.

  6. Fast ultrasonic imaging in a liquid filled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method is described for the imaging of the interior of a liquid filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The experimental system incorporates an array of 20 acoustical transducers and is capable of capturing the images of moving bubbles at a frame rate in excess of 300/s. The transducers are mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echoes reflected from vapor bubbles in the interior are detected, digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The high rate of speed was achieved by the use of newly developed software and electronic circuitry. This approach has eliminated most of the spurious echo signals which degraded the performance of previous imaging systems. The capability of the method is illustrated by imaging actual vapor bubbles in rapid sequence in the pipe. The described imaging system is used to examine reactor cooling systems

  7. Fast ultrasonic imaging in a liquid filled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-10-01

    A new method is described for the imaging of the interior of a liquid filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The experimental system incorporates an array of 20 acoustical transducers and is capable of capturing the images of moving bubbles at a frame rate in excess of 300/s. The transducers are mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echoes reflected from vapor bubbles in the interior are detected, digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The high rate of speed was achieved by the use of newly developed software and electronic circuitry. This approach has eliminated most of the spurious echo signals which degraded the performance of previous imaging systems. The capability of the method is illustrated by imaging actual vapor bubbles in rapid sequence in the pipe. 13 refs

  8. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  9. Filling the Gap between IT Governance and IT Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jette

    2007-01-01

    there is a gap between IT governance and IT project management. Theory on IT governance assumes that strategies are implemented through projects - but do not go into detail on how to do it. Theories on project management do not include interaction with governance processes. A gap between IT governance...... and IT project management can result in IT that does not support business strategy and in lack of flexibility and agility. Competitive, changing business environments combined with the uncertainty and unpredictability of IT implementation projects call for IT governance organisation and processes to sense......The goal of this paper is to explore coordination mechanisms as part of a solution to fill the gap between IT Governance and IT project management. The Gap between IT governance and IT project management has not been fully explored in IT management research. Both in theory and in practice...

  10. Rock mechanics applied to cut and fill mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, D. R.

    1980-05-15

    Cut and fill mining and recent changes made possible by the application of rock mechanics principles are briefly introduced. The principal interests of professional groups associated with the industry, and incentives that exist to encourage research of benefit to the industry in general, are identified. Details are given of recent advances in rock mechanics instrumentation and technique by drawing to a large extent on experience gained in projects that have been conducted jointly with the mining companies. Examples of the application of the results of this research are given on a mine site basis. Reference is made where possible to papers that describe the examples in more detail. The review is concluded with identification of topics that require further research.

  11. Simulating Smoke Filling in Big Halls by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tall halls of big space volume were built and, to be built in many construction projects in the Far East, particularly Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Smoke is identified to be the key hazard to handle. Consequently, smoke exhaust systems are specified in the fire code in those areas. An update on applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in smoke exhaust design will be presented in this paper. Key points to note in CFD simulations on smoke filling due to a fire in a big hall will be discussed. Mathematical aspects concerning of discretization of partial differential equations and algorithms for solving the velocity-pressure linked equations are briefly outlined. Results predicted by CFD with different free boundary conditions are compared with those on room fire tests. Standards on grid size, relaxation factors, convergence criteria, and false diffusion should be set up for numerical experiments with CFD.

  12. Nanocapsules with fluorous filling: A "molecular zipper" approach

    KAUST Repository

    Merican, Zulkifli

    2014-11-26

    Considerable effort has been devoted to thesynthesis of liquid filled microcapsules and nanocapsules owing to their general usefulness. The DCM solution was combined with an equal volume of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and the biphasic mixture was subjected to high-power ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, it is likely that the interlocking of the polymer chains in the hydrophobic layer of the capsule shells leads to objects that are strong and stable. It is worth noting that the cryo-TEM images were obtained for a sample that was more than 30 days old. The self-assembly of capsule shells and their stability depend on the nature and size of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer blocks.

  13. Nanocapsules with fluorous filling: A "molecular zipper" approach

    KAUST Repository

    Merican, Zulkifli; Mugemana, Clement; Almahdali, Sarah; Vu, Khanh B.; O'Shea, John Paul; Sougrat, Rachid; Rodionov, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to thesynthesis of liquid filled microcapsules and nanocapsules owing to their general usefulness. The DCM solution was combined with an equal volume of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and the biphasic mixture was subjected to high-power ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, it is likely that the interlocking of the polymer chains in the hydrophobic layer of the capsule shells leads to objects that are strong and stable. It is worth noting that the cryo-TEM images were obtained for a sample that was more than 30 days old. The self-assembly of capsule shells and their stability depend on the nature and size of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer blocks.

  14. Transparent Metal-Salt-Filled Polymeric Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David; Lennhoff, John; Harris, George

    2003-01-01

    "COR-RA" (colorless atomic oxygen resistant -- radiation shield) is the name of a transparent polymeric material filled with x-ray-absorbing salts of lead, bismuth, cesium, and thorium. COR-RA is suitable for use in shielding personnel against bremsstrahlung radiation from electron-beam welding and industrial and medical x-ray equipment. In comparison with lead-foil and leaded-glass shields that give equivalent protection against x-rays (see table), COR-RA shields are mechanically more durable. COR-RA absorbs not only x-rays but also neutrons and rays without adverse effects on optical or mechanical performance. The formulation of COR-RA with the most favorable mechanical-durability and optical properties contains 22 weight percent of bismuth to absorb x-rays, plus 45 atomic percent hydrogen for shielding against neutrons.

  15. Strength of biodegradable polypropylene tapes filled with a modified starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinidiktova, N. S.; Ermolovich, O. A.; Goldade, V. A.; Pinchuk, L. S.

    2006-05-01

    The possibility of creating composite materials with high deformation and strength characteristics based on polypropylene (PP) and a natural polysaccharide in the form of a modified starch (MS) has been studied. The modified starch is shown to interact chemically with functional groups of PP, thereby positively affecting the physicomechanical properties, structure, and water absorption properties of films and oriented flat fibers based on starch-filled PP. The strength characteristics of both oriented and unoriented composites are 1.5-2.0 times as high as those of the initial PP. The water absorption ability of the materials varies symbatically with content of MS, which points to the dominant contribution of interactions at the PP-MS interface. The introduction of MS into synthetic polymers offers a possibility of producing new ecologically safe materials with high strength characteristics.

  16. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  17. Filling-enforced nonsymmorphic Kondo semimetals in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Lee, SungBin; Brandom, B.; Parameswaran, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    We study the competition between Kondo screening and frustrated magnetism on the nonsymmorphic Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice at a filling of two conduction electrons per unit cell. This model is known to host a set of gapless partially Kondo screened phases intermediate between the Kondo-destroyed paramagnet and the heavy Fermi liquid. Based on crystal symmetries, we argue that (i) both the paramagnet and the heavy Fermi liquid are semimetals protected by a glide symmetry; and (ii) partial Kondo screening breaks the symmetry, removing this protection and allowing the partially Kondo screened phase to be deformed into a Kondo insulator via a Lifshitz transition. We confirm these results using large-N mean-field theory and then use nonperturbative arguments to derive a generalized Luttinger sum rule constraining the phase structure of two-dimensional nonsymmorphic Kondo lattices beyond the mean-field limit.

  18. Virtual analysis of influence of a filter on mould filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhian Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic filters are used to avoid slag and impurities in foundry applications. When not properly applied, the presence of these filters may have a significant influence on mould filling. 3-D casting simulation has been applied to study the effects of the use of a ceramic filter on the metal flow in a gating system. Instead of using a pressure drop model to represent the behaviour of a fluid metal flow passing through a filter, a real exact filter geometry, which is created by a high resolution CT-scan and a non-destructive imaging technique, in the gating system is applied in the simulation. In this research, nodular cast iron is poured into a block casting. A depressurized gating system is used. After a choke, a filter with different orientations is placed in the system. Mould filling coupled with temperature is simulated. Geometries using different orientations of the filter, and without the filter have been researched. The simulated results show that the filter has no influence on the pouring time of the casting if the choke section is small enough compared to the effective section of the filter. Although the filter has no significant influence on the flow patterns in the block casting itself, the flow patterns in the filter zone are different. When the liquid metal passes a horizontal filter, it will be broken into many small streams and show a shower effect. After the part under the filter is full, the shower effect disappears. When the filter is located at the vertical position, due to the gravity, the shower effect is less. If no filter presents on the system, the liquid metal passes through the filter zone with a high speed and causes surface turbulence.

  19. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of different filling pastes for deciduous tooth treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Feltrin ANTONIAZZI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guedes-Pinto paste is the filling material most employed in Brazil for endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth; however, the Rifocort® ointment has been removed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of filling pastes, by proposing three new pharmacological associations to replace Rifocort® ointment with drugs of already established antimicrobial power: Nebacetin® ointment, 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate gel, and Maxitrol® ointment. A paste composed of Iodoform, Rifocort® ointment and Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol (CPC was employed as the gold standard (G1. The other associations were: Iodoform, Nebacetin® ointment and CPC (G2; Iodoform, 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate gel and CPC (G3; Iodoform, Maxitrol® ointment and CPC (G4. The associations were tested for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans, Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis, Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis, Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, using the methods of dilution on solid medium – orifice agar – and broth dilution. The results were tested using statistical analysis ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. They showed that all the pastes had a bacteriostatic effect on all the microorganisms, without any statistically significant difference, compared with G1. S. aureus was statistically significant (multiple comparison test of Tukey, insofar as G2 and G3 presented the worst and the best performance, respectively. All associations were bactericidal for E. coli, S. aureus, S. mutans and S. oralis. Only G3 and G4 were bactericidal for E. faecalis, whereas no product was bactericidal for B. subtilis. Thus, the tested pastes have antimicrobial potential and have proved acceptable for endodontic treatment of primary teeth.

  1. Left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru; Kanao, Keisuke

    1985-01-01

    To study the prevalence and significance of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in mild to moderate systemic hypertension (HT), cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99 m were obtained in 10 normal subjects and 27 patients with HT. The patients with HT did not show any evidence of coronary heart disease, renal insufficiency, cerebrovascular accident or diabetes mellitus. They were divided into 3 groups; (1) HT-1 (n=10): without evidence of echocardiographic (UCG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), (2) HT-2 (n=8): with evidence of ECG-LVH without UCG-LVH, (3) HT-3 (n=9): with evidence of UCG-LVH. UCG-LVH was defined when posterior or interventricular septal tall thickness exceeded 13 mm at end-diastole. From UCG findings LV mass was calculated and from UCG findings and auscultating brachial systolic pressure LV peak-systolic wall stress (WS) was obtained. Cardiac blood pool imagings were performed at modified LAO at rest and during exercise stress. Indices of LV systolic function (rest ejection fraction, mean ejection rate during the first third of ejection and exercise ejection fraction response) were essentially similar in normal subjects and all HT groups. In contrast, LV diastolic filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3 FR mean) decreased significantly in any group of HT, and it was prominent in HT-3. In patients with HT, 1/3 FR mean did not correlate with blood pressure, LV peak-systolic WS, LV systolic functions and LV end-diastolic volume. But it correlated inversely with LV mass (r=-0.84). These results suggest that impairment of early diastolic LV filling can be detected before systolic cardiac impairment and LVH develop, and it is, at least in part, relate to the LV mass. (author)

  2. Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielian Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges. Keywords: Concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridge, Steel-reinforced concrete arch bridge, Cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, Vacuum-assisted pouring in-tube concrete, Adjusting load by stay cables

  3. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.

    2017-11-01

    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  4. The Cryogenic Studying and Filling Facilities for the Laser Megajoule Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, F.; Vincent-Viry, O.; Collier, R.; Fleury, E.; Jeannot, L.; Legaie, O.; Pascal, G. [CEA Valduc, DAM, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perin, J. P.; Viargues, F. [CEA Grenoble, DSM INAC SBT, 38 (France)

    2009-04-15

    As part of the French Inertial Confinement Fusion program, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has developed cryogenic target assemblies (CTAs) for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) and a program in two stages for the permeation filling of these CTAs: (a) the permeation filling studies with the Study Filling Station cryostats and (b) the design and manufacturing of the whole operational chain of CTA filling facilities. This paper deals with the description of both the cryogenic studying and the filling facilities for the LMJ targets. (authors)

  5. Use of differentials and fill-ups at Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Utilizacao de diferenciais e fill-ups na bacia do Reconcavo Baiano, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Antonio Diniz; Ribeiro, Eluzai Evangelista [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bahia. Div. de Tecnicas e Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    To publish results of the insertable valves and differential-type casing accessories with an insert fill-up wells drilled at the Bahia Drilling. This has provided an increase in casing running speed, resulting in a cost reduction of the operations due to non-interruption of running operation for fill-up with drilling fluid. (author)

  6. A New Filled Function Method with One Parameter for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filled function method is an effective approach to find the global minimizer of multidimensional multimodal functions. The conventional filled functions are numerically unstable due to exponential or logarithmic term and sensitive to parameters. In this paper, a new filled function with only one parameter is proposed, which is continuously differentiable and proved to satisfy all conditions of the filled function definition. Moreover, this filled function is not sensitive to parameter, and the overflow can not happen for this function. Based on these, a new filled function method is proposed, and it is numerically stable to the initial point and the parameter variable. The computer simulations indicate that the proposed filled function method is efficient and effective.

  7. Effect of via depth on the TSV filling process for different current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Zhipeng; Nie, Nantian; Wang, Fuliang; Zhu, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Through-silicon-via (TSV) filling with optimum electrodeposition parameters is still a challenge in the industry, especially for via with different depths. Herein, the effects of via depth on optimum current density and filling patterns were investigated. It was found that the deeper the via, the lower the optimum current density. At low current density (4 mA cm-2), the via depth only affects the size of the defect, but does not change the filling pattern. However, at medium current density (7 mA cm-2), the filling pattern changes from super-conformal filling to sub-conformal filling with the increase of via depth, the pinch-off position remaining constant at a depth of about 70 µm from the top surface. Simulations of the TSV filling process using COMSOL modeling software revealed that the local concentration of additives, which is affected by the via depth, determine the morphology of the electrodeposition, matching well the experimental results.

  8. Post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahlah, A; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill resin composites through using Vickers hardness profiles (VHN). Five bulk fill composite materials were examined: Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Venus(®) Bulk Fill, Filtek™ Bulk Fill, SonicFill™. Three specimens of each material type were prepared in stainless steel molds which contained a slot of dimensions (15 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm), and a top plate. The molds were irradiated from one end. All specimens were stored at 37°C for 24h, before measurement. The Vickers hardness was measured as a function of depth of material, at 0.3mm intervals. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA using Tukey post hoc tests (α=0.05). The maximum VHN ranged from 37.8 to 77.4, whilst the VHN at 80% of max.VHN ranged from 30.4 to 61.9. The depth corresponding to 80% of max.VHN, ranged from 4.14 to 5.03 mm. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between materials for all parameters tested. SonicFill exhibited the highest VHN (pFill the lowest (p≤0.001). SonicFill and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill had the greatest depth of cure (5.03 and 4.47 mm, respectively) and was significant's different from X-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill and Filtek Bulk Fill (p≤0.016). Linear regression confirmed a positive regression between max.VHN and filler loading (r(2)=0.94). Bulk fill resin composites can be cured to an acceptable post-cure depth, according to the manufacturers' claims. SonicFill and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill had the greatest depth of cure among the composites examined. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gap-filling meteorological variables with Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Gap-filling or modelling surface-atmosphere fluxes critically depends on an, ideally continuous, availability of their meteorological driver variables, such as e.g. air temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and precipitation. Unlike for eddy-covariance-based fluxes, data gaps are not unavoidable for these measurements. Nevertheless, missing or erroneous data can occur in practice due to instrument or power failures, disturbance, and temporary sensor or station dismounting for e.g. agricultural management or maintenance. If stations with similar measurements are available nearby, using their data for imputation (i.e. estimating missing data) either directly, after an elevation correction or via linear regression, is usually preferred over linear interpolation or monthly mean diurnal cycles. The popular implementation of regional networks of (partly low-cost) stations increases both, the need and the potential, for such neighbour-based imputation methods. For repeated satellite imagery, Beckers and Rixen (2003) suggested an imputation method based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). While exploiting the same linear relations between time series at different observation points as regression, it is able to use information from all observation points to simultaneously estimate missing data at all observation points, provided that never all observations are missing at the same time. Briefly, the method uses the ability of the first few EOFs of a data matrix to reconstruct a noise-reduced version of this matrix; iterating missing data points from an initial guess (the column-wise averages) to an optimal version determined by cross-validation. The poster presents and discusses lessons learned from adapting and applying this methodology to station data. Several years of 10-minute averages of air temperature, pressure and humidity, incoming shortwave, longwave and photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed and precipitation, measured by a regional (70 km by

  10. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  11. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Kaito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Nishitani, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, T.G.M. 275, Zlin, 767 72 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Eguchi, Kenichiro [Shiraishi Central Laboratories, 4-78 Motohama,Amagasaki,Hyogo,660-0085 Japan (Japan)

    2016-03-09

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers such as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.

  12. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  13. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBosco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation.

  14. Automation of experiments at Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to solving the problems of automation of basic processes in long-term experiments in heavy ion beams of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) facility are considered. Approaches in the field of spectrometry, both of rare α decays of superheavy nuclei and those for constructing monitoring systems to provide accident-free experiment running with highly radioactive targets and recording basic parameters of experiment, are described. The specific features of Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are considered, special attention is paid to the role of boundary effects of neighboring p-n transitions in the "active correlations" method. An example of an off-beam experiment attempting to observe Zeno effect is briefly considered. Basic examples for nuclear reactions of complete fusion at 48Ca ion beams of U-400 cyclotron (LNR, JINR) are given. A scenario of development of the "active correlations" method for the case of very high intensity beams of heavy ions at promising accelerators of LNR, JINR, is presented.

  15. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  16. Biocompatibility of root filling pastes used in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C C B; Conde Júnior, A M; Rizzo, M S; Moura, R D; Moura, M S; Lima, M D M; Moura, L F A D

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of two pastes designed to fill the root canals of primary teeth. A study group of 54 mice received subcutaneous tissue implants of polyethylene tubes containing CTZ or calcium hydroxide paste or, as a negative control, empty tubes. Biocompatibility was evaluated on days 7, 21 and 63, yielding a total of nine groups of six animals each. Following the experimental intervals, the implant areas were removed and subjected to histologic processing. After the tissues were stained with HE and Masson trichrome, two pathologists performed a histologic analysis of the samples in a blinded manner. Collagen fibre formation, tissue thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration were analysed qualitatively. Quantitative morphometry was performed for the thickness, perimeter length and tissue area of the region in direct contact with the open tube. anova with the Tukey post-test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's post-test, with significance established as P tube decreased during the experimental periods in all groups. The CTZ and calcium hydroxide pastes demonstrated biocompatibility with subcutaneous tissue in this experimental model. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. LHC Report: Good fills but also some technical glitches

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    During the recent summer weeks the LHC continued running with 1380 bunches, gently pushing up the peak luminosity by reducing the beam sizes and increasing the bunch intensities. This smooth operation was temporarily interrupted by some cryogenics problems and some disturbances to the electrical network.   So far, the LHC has delivered 2.5 fb-1 luminosities to both ATLAS and CMS, giving physicists a steady flow of data to work on. A record peak luminosity (2.4 × 1033 cm-2s-1) was achieved by using smaller-than-nominal beam sizes from the injector chain and increased bunch intensities. The bunch intensities are now up to 1.35 × 1011 protons per bunch, which is well above the nominal value of 1.15 × 1011 protons. Unfortunately, after a series of good fills, a cold compressor unit stopped working early on Saturday morning, 13 August, causing problems to the cryogenic cooling system at point 8. The system needed about three days of repair and cool-down time in order to ...

  18. Specifying and using pulverised fuel ash as an engineered fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, B.G.; Coombs, R. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Claims arising from incorrect use of fill materials are often due to a lack of understanding of material behaviour and incomplete or wrong specifications. This is especially the case when using waste products such as pulverised fuel ash (pfa). A review of current and proposed specifications and current practice highlights some of the problems arising when selecting design parameters and acceptance criteria for pfa. Pfa can be considered a particulate material and properties of a pfa can be ascertained at the design stage because the sources are known. Design parameters are post peak effective strength parameters taken from triaxial or direct shear tests on saturated specimens compacted to 90% of the average maximum dry density. Compaction characteristics and design parameters of a particular source can be determined from tests if it is stockpiled pfa, or historical records if it is conditioned pfa. Method compaction can be used to place pfa but site trials should be carried out to determine the best method. Experience has shown that six to eight passes are sufficient, but usually the movement of construction traffic during tipping and spreading pfa will give the minimum required density. Inundation has little effect on compacted ash provided the water content is within acceptable limits, that is within 20% of the average optimum water content. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Semiflexible crossing-avoiding trails on plane-filling fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d_f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.

  20. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng [Robotics Institute, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  1. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  2. Flame retardancy of highly filled polyamide 6/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing; Liu Songlin

    2007-01-01

    To obtain an in-depth physical knowledge of the protective barrier stability and uniformity under fire conditions, we prepared highly filled polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites and characterized their thermal and flammability properties. The objectives were to identify a critical composition that is needed to form a stable char with no apertures or cracks and to gain a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flame retardancy. It was shown that there is no need for higher percentages of clay and even smaller amounts of clay (<10 wt%) should be enough to achieve good fire performance. Factors such as incoherency, poor stability and non-uniformity of the char or the presence of large cracks and formation of island-like structures were insignificant in slowing down the heat release and mass loss rates. Nevertheless, there was no stage during the flammability test where the fire completely extinguished even when the protective layer was stable and free from major cracks/apertures. Based on these results, new insights and approaches to process better flame retardant polymer nanocomposites are discussed

  3. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2008-01-08

    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  4. Damage characterization for particles filled semi-crystalline polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Franck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage evolution and characterization in semi-crystalline polymer filled with particles under various loadings is still a challenge. A specific damage characterization method using Digital Image Correlation is proposed for a wide range of strain rates considering tensile tests with hydraulic jacks as well as Hopkinson's bars. This damage measurement is obtained by using and adapting the SEE method [1] which was developed to characterize the behaviour laws at constant strain rates of polymeric materials in dynamic. To validate the characterization process, various damage measurement techniques are used under quasi-static conditions before to apply the procedure in dynamic. So, the well-known damage characterization by loss of stiffness technique under quasi-static loading is applied to a polypropylene. In addition, an in-situ tensile test, carried out in a microtomograph, is used to observe the cavitation phenomenon in real time. A good correlation is obtained between all these techniques and consequently the proposed technique is supposed suitable for measuring the ductile damage observed in semi-crystalline polymers under dynamic loading. By applying it to the semi-crystalline polymer at moderate and high speed loadings, the damage evolution is measured and it is observed that the damage evolution is not strain rate dependent but the failure strain on the contrary is strain rate dependent.

  5. A case of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy with restrictive transmitral filling pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsui K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazunori Otsui, Nobutaka Inoue, Anna Tamagawa, Kazuo OnishiDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kobe Rosai Hospital, Kobe, JapanAbstract: A 61-year-old diabetic woman with a mitochondrial A3243G mutation was hospitalized for evaluation of breathlessness, general fatigue, and leg edema. Chest radiography revealed cardiomegaly with massive pleural effusion. Serum lactate, pyruvate, and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations were elevated. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a restrictive pattern of transmitral flow, although systolic function of the left ventricle was only mildly impaired. Based on these findings and her clinical course, the patient was diagnosed with right-sided heart failure caused by mitochondrial cardiomyopathy associated with a restrictive transmitral filling pattern. Treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and eplerenone was effective, and improvement in her symptoms was associated with amelioration of transthoracic echocardiographic findings and a reduction in serum brain natriuretic peptide levels. Previous reports have indicated heterogeneity in the clinical features of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in patients carrying the A3243G mutation; the present case highlights the substantial variability in the clinical features of this disease.Keywords: mitochondrial disease, A3243G mutation, diastolic dysfunction, transmitral flow

  6. Effect of Nanosilica Filled Polyurethane Composite Coating on Polypropylene Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yern Chee Ching

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic based polyurethane (PU coatings with various amounts of nanosilica contents were prepared using solution casting method. The nanosilica (SiO2 particles used are around 16 nm in diameter. The friction and wear test was conducted using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The tests were performed at rotary speed of 100 rpm and 200 rpm with load of 0.1 kg to 0.4 kg under 1 N interval. The effect of the PU/nano-SiO2 composite coating on friction and wear behavior of polypropylene substrate was investigated and compared. The worn surface of coating film layer after testing was investigated by using an optical microscope. The introduction of PU/nanosilica composite coating containing 3 wt% of nano-SiO2 content gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate to PP substrate. Both the friction and wear rate of PP substrate coated with >3 wt% of nano-SiO2 filled PU coating would increase with the increasing of applied load and sliding time.

  7. New solar axion search in CAST with $^4$He filling

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M; Barth, K; Belov, A; Brauninger, H; Bremer, J; Burwitz, V; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Marzoa, M Gomez; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; K.Jakovcic; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Luzon, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M .J; Raffelt, G; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\\gamma}< 1.47\\times10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a s...

  8. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  9. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation. PMID:25755637

  10. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Monache, Sergio Delle; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation.

  11. Self-similar compression of a magnetized plasma filled liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    New analytic, one-dimensional, self-similar solutions of magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the compression of a magnetized plasma by a thin cylindrical liner are presented. The solutions include several features that have not been included in an earlier self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. These features are the effects of finite plasma electrical conductivity, induction heating, thermal conductivity and related thermogalvanomagnetic effects, plasma turbulence, and plasma boundary effects. These solutions have been motivated by recent suggestions for production of ultrahigh magnetic fields by new methods. The methods involve radially imploding plasmas in which axial magnetic fields have been entrained. These methods may be capable of producing controlled magnetic fields up to approx. = 100 MG. Specific methods of implosion suggested were by ablative radial acceleration of a liner by a laser and by a gas-puff Z pinch. The model presented here addresses the first of these methods. The solutions derived here are used to estimate magnetic flux losses out of the compression volume, and to indicate conditions under which an impulsively-accelerated, plasma-filled liner may compress an axial magnetic field to large magnitude

  12. The response of liquid-filled pipes to vapour collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijsseling, A.S.; Fan, D.

    1991-01-01

    The collapse of vapour cavities in liquid is usually accompanied with almost instantaneous pressure rises. These pressure rises impose severe loads on liquid-conveying pipes whenever the cavities become sufficiently large. Due to the impact nature of loadings, movement of the pipe walls can be expected. Tests are performed in a water-filled closed pipe suspended by thin steel wires. Vaporous cavities are induced in the liquid by hitting the pipe axially by a steel rod. The volume of the cavities can be varied by changing the initial pressure of the water. The developing and collapsing of cavities in the liquid is inferred from pressure measurements. Strain gauges and a laser Doppler vibrometer are used to record the response of the pipe to these pressures. The test results are compared with predictions from a numerical model. The model describes 1) axial stress wave propagations in the pipe and 2) water hammer and cavitation phenomena in the liquid. Pipe and liquid interact via 1) the radial expansion and contraction of the pipe wall and 2) the closed ends of the pipe, where large vapour cavities may develop. (author)

  13. [Evaluation of cermet fillings in abutment teeth in removable partial prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulic, S; Tihacek-Sojic, Lj

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the clinical process of setting the purpose filling on abutment teeth, after finishing the removable partial dentures. The aim was also to investigate the use of cermet glass-ionomer cement for the purpose filling in the abutment teeth for removable partial dentures, as well as to investigate the surface of the purpose filling. For the clinical evaluation of purpose filling slightly modified criteria according to Ryg's were used in 20 patients with different type of edentulousness. Changes occurring on the surface of purpose filling have been experimentally established by the method of scanning electron microscopy on the half-grown third molars in seven patients. It could be concluded that cement glass-ionomer was not the appropriate material for the purpose fillings in abutment teeth for removable partial dentures.

  14. Parameter analysis on the ultrasonic TSV-filling process and electrochemical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Ren, Xinyu; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Zhaohua; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key technologies in 3D packaging, through silicon via (TSV) interconnection technology has become a focus recently. In this paper, an electrodeposition method for TSV filling with the assistance of ultrasound and additives are introduced. Two important parameters i.e. current density and ultrasonic power are studied for TSV filling process and electrochemical properties. It is found that ultrasound can improve the quality of TSV-filling and change the TSV-filling mode. The experimental results also indicate that the filling rate enhances more significantly with decreasing current density under ultrasonic conditions than under silent conditions. In addition, according to the voltammetry curve, the increase of ultrasonic power can significantly increase the current density of cupric reduction, and decrease the thickness of diffusion layer. So that the reduction speed of copper ions is accelerated, resulting in a higher TSV-filling rate.

  15. Growth of linear Ni-filled carbon nanotubes by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, Takuya [Department of Electric Engineering, Graduated School of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Kurumi, Satoshi [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Suzuki, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@ele.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The cylindrical geometry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows them to be filled with metal catalysts; the resulting metal-filled CNTs possess different properties depending on the filler metal. Here we report the synthesis of Ni-filled CNTs in which Ni is situated linearly and homogeneously by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol. The structural characteristics of synthesized Ni-filled CNTs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between pyrolysis conditions and the length and diameter of Ni-filled CNTs was examined. The encapsulated Ni was identified by a TEM-equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and found to have a single-crystal fcc structure by nano-beam diffraction. The features of linear Ni-filled CNT are expected to be applicable to probes for magnetic force microscopy.

  16. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend (α=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  17. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco [Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Dentistry and Endodontics]. E-mail: fbarletta@terra.com.br; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins [Uninga Dental School, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Dentistry

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend ({alpha}=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  18. Microtensile bond strength of bulk-fill restorative composites to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Jyothi; Vegesna, Divya-Prasanna; Ravi, Ravichandra; Boddeda, Mohan-Rao; Uppalapati, Lakshman-Varma; Ghazanfaruddin, M D

    2017-08-01

    To facilitate the easier placement of direct resin composite in deeper cavities, bulk fill composites have been introduced. The Mechanical stability of fillings in stress bearing areas restored with bulk-fill resin composites is still open to question, since long term clinical studies are not available so far. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the microtensile bond strength of three bulk-fill restorative composites with a nanohybrid composite. Class I cavities were prepared on sixty extracted mandibular molars. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15 each) and in group I, the prepared cavities were restored with nanohybrid (Filtek Z250 XT) restorative composite in an incremental manner. In group II, III and IV, the bulk-fill composites (Filtek, Tetric EvoCeram, X-tra fil bulk-fill restoratives) were placed as a 4 mm single increment and light cured. The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling and bond strength testing was done using instron testing machine. The mode of failure was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bond strength values obtained in megapascals (MPa) were subjected to statistical analysis, using SPSS/PC version 20 software.One-way ANOVA was used for groupwise comparison of the bond strength. Tukey's Post Hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons among the groups. The highest mean bond strength was achieved with Filtek bulk-fill restorative showing statistically significant difference with Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill ( p composites. Adhesive failures are mostly observed with X-tra fil bulk fill composites, whereas mixed failures are more common with other bulk fill composites. Bulk-fill composites exhibited adequate bond strength to dentin and can be considered as restorative material of choice in posterior stress bearing areas. Key words: Bond strength, Bulk-fill restoratives, Configuration factor, Polymerization shrinkage.

  19. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  20. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API)

    OpenAIRE

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN; NORLIZA ABD. RAHMAN; NUR SYAFIQAH KAMARUDIN

    2016-01-01

    Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and fin...

  1. The fluid-filling system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2009-09-01

    The system for controlled filling of the nested flexible scintillator containment vessels in the Borexino solar neutrino detector is described. The design and operation principles of pressure and shape monitoring systems are presented for gas filling, gas displacement by water, and water displacement by scintillator. System specifications for safety against overstressing the flexible nylon vessels are defined as well as leak-tightness and cleanliness requirements. The fluid-filling system was a major engineering challenge for the Borexino detector.

  2. Steel hollow columns with an internal profile filled with self-compacting concrete under fire conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Binh; Gernay, Thomas; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude; Franssen, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal reinforcement consists of another profile (tube or H section) being embedded with the concrete, and filling is realized by self-compacting concrete (SCC). Ten columns filled with self-compacting concrete embedding another steel profile have been tested in the Fire Testing Laboratory of the University of...

  3. The quantum Hall effect at 5/2 filling factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, R L

    2013-01-01

    Experimental discovery of a quantized Hall state at 5/2 filling factor presented an enigmatic finding in an established field of study that has remained an open issue for more than twenty years. In this review we first examine the experimental requirements for observing this state and outline the initial theoretical implications and predictions. We will then follow the chronology of experimental studies over the years and present the theoretical developments as they pertain to experiments, directed at sets of issues. These topics will include theoretical and experimental examination of the spin properties at 5/2; is the state spin polarized? What properties of the higher Landau levels promote development of the 5/2 state, what other correlation effects are observed there, and what are their interactions with the 5/2 state? The 5/2 state is not a robust example of the fractional quantum Hall effect: what experimental and material developments have allowed enhancement of the effect? Theoretical developments from initial pictures have promoted the possibility that 5/2 excitations are exceptional; do they obey non-abelian statistics? The proposed experiments to determine this and their executions in various forms will be presented: this is the heart of this review. Experimental examination of the 5/2 excitations through interference measurements will be reviewed in some detail, focusing on recent results that demonstrate consistency with the picture of non-abelian charges. The implications of this in the more general physics picture is that the 5/2 excitations, shown to be non-abelian, should exhibit the properties of Majorana operators. This will be the topic of the last review section. (review article)

  4. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  5. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  6. Flexible walled container having membrane fitment for use with aseptic filling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.; Reiss, R.J.; Rica, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    There is disclosed an aseptic flexible walled container having a rigid fitment member cooperative with an aseptic filling apparatus and including a neck, outer flanges surrounding the neck, a frangible membrane and an outer end rim receptive of an hermetically sealed lid. The neck is formed with an internal chamferred seating shoulder for fluid-tight engagement with a fill tube. One outer flange cooperates with clamping jaws of the aseptic filling apparatus for detachably sealing the fitment to a sterilizing chamber and placing it in position for insertion of the filling tube which ruptures the membrane and permits the aseptic introduction of product to the container's interior. The other outer flange is secured to an opening in a wall of the flexible container. The joined fitment and container are presterilized prior to filling. Selected materials for the multi-ply container walls and the fitment permit the container to withstand gamma ray and other sterilization treatment, heat and pressure while maintaining required strength. After the container is aseptically filled, such as with flowable food product, the fill tube is withdrawn and a lid is hermetically sealed onto the rim of the fitment. A heat shield adjacent a container wall surrounds the fitment to protect the container from excessive heat generated by the associated filling apparatus during filling

  7. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  8. The screen character of the Whitetiger mountain filling to radioactivity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianfang

    2003-01-01

    Safety disposal of radioactivity waste depends on geology protective screen and artificial protective screen. After disposal site is chosen, the effect of artificial protective screen appears very important. The smashing material of Whitetiger Mountain clay rock is selected as researching object. The method of combining soil mechanics with radiochemistry is adopted on the basis of many experiment of laboratory. The screen effect and mechanism of filling layer to radioactivity nuclide 90 Sr are discussed. Under the circumstance of filling layer composition, control effect of soil body construction to permeability and adsorption of filling protective screen layer are analysed. Synthesis evaluation model of filling protective screen layer is established. It is found that the filling belongs to high-liquids-clay. For filling with diameter equal or smaller than 2 millimeter, when the ρ d equal 1.73 g/cm 3 , the most equitable moving speed of 90 Sr in compaction filling is 4.5 x 10 -5 cm/min, the k equals 2.68 x10 -8 cm/s. For filling with diameter equal or smaller than 5 mm, when the ρ d equal 1.74 g/cm 3 , the most equitable moving speed of 90 Sr in compaction filling is 4.3 x 10 -5 cm/min, the k equals 6.1 x 10 -8 cm/s. (author)

  9. The application of waste fly ash and construction-waste in cement filling material in goaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. X.; Xiao, F. K.; Guan, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Shi, X. P.; Liu, S. M.; Wang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    As the process of urbanization accelerated, resulting in a large number of abandoned fly ash and construction waste, which have occupied the farmland and polluted the environment. In this paper, a large number of construction waste and abandoned fly ash are mixed into the filling material in goaf, the best formula of the filling material which containing a large amount of abandoned fly ash and construction waste is obtained, and the performance of the filling material is analyzed. The experimental results show that the cost of filling material is very low while the performance is very good, which have a good prospect in goaf.

  10. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  11. Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, A; Hogg, C H; Dowling, A H

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases.......To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases....

  12. Radiation damage: special reference to gas filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Sudha; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Rathore, Shakuntla

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage is a term associated with ionizing radiation. In gas filled particle detectors, radiation damage to gases plays an important role in the device's ageing, especially in devices exposed to high intensity radiation, e.g. detector for the large hadrons collide. Ionization processes require energy above 10 eV, while splitting covalent bond in molecules and generating free radical require only 3-4 eV. The electrical discharges initiated by the ionization event by the particles result in plasma populated by large amount of free radical. The highly reactive free radical can recombine back to original molecules, or initiate a chain of free radical polymerization reaction with other molecules, yielding compounds with increasing molecular weight. These high molecular weight compounds then precipitate from gases phase, forming conductive or non-conductive deposits on the electrodes an insulating surfaces of the detector and distorting it's response. Gases containing hydrocarbon quenchers, e.g. argon-methane, are typically sensitive to ageing by polymerization; addition of oxygen tends to lower the ageing rates. Trace amount of silicon oils, present form out gassing of silicon elastomers and especially from traces of silicon lubricant tend to decompose and form deposits of silicon crystals on the surfaces. Gases mixture of argon (or xenon) with CO 2 and optimally also with 2-3 % of oxygen are highly tolerant to high radiation fluxes. The oxygen is added as noble gas with CO 2 has too high transparency for high energy photons; ozone formed from the oxygen is a strong absorber of ultra violet photons. Carbon tetra fluoride can be used as a component of the gas for high-rate detectors; the fluorine radical produced during the operation however limit the choice of materials for the chambers and electrodes (e.g. gold electrodes are required, as the fluorine radicals attack metals, forming fluorides). Addition of carbon tetra fluoride can however eliminate the

  13. Filling Knowledge Gaps for Mimivirus Entry, Uncoating, and Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Kétyllen Reis; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-11-15

    Since the discovery of mimivirus, its unusual structural and genomic features have raised great interest in the study of its biology; however, many aspects concerning its replication cycle remain uncertain. In this study, extensive analyses of electron microscope images, as well as biological assay results, shed light on unclear points concerning the mimivirus replication cycle. We found that treatment with cytochalasin, a phagocytosis inhibitor, negatively impacted the incorporation of mimivirus particles by Acanthamoeba castellanii , causing a negative effect on viral growth in amoeba monolayers. Treatment of amoebas with bafilomicin significantly impacted mimivirus uncoating and replication. In conjunction with microscopic analyses, these data suggest that mimiviruses indeed depend on phagocytosis for entry into amoebas, and particle uncoating (and stargate opening) appears to be dependent on phagosome acidification. In-depth analyses of particle morphogenesis suggest that the mimivirus capsids are assembled from growing lamellar structures. Despite proposals from previous studies that genome acquisition occurs before the acquisition of fibrils, our results clearly demonstrate that the genome and fibrils can be acquired simultaneously. Our data suggest the existence of a specific area surrounding the core of the viral factory where particles acquire the surface fibrils. Furthermore, we reinforce the concept that defective particles can be formed even in the absence of virophages. Our work provides new information about unexplored steps in the life cycle of mimivirus. IMPORTANCE Investigating the viral life cycle is essential to a better understanding of virus biology. The combination of biological assays and microscopic images allows a clear view of the biological features of viruses. Since the discovery of mimivirus, many studies have been conducted to characterize its replication cycle, but many knowledge gaps remain to be filled. In this study, we conducted a

  14. Customized bentonite pellets. Manufacturing, performance and gap filling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjavaara, P.; Holt, E.; Sjoeblom, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this work was to provide knowledge about how to manufacture customized bentonite pellets and how customized bentonite pellets perform in practice during the nuclear repository construction process. The project was mainly focused on laboratory experimental tests to optimize the pellet filling by customizing the raw materials and pellet manufacturing. Bentonite pellets were made using both extrusion and roller compaction methods. The pellets were intended for use in gaps between compacted bentonite and the rock walls in both buffer deposition holes and tunnel backfilling. Performance of different types of custom-made pellets were evaluated with regard to their ease of manufacturing, density, crush strength, abrasion resistance, water holding capacity, free swelling and also their thermal conductivity. These evaluations were done in both Finland (by VTT) and Canada (by AECL). Over 50 different varieties of pellets were roller-compaction manufactured at AECL in Canada and 20 types of extrusion pellets at VTT in Finland. The parameters that were varied during manufacturing included: bentonite raw material type, water content, pellet sizes, bentonite compaction machine parameters, use of recycled pellets, and addition of two different types of filler (illite or granitic sand) at varying addition percentages. By examining the pellets produced with these methods and materials the performance and behaviour of the bentonite pellets were evaluated in laboratory with selected tests. The work done using extrusion pellets showed that it was possible to manufacture pellets with higher water contents, up to 21 % from MX-80. This water content value was higher than what was typically possible using roller-compaction method in this study. Higher water content values allow closer compatibility with the designed bentonite buffer water content. The extrusion tests also showed that the required production simulation runs could be made successfully with reference type of MX

  15. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  16. Electrical Conductivity Distributions in Discrete Fluid-Filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Ahmmed, B.; Knox, H. A.; Johnson, T.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is commonly asserted that hydraulic fracturing enhances permeability by generating new fractures in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is assumed that in the fractured system predominant flow occurs in these newly formed and pre-existing fractures. Among the phenomenology that remains enigmatic are fluid distributions inside fractures. Therefore, determining fluid distribution and their associated temporal and spatial evolution in fractures is critical for safe and efficient hydraulic fracturing. Previous studies have used both forward modeling and inversion of electrical data to show that a geologic system consisting of fluid filled fractures has a conductivity distribution, where fractures act as electrically conductive bodies when the fluids are more conductive than the host material. We will use electrical inversion for estimating electrical conductivity distribution within multiple fractures from synthetic and measured data. Specifically, we will use data and well geometries from an experiment performed at Blue Canyon Dome in Socorro, NM, which was used as a study site for subsurface technology, engineering, and research (SubTER) funded by DOE. This project used a central borehole for energetically stimulating the system and four monitoring boreholes, emplaced in the cardinal directions. The electrical data taken during this project used 16 temporary electrodes deployed in the stimulation borehole and 64 permanent electrodes in the monitoring wells (16 each). We present results derived using E4D from scenarios with two discrete fractures, thereby discovering the electric potential response of both spatially and temporarily variant fluid distribution and the resolution of fluid and fracture boundaries. These two fractures have dimensions of 3m × 0.01m × 7m and are separated by 1m. These results can be used to develop stimulation and flow tests at the meso-scale that will be important for model validation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi

  17. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  18. Bulk fill restoratives: to cap or not to cap--that is the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Kearns, Jennifer O; Ilie, Nicoleta; Fleming, Garry J P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage scores of standardised large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities filled with different restoration protocols: (1) conventional resin restoratives, (2) bulk fill flowable base materials 'capped' with a conventional dimethacrylate resin-based composite (RBC) or (3) bulk fill resin restorative materials. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in sixty-four sound maxillary premolar teeth and randomly allocated to eight groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing-unit. Restoration protocol (eight oblique increments of conventional resin restorative, bulk fill flowable base and two occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (three increments in total) or bulk fill resin restorative (two increments)) was the dependent variable. A twin channel deflection measuring gauge measured the buccal and palatal cuspal deflections. Teeth were thermally fatigued, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. Post hoc Tukey's tests highlighted significant differences in the mean total cuspal deflection values between resin restoratives (p fill flowable base materials with occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (restoration protocol 2) compared with bulk fill resin restoratives (restoration protocol 3). Not all bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill resin restoratives behave in a similar fashion when used to restore standardised MOD cavities in maxillary premolar teeth and material selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Poorly performing bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill restoratives can be identified using the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage protocol which could save the complications encountered clinically when restoring Class II restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Prescription Fill Rates on Risk Stratification Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M; Shermock, Kenneth M; Elder Dalpoas, Stacy; J Kan, Hong; Alexander, G Caleb; Weiner, Jonathan P; Kharrazi, Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Risk adjustment models are traditionally derived from administrative claims. Prescription fill rates-extracted by comparing electronic health record prescriptions and pharmacy claims fills-represent a novel measure of medication adherence and may improve the performance of risk adjustment models. We evaluated the impact of prescription fill rates on claims-based risk adjustment models in predicting both concurrent and prospective costs and utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43,097 primary care patients from HealthPartners network between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis and/or pharmacy claims of 2011 were used to build 3 base models using the Johns Hopkins ACG system, in addition to demographics. Model performances were compared before and after adding 3 types of prescription fill rates: primary 0-7 days, primary 0-30 days, and overall. Overall fill rates utilized all ordered prescriptions from electronic health record while primary fill rates excluded refill orders. The overall, primary 0-7, and 0-30 days fill rates were 72.30%, 59.82%, and 67.33%. The fill rates were similar between sexes but varied across different medication classifications, whereas the youngest had the highest rate. Adding fill rates modestly improved the performance of all models in explaining medical costs (improving concurrent R by 1.15% to 2.07%), followed by total costs (0.58% to 1.43%), and pharmacy costs (0.07% to 0.65%). The impact was greater for concurrent costs compared with prospective costs. Base models without diagnosis information showed the highest improvement using prescription fill rates. Prescription fill rates can modestly enhance claims-based risk prediction models; however, population-level improvements in predicting utilization are limited.

  20. Water sorption and solubility of bulk-fill composites polymerized with a third generation LED LCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba MİSİLLİ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the degree of water sorption and solubility in bulk-fills after curing with a polywave light source. A total of 120 disc-shaped specimens (8 mm diameter; 4 mm depth were prepared from three regular bulk-fill materials (X-tra Fil, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, SonicFill, and a control material (Filtek Z250, cured in 3 different modes (standard: 1000 mW/cm2-20 s; high power: 1400 mW/cm2-12 s; xtra power: 3200 mW/cm2-6 s using a third generation light-emitting diode light curing unit. Water sorption and solubility levels of the specimens were measured according to the ISO 4049:2009 specification after storing in distilled water for 30 days. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05. The Z250 sample exposed to high power presented a higher sorption compared to the X-tra Fil and SonicFill samples. In xtra power mode, the values of Z250 and SonicFill were similar to each other and higher compared to those of X-tra Fil. Only SonicFill exhibited significantly different sorption values depending on the curing mode, the highest of which was achieved when using the xtra power mode. The highest solubility values were obtained for SonicFill. No statistically significant differences were found among other groups. No significant correlation was detected between water sorption and solubility. The traditional composite group exhibited a higher water sorption values than the bulk-fills. The reduction in polymerization time significantly increased the sorption of SonicFill. SonicFill showed the highest water solubility value among the composites tested.

  1. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Afterimage watercolors: an exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Simon J; van Lier, Rob

    2013-01-01

    We investigated filling-in of colored afterimages and compared them with filling-in of "real" colors in the watercolor illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could be presented simultaneously, inducing the original watercolor effect, or in an alternating fashion, inducing colored afterimages of the chromatic outlines. In Experiment 1, using only alternating outlines, these afterimages triggered filling-in, revealing an "afterimage watercolor" effect. Depending on whether the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, filling-in of a complementary or a similarly colored afterimage was perceived. In Experiment 2, simultaneous and alternating presentations were compared. Additionally, gray and black achromatic contours were tested, having an increased luminance contrast with the background for the black contours. Compared to "real" color filling-in, afterimage filling-in was more easily affected by different luminance settings. More in particular, afterimage filling-in was diminished when high-contrast contours were used. In the discussion we use additional demonstrations in which we further explore the "watercolor afterimage." All in all, comparisons between both types of illusions show similarities and differences with regard to color filling-in. Caution, however, is warranted in attributing these effects to different underlying processing differences.

  3. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  4. Afterimage watercolors: An exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, S.J.; Lier, R.J. van

    2013-01-01

    We investigated filling-in of colored afterimages and compared them with filling-in of “real” colors in the watercolor illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could

  5. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Craig Hardie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF. Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  6. Radiographic evaluation of root canal fillings accomplished by undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen's kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases.

  7. Investigating the Construct Measured by Banked Gap-Fill Items: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Gareth; Brunfaut, Tineke

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates test-takers' processing while completing banked gap-fill tasks, designed to test reading proficiency, in order to test theoretically based expectations about the variation in cognitive processes of test-takers across levels of performance. Twenty-eight test-takers' eye traces on 24 banked gap-fill items (on six tasks) were…

  8. [Poly-L-lactic-acid filling of facial lipoatrophy in HIV+ patients under tritherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, G; Coulet, O; Adam, S; Guyot, L

    2008-04-01

    Facial lipoatrophy is one of the complications of antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ patients. Poly-L-lactic-acid filling can compensate this atrophy. This treatment has been completely covered by social security since 2005. The filling technique is described in this article.

  9. Evaluation of interference of calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication in filling root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Deyla Duarte; Neto, Manoel Matos; Villela, Alexandre Mascarenhas; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the interference of the intracanal medication Calen® (SSWhite, Sao Paulo, Brazil) on the filling of simulated lateral canals. Twenty human anterior teeth were used. Before the endodontic filling procedures the access of cavity was made, and after this root canals were made in all the teeth to simulate the presence of lateral canals. After preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=10). In group I, the root canal system was filled directly after chemicalmechanical preparation; in group II, endodontic treatment was performed in multiple sessions, and after preparation the calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication Calen® was inserted. After the period of 7 days, the root canals were vigorously irrigated and then they were filled. Next, the teeth were radiographed to verify the quality of the filling. The results demonstrated that the teeth treated in a single session, without calcium hydroxide medication, presented 47 canals out of 60 with radiographic evidence of filling, whereas the teeth in which intracanal medication was used, only 07 presented a radiographic image compatible with filling (p < 0.05). The use of the calcium hydroxide-based medication Calen made it difficult to obtain a hermetic filling of the root canal system. The clinical significance of this work basing on the fact that once the dentist knowing that property obliteration of calcium hydroxide can be taken care when they are used in the presence of lateral canals.

  10. Density of loose-fill insulation material exposed to cyclic humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a climate that is characterised as cyclic humidity conditions (a constant temperature and a relative humidity alternating between two predetermined constant relative humidity levels). A better understanding of the behaviour of granulated loose-fill material...

  11. Uncoupling the Impact of Fracture Properties and Composition on Sensory Perception of Emulsion-Filled Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Strijbosch, V.M.G.; Broek, Van den A.W.M.; Velde, Van de Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of fracture properties and composition of emulsion-filled gels on dynamic texture perception. Twelve emulsion-filled gels varying in fracture stress (High/Low) and strain (High/Low) were prepared from three binary gel mixtures. Mechanical

  12. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  13. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  14. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance

  15. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 182.445 Section... pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size. (b) There must be a means of accurately determining the amount of fuel in each fuel...

  16. [Inactivating Effect of Heat-Denatured Lysozyme on Murine Norovirus in Bread Fillings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Yasuda, Yuka; Takahashi, Hajime; Takeuchi, Akira; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the viability of murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, in bread fillings used for making stuffed buns and pastries. The inactivating effect of heat-denatured lysozyme, which was recently reported to have an antiviral effect, on MNV-1 contaminating the bread fillings was also examined. MNV-1 was inoculated into two types of fillings (chocolate cream, marmalade jam) at 4.5 log PFU/g, and the bread fillings were stored at 4℃ for 5 days. MNV-1 remained viable in the bread fillings during storage. However, addition of 1% heat-denatured lysozyme to the fillings resulted in a decrease of MNV-1 infectivity immediately after inoculation, in both fillings. On the fifth day of storage, MNV-1 infectivity was decreased by 1.2 log PFU/g in chocolate cream and by 0.9 log PFU/g in marmalade jam. Although the mechanism underlying the anti-norovirus effect of heat-denatured lysozyme has not been clarified, our results suggest that heat-denatured lysozyme can be used as an inactivating agent against norovirus in bread fillings.

  17. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  18. Relationship between stroke volume, cardiac output and filling of the heart during tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M.; Sorensen, H.; Dalsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    . With the supine resting position as a reference, we assessed stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and filling of the heart during graded tilt to evaluate whether SV and CO are maintained during an assumed maximal physiological filling of the heart elicited by 90 degrees HDT in healthy resting humans. METHODS...

  19. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal

  20. Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio-Agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation Mechanisms Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...of Cincinnati Project Title: Neutralization of Aerosolized Bio -agents by Filled Nanocomposite Materials through Thermal and Chemical Inactivation...fire ball, where they will not effectively interact with any viable bio -aerosol. 1.1.4. Conclusions Cryo-milling is necessary to achieve a

  1. Multiple soliton compression stages in mid-IR gas-filled hollow-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md Selim; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The light confinement inside hollow-core (HC) fibers filled with noble gases constitutes an efficient route to study interesting soliton-plasma dynamics [1]. More recently, plasma-induced soliton splitting at the self-compression point was observed in a gas-filled fiber in the near-IR [2]. However...

  2. The tunable mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen; Zong, Zhi; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-03-01

    The spring-induced compression of water-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under an electric field is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the incompressibility and polarity of water, the mechanical property of CNTs can be tuned through filling with water molecules and applying an electric field. To explore the variation of the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs, the effects of the CNT length, the filling density and the electric field intensity are examined. The simulation results indicate that the water filling and electric field can result in a slight change in the elastic property (the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) of water-filled CNTs. However, the yield stress and average post-buckling stress exhibit a significant response to the water density and electric field intensity. As compared to hollow CNTs, the increment in yield stress of the water-filled CNTs under an electric field of 2.0 V Å-1 is up to 35.29%, which is even higher than that resulting from metal filling. The findings from this study provide a valuable theoretical basis for designing and fabricating the controlling units at the nanoscale.

  3. Investigating the effect of aeration powder filling on the actual compacting press; Eareto jutenho no jikki press deno hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Urata, I. [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    The authors proposed an aeration filling method as a new filling method in order to obtain uniform and high speed filling by carrying out basic experiments on powder material filling using a visual apparatus. In this study, the aeration powder filling was applied to the product compacting on the actual compacting press, and its evaluation was carried out. As a result, the following effects were confirmed. The weight scattering was reduced to about 70% in the high speed filling and about 50% in the low speed filling. The maximum density was reduced to about 30% in the high speed filling and about 25% in the low speed filling. The maximum thickness difference was reduced to 65% in the high speed filling and about 20% in the low speed filling. The aeration powder effect was stronger in the high speed filling than that in the low speed filling. The weight and size accuracy of the components were increased by the aeration powder filling. The pause and the shaking operation were discarded in the front part of the powder box, thus the filling time could be remarkable shortened. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  5. Filling in the Blank:a Postmodern Experiment on Fiction and Human Existence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈冬欢

    2014-01-01

    In his short story collection Lost in the Funhouse, John Barth attempts to deal with the existential plights that fictional writing and human beings are faced with.“Title”, the most postmodern story in the collection, centers on the issue of“filling in the blank,”in which Barth leads readers to solve the problem and create the story with him. To examine Barth’s postmodern ex-periment in“Title”, this paper mainly focuses on the following three questions:what is the“blank”? How to fill in it? Why to fill in it in that way? By answering them, we may see how Barth reconciles the conflict between the urgency of“filling in the blank”and the failure of filling them.

  6. Measuring the fill height of sealed cans with a compound pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-06-01

    A compound pendulum has been designed, fabricated, tested, and used to determine the fill height of material in sealed cans. The specific cans that stimulated this work are partially filled with uranium and plutonium oxide. Fill height affects nondestructive assays using fission neutrons, but corrections for various fill heights can be made once the height is known. Heights vary with use as the powder compacts or loosens, so it is necessary to determine the height at the time of the neutron measurement. The pendulum is small and readily portable so it can be taken to the location of the neutron measurement. Tests with open cans filled with sand to various known heights had accuracies generally within 3%. Factors that can affect the accuracy are examined and discussed. Experience in using the pendulum on sealed cans is related

  7. Selective growth of vertically aligned Fe-filled carbon nanotubes on oxidized silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, I; Kozhuharova-Koseva, R; Ruemmeli, M; Elefant, D; Gemming, T; Kaltofen, R; Leonhardt, A; Schaefer, T; Buechner, B [Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW Dresden), Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Vertically aligned Fe-filled multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been grown selectively on the SiO{sub 2} surfaces of patterned amorphous carbon (a-C)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Their morphology, structure and magnetic properties have been studied. The a-C patterns were prepared using conventional lithography processes combined with a sputter-deposition of a-C (thickness of 100 nm). The aligned Fe-filled MWNTs were produced by pyrolysis of ferrocene in a CVD reactor with a two zone furnace system and have high filling yield. The encapsulated Fe nanowires grown on the SiO{sub 2} structures of the patterned a-C/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates have diameters of 10-20 nm and can reach a few micrometers in length. The described method enables the preparation of complex architectures of Fe-filled MWNTs and may be used for future applications based on filled nanotubes.

  8. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  9. Improvement Performance of the Filling Step in Injection Mold through Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo-Hernández M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the flow improvement in the filling step of the polymer injection process due to the polymer excitation though vibration. This process can be split up into three main steps: filling, pocking and cooling. Several mechanical and aesthetic properties of the finished product can be changed in the filling step. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate the improvement in the filling mold under vibration without adding chemical products. To reach this result, an experimental mold was designed and manufactured in which a vibration device was coupled; it was possible to demonstrate the vibration advantage through this process. Moreover, a heuristic methodology was proposed for the experiment which shows an improvement in the filling process with frequencies close to 3 Hz.

  10. Internal pressure changes of liquid filled shipping casks due to thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of the significance of internal pressure calculations in liquid filled shipping casks subjected to a high temperature thermal environment is presented. Some basic thermodynamic relationships are introduced and discussed as they apply to the two-phase mixture problem encountered with liquid filled casks. A model of the liquid filled cask is developed and the assumptions and limitations of the mathematical model are discussed. A relationship is derived which can be used to determine internal cask pressures as a function of initial thermodynamic loading conditions, initial fluid volume ratio and final mixture temperature. The results for water/air filled casks are presented graphically in a parametric form. The curves presented are particularly useful for preliminary design verification purposes. A qualitative discussion of the use of the results from an error analysis aspect is presented. Some pressure calculation problems frequently seen by NRC for liquid filled cask designs are discussed

  11. Long-term deconditioning of gas-filled surge arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Koviljka; Brajović, Dragan; Alimpijević, Mališa; Lončar, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify parameters that influence the long-term deconditioning effect of gas-filled surge arrester (GFSA) and to provide practical recommendations for mitigating this effect. Namely, after some period of time, on order of hours or days, during which there is no activation due to overvoltage, the deconditioning of GFSA occurs. This effect was observed experimentally within the paper. The observed parameters that could influence the long-term deconditioning effect were the following: shape of voltage load, gas type, gas pressure, interelectrode distance, electrode material, electrode surface topography as well as GFSA design such as two- or three-electrode configuration. According to the results obtained, it has been shown that the occurrence of long-term deconditioning in an insulating system, insulated by a noble gas at a subpressure and with small interelectrode distances, is a phenomenon that always occurs when the insulating system is at rest for about an hour. It has been found that the type of noble gas does not influence the long-term deconditioning. Analysis of such insulating systems' parameters, with a prospect of being used as GFSAs, has demonstrated that this phenomenon is less pronounced at higher pressures (for the same value of the pressure (p) and interelectrode distance (d) product) and for electrodes with microscopically embossed surfaces. According to the results that were obtained by noble gases and their mixtures, as well as the results that were obtained by mixtures of SF6 gas with noble gasses, it can be claimed with confidence that the effect of the long-term deconditioning is an electrode effect. It has also been established that the deconditioning effect does not depend on the electrode material except in the case of electrodes made out of noble metals, which reduce the effect. Based on these results, it can be recommended that the working point of GFSAs be set (according to the DC breakdown voltage value) at a

  12. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values PHB or CC. The tensile strength values of binary mixtures of LDPE lie in the range from 8.9 to 10 MPa. As some commercial grades of LDPE have mechanical strength in this range, it may be inferred that the addition of a certain amount of PHB or CC to LDPE may be considered as a possibility for obtaining LDPE based materials with increased susceptibility to biodegradation. The cubic model in pseudo components was selected for describe the flexural strength of the samples because it was the most adequate from a statistical point of view. However, the linear model in pseudo components was the most efficient to describe the flexural modulus

  13. Soil and minespoil fill as media for renovation of nitrogen and phosphorus in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Reneau, R.B. Jr.; Hagedorn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of US Appalachian coal mining regions has been hampered by lack of domestic waste disposal technologies suited to fills. The suitability of on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSWTDS) in fill material is uncertain due to the effects of surface mining on soil physical properties. This research evaluated the potential for renovation of N and P present in domestic wastewater by fills from mining operations. N and P were chosen because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. Soil-fill (a mixture of Jefferson, fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapludult and Muskingom, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept soils) and minespoil (spoil)-fill (blasted rock material associated with the Taggart Marker and Low Splint Bench coal seams of the Upper Middle Wise Formation) were used. Septic tank effluent (STE) and sand filter effluent (SFE) were applied to spoil-fill columns at four loading rates and spoil-fill columns at one loading rate for a period of 20 wk. Renovation of wastewater was assessed by determining the concentration of N and P present in column leachate. Reduction of inorganic N(NO 3 - + NH 4 + ), based on N/Cl ratios ranged from 14.9 to 32.1% after the varying application rates of STE and SFE passed through the soil columns. However, leachate NO 3 - -N concentrations were still above the 10 mg -1 drinking water standard. The quantity of P emerging from the spoil-fill columns (3.0 mg PL -1 ) was higher than anticipated and may be related to the indigenous P present in the minespoil. Sorption of P in the spoil-fill column decreased with increased STE and SFE application (reduction ranged from 99.1 to 74.4%). Results from this study indicate that there is potential for renovating wastewater in OSWTDS in selected soil-fill areas in reclaimed minelands. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Root canal adhesive filling in dogs' teeth with or without coronal restoration: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Barnett, Frederick; Debelian, Gilberto J; de Pontes Lima, Regina Karla; Bezerra da Silva, Léa Assed

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the response of the periradicular tissues after endodontic treatment and root filling with Epiphany/Resilon (Penntron Clinical Technologies, LLC, Wallingford, CT) or gutta percha and new Sealapex (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) in dogs' teeth with or without coronal restoration. Teeth without coronal restorations were used to assess the influence of continuous exposure to the oral environment on the periradicular tissues. Sixty root canals with vital pulps in three dogs were instrumented and obturated in a single session and randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows. group 1: root canal filling with Epiphany/Resilon with coronal restoration, group 2: root canal filling with Sealapex sealer and gutta percha with restoration, group 3: root canal filling with Epiphany/Resilon without restoration, and group 4: root canal filling with Sealapex sealer and gutta percha without coronal restoration. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized, and the maxillas and mandibles were removed and submitted for histologic processing. Longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome, and Brown and Brenn stains and examined under light microscopy. There were significant differences found between the four groups (p < 0.05). The results showed that roots canals filled with Epiphany/Resilon, with coronal restoration, had significantly less periradicular inflammation than roots canals filled with gutta percha and Sealapex, with coronal restoration (p = 0.021). No significant difference was observed in the intensity of inflammation between roots canals filled with Epiphany/Resilon with no restoration and roots filled with gutta percha and Sealapex with restoration (p = 0.269). Roots canals filled with gutta percha and Sealapex sealer without coronal restoration showed the greatest degree of periradicular inflammation.

  15. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The synthesis and filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, Steffi

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the synthesis, properties and application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The two main objectives of the work were the development of a continuous-flow synthesis of SWNTs, using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques, and the application of the hollow SWNTs as moulds for the study of the crystallisation behaviour of inorganic materials in the confined space of their inner cavity. The latter study was mainly performed by interpreting high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the filled SWNTs. A so-called focal series restoration approach, which enhances the resolution of the images and thereby increases the information content, was employed where possible. Chapter I reviews the previous work in the field of SWNTs and introduces their basic structure, symmetry, physical and mechanical properties and the common methods of SWNT synthesis. The chapter ends with an overview of the techniques used in the present work for the characterisation of carbon nanotube samples by giving a description of the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques and the digital image processing method. Other physical measurement techniques used, such as Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), are discussed with reference to their application for the characterisation of carbon nanotubes. Chapter II describes the development of an improved synthesis strategy for SWNTs. A continuous-flow chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method was explored using carbon monoxide or mixtures of methane and hydrogen as the carbon feedstock gas and introducing various volatile organometallic compounds to catalyse the formation of SWNTs. In this study, a special water-cooled copper nozzle was designed and built so as to prevent the premature decompositiont (disproportionation) of the reactants (the carbon monoxide gas) and to allow their direct introduction into the centre of the hot reaction zone. A

  17. A CaS : Ce, Sm-based dosimeter for online dosimetry measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yurun; Chen Zhaoyang; Fan Yanwei; Yan Shiyou; He Chengfa

    2011-01-01

    A film dosimeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) material of CaS : Ce, Sm was developed for online irradiation dosimetry measurement. The stimulation is provided by a laser with a wavelength of 980 nm, and the OSL luminescence is collected by a photodiode. Using 60 Co γ-rays, we investigated the dosimetry characteristic of the dosimeter at different dose rates and total doses. The real-time detection results showed that the OSL signals versus total ionizing dose exhibited a good linearity in a dose range of 0.1-185 Gy. (authors)

  18. Space-Time Water-Filling for Composite MIMO Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the ergodic capacity and channel outage probability for a composite MIMO channel model, which includes both fast fading and shadowing effects. The ergodic capacity and exact channel outage probability with space-time water-filling can be evaluated through numerical integrations, which can be further simplified by using approximated empirical eigenvalue and maximal eigenvalue distribution of MIMO fading channels. We also compare the performance of space-time water-filling with spatial water-filling. For MIMO channels with small shadowing effects, spatial water-filling performs very close to space-time water-filling in terms of ergodic capacity. For MIMO channels with large shadowing effects, however, space-time water-filling achieves significantly higher capacity per antenna than spatial water-filling at low to moderate SNR regimes, but with a much higher channel outage probability. We show that the analytical capacity and outage probability results agree very well with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Characterization of subvisible particle formation during the filling pump operation of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arpan; Colandene, James; Bradford, Victor; Perkins, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    Characterization and control of aggregate and subvisible particle formation during fill-finish process steps are important for biopharmaceutical products. The filling step is of key importance as there is no further filtration of the drug product beyond sterile filtration. Filling processes can impact product quality by introducing physical stresses such as shear, friction, and cavitation. Other detrimental factors include temperature generated in the process of filling, foaming, and contact with filling system materials, including processing aids such as silicone oil. Certain pumps may shed extrinsic particles that may lead to heterogeneous nucleation-induced aggregation. In this work, microflow imaging, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and turbidimetry were utilized to quantify subvisible particles, aggregation, and opalescence, respectively. The filling process was performed using several commonly used filling systems, including rotary piston pump, rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler. The rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler generated notably less protein subvisible particles than the rotary piston pump, although no change in aggregate content by SEC was observed by any pump. An extreme increase in subvisible particles was also reflected in an increase in turbidity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xining; Fu, Zhiyuan; Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patterns of miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assisted in the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate.